Slag van Maldon, Augustus 991

Slag van Maldon, Augustus 991


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Slag van Maldon, Augustus 991

'N Slag tussen Engelse magte onder Bryhtnoth, en Danes onder Anlaf, veral bekend vir die onderwerp van 'n Ou -Engelse gedig wat die dapperheid van die Engelse vier, wat deur die Danes verslaan is.

Slag van Maldon, Augustus 991 - Geskiedenis

Die Slag van Maldon (991AD) het aan die oewer van die Blackwater -rivier in Essex plaasgevind. Daar was 'n heldhaftige standpunt deur die Angelsakse teen die Viking-inval wat geëindig het in 'n volslae nederlaag vir Brithnoth en sy manne. Die vordering van die geveg hou verband met 'n beroemde Angelsaksiese gedig, waarvan slegs 'n deel oorleef.

Hierdie webwerf bevat ook 'n kommentaar, 'n vertaling van die gedig, 'n kaart en beelde van die slagveld soos dit vandag is.

Daar is tans ook ongeveer dertig skakels na ander relevante internasionale webwerwe om navorsers te help om verdere inligting te vind.

Let op die byvoeging van materiaal op die graf van Brithnoth by Ely, die JRR Tolkien -verbinding en die standbeeld van Brithnoth wat in 2006 in Maldon opgerig is. Ons het ook die uiteensetting van 'n nuwe teorie oor die werklike ligging van die gevegsgebied bygevoeg - sien Intro -bladsy.

Hierdie webwerf het 'n broodnodige opknapping ondergaan, wat dit hopelik beter op tablette en telefone sal laat werk. As jy dinge vind wat nie reg werk nie, stuur 'n e -pos! Ek het 'n aantal nie-werkende skakels verwyder, en ek het ook 'n paar nuwe skakels bygevoeg.

& copyHJJB 1997-2021 Gebruik materiaal vrylik vir persoonlike of opvoedkundige doeleindes, met erkenning. Vir alle ander gebruike, klik asseblief om per e -pos te stuur vir toestemming.


Slag van Maldon, Augustus 991 - Geskiedenis

Die leër van Ealdorman Brihtnoth, wat tydens die slag van Maldon geveg het, was hoofsaaklik 'n militêre mag uit Essex. Hoogstens 3-4 000 sterk, dit is verhoog na die Viking-aanval op Ipswich en het opgeruk om die Viking-magte uit te daag toe hulle op Maldon gevorder het. Daar word geglo dat die Viking -bote op die eiland Northey, oos van Maldon, geland het en dat die Oos -Saksiese leër hulle daar gedraai het. Maar dit was hoogwater en daar was 'n geskreeu onderhandeling waar Brihtnoth geweier het om die indringers te betaal om te vertrek, maar hulle eerder uitdaag om te veg.

Toe die vloed val, het die Viking -mag probeer om die weg te steek, maar 'n klein groepie Saksers het hulle teruggehou. Brihtnoth het hom teruggetrek en die Vikings na die vasteland moes laat trek, om die vyand in die stryd te bring en hulle te verslaan, om East Anglia teen verdere vernietiging te beskerm. Die Saksiese leër, wat in 'n skildmuur gevorm is, het op die Viking -opmars gewag. Eers het die boogskutters hulle pyle afgevuur en toe laat die res van die infanterie spiese vlieg toe die vyand nader kom. Uiteindelik is hulle in die hand tot hand geveg, met spiese gestamp en met swaarde geslaan.

Die geveg het teen die Sakse gedraai toe hul leier vermoor is. Toe hulle besef dat hul bevelvoerder dood is, lyk dit asof die meeste van die leër na die bos agter hulle gevlug het. Maar Brihtnoth se eie bewaarders het voortgegaan om sy dood te wreek en 'n groot aantal vyande doodgemaak voordat hulle ook uitgeroei is. Soveel van die Vikings is doodgemaak dat hulle, hoewel hulle die oorwinning behaal het, nie Maldon aangeval het nie en dat hulle inderdaad probleme ondervind het om al hul bote te beman om te vertrek.

Maldon was 'n belangrike stryd, met belangrike politieke resultate, maar dit was slegs een van vele wat deur die plaaslike magte geveg is teen die Viking -leërs wat in die dekades van Ethelred se heerskappy regoor die land geplaag het. Maldon is besonders omdat dit so goed gedokumenteer is in die gedig The Battle of Maldon en omdat die slagveld daarvan vermoedelik met die akkuraatheid van die Angelsaksiese tydperk gevind is.

Naam: Slag van Maldon
Tipe: Pitched Battle
Veldtog: Maldon
Oorlogstydperk: Viking
Uitkoms: die dood van Brihtnoth deur die Viking -oorwinning
Land: Engeland
County: Essex
Plek: Maldon
Ligging: waarskynlik
Terrein: monding en oop weiveld?
Datum: 10de (moontlik 11de) Augustus 991
Begin: onseker
Duur: onseker
Leërs: Vikings onder Olaf Tryggvason of Deense koning Svein Forkbeard Oos -Sakse onder Ealdorman Brihtnoth
Getalle: miskien tussen 3000-6000 aan elke kant
Verliese: onseker
Roosterverwysing: TL867055 (586700,205500)
OS Landranger -kaart: 168
OS Explorer -kaart: 183


Die veldslag

Byrhtnoth, Ealdorman van Essex

Met Aethelwine ongeskik, sy bewaarder, gaan Byrhtnoth met sy man, oftewel lyfwag, na Maldon en 'n fyrd. Die LE dui aan dat die Angelsakse in die minderheid is, 21, maar waarskynlik is albei leërs ongeveer ewe groot. 22

Die direkte argeologiese bewyse vir Byrhtnoth en die verdere opnames wat hom met Maldon verbind, gee die stryd sy omgewing. Die LE noem hom as leier van die Northumbrians, maar in alle ander bronne is hy die oormorman van Essex, 23 en moet nie om dieselfde tyd verwar word met 'n abt Byrhtnoth in Ely nie. 24 Die testament van sy vrou bevestig sy bestaan, 25 en 'n tapyt. Hierdie muurtafel wat sy lewe beskryf, word na sy dood aan die Ely -katedraal gegee, maar bestaan ​​nie meer nie (sien hieronder).

Sy dood word in nie minder nie as vier bronne genoem: die Ou -Engelse gedig, die Vita Oswaldi, die LE en die ASC. 26 Tans lê sy oorskot op 'n ereplek in die Ely -katedraal. Die verhaal gaan daaroor dat sy oorskot in 1769 verskuif is en dat 'n antiquaris op die toneel die skelet kon sien. Hy het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die man baie lank was en dat daar geen skedel was om die skelet te voltooi nie. Volgens sy aantekeninge moes 'n groot swaard of byl deur die sleutelbeen gesny het. 27 Die LE vertel hoe Byrhtnoth tydens die geveg onthoof word. 28

Die Slagveld

Die ligging by Maldon is nog nooit bevestig deur argeologiese bewyse nie. Dit is egter goed aangevoer en dit is vermoedelik die plek waar die wegpad die eiland Northey verbind met die vasteland in die riviermonding van Blackwater. Die rivier Pant, wat in die gedig genoem word, vloei net 'n entjie noordwaarts uit in die monding. 29 Selfs vandag nog word die rivier verder stroomop 'Pant' genoem. 30 Die weg self is een van die geografiese sleutels van die gedig. 31

Ander indirekte argeologiese bewyse, soos 'n erdewerk, 32 metaalbewerking en selfs begraafplase, bevestig dat daar destyds 'n Saksiese nedersetting rondom Maldon was. 33 Die ASC noem dat 'n burh in Maldon in 916 versterk is. 34 Tekeninge uit die agtiende eeu dui daarop dat in vorige eeue oorblyfsels van die burh dalk nog sigbaar was. 35 Verdere opgrawings in die 20ste eeu dui daarop dat die hoofstraatgeboue en omgewing inderdaad 'n stedelike patroon volg wat aan 'n burh gekoppel is. 36

'N Ander waardevolle voorwerp is 'n muntstuk met die kop van Aethelstan en die opskrif van Maldon wat dateer uit 924. 37 Dit dui daarop dat Maldon, net soos Ipswich, sy eie kruisement. 38 Dit maak die stad onmiddellik 'n interessante plek om te plunder. Aan die ander kant het dit ook 'n burh, wat beteken dat dit goed verdedig sou word. Die wye, oop water kon vir die Angelsaksers 'n voordeel gewees het as hulle 'n vloot gehad het om van te praat. Nou is die riviermonding 'n voordeel vir die Vikings, sodat hulle naby die vasteland kan vaar. 39


ΜΕΤΩΠΟ ΟΧΙ

"Die Slag van Maldon, 991" deur Alfred Pearse, olieverf op doek
Uit die boek geneem Hutchinson se verhaal van die Britse nasie (c. 1923)
(Beeld met vergunning van http://callitaweasel.wordpress.com)
[Tensy anders aangedui, is alle illustrasies van Wikipedia]

Dit is 'n geruime tyd sedert ek oor my gunsteling historiese warmongers geskryf het (byna vyf maande om presies te wees), so die geskiedenisverhaal van vandag behels die Danes en die Angelsaksers, en 'n klassieke verhaal van dapperheid en toewyding aan 'n heer .

Sedert hul eerste openlike verskyning op die Britse eilande in 793 [sien my Burn Pit post vikings raid lindisfarne vanaf Junie 2010 vir agtergrond], het die Vikings die grootste deel van twee eeue bestee, geplunder, vermoor en oor die algemeen chaos veroorsaak in die hedendaagse tyd Engeland, Wallis, Skotland, Ierland, Frankryk, Spanje en Rusland. Hulle het na Italië, Griekeland en Rusland gereis. Hulle bekwaamheid as vegters, sowel as hul reputasie vir brutaliteit met eer, het werklik legendaries geword.

Viking -indringers het in die 860's begin om die Saksiese koninkryke van Brittanje te verower. Teen 877 het slegs die koninkryk van Wessex die barbare weerstaan, onder hulle koning Alfred die Grote. In die volgende 20 jaar vestig die Vikings die oostelike deel van Engeland in 'n gebied met die naam "Danelaw", waar Viking (Deense) wette en gebruike heers. Hulle teenwoordigheid is egter slegs ligtelik aanvaar

'N Ander ronde Deense invalle kom in 891, maar hierdie nuwe aanvallers het in 896 versprei en Engeland verlaat. Engeland het die volgende 80 jaar relatiewe vrede geniet, met 'n paar klein strooptogte wat die vrede bederf het. Die Sakse het hul eie aanvalle geloods om gebiede van die Danelaw vir die Engelse koninkryke te herstel. In 927 verower koning Athelstan van Wessex York, wat die hele Engeland later daardie jaar onder sy heerskappy bring, erken die Walliesers en Skotte sy heerskappy, wat hom "Koning van Brittanje" maak.


Kaart van Engeland, c. 880

Die afstammelinge van Alfred die Grote het Engeland redelik goed regeer, maar af en toe het Viking -aanvalle die koninkryk op sy kop gehou. Dinge het egter regtig begin afloop in 978, met die kroning van Ethelred as die koning van Engeland. By baie van sy onderdane word Ethelred nie goed geag nie; hy is selfs daarvan verdink dat hy medepligtig was aan die moord op sy voorganger, sy halfbroer koning Edward (bynaam "die martelaar"). Die nuwe koning het begin heers in 'n atmosfeer van agterdog wat die aansien van die kroon vernietig het. Dit is in sy leeftyd nooit volledig herstel nie. Oor die volgende 40 jaar sou Ethelred se onstuimigheid en swak besluitneming hom 'n geskenk gee Ethelred Unraedword gewoonlik verkeerd vertaal as 'Ethelred the Unready', maar meer presies as 'Ethelred the Ill-Advised'.

'N Aantal groot Deense aanvalle het gedurende die 980's plaasgevind. [Hierdie aanvalle kan herlei word na pogings van koning Harald Gormsson, beter bekend in die geskiedenis as "Harald Bluetooth", om die Christendom op sy onwillige onderwerpe te dwing.] Hierdie aanvalle was so suksesvol dat in 991 'n groot inval wat deur koning Harald self gereël is. Altesaam 93 skepe het na Engeland gevaar, met een Viking -sage wat beweer dat die vloot onder bevel was van Olaf Trygvasson, wat vier jaar later koning van Noorweë sou word.


King Ethelred (978-1013, 1014-1016)
Verligte manuskrip, Die kroniek van Abingdon, c.1220

Hierdie vloot is aan die suidoostelike kus van Engeland opgemerk. Dit het die stad Ipswich ontslaan en daarna langs die kus van die Noordsee beweeg. Op soek na 'n plek om 'n tydelike basis te vestig, vind hulle Northey Island, 'n klein stuk grond in die monding van die rivier die Blackwater in Essex. Die eiland is ongeveer 2 kilometer oos van die stad Maldon en is verbind met die vasteland deur 'n natuurlike weg, wat twee uur lank bedek is met water aan weerskante van hoogwater. Sulke natuurlike verdediging is altyd deur die Vikings gesoek en gebruik in hul aanvalle.

Die woord van die aankoms van die heidense stropers het vinnig versprei na Maldon, waar Earl Bryhtnoth geleë was. Die Saksiese leier het vinnig beweeg en sy die gns (ook gespel "thanes"), wat sy beëdigde manne en plaaslike leiers was wat as lae-edeles beskou kan word. Hulle het op hul beurt hul eie vegmanne bymekaargemaak en waarskynlik ook alle plaaslike manne wat militêre opleiding gehad het, ingeroep om hierdie bedreiging vir hul huise te hanteer. Hulle marsjeer vinnig na die eiland Northey, met die wete dat die pad die eiland met die vasteland verbind.


Vikingskepe het vroeg in Augustus, 991 nC, op Northey Island vasgemeer
(Beeld met vergunning van http://tasmancave.blogspot.com)

Deense Raiders vs Angelsaksiese Militie

Die slag van Maldon word genoem in vier weergawes van die Angelsaksiese kroniek. Dit word ook bewaar in 'n onvolledige gedig genaamd Die Slag van Maldon, wat iewers in die vroeë elfde eeu saamgestel is. Dit word ook aangeraak deur twee kronieke - die Die lewe van Oswald en die Boek van Ely.

Nie een van die bronne gee 'n definitiewe totaal vir enige krag nie. Die ramings wissel van 2000 tot 6000 vir die Noordmanne, terwyl die Angelsaksers waarskynlik tussen 2000 en 4000 manskappe in die veld speel. Die Viking -mag bestaan ​​waarskynlik uit verskillende soorte vegters, waarskynlik 'n klein aantal Viking -edeles met hul persoonlike agtervolgings. Die res was waarskynlik kleinboere en vissers op soek na buit, terwyl baie van die manne net avontuur soek of probeer om naam te maak. Daar was moontlik selfs 'n paar berserkr, gekke of dronk mans wat die hakies van hul gevegsbyle of skildvelde gekou het, en hulle daarna in 'n geveg van moord in die stryd gewend het.

Die Saksiese mag bestaan ​​uit die persoonlike lyfwag van Earl Bryhtnoth, sy diewe en hul persoonlike bewakers, en hierdie manne het met volle wapenrusting, wapens en skilde die stryd aangesê. Hulle het waarskynlik hul hele lewe lank vir so 'n verlowing opgelei. Baie van die plaaslike boere en laer klasse was ook teenwoordig. Baie van hierdie laasgenoemde groep het waarskynlik slegs boerderywerktuie, klubs en dies meer as wapens gehad, en slegs baie rudimentêre opleiding in oorlogsgevegte. Dit was gewoonlik net in 'n noodgeval wanneer sulke manne opgewek sou word om Viking -stropers die hoof te bied.

Voorspel tot die Slag

Vroeg die oggend van 10 Augustus het Earl Bryhtnoth en sy magte na 'n plek oorkant Northey Island gery. Hy beveel sy manne om af te klim, die perde los te maak en begin om sy toue te bestel. Bryhtnoth het sy mans op 'n rant reg voor die punt geplaas waar die weg van die eiland aan die vasteland geheg is. Die weg was slegs 'n paar honderd voet lank en nie meer as vyftien voet breed nie.

Die Vikings op die eiland het pas hul geledere gevorm om die eiland te verlaat, maar hulle vordering word onmiddellik geblokkeer. Toe hy sien dat hy gebottel is, skree die Viking -leier oor die water en vra die Sakse om vir sy manne geld en wapens te gee, en hulle is op pad. Volgens die gedig het Earl Bryhtnoth geantwoord: 'Ons betaal u met spiespunte en swaardblaaie.'

Die Noorse stropers het 'n aantal aanvalle oor die smal paadjie geloods, maar dit is geblokkeer deur drie lede van Byrhtnoth se huishoudelike troepe, wat met aansienlike vaardigheid geveg het. Uiteindelik bel die Viking -leier en vra die Saksiese graaf om die Noordmanne toe te laat om op die vasteland te kom, sodat die twee kante van mens tot mens kan veg. Op onverklaarbare wyse stem Byrhtnoth saam en beveel sy kampioene om terug te trek. Die Viking het oor die landbrug gestroom, hul lyne hervorm. Die graaf het 'n aantal hoogdrawende toesprake gehou en sy manne aangemoedig om in wese tot die dood te veg.


Northey Island (l) vandag, in die weste, kyk die weg in die regter boonste hoek van die eiland
(Die foto is duidelik op 'n ander tyd as hoogwater geneem)

[Ten tyde van die geveg is die Engelse koninklike beleid om op Viking -invalle te reageer, verdeel. Sommige was bevoorreg om die Viking -indringers met grond en rykdom af te betaal, terwyl ander die stryd tot die laaste man verkies het. Die gedig dui daarop dat Byrhtnoth hierdie laasgenoemde gesindheid gehad het.]

Slag van Maldon

Toe hulle op die vasteland aankom, het die Vikings aanval geloods na aanval op die Saksiese lyn. Na 'n paar uur se geveg is Bryhtnoth self dodelik gewond. Terwyl hy sterwend lê, het die graaf sy volgelinge aangespoor om die stryd voort te sit. Kort nadat hy gesterf het, het een van Byrhtnoth se geswore mans met die naam Godric die Saksiese skildmuur verlaat. Hy het daarin geslaag om een ​​van die dwalende perde te vang - in werklikheid was dit Earl Byrhtnoth se eie ruit - en het hy van die slagveld gevlug. Baie van die mindere mans, toe hulle sien hoe hul perde van die graaf sien vlug, het aangeneem dat dit Bryhtnoth was en het moed verloor en self gevlug.

Met die Saksiese mag wat sterk verminder is deur ongevalle en verlatenheid, het die dooie persoonlike troepe van Earl Bryhtnoth sy liggaam omring en die geveg voortgesit. Die mees onvergeetlike reël in die gedig "The Battle of Maldon" word uitgespreek deur een van die grawe se bewaarders:

"Die gees moet sterker wees, die hart sterker, die moed moet groter word namate ons krag afneem."

Kort daarna het die Vikings die paar oorblywende Sakse oorweldig en hulle tot die laaste man doodgemaak, en die geveg het geëindig.

Terwyl die Saksiese mag in wese uitgewis is - minder diegene wat gevlug het - ly die Vikings ook groot slagoffers. Een bron beweer dat die Noormanne nie genoeg manne gehad het om hul skepe te vaar nie, maar dit is nogal onwaarskynlik.

Nadat die Noordmanne die slagveld verlaat het, het die plaaslike Sakse teruggekeer om die lyke te versamel en te begrawe. Hulle het Earl Bryhtnoth se liggaam redelik maklik gevind. Die graaf se kop is verwyder, maar sy goudversierde swaard was nog steeds aan sy sy.

Voetnoot #1: Kort na hierdie geveg is die koningin Ethelred, op voorstel van Sigeric, die aartsbiskop van Canterbury, 'n kolossale omkoopgeskenk gegee aan die Viking -klopjag. Dit is die danegeld, en dit is betaal om die Vikings in wese te laat verdwyn. Die eerste danegeld bestaan ​​uit 10 000 Romeinse pond silwer, wat 3289 kilogram of 7251 Engelse pond goud uitmaak. As dit omgeskakel word in vandag se prys van silwer teen ongeveer $ 20 per ons, beloop dit $ 2,32 miljoen.

Voetnoot #2: Die danegeld van 991 het presies die teenoorgestelde uitwerking gehad. Viking -aanvalle in 994, 1002, 1007 en 1012 het geleidelik gelei tot groter danegelds. Die grootste is in 1018 versamel, toe die Noorse koning Canute die Grote - wat onlangs opgevaar het na die Engelse troon - besluit het om sy magte af te betaal. Hy versamel 26 900 kilogram silwer uit die hele Engeland, asook 3900 kilogram silwer uit die stad Londen alleen. Weereens, met behulp van die silwerprys van vandag, beloop dit $ 21,73 miljoen.

Voetnoot #3: Daar is staande runestene versprei in Denemarke, Noorweë en Swede. Hierdie monumente is opgerig ter herdenking van die prestasies van Noorse krygers deur hul families. Een runsteen (hieronder) is op die kerkhof van die stad Orkesta, in die provinsie Swenden in Uppland. Dit herdenk die Viking Ulf van Borresta. Op die inskripsie staan ​​dat Ulf drie Danegelde in Engeland versamel het, die laaste in 1018.


Runestone U344 in Orkesta, Uppland, Swede

Voetnota #4: Die slagveld is meestal onveranderd in die 1000+ jaar sedert die beroemde geveg. Daar is 'n standbeeld van Earl Bryhtnoth wat die terrein oorheers. Daar is ook 'n klein gedenkplaat wat die plek van die stand van die Sakse teen die Viking -aanvallers aandui.


Gedenkplaat ter herdenking van die slag van Maldon


Die dood van Brithnoth op Maldon, 9 Augustus 991

DIE GEveg is aangesluit
Nou het oproer ontstaan, die kraaie het gery,
Die arend, gretig na aas, was daar 'n kreet op aarde.
Toe maak hulle die vylharde lans uit hul hande los,
Die skerpgemaalde spiese om te vlieg.
Boë was besig en die bokker het die punt bereik
Bitter was die gejaag, krygers het geval
Aan beide kante lê die jong manne!
Wulfmur is gewond, 'n oorlogsbed wat hy gekies het,
Selfs die familielid van Brithnoth, hy met swaarde
Is reguit afgekap, sy suster se seun.
Toe word die Vikings gegee.
Ek het gehoor dat Edward wel een vermoor het
Reguit met sy swaard, en ook nie die hou gedruk nie,
Dit aan sy voete val – die vyandige vegter.
Hiervoor het sy dank hom gedank,
Selfs aan sy kamerheer – toe hy 'n spasie gehad het.

DIE ESSEX MANNE STAAN VINNIG
So staan ​​vas die stoutmoedige
Krygers in die oorlog en hulle het hard probeer
Wie met sy punt eerste moet kan
Van kranige mans om die lewe te wen.
Krygers met wapens: wrak val op aarde.
Hulle het standvastig gestaan, Brithnoth roer hulle,
Bade, elkeen van sy manne is van voorneme om te twis
Dit sou van die Danes die glorie wen.

'N VIKING ATTACKS BRITHNOTH
Het 'n agterstryd in die geveg gegaan en sy wapen het omgeswaai,
Sy skild vir veiligheid – en ‘ teen die hoofstap –
As vasberade teen hom gaan die graaf,
Elkeen het die kwaad bedoel.
Toe stuur die seevaarder 'n suidelike pyl,
En gewondes was die krygers ’ hoofman.
Maar hy stoot met sy skild, sodat die as bars,
En die spies breek, en dit spring weg.
Wroth was die kaptein, hy steek met sy spies deur
Die trotse Viking wat hom die wond gegee het.
Tog was die kaptein wat hy met sy skag gerig het, verstandig
Deur die man se nek het sy hand dit gelei
Sodat hy sy skielike lewe van die vyand bereik het.
Toe stuur hy 'n tweede vinnig
Dat die borswapen gebars het en#8211 in die hart gebars het, is hy gewond
Deur die ring-harnas – en in sy hart staan
Die vergiftigde punt van die graaf was die blaas:-
Lag toe dat die hoogmoedige dank aan God gedank het
Vir sy dag en werk wat sy Verlosser hom toegestaan ​​het.

'N TWEEDE VIKING WONNES BRITHNOTH
Toe maak een van die vyande 'n pyl uit sy hande,
Om van sy vinders af te vlieg dat dit na vore kom
Deur die edele aspek van Aethelred.
Naby hom staan ​​'n jeug wat nog nie groot was nie
Wulfstan se kind is selfs Wulfmeer die jonger.
Hy pluk die bloedige spies uit sy owerste
Toe los die harde spies teen die ander
In hardloop die punt – sodat hy op aarde lê
Wie het sy kaptein ernstig gewond.
Het 'n gewapende Viking teen die graaf gegaan
Wie wou die grawe van die graaf plunder,
Sy wapenrusting en ringe – en goed versierde swaard.
Toe haal Brithnoth sy swaard uit die skede
Breë en bruin rande – en by sy borsplaat geslaan.
Te gou verhinder hom een ​​van die seemanne,
Sodat hy die graaf se arm beseer het.
Val toe op die aarde die braak geharde swaard,
Hy kon ook nie die harde handelsmerk hou nie
Of sy wapen swaai.

BRITHNOTH ’S STERFWOORDE
Tog het hierdie woord wel gespreek
Die ou kryger juig sy manne toe
Opdrag gegee om vorentoe te gaan – sy goeie broers.
Hy kon nie meer stewig op sy voete staan ​​nie.
Hy kyk op na die hemel … … ..
Ek dank U, Here van alle volke
Vir al die vreugdes wat ek op aarde ken.
Nou, my Maker mild – wat ek die nodigste het
Dat jy aan my spook goed sal gee.
Dat my siel na U toe kan reis,
In u koninkryk, o heer van die engele,
Mag dit met vrede verbygaan, en ek verlang na U
Dat die hel-vyande dit nie kan seermaak nie. ”
Toe het die heidense manne na hom gekap
En by albei die manne wat hom langs hom gestaan ​​het,
Aelfnoth en Wulfmeer – val albei
Dan het hulle, langs hul leue, hul lewens opgelewer.


17 + + Slag van maldon gedig analise idees

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Slag van Maldon gedigontleding. Die verhaal word vertel vanuit die oogpunt van die Engelse wat as die goeie ouens beskou word. Deur middel van taalgebruik verewig die gedig sowel individuele helde as verraaiers, terwyl dit ook die waarde van verwantskap en die bevordering van die heroïese kode bevestig. 'N Heroïese gedig Die slag van Maldon het eintlik tussen die Vikings en die Angelsakse plaasgevind. Die Slag van Maldon is 'n gedig wat jongleren met die botsende magte om 'n verhaal van nederlaag te vertel, terwyl dit ook heldhaftige waardes handhaaf.

Dit is die antwoordsleutel vir die figuurlike taalgedig 2 I Sing The Battle By Har Figurative Language Poems Figurative Language Figurative Language Worksheet From pinterest.com

British Library MS Cotton Otho Axii verwoes deur 'n brand in 1731. Die gedig The Battle of Maldon. Geskiedenis Geskryf deur die slagoffers. Die gedig wat oorbly, was self 'n fragment wat uit 325 reëls bestaan. Die Slag van Maldon Ou Engelse heldedig wat 'n historiese skermutseling tussen Oos -Sakse en Viking beskryf, veral Noorse plunderaars in 991. In Augustus 991 het 'n groot vloot Viking -skepe onder leiding van die Noorse Olaf Trygvasson na die Blackwaterrivier naby Maldon in Essex gekom ontmoet deur 'n kleiner mag Engelsmanne.

Dit is die kwaliteit wat die sleutelfiguur Byrhtnoth vertoon, en dit is dit wat sy soldate die meeste raak.

Vikings was inderdaad soms aanvallers en plunderaars, maar hulle was ook setlaars en hul kulturele teenwoordigheid het die Engelse taal verryk. British Library MS Cotton Otho Axii wat in 1731 deur 'n brand verwoes is. Inderdaad was die een bekende kopie van die gedig klaarblyklik geheg aan 'n tyd en 'n plek wat byna onrusbarend ver van Maldon van 991 af was. Koning en land wat hulle volg ondanks die feit dat die taak gedoem lyk. Robinson redakteurs Modi van interpretasie in Ou Engelse letterkunde Toronto. Dit is onvolledig: die begin en die einde daarvan is verlore.

Bron: pinterest.com

Dit is onvolledig: die begin en die einde daarvan is verlore. Die Slag van Maldon -manuskrip. Geskryf deur Jody Perry Die gedig is die verhaal van die Slag van Maldon wat die Angelsaksiese verdedigers van Engeland en die indringende Viking-oproermakers ontwrig het. Deur middel van taalgebruik verewig die gedig sowel individuele helde as verraaiers, terwyl dit ook die waarde van verwantskap en die bevordering van die heroïese kode bevestig. Hy spring op die perd wat sy here was, waarvoor hy geen reg gehad het nie en hardloop weg. Dit het die manne laat dink dat dit hul leier was wat weggehardloop het en die stryd in verwarring gegooi het.

Bron: pinterest.com

Die skrywer van die gedigte is onbekend en slegs 325 van sy reëls oorleef sonder die oorspronklike begin of einde. Wen verloor en literêre uitkoms in Phyllis Rugg Brown Georgia Ronan Crampton en Fred C. Geskryf deur Jody Perry Die gedig is die verhaal van die Slag van Maldon wat die Angelsaksiese verdedigers van Engeland en die indringende Viking-agtervolgers ontstel het. Hierdie nostalgiese beroep op 'n antieke en meer glorieryke verlede is bedoel om 'n kontemporêre doel te dien. Inderdaad, die een bekende kopie van die gedig was blykbaar verbonde aan 'n tyd en 'n plek wat byna onrusbarend afgeleë was van Maldon van 991.

Spraak Oorweeg hierdie twee stellings oor die gedig uit Dolores Warwick Frese Poetic Prowess in Brunanburh en Maldon. Die skrywer van die gedigte is onbekend en slegs 325 van sy reëls oorleef sonder die oorspronklike begin of einde. British Library MS Cotton Otho Axii wat in 1731 deur 'n brand verwoes is. Dit is die eienskap wat die hoofkarakter Byrhtnoth vertoon, en dit is wat sy soldate die meeste raak. Die Engelse Lord Byrhtnoth is hulle leier en hy is.

Bron: sk.pinterest.com

Geskryf deur Jody Perry Die gedig is die verhaal van die Slag van Maldon wat die Angelsaksiese verdedigers van Engeland en die indringende Viking-oproermakers ontwrig het. 'N Ontleding van die Ou -Engelse gedig The Battle of Maldon kan 'n bespreking van die historiese agtergrond daarvan insluit, 'n verduideliking van die verhouding tussen die gedigte en die plot daarvan. Die Ou -Engelse gedig is kort na die geveg self geskryf, waarskynlik deur 'n monastieke skrywer. The Battle of Maldon is 'n Ou -Engelse gedig wat geskryf is ter ere van die gelyknamige geveg wat in 991 langs die Blackwater -rivier in Essex Engeland gewoed het. Die Engelse Lord Byrhtnoth is hulle leier en hy is.

Bron: bloomsbury.com

Die gedig The Battle of Maldon. In Augustus 991 nC het 'n groot vloot Viking -skepe onder leiding van die Noorse Olaf Trygvasson na die Blackwater -rivier naby Maldon in Essex gekom om deur 'n kleiner Engelse mag te ontmoet. Geskryf deur Jody Perry Die gedig is die verhaal van die Slag van Maldon wat die Angelsaksiese verdedigers van Engeland en die indringende Viking-oproermakers ontwrig het. Gevolglik kan die leser met gemak en rigting lees, en daar is 'n meer gereelde ritmiese patroon by die gedig 'n Ander tegniek van The Charge of the Light Brigade is die herhaling daarvan. Deur middel van taalgebruik verewig die gedig sowel individuele helde as verraaiers, terwyl dit ook die waarde van verwantskap en die bevordering van die heroïese kode bevestig.

Bron: interestingliterature.com

Hierdie nostalgiese beroep op 'n antieke en glorieryke verlede is bedoel om 'n kontemporêre doel te dien. Ongelukkig is die manuskrip in die katoenvuur in Ashburnham House in 1731 verbrand. Alliterasie word in die Slag van Maldon gebruik om die gedig 'n gevoel van ritmiese impak te gee, terwyl Tennyson in die Charge of the Light Brigade rym as 'n alternatief gebruik het. Hierdie nostalgiese beroep op 'n antieke en meer glorieryke verlede is bedoel om 'n kontemporêre doel te dien. Beowulf byvoorbeeld.

Bron: interestingliterature.com

Die manuskrip waarin ons gedig oorleef het en die taal van die teks self dui sterk daarop dat die elfde-eeuse weste nie die tiende-eeuse ooste nie 2 Gedigte oor die geveg. Die Slag van Maldon is 'n herbeeld van die geveg volgens die konvensies van die heroïese genre en die digtersrol is die van 'n alwetende verteller wat die gedigte se aksies beoordeel vanuit 'n uitkykpunt wat geskik is vir die heroïese legende Clark 1968. Die hooftema van hierdie werk is dapperheid. The Battle of Maldon is 'n Ou -Engelse gedig wat geskryf is ter ere van die gelyknamige geveg wat in 991 langs die Blackwater -rivier in Essex Engeland gewoed het. As daar gesien word dat hy 'n oënskynlik onoorwinlike stryd om koning en land voer, volg hulle dit, ondanks die feit dat die taak gedoem is.

Bron: pinterest.com

Enkele kwessies en temas wat u moet oorweeg wanneer u oor The Battle of Maldon skryf. Soos herinner aan die 325-reels Angelsaksiese gedig The Battle of Maldon, word 'n oproerige leër van Vikings gekonfronteer deur 'n Oos-Saksiese mag onder leiding van Ealdorman Brihtnoth in. Toespraak Oorweeg hierdie twee stellings oor die gedig van Dolores Warwick Frese Poetic Prowess in Brunanburh en Maldon. Geskiedenis Geskryf deur die slagoffers. Die Slag van Maldon is 'n gedig wat jongleren met die botsende magte om 'n verhaal van nederlaag te vertel, terwyl dit ook heroïese waardes handhaaf.

Bron: estudent-corner.com

Gevolglik kan die leser met gemak en rigting lees en is daar 'n meer gereelde ritmiese patroon by die gedig 'n Ander tegniek van The Charge of the Light Brigade is die herhaling daarvan. Die hooftema van hierdie werk is die van dapperheid. Die Slag van Maldon gebruik taalkundige instrumente om die militêre vermoëns van die Sakse wat in werklikheid die verloorkant is, te verheerlik, terwyl die oorwinning van die indringende Vikings tot die minimum beperk word. As daar gesien word dat hy 'n oënskynlik onoorwinlike stryd om koning en land voer, volg hulle dit, ondanks die feit dat die taak gedoem is. In Augustus 991 nC het 'n groot vloot Viking -skepe onder leiding van die Noorse Olaf Trygvasson na die Blackwater -rivier naby Maldon in Essex gekom om deur 'n kleiner Engelse mag te ontmoet.

Die manuskrip waarin ons gedig oorleef het en die taal van die teks self wys sterk daarop dat die elfde-eeuse weste nie die tiende-eeuse ooste nie 2 Gedigte oor die geveg. Die skrywer van die gedigte is onbekend en slegs 325 van sy reëls oorleef sonder die oorspronklike begin of einde. Gevolglik kan die leser met gemak en rigting lees en is daar 'n meer gereelde ritmiese patroon by die gedig 'n Ander tegniek van The Charge of the Light Brigade is die herhaling daarvan. Alhoewel Maldon 'n oorlogsgedig is en tot 'n mate 'n protonasionalisme van die OE-literatuur in sy geheel vier, blyk dit dat die wêreld van hierdie mense hoogs kosmopolities was en dat mense van baie oorsprong oral in omloop was. Die manuskrip waarin ons gedig oorleef het en die taal van die teks self dui sterk daarop dat die elfde-eeuse weste nie die tiende-eeuse ooste nie 2 Gedigte oor die geveg.

Bron: researchgate.net

Die Slag van Maldon. Although Maldon is a poem of warfare and celebrates to some degree a proto-nationalism OE literature as a whole reveals that the world of these people was highly cosmopolitan and folks of many origins were in circulation everywhere. The Battle of Maldon. Beowulf for instance. Through use of language the poem eternalizes both individual heroes and traitors while also reasserting the value of kinship and the promotion of the heroic code.

Source: researchgate.net

Consequently the reader can read with more ease and direction and there is a jollier more regular rhythmic pattern to the poemAnother technique of The Charge of the Light Brigade is its repetition. British Library MS Cotton Otho Axii destroyed by fire in 1731. Speech Consider these two statements about the poem from Dolores Warwick Frese Poetic Prowess in Brunanburh and Maldon. Consequently the reader can read with more ease and direction and there is a jollier more regular rhythmic pattern to the poemAnother technique of The Charge of the Light Brigade is its repetition. Indeed the one known copy of the poem was evidently attached to a time and to a place almost disquietingly remote from Maldon of 991.

The Battle of Maldon Manuscript. The Battle of Maldon Old English heroic poem describing a historical skirmish between East Saxons and Viking mainly Norwegian raiders in 991. Godric went from battle and left the good man who often gave him many steeds Byrhtnoth. The principal theme of this work is that of valor. 1935 a transcript of the Cotton MS by John Elphinston was found in Oxford Bodleian MS Rawlinson B 203.

Source: pinterest.com

The Battle of Maldon In this weeks Dispatches from The Secret Library Dr Oliver Tearle analyses a minor classic of Anglo-Saxon poetry The Battle of the Blackwater was real and not just something that happened in Game of Thrones. The Battle of Maldon is an Old English poem written to honor the eponymous battle which raged in 991 next to the River Blackwater in Essex England. The printed text of Thomas Hearne 1726 remained until recently the only known source for the poem. He leapt upon the horse that was his lords to which he had no right and ran away This led the men to think it was their leader running away throwing the battle into confusion. The English Lord Byrhtnoth is their leader and he is.

The Battle of Maldon. Godric went from battle and left the good man who often gave him many steeds Byrhtnoth. In August AD 991 a large fleet of Viking ships led by the Norwegian Olaf Trygvasson came to the River Blackwater near Maldon in Essex to be met by a smaller force of Englishmen. Indeed the one known copy of the poem was evidently attached to a time and to a place almost disquietingly remote from Maldon of 991. This nostalgic invocation of an ancient and more glorious past is made to serve a contemporary purpose.

Source: pinterest.com

This nostalgic invocation of an ancient and more glorious past is made to serve a contemporary purpose. The Battle of Maldon Manuscript. The Battle of Maldon Old English heroic poem describing a historical skirmish between East Saxons and Viking mainly Norwegian raiders in 991. As recalled in the 325-line Anglo-Saxon poem The Battle of Maldon a marauding army of Vikings were confronted by a force of East Saxons led by Ealdorman Brihtnoth in. Some issues and themes to consider when writing about The Battle of Maldon.

Vikings were indeed sometimes aggressors and raiders but they were also settlers and their cultural presence enriched the English language. The Battle of Maldon is a reimagining of the battle rendered according to the conventions of the heroic genre and the poets role is that of an omniscient narrator who judges the poems actions from a vantage point appropriate to heroic legend Clark 1968. Consequently the reader can read with more ease and direction and there is a jollier more regular rhythmic pattern to the poemAnother technique of The Charge of the Light Brigade is its repetition. Vikings were indeed sometimes aggressors and raiders but they were also settlers and their cultural presence enriched the English language. The manuscript in which our poem survived and the language of the text itself strongly point to-ward the eleventh-century west not the tenth-century east2 Poems on the battle.

Source: pinterest.com

Godric went from battle and left the good man who often gave him many steeds Byrhtnoth. Some issues and themes to consider when writing about The Battle of Maldon. The Battle of Maldon In this weeks Dispatches from The Secret Library Dr Oliver Tearle analyses a minor classic of Anglo-Saxon poetry The Battle of the Blackwater was real and not just something that happened in Game of Thrones. The Battle of Maldon is an Old English poem written to honor the eponymous battle which raged in 991 next to the River Blackwater in Essex England. He leapt upon the horse that was his lords to which he had no right and ran away This led the men to think it was their leader running away throwing the battle into confusion.

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Battle of Maldon, August 991 - History

This Day In History: August 10, 991

On August 10, 991, one of the best known battles between the Saxons and the Vikings took place in Essex, England near the small town of Maldon by the River Blackwater. It heralded the era of the Danegeld – the practice of paying off the Vikings to avoid future attacks. Aside from government-sanctioned extortion, the Battle of Maldon also inspired one of the greatest Old English poems of all time called, strangely enough, “The Battle of Maldon.”

England had been enduring attacks by Vikings from Norway, Denmark and Sweden since the 700s. Eastern coastal towns were particularly vulnerable. Depending on their ability to defend themselves, English towns and villages either fought back or offered the Vikings bribes of money or land. Unfortunately, engaging in battle just bought temporary peace at best and bribes only encouraged the enemy to return looking for more.

The Battle of Maldon occurred in 991 during the reign of Æthelred the Unready, which gives you a clue how effective a leader his people perceived him as. On August 10, King Olaf of Norway personally came calling with his Viking fleet of approximately 90 long ships carrying between two and four thousand men.

The local Saxon lord Earl Byrhtnōþ gamely led the army of Saxons, gathered from the local households, in battle against the invading Viking hoards. Apparently the Earl had been offered the typical deal of peace in exchange for gold and armor, but Byrhtnōþ retorted “We will pay you with spear-tips and sword blades.” So it was on.

The battle was defined by Byrhtnōþ’s decision to allow the Vikings to cross the estuary to the mainland. Armchair quarterbacks have been debating the reasons for this move for over a millennium, but the consensus is that the Earl intended to whip the Vikings soundly once and for all. He didn’t want to risk the enemy returning home when the causeway flooded with the tide.

Unfortunately, this didn’t work out so great for Byrhtnōþ, who was cut to shreds by a group of Vikings. Once their leader had been slain, most of the Saxons fled, but those who refused to leave the side of their lord are immortalized forever in the form of poetic verse.

“Thought must be the harder, heart the keener
Spirit must be the greater, as our might lessens.
There lies our leader all cut down,
A good man, on the ground. May he regret it forever
Who now thinks to flee from this battle-play.
I am old in years – I will not go from here,
But by the side of my lord,
By the man so beloved, I intend to lie.”

The battle was over, and the Vikings went a pillaging.

After this fiasco, the Archbishop of Canterbury advised Æthelred the Unready to barter peace with the Viking invaders rather than do battle with them. The King agreed, and a payment of 10,000 pounds of silver was coughed up as Danegeld to avoid more attacks. As you may have guessed, this had no long term effect except to make the Vikings richer, and eventually a Viking king, Canute (The Great), would sit on the English throne, along with the thrones of Denmark and Norway, as well as ruling a good chunk of Sweden.

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Come quickly to us, as men to the fight – The Battle of Maldon.

In the North Wes of Essex lies the town of Maldon. It sits on the edge of the River Blackwater. Today it is a popular place for families and day-trippers in the summer. I remember myself going on the odd day trip there. It has some beautiful views of the estuary. The town has been in existence since… where it was first known as Maeldun (from meal – monument/cross and dun – hill).

During the reign of Alfred the Great, a Burgh was built at the town. It was the second largest town in Essex after Colchester. Ninety-Two years after the death of Alfred and during the rule of his Great Great Grandson, Ethelred the Unready, just outside of Maldon, a battle took place. The battle had the Vikings on one-side and Essex soldiers under the command of Byrhtnoth, an alderman of the kings and a powerful figure in the county at the time.

This battle would not have been remembered had it not been for a great poem written about said battle, possible a few years after it took place. Some historians go on to note that although not as great in numbers as the Battle of Towton the Battle of Maldon was an important turning point in Anglo Saxon history. It was the first major battle encounter in the second wave of Viking attacks. It led immediately to a change in Ethelred policy and was the star of a Danish Camping that led to a change in the ruling dynasty in England.

On the day of battle, the Vikings landed their ships on Northey Island. Most likely as it was easier for them to escape, should they need too rather than if they had landed their ships further inland. The Vikings were not looking for an actual fight. To be honest they tended to try to avoid a fight and wanted to keep their numbers, as they needed bodies to work their ships. The Vikings wanted to look menacing and cause a nasuiscnsce and hoped that rather than fight the Anglo Saxons would pay them to leave. On this occasion, however the Vikings had misjudged. When they landed, they faced the Anglo Saxon small army led by Byrhtnoth.

The Vikings were led by Olaf Tryggvassn, a reputable chief from Norway. The main leader of the Vikings at this time was Swein but he, it seems, was not present on this particular attack. Olaf is believed to have led a fleet of 93 ships to England. This could mean around… they first struck at East Kent and ransacked the town of Ipswich before moving towards Essex. ‘…their aim was to set up a base in the backwater estuary from which to hart the surrounding countryside then loosely besiege the town and attempt to persuade the local authorise to buy them off (pg 67)

Byrhtnoth had received the shocking news of Ipswich’s fate shortly before it was pillaged. Warning beacons starched inland from the coast would have alerted the feafte of the from the Vikings. B scouts would have then tracked the Vikings movements down the coast towards the backwater estuary. He managed to rouse an army of around 1,000 men this was a large army by 10 th century standards. His army consisted mainly of men from Essex including those from the Maldon garrison and B entourage of trusted well displined men.

To cross onto the mainland the Vikings needed to cross a causeway, which did two trained fighters of b men block. Not wanted to look like cowards the Vikings continued with their decision to fight if required and asked B if he would allow them access to cross the ford so that they could have a fair fight. Before this, they had offered to leave for a price to which Byrhtnoth offered spears rather than gold.

Why would Byrhtnoth allow the Vikings to cross if he could defend the causeway itself. Maybe, like the Vikings he too was trying to call their bluff. B was a seasoned soldier and one of the highest-ranking men in the country aside from the King. He had such trust by the king that he was confident in making a desivon without sending messengers to consult the king. He most likely let the Vikings cross for two reasons, firstly he must have felt confident that he would win the fight or inflict such injuries as to deplete their numbers and lessen the threat elsewhere. Secondly, by fighting them there and then it was preventing them from going elsewhere and causing mayhem and destruction. It was a choice he did not take rashly.

At the time of the Battle Byrhtnoth had been in office for 35 years, and most likely around 60 years of age. At the time, this would have been a great age for a man to reach. Sources suggest that he was considered the second Ealdorman in the hierarchy and Essex was his domain. Although he had his own connections and wealth his influence and power came from his wife who was part of one of the best-established families of the mid 10 th century. He held property in Cambridge, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, and Gloucestershire, alongside his vast properties in Essex in Woodham, Mearsea, Rettendon and Totham. He was a great patron of Ely Cathedral.

Byrhtnoth- one of the English’s regimes most distinguished figures central to East Anglican affinity…had formally been a close associate of A’stan. Since the latter’s retirement, he had apparently been a political ally of A’s sons and ruled Essex and South East midlands in their collective interest right up until his death. (Higam p22) It is most likely because of his status, or at least part of the reason that the Poem may have been written. The Poem also backs up this picture of a powerful leader, responsible to challenge on his own account as a representative of the king.

The battle ended when Byrhtnoth was killed. It seems he was the focus of the Vikings fury and would have been easily noticed in the battle. The Poem describes Byrhtnoth death. First, a spear hits him in his side, which he snaps off and hurls back towards the enemy. A bit later, he is struck again this time a young soldier in Byrhtnoth personal guard snaps it off his commander while B fights on. While deflecting a strike from one Viking another hits his shoulder with great impact knocking his sword from hand. Byrhtnoth is then hacked down and those near fell with him. Such is the end of a great man in Essex. On his death Godric, a favourite in Byrhtnoth entourage fled the battlefield on Byrhtnoth horse along with a number of others. Whether those still fighting thought this was Byrhtnoth fleeing or knew of his death some fled too while others continued to fight, eventually meeting their deaths also. Although the Anglos Saxons were technically defeated at the Battle, the Vikings did not really fare much battle. Records note a big loss in numbers of the army that landed at Maldon, and they still did not get their gold.

After the dust had settled from the Battle Byrhtnoth’s body was eventually taken to Ely Cathedral, which he was a great Parton of. His head however would never be reunited with his body as the Vikings cut it off after his death and it is believed they took it with them as a trophy. The battle was the beginning of the second Viking invasion although it may not have been set out that way.

The treaty drawn up between alred and the Norse leaders including Olaf formalised what was in effect a protection racket, but one that at east served to prevent the loss of life and property. Not only was tribute promised – £14,000 – but its terms enabled the raiders to encamp and overwinter on the coat. Locals were encouraged to make previsions of food and clothing towards them. The government set about raising of the tribute from what may have been the first nationwide tax imposed for this specific purpose. (James p89)

What of the Poem? We do not know its author or exactly when it was written. What we can say about it is that it is to be looked at as a work of literature rather than one of historical accuracy. That is not to say we should completely believe that its contents are all a work of fiction. When using it as a source we need to approach it, as a piece of literature with creative licence but the author certainly did not make it all up.

Although we do not know an exact date of when the poem was written, we can get an idea. Due to the authors spelling of Byrhtnoth name we can tell that it was most likely written not long after the battle as it is its original format, not the later variant of Brithnoth.

Unfortunately, the poem is not complete and what does exist is from a copy made by John Elphinson in the early 1700s. The original manuscript was destroyed in a fire in 1731 where it was in the collection of the Cotton Library.

The purpose of the poem? To write about the heroics of b and his men, an historical and heroic account of the battle and most likely a poem to inspire resistance to the Vikings. Whatever the exact reason the poem, no matter how elaborate it may be has made sure that the battle will be remembered though the ages and that a great man – Byrhtnoth – is remembered.

The Poem is not the only tribute to Byrhtnoth. At the end of the Promenade in Maldon looking towards the battle site stands a statue, standing proud, and tall – a statue of Byrhtnoth. It stands nine feet high and is made from bronze. It was unveiled on 21 st October 2006 and was created by sculptor John Doubleday who is from the area. Commissioned by the Maldon Culture Company with funding of £100,000, its dedication was performed by Reverend Richard Humphries with guests of Lord Petre (Lord Lieutenant of Essex) and H.E. Mr Barne Lindstrom (the Norwegian ambassador). At the bottom of the statue there are scene depicting the battle and other scenes of Anglo Saxon life, with the inscription of what were supposedly some of Byrhtnoth last words ‘Grant O Lord Thy Grace’ August 991.

Although the battle did not take place in Maldon itself, it was close enough to be named after it. The town itself was one of three burghs in Essex at the time, the other two being Colchester and Witham. The ‘dun’ in its name derives from Saxon origins, which is the word for hill. Being art of the hundred of Dengie the origins of the people in the area may have derived from the Daeningas tribe.

A burgh was an old English fortification. Their numbers really increased in the 9 th century under Alfred the Great in his defence against the raids and invasions from the Vikings. From these fortifications, the burghs then developed into a secondary role as commercial and administrative centres for the area.

There is speculation by Archaeologists that there were some Iron Age earthworks at the site and this may be why the choice was made to make the town a burgh and to build upon already existing defensives. Athelstan’s law passed around 928, which decreed every town, and burgh should have a mint, Maldon had four, which shows it was of some importance alongside Colchester, which also had four.

Gritths, B (1991) The Battle of Maldon: text and Translation. Anglo Saxon Books middlesex.

Higham, N. J. (1997) The Dearth of Anglo-Saxon England. Sutton Publishing glouscetshire.

James, J (2013) an onslaught of spears – the Danish conquest of England. History Press Glouscershire.

Maldon Archolical Group (1992) Maeldune: light of Maldon’s distant past. Maldone Archaeology group Maldon


Beachcombing has a long tradition of screwing up anniversaries – wrong days, wrong months, wrong years… But just for once he thought that he would get things right and offer his readers a story on the right day – 10 August– and hopefully in the right tone. What we have here is a Weird War, a massacre and a lot, depending on your perspective, of stupidity or heroism.

In 991 the fledgling Kingdom of England was fighting for its survival against a blitz of Viking attacks on the east coast. In Essex in that year the ‘dark sails’ were spotted on the horizon and the local militia under an elderly warrior, Byrhtnoth, went out to meet the invaders. The battle was to take place on a beach, at Maldon, which can be visited with profit by modern day trippers. The Vikings had landed – as was their sneaky, conniving way – on a tidal island there and the militia, determined to defend their Kingdom, blocked the approach from the sea effectively bottling up the raiders.

So far, so normal. Every one has played their part in the illuminated manuscript of the past. The Vikings have raged, the locals have shivered but have held the shield wall intact. However, now the actors are about to leave their script… Bizarrists beware.

The Vikings having failed to force their way onto the mainland now decided to push their luck. One of their leaders shouted across to the men of Essex (in Anglo-Saxon or trusting in their tolerably similar German tongue) asking for the militia to move back a few hundred yards so that the Vikings could cross, form up on the beach and so have a ‘fair’ fight – not something that characterized Viking warfare but anyway. Incredibly Byrhtnoth agreed and, giving up his excellent defensive position, he let the nasty Scandinavians onto English soil so that the rumble could go down.

The results of this spectacularly brave/stupid decision are recorded in a near contemporary heroic poem. The militia was overrun, Byrhtnoth was killed and decapitated and his household, as convention demanded, gathered around their lord’s body determined to die where he had fallen. They succeeded and the Vikings were then free to raid and destroy to their heart’s content through the heartlands of Essex. For the first time in English history the crown gave Dane-geld, buying the Vikings off with all the sad consequences that flowed from that.

The poem does not criticize Byrhtnoth directly, though it describes his decision as stemming from ofermod (‘too much heart’) that might be, as J.R.R. Tolkien argued many years ago, an epic poet shaking his head somewhat, perhaps even accusing the dead hero of hubris. But can turning a battle into a duel ever really be excused? Beach hasn’t the slightest idea: these are questions for the ages. If pushed he has some sympathy for the words of one modern Anglo-Saxon scholar.

Nothing could diminish our admiration for his brave response [of Byrhtnoth] or for the loyalty which he displayed towards his king… But nor should we, from our own vantage point removed one thousand years in time from Athelered’s reign, condemn the actions of those after Byrhtnoth who knew only too well how things had turned out. There may have been a little touch of Byrhtnoth in every one of them but what for him was a matter of principle had been turned by his death into a far more difficult choice.

Other strange examples of fair fighting in dirty wars? Beachcombing needs to know. Drbeachcombing AT yahoo DOT com

10 August 2011: Ricardo writes in with memories of the noble Duke Xian of Song who allowed – in a striking parallel to Maldon – his enemy to safely cross the river before attacking them. Even better Mao didn’t like Xian: ‘We are not the Duke of Song!’ – there are few higher recommendations. Daniel from Civilian Military Intelligence Group writes in with cases from the American Civil War and WW2. First ‘during the battle for Monte Cassino, there was a moment when the SS and the US and British decided to call a ceasefire to clear out dead and wounded and the SS paratroopers borrowed US and British gurneys and then returned them!’ Oh those punctilious Germans… Then ‘Richard Rowland Kirkland, Company G, 2nd Suid Carolina Volunteer Infantry, Army of the Confederacy. Kirkland was a Sergeant who had seen Battle, including Second Manassas en Shiloh. At the Battle of Fredericksburg, masses of Union soldiers under General Burnside made frontal assaults on the Confederates entrenchments along the Rappahannock River on December 13th, 1862. It was a foolish and wasteful assault that cost 6,000 dead on the first day alone and thousands more wounded it also cost Burnside his job. During the Civil War, battles ended when the sun went down. So as combatants headed to their own lines, all one could hear were the frightful cries from wounded soldiers for help. All through the night, Kirkland, stationed at a stonewall near a sunken road, was jolted by the lugubrious mournful cries of Union soldiers. The next morning, Kirkland asked his commander’s permission to gather canteens and blankets to help the wounded. General Kershaw allowed the gesture and in broad daylight the General watched as he gathered water and wool cover and carried it to the soldiers. During the hour and a half while he helped wounded soldiers on the battlefield, in this small area no one from either side fired. They waited until Kirkland was done ministering. (On September 20th 1863, Kirkland was killed at the battle of Chickamauga. He has since been feted with song and story and statues.)’ Then there was also the question of music: ‘Often bands would play during the evenings even when the sides were so close they could hear each other. After the second day of Fredericksburg, the Union forces had brought their band along with them and they played that evening. One night, a Confederate yelled, ‘Now play one of ours!’ the Union band immediately struck up ‘Dixie. Memories of Lincoln calling for Dixie to be played as the war wound down. Then finally ‘gedurende die Slag van Kennesaw Mountain, a fire swept through the dry grassy hills between the Unie and Confederate lines. Many wounded soldiers actually burned alive in this fire. At one juncture, a Confederate officer hollered ‘We won’t fire a gun until you get them away’’. SY pays tribute to Hans Langsdorff captain of the German pocket battleship Graf Spee. ‘HL prided himself on never taking a life when attacking British merchant shipping, even congratulating enemy captains who had not immediately surrendered so as to send off distress signals. He was finally defeated by British guile at the Slag of the River Plate, scuttled his ship – saving his 1000 crewmen from certain death – and then committed suicide before being repatriated to Hitler’s Duitsland. His funeral in Buenos Aires was almost unique in the war as it was also attended by British officers.’ Thanks SY, Ricardo and Daniel!!

11 August 2011: Jonathan from A Corner of Tenth Century Europe writes specifically on Maldon: ‘In the first place, though the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, with rare unaninimity between its manuscripts, agrees that 991 was the first year in which Danegeld was paid, and subjoins this to the notice of the death of Byrhtnoth, it does not say explicitly that the one caused the other, but blames it on the ‘marvels’ that the Vikings had wrought that year on the east coast. One should not necessarily assume that Maldon was the first of these, I think, not least because it makes more sense of Byrhtnoth’s decision if the army he cornered were already notorious. I’ll come back to that, but the first point I wanted to make was simply that, of course, money had been paid to the Vikings before by Alfred, and occasionally by his son Edward on bad days. Whether that is the ‘English’ crown is a long debate – there was no other left but was there an England yet? But the 991 solution was, at least, not unheard of. As to Byrhtnoth’s weird decision, I think it is clear from the poem (and I’ve seen it argued by people with more Old English than me, more to the point) that while the English were safe on the mainland, the Vikings were also safe on the island neither side could come at the other over the narrow causeway. Byrhtnoth’s choice, therefore, was not between a successful defence and a slaughter of his own men, it was between a fight that might go either way and the Vikings certainly getting away scot-free to ravage until cornered again, if at all. He couldn’t engage without them coming to the mainland. Given the chance to actually stop this instalment of the Viking threat, he took it. A stupid gamble? (More stupid than the Viking offer?!) Maybe, but the poet doesn’t say that instead he blames a particular section of the English army for not liking the look of this and turning tail, leaving Byrhtnoth and his loyal followers to fight on outnumbered. It doesn’t, as far as I can see, say that the English were outnumbered till then. I’m not sure whether keeping a defence in being would have been wiser, in retrospect, than trying to deliver a temporary knock-out blow, but it is at least clear that when the writer of the section of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that covers this period (all done in a lump in 1016, so the author knew how things would turn out – very important!) was writing it up, he thought that the biggest problem in his mind was armies that never caught the enemy or, if they did, didn’t engage. Men like Byrhtnoth, he would presumably have seen as the solution, not the problem the problem was that there were so few like him to take his place.’ Surely a very important point here is that if Byrhtnoth had not fought the Vikings they could easily have sailed away and ravaged another part of the Essex or English coast. Thanks as always Jonathan!

15 August 2011: Tim writes in with another ‘fair fight’. ‘With regard to your recent post on fair fights, I’ve always found the story from the War of 1812 of the Battle of Boston Harbor interesting for its civility. You may already know the story, but if not, Wikipedia does a fair job describing it. The HMS Shannon was sitting outside the harbor attempting to block the exit of any American warships. The USS Chesapeake was being refitted in the harbor, and was ready to attempt an escape. The captain of the HMS Shannon sent to the captain of the USS Chesapeake inviting his ship out to sea to engage in battle: ‘As the Chesapeake appears now ready for sea, I request you will do me the favour to meet the Shannon with her, ship to ship, to try the fortune of our respective flags. The Shannon mounts twenty-four guns upon her broadside and one light boat-gun 18 pounders upon her main deck, and 32-pounder carronades upon her quarter-deck and forecastle and is manned with a complement of 300 men and boys, beside thirty seamen, boys, and passengers, who were taken out of recaptured vessels lately. I entreat you, sir, not to imagine that I am urged by mere personal vanity to the wish of meeting the Chesapeake, or that I depend only upon your personal ambition for your acceding to this invitation. We have both noble motives. You will feel it as a compliment if I say that the result of our meeting may be the most grateful service I can render to my country and I doubt not that you, equally confident of success, will feel convinced that it is only by repeated triumphs in even combats that your little navy can now hope to console your country for the loss of that trade it can no longer protect. Favour me with a speedy reply. We are short of provisions and water, and cannot stay long here.’ According to wikipedia, the Chesapeake set out before her captain received the note, but the story remains interesting as the Chesapeake’s captain had the same intent as the Shannon’s captain: meet in neutral grounds and have at it. Patrick O’Brian even cribbed the facts of the battle for one of his Aubrey and Maturin books. Spoiler: you guys won. Overall, it wasn’t our smartest war.’ Thanks Tim!


Battle of Maldon II

After the interwebs swallowed my first effort I will try again.

August 10, 991, deepest darkest Essex. A Viking raiding party arrives in Maldon on the Blackwater River. They are confronted by [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byrhtnoth"]Byrhtnoth[/ame] the local earl and his Saxon warriors. Byrhtnoth is heavily outnumbered however he has caught the Vikings napping and is able to position his troops in such a way as to keep the Vikings bottled up on a narrow land bridge, this means that the Vikings cannot bring their full numbers against the Saxons.

The Viking commander [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olaf_Tryggvason"] Olaf Tryggvason [/ame] complains to Byrhtnoth that this is unfair and asks his permision to move his men across the land bridge unmolested. Amazingly Byrhtnoth agrees and the Vikings move across the land bridge present to battle and promptly massacre the Saxons.

There are 2 theories as to why Byrhtnoth would allow the Vikings to do this. The first is pride, he was over confident and believed in his own superiority against the numerically superior Vikings.

Secondly to offer battle, as the Vikings were only a raiding party if unable to raid anything they could just pack up and leave and head to another part of the coast. Where Byrhtnoth wouldn't have men available to fight them. By allowing the Vikings to cross he gaurenteed a battle and a chance to defeat them.


Kyk die video: The Battle of Maldon 991 AD