Sentinel II - Geskiedenis

Sentinel II - Geskiedenis


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Sentinel II
(MB: 1. 45 '; b. 11'6 "; dr. 4')

Die tweede Sentinel, 'n motorboot wat in 1918 deur Richardson Boat Co., North Tonawanda, N.Y., vir die Kuswag gebou is, is op 17 Junie 1918 voltooi en aan die patrollie van St. Mary's River, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

Sentinel, wat na die kuswag teruggekeer het toe die dienste op 28 Augustus 1919 geskei is, dien tot 1935 en word in 1923 hernoem na AB-I S.


HomePatrol-2

Krag kan verskaf word deur batterye of 'n permanente wisselstroom- of GS -bron, soos volg beskryf:

  • 4 x herlaaibare NiMH -batterye van AA -grootte (2300mAh) (ingesluit)
  • 4 x AA -grootte alkaliese batterye (nie ingesluit nie)
  • USB -poort DC 5V kragtoevoer
  • Wisselstroomadapter (AC 120V 60Hz tot DC5V 1000mA)
  • DC -adapter (DC 12V na DC5V 1000mA)
  • USB -verbinding met die rekenaar vir firmware- en databasisopdaterings deur middel van Sentinel -sagteware

Frekwensie Dekking

  • 25.0000 - 512.0000 MHz
  • 758.0000 - 823.9875 MHz
  • 849.0125 - 868.9875 MHz
  • 894.0125 - 960.0000 MHz
  • 1240.0000 - 1300.0000 MHz

Kenmerke

  • Die vermoë om vinnig CTCSS-, DCS- of NAC -toon te stoor
  • Die vermoë om vinnig 'n gevind eenheid -ID te stoor
  • Beter ligging presisie vir stelsels - waarmee u die ligging en omvang van 'n departement kan definieer met behulp van tot 32 reghoeke in plaas van 'n enkele sirkel (sirkels word steeds ondersteun). - klink 'n programmeerbare waarskuwing wanneer 'n kanaal wat ingestel is op waarskuwing aktief word. /DCS/NAC toon dekodeer wat CTCSS toon toon/DCS kodes en NAC kodes wat ontvang word
  • Noodwaarskuwing - 'n waarskuwing as 'n eenheid hul noodstatus aktiveer (op versoenbare radiostelsels).
  • Onmiddellike herhaling speel tot 240 sekondes (4 minute) van die mees onlangse uitsendings terug.
    • Opname met een druk om transmissies op te neem vir latere afspeel

    Ekstreme opgraderingsfunksies

      Wyse
  • Volledige programmeerbaarheid op die voorpaneel vir EDACS- en LTR-stelsels
  • Beperk soek- en konvensionele ontdekkingsmetodes
  • USB -klankuitset en -beheer
  • RR -stelselversoenbaarheid

    Hierdie skandeerder is versoenbaar met die volgende trunking -stelseltipes en stelselstemme wat in die radioverwysingsdatabasis gebruik word; u moet natuurlik verifieer dat die skandeerder die toepaslike frekwensiebereik dek:


    Sentinel II - Geskiedenis

    Die High Standard Sentinel Revolver


    High Standard het hul Sentinel -rewolwerlyn in 1955 bekendgestel, waarskynlik op versoek van Sears Roebuck, wat 'n groot kliënt was en heelwat High Standard -aandele besit het. Sears wou hê dat 'n goedkoop kitspistool of 'n#8220tackle box ” rewolwer onder hul J.C. Higgins-handelsmerk verkoop moes word. Dit is deur Sears verkoop as die J.C. Higgins Model 88. Die J.C. Higgins -gewere het kenmerkende grepe, silinderfluitjies en silinder -lospenne gekry. Private label -weergawes van die Sentinel is ook gemaak vir Western Auto (die Revelation Model 99) en Armamex (kolonel Rex Applegate ’s -maatskappy in Mexiko).

    Die Sentinel was 'n 9-skoot .22 rewolwer. Dit word geadverteer met 'n geanodiseerde aluminiumraamwerk, 'n sterk trekstang en 'n silinder met 'n hoë treksterkte, 'n enkelslag-meervoudige uitwerping, 'n uitswaaiende silinder, 'n beweegbare vierkantige agterkyk, 'n antislip-sneller, 'n diamant- geruite greep (alhoewel hulle nie noem dat dit van plastiek is nie) en die akkuraatheid van die teiken.

    Die innoverende ontwerp is binne slegs ses maande voltooi deur Harry Sefried, die jong ontwerpingenieur van High Standard ’. Sefried was nie bang om goeie idees op te neem waar hy dit ook al gevind het nie. Die vierkantige greep op die eerste model is verander van die Colt New Model .36 sakpistool van 1862, en een skieter het gesê dat dit die eerste ordentlike greep op 'n rewolwer sedert die burgeroorlog was. ” Dit bly tot vandag toe een van die gemaklikste rewolwergrepe wat ek nog ooit teëgekom het. Die vereenvoudigde silinderslotontwerp is geneem uit Hugo Borchardt se eksperimentele rewolwer van 1876, wat hy ontwerp het terwyl hy vir Winchester gewerk het en wat Sefried gedurende sy eie vyf jaar in Winchester waargeneem het. Die geweer is, net soos die Broomhandle Mauser, skroefloos, maar vir die greepskroef.

    Hierdie twee is R-101 Sentinel-rewolwers wat in 1958 gemaak is.

    Die boonste rewolwer is 'n R-106 Sentinel Deluxe uit 1965, en daaronder 'n R-103 Sentinel uit 1961.

    Daar is 'n integrale duimsteun in die raam agter die silinderbehuizing aan elke kant, wat die geweer redelik natuurlik in die hand laat voel. Die greepgedeelte en raam is gegiet uit aluminium. Daar is geen silinder duim vrylating om die gladde raam te onderbreek of die vervaardiging en montering te bemoeilik nie. Die geweer kan in vier hoofkomponentgroepe ingedeel word: (1) die silinder en hyskraan, (2) die sneller/greep, (3) die loop- en raamstel, en (4) die hamer, sneller en ander sluitwerk komponente. Alles word bymekaar gehou deur die hamerpen, wat deur beide die sneller-greep en die hoofraam loop. Spoelvere word deurgaans gebruik.

    Sefried het 'n unieke ratelmeganisme ontwerp wat gebruik maak van nege gate wat aan die agterkant van die afzuigkap geboor is, bewerk deur 'n tradisionele pal wat uit die raam strek. Die gate gee die pal 'n positiewe koppelvlak, wat foutlose silinderrotasie bied en die bewerking wat nodig is op die raam en silinder verminder. Die ontwerp verminder ook die slytasie van die ratelmeganisme wat uiteindelik probleme met meer tradisionele ontwerpe veroorsaak. Die nege-gat-ratelmeganisme is laat vaar in Sentinels wat later vervaardig is.

    Die Sentinel het 'n uitgebreide dwingskegel wat loodskeer byna uitskakel as die koeël in die vat kom. Ek haat dit as 'n rewolwer warm lood uit die kant spoeg toe ek langs die skieter staan-dit kan 'n noodlottige afleiding wees tydens 'n brandgeveg.

    Die Sentinel was oorspronklik beskikbaar in 'n sogenaamde blued afwerking (wat eintlik 'n selenium swart was). Die nikkelafwerking was beskikbaar in April 1956. Die vroeë vernielde gewere kos $ 5 of $ 6 meer as die blues. Die MSRP vir die blues geweer in 1955 was $ 37,50. Die Sentinel het 'n plastiekgreep in 'n stuk omhulsel. Oorspronklik het die blou gewere 'n bruin greep en die nikkelgewere 'n wit greep, maar die skema is nie behou gedurende die hele produksie nie.

    'N Katalogus uit 1955 sê dat die geweer beskikbaar was met 'n vat van 3 of 5 duim. 'N Onderdelelys omstreeks 1957 of 1958 toon dat vate van 3 duim, 4 duim en 2-3/8 duim beskikbaar was. Teen 1956 was 'n 6 duim vat ook beskikbaar. Die vat van 3 duim is in 1964 laat val.

    Iewers in die tweede helfte van die 50 ’s High Standard het die firma Armscor, 'n filiaal van Squires Bingham & amp in die Filippyne, 'n lisensie gekry om die Sentinel te vervaardig. Ek weet nie of hulle die onderdele uit die VSA ingevoer het nie, alhoewel ek vermoed dat hulle dit gedoen het en die gewere eenvoudig in die Filippyne aangebring is. Hierdie geweer was nie gemerk met 'n R-reeksnommer nie. Krygkor het dit die Model P genoem en die regterkant van die geweer is met P gestempel, gevolg deur die reeksnommer.

    In 1957 is 'n snub-neus model van die Sentinel bekendgestel, met 'n afgeronde kolf op die handvatsel. Die vroeë gewere het ongeveer 1960 'n hamer gehad, waarna hulle 'n spoorhamer gehad het. Die blou weergawe was Model #9144 en die vernielde weergawe was Model #9145. Kleurafwerkings in goud (Model #9161), turkoois (Model #9162) en pienk (Model #9163), bekend as Dura -Tone -kleure, is aangebied vir die snub -vat Sentinels. Die Dura-Tone-gewere kom in 'n luukse opbergkas en het wit faux ivoorgrepe. In 1967, toe die R-108-reeks begin, het die snub-neus-modelle verskillende modelnommers gekry, waarvan die blou model #9344 en die vernikkelde model #9345 was.

    'N Snaakse weergawe is ook gemaak vir Sears, genaamd J.C. Higgins Model 88 Fisherman, slegs beskikbaar in blou afwerking met 'n eenvormige bruin plastiek geruite greep en 'n ‘spur ’ op die snellerbeschermer.

    Die Western Auto -snubby was gemerk as die Revelation Model 99, beskikbaar in blou en nikkel. Die vroeë weergawe met die eendelige greep het 'n ‘spur ’ op die snellerbalk, terwyl die latere weergawe met die tweedelige greep 'n gewone snellerbeschermer het

    In 1958 word 'n reeks rewolwers in westerse styl van die Sentinel-lyn af gespin, waarvan die eerste model die Double-Nine genoem is. Dit is deur Sears verkoop as die J.C. Higgins Ranger Model 90.

    • R-100. Die eerste Sentinel-reeks is die R-100 genoem. Die raam het 'n arendslogo.
    • R-101. In die middel van 1956 is die hamer- en snellermeganismes effens aangepas vir die R-101-reeks.
    • R-102. In 1961, vir die R-102-reeks, is 'n terugkeerveer by die uitwerpstang gevoeg. Op die vorige modelle sou u aan die linkerkant van die raam 'n nare kras as u nie onthou het om die uitwerper met die hand in die silinder te trek nie.
    • R-103. In die R-103-reeks is gleuwe in die uitwerper gemaal in plaas van geboorde gate.
    • R-104. In 1961 is die R-104 Sentinel Imperial uitgereik met 'n volgrootte greepraam, tweedelige geruite okkerneutgrepe, 'n oprit vooraan en 'n sneller in die teikenstyl. (Die gewone Sentinel was nog steeds beskikbaar met een stuk plastiekgrepe en voorblad, en dit het die ou R-103-aanwysing behou.)
    • R-105. Hierdie gewere is oorspronklik vir Sears vervaardig, maar is teruggekeer na High Standard toe Sears hul pistoollyn in 1963 laat val het, en is hermerk as High Standard -gewere (die vate en grepe is vervang). Hulle behou die kenmerkende silinderfluitjies, silinderpen, snellerbeschermer en ontwerp in een stuk van die J.C. Higgins-gewere. Soos ek kan sê, is dit een van die minste algemene sentinels.
    • R-106. In April 1965 verskyn die Sentinel Deluxe, met die R-106-reeksnommer. Die voorkant van die oprit is vervang met 'n lem, met faux houtgrepe. Die ou Imperial het voortgegaan met die produksie.
    • R-107. Dit was ook 'n Sentinel Deluxe. Ek kon nie die verskil tussen die R-106 en R-107 bepaal nie. Ekstern blyk dit dat hulle identies is, maar die onderdeelnommers vir die raam, greep, sneller en hamer is verander.
    • R-108. In 1967 kry die Snub-nose Sentinel 'n tweedelige greep en die R-108-reeks benaming. Die raam bevat 'n sneller -logo. 'N Paar van hierdie reekse het geen raamlogo nie.
    • R-109. Die Kit Gun is in 1969 bekendgestel en het die R-109-reeks aangedui. Dit was die eerste model met 'n volledig verstelbare agterkyk.
    • MK I en MK IV. In 1974 is die reeksnommers uitgeskakel en die Sentinel MK I en MK IV is bekendgestel. Hierdie gewere het opsionele verstelbare agterste visiere, omhulde okkerneutgrepe en die eerste staalrame wat in die Sentinel-lyn verskyn. Die MK I was ingebou vir die 0,22 lang geweer, en die MK IV vir die 0,22 Winchester magnum. Die MK I en MK IV was beskikbaar met 2 duim, 3 duim of 4 duim vate. Die Camp Gun is in dieselfde tydperk bekendgestel. Dit was soortgelyk aan die MK I en MK IV, maar het nie die loop -onderkant wat die uitwerpstang gehul het nie. Die Camp Gun het 'n standaard vat van 6 duim en verstelbare toerusting, en was beskikbaar in 'n 0,22 lang geweer of 0,22 magnum.
    • Staalwagter. Op 'n stadium is die Mark I- en Mark IV -benamings laat val en die staalraamgeweer is verkoop as die “Sentinel ” met verwisselbare .22 LR- en .22 magnum -silinders.
    • MK II en MK III. Dit is hernoem tot Dan Wesson .357 Magnum rewolwers. Hulle is van middel 1973 tot Februarie 1975 verkoop. Daar is aanhoudende gerugte dat High Standard die Dan Wesson-pistole gemaak het, maar dit is heeltemal onwaar.

    “Die eerste nuwe rewolwer in 50 jaar, ” deur William B. Edwards. Guns tydskrif, Junie 1955.
    Hi-Standard pistole & amp Revolvers: 1951-1984, deur James Spacek. Self gepubliseer, Cheshire, Connecticut: 1998.
    Pistols, A Modern Encyclopedia, deur Henry M. Stebbins. Stackpole, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 1961.
    “The Sentinel Snub 1957-1974 ” deur Mickey Waldinger,
    High Standard Collectors ’ Association Newsletter, Vol XVIII, No 3, September 2009.
    HiStandard.Info

    Ander interessanthede by Unblinking Eye Guns

    Kopiereg 2009-2011 deur Ed Buffaloe. Alle regte voorbehou.
    Klik op die foto's om 'n groter weergawe in 'n nuwe venster oop te maak.


    USGS EROS -argief - Sentinel -2

    Die multispektrale instrument van die Europese Ruimte-agentskap op die Sentinel-2-satelliet bied elke 10 dae (2015-hede) globale resolusie (van 83 grade noord, 56 grade suidbreedte) tot 10 meter resolusie, multispektrale beelde.

    Sentinel-2A-teël oor 'n gedeelte van Denemarke en Swede (6 Augustus 2015)
    (Publieke domein)

    Die Sentinel -vloot satelliete is ontwerp om afstandswaarnemingsdata te lewer wat sentraal staan ​​in die Copernicus -program van die Europese Kommissie. Die Sentinel-2-missie is die gevolg van noue samewerking tussen die European Space Agency (ESA), die Europese Kommissie, die nywerheid, diensverskaffers en data-gebruikers. Die missie is ontwerp en gebou deur 'n konsortium van ongeveer 60 maatskappye onder leiding van Airbus Defence and Space, en ondersteun deur die Franse ruimtevaartagentskap CNES om die beeldkwaliteit te optimaliseer en deur die DLR German Aerospace Center om dataherstel met optiese kommunikasie te verbeter.

    Die Sentinel-2-missie bestaan ​​uit twee satelliete wat ontwikkel is om plantegroei, landbedekking en omgewingsmonitering te ondersteun. Die Sentinel-2A-satelliet is op 23 Junie 2015 deur ESA gelanseer en werk in 'n son-sinchroniese wentelbaan met 'n herhalingsiklus van 10 dae. 'N Tweede identiese satelliet (Sentinel-2B) is op 7 Maart 2017 gelanseer en werk met data-verkrygings wat op EarthExplorer beskikbaar is. Saam dek hulle elke vyf dae al die aarde se oppervlaktes, groot eilande en binnelandse en kuswaters.

    Die Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) verkry 13 spektrale bande wat wissel van Visible en Near-Infrared (VNIR) tot Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) golflengtes langs 'n baan van 290 km.

    Die MSI-sensordata is aanvullend tot data wat verkry is deur die U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) en Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) (Vergelyking van Sentinel-2 en Landsat). 'N Samewerkingspoging tussen ESA en die USGS maak voorsiening vir die openbare toegang en herverdeling van wêreldwye verkrygings van ESA se Sentinel-2-data gratis deur middel van sekondêre Amerikaanse portale, benewens direkte toegang van gebruikers van ESA.

    Spektrale bande en resolusie

    Die MSI -metings weerspieël stralings deur die atmosfeer binne 13 spektrale bande. Die ruimtelike resolusie is afhanklik van die spesifieke spektrale band:

    • 4 bande op 10 meter: blou (490 nm), groen (560 nm), rooi (665 nm) en naby-infrarooi (842 nm).
    • 6 bande op 20 meter: 4 smal bande vir plantegroei karakterisering (705 nm, 740 nm, 783 nm en 865 nm) en 2 groter SWIR bande (1 610 nm en 2 190 nm) vir toepassings soos sneeu/ys/wolkopsporing of plantegroei assessering van vogspanning.
    • 3 bande op 60 meter: hoofsaaklik vir wolksifting en atmosferiese korreksies (443 nm vir aërosols, 945 nm vir waterdamp en 1375 nm vir cirrus -opsporing).

    SENTINEL-2 Radiometriese en ruimtelike resolusies

    Bandnommer Sentrale golflengte (nm) Bandwydte (nm) Ruimtelike resolusie (m)
    1 443 20 60
    2 490 65 10
    3 560 35 10
    4 665 30 10
    5 705 15 20
    6 740 15 20
    7 783 20 20
    8 842 115 10
    8a 865 20 20
    9 945 20 60
    10 1375 30 60
    11 1610 90 20
    12 2190 180 20
    TCI* RGB Saamgestelde 10

    *Data wat na 5 Desember 2016 verkry is, bevat 'n ware resolusiebeeld in volle resolusie as 'n saamgestelde beeld van RGB (rooi, groen, blou) wat gemaak is uit bande 4, 3, 2.

    Die USGS Spectral Characteristics Viewer help gebruikers om te bepaal watter spektrale bande die beste werk om hul kenmerke van belang vir beeldinterpretasie te identifiseer. Hierdie instrument vergemaklik ook die visualisering van die Relative Spectral Response (RSR) van verskillende satellietsensors.

    Verwerkingsvlak

    Die vennootskap tussen ESA en die USGS maak voorsiening vir die verspreiding van Level-1C top-of-atmosfeer (TOA) reflektansie data. Vlak-1C-verwerking bevat radiometriese en meetkundige korreksies tesame met ortorektifikasie om hoogs akkurate geolokaliseerde produkte te genereer.

    Data produkte

    Die USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) -sentrum herverpak Sentinel-2-produkte op 'n per teëlbasis, terwyl die formaatspesifikasie van Sentinel Standard Archive Format for Europe (SAFE) behoue ​​bly, wat dit moontlik maak om 'n gebruikersvriendelike lêergrootte te versprei ongeveer 650 MB. Elke Level-1C-produk is 'n 100 km x 100 km teël met 'n UTM/WGS84 (Universal Transverse Mercator/World Geodetic System 1984) projeksie en datum. Die Sentinel-2-teëlrooster verwys na die U.S. Military Grid Reference System (MGRS). Teëls kan volledig of gedeeltelik deur beelddata gedek word. Gedeeltelik bedekte teëls stem ooreen met dié aan die rand van die strook. Die aflaai pakket van die USGS bevat een lêer vir elk van die 13 spektrale bande plus metadata. Opdateer: Gegewens wat na 5 Desember 2016 verkry is, word van ESA versprei op 'n enkele teëlbasis met 'n korter benamingskonvensie en bevat 'n ware resolusiebeeld in volle resolusie. Sentinel-2-data wat voorheen in die EROS-argief aangebied is, sal vervang word namate data met die True-Color Image by ESA beskikbaar word. Gebruikers kan tydelike toneelduplisering in soekresultate sien.

    Produkte kan in 'n zip -lêer afgelaai word, wat beelddata, kwaliteitaanwysers, hulpdata en metadata bevat. Sentinel -beelddata is in JPEG2000 (GMLJP2) formaat in Geographic Markup Language. GML verskaf die kodering wat nodig is vir die georeferensie van die beeld. Sentinel-2-data is bedoel vir wetenskaplike gebruik binne 'n geografiese inligtingstelsel (GIS) of ander spesiale toepassingsagteware wat die GMLJP2-formaat ondersteun. ESA bied die Sentinel 2 Toolbox aan, 'n open source sagtewareproduk, vir die visualisering, ontleding en verwerking van GMLJP2-lêers/Sentinel-2-data en ander afstandswaarnemingsdata met 'n hoë resolusie.

    Beelde met volledige resolusie (FRB) in Georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF) is ook beskikbaar by die USGS vir Sentinel-2-teëls. Hierdie produk is 'n gesimuleerde natuurlike kleur saamgestelde beeld wat gemaak is uit drie geselekteerde bande (11, 8A, 4) met 'n grondresolusie van 20 meter.

    Alle Sentinel-2-dataprodukte word gratis aan alle datagebruikers, insluitend die algemene publiek, en wetenskaplike en kommersiële gebruikers verskaf, ingevolge die bepalings en voorwaardes wat deur die Copernicus-program van die Europese Kommissie voorgeskryf word.

    Dekkingskaarte

    Dekkingskaarte wat die beskikbaarheid van Sentinel-2-produkte aandui, kan afgelaai word.

    Bykomende inligting

    Toegang tot data

    EarthExplorer, USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis), of die Sentinel2Look Viewer kan gebruik word om Sentinel-2-data te soek, voorskou en af ​​te laai. Die versameling is onder die Sentinel -kategorie in EarthExplorer.

    Die huidige USGS Sentinel-2-argief is slegs 'n gedeeltelike voorstelling van alle beskikbare verkrygings van ESA. Gebruikers moet 'n bietjie vertraging verwag voordat ESA se verkrygde data op USGS -stelsels beskikbaar word.


    Studente kan die geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van naderby ervaar

    BOCA RATON-Meer as 300 studente van omgewingskole het Vrydag in die buik van oorlogvoëls geklim wat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gewen het, na die enjins se vet geruik en hul vingers geheg aan masjiengeweer-snellers wat sewe dekades gelede op vyande gerig was.

    Maar die Collings Foundation se "Wings of Freedom" toerstop by die Boca Raton -lughawe het ook die soort geskiedenis geteken wat nie vir ewig bewaar kan word nie.

    "Hoe was dit in die gevangeniskamp?" Ethan Stack (14) van Boca Raton het Irwin Stovroff (92) van Boca gevra, wat 'n B-24 in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bestuur het-net soos een op die teer Vrydag.

    Tydens wat sy laaste bomaanval in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sou wees, is sy vliegtuig getref en het hy oor vyandelike gebied gered. Hy is deur Duitsers gevange geneem, het hy gesê.

    'As u 'n gevangene en gevangene is, moet u vir alles op u vyand staatmaak,' het Stovroff geantwoord.

    Boca Raton is een van die gewildste stoppe vir die Wings of Freedom-toer, wat die publiek uitnooi om eerstehands na die vliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, die B-17, B-24 en P-51, te kyk. 'n groot deel van die Amerikaanse oorwinning in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Vrydagoggend het dit egter gegaan oor die ervaring van honderde studente van naderby.

    Net uit die buik van die B-17, ook bekend as die Flying Fortress, was Max Silver, 10, van Delray Beach en Sunand Sujai, 10, ook van Delray, tou om in die B-24, 'n vliegtuig, te klim bekend as "The Liberator".

    'Dit gaan gaaf wees,' het Silver gesê. 'Ek wil in die vlieënier se kajuit sit.'

    Die vyfdeklassers van die Banyan Creek Elementary het aan die werklike instrumente geraak wat die kanonniers gebruik het.

    'Hulle laat jou die gewere aan die kant hou', het Isaac Singer (11) van Boca Raton gesê.

    Shelby Rogerson, 'n programassistent by die Palm Beach Schools Transition Program aan die Florida Atlantic University, het gesê dat dit 'n opvallende ervaring vir haar was, wat nog te sê van die dosyn studente wat sy gebring het.

    'Net om na hierdie dinge te kyk,' het sy gesê. 'Dit gee u nuutgevonde respek vir wat hierdie mans deurgemaak het,' het sy gesê.

    Studente het ook tougestaan ​​om met Stovroff en Daniel Rothfeld, ook van Boca Raton, te gesels. Rothfeld was 'n radiospesialis aan boord van C-47's wat voorraad en brandstof gevlieg het na Amerikaanse en Australiese soldate in Nieu-Guinee, wat teen die Japannese geveg het.

    Rothfeld het 305 missies gevlieg voordat dit verby was, het hy aan die studente gesê.

    "Hoe oud was jy toe jy begin vlieg het?" Caitlin Krinsky, 14, wat die St. Andrew's School bywoon.


    Vermoëns

    As masjiene is Sentinels uitsluitlik ontwerp vir gevegte.

    • Supermenslike sterkte: 'N Mag wat 'n Sentinel natuurlik het, is die vermoë om tonne met gemak oor hul kop te lig en met dieselfde krag te veg. Twee Mark 10 Sentinels was sterk genoeg om Colossus in die helfte te skeur. Een Sentinel kon Colossus met een hou in die kop afneem en hom op 'n paar sekondes op die grond verstom. Sentinel kon hom ook dwarsdeur die kamer weggooi. Sentinel gryp Kolossus met sy een hand vas en hou hom styf aan die vuis vas, wat hom immobiliseer. Sentinel alleen was gelyk, indien nie magtiger as Kolossus nie.
    • Supermenslike uithouvermoë: Die Mk I Sentinels is gebou uit 'n ruimtetydse polimeer, wat baie kragtig en duursaam is, wat die Sentinels baie bestand maak teen die meeste wapens en mutante magte. Dit is nie bekend uit watter materiaal die Mk X Sentinels gemaak is nie, maar daar word aanvaar dat dit van dieselfde polimeer is as hul voorgangers. Daar word gesien dat slegs Bishop se energiewapens en 'n kragtige vernietigingsontploffing van die Mk X Sentinel -ruimteskip dit eintlik kan beskadig of vernietig (ten minste Sentinel X). Ander wapens en magte kan dit net vertraag. As gevolg hiervan kan hulle ekstra wapens kry (Iceman, Sunspot) of byna onvernietigbaar raak (diamant, rots of metaalvorm van Colossus) as hulle hul wapens met 'n mutante krag opgradeer.
    • Krag nabootsing: Alhoewel die vorige modelle nie oor so 'n vermoë beskik het nie, het die Mark 10 Sentinel ontwikkel tot die punt waar hulle die magte kan naboots van feitlik enige mutant wat hulle teëgekom het. Nie net dit nie, hulle kan die magte van 'n mutant herhaal, die gerepliseerde magte is kragtiger as die magte van die oorspronklike mutante. 'N Sentinel in ysvorm kan byvoorbeeld sonder probleme na Sunspot beweeg en met een hand afskakel/vries. 'N Sentinel in die vorm van hitte/lawa/sonvlek kan Iceman se ys suksesvol breek, hom om die nek hou en sy kop afkraak. In hierdie vorm kan dit die sekuriteitsdeur van die skatkamer binne sekondes laat smelt. 'N Sentinel in metaalvorm wat uit Colossus geneem is, kan Colossus self doodmaak in slegs twee treffers in die kop. Na die eerste hou slaan die Sentinel Colossus se hand af. Dit is omdat alle mutante magte na die menslike liggaam opgegradeer word, terwyl die gekopieerde kragte van die Sentinel opgegradeer word na hierdie baie duursame materiaal waaruit Sentinels gebou is, sodat hulle kragtiger vermoëns kan skep, wat Sentinels in sommige gevalle onskadelik kan maak.

    Daar word ook gesien dat sentinelle in rotsvorme omskep (vermoedelik die rotsvorm van Darwin naboots), wat uiterste duursaamheid, meer gewig en immuniteit teen sonstrale se hitte -energie -strome kry. In sulke vorms, terwyl hulle Sunspot met hul hande mis, tref die Sentinels die grond en laat dit ontplof, wat 'n baie groter krag toon.

    Daar word gesien dat 'n ander Sentinel onder die aanval van Sunspot in diamantvorm verander, wat Emma Frost se diamantvorm naboots en opgradeer na sy eie kragtige pantser, wat hom immuun maak. sonvlek se energie word ook warm. In hierdie vorm kan hy 'n diamantpiek skep wat die sonvlek se hand afgesny het.

    • Vlug: Sentinels is ontwerp met stuwers in hul voet sodat hulle swaartekrag kan trotseer. Teen die jaar 2023 is die merk 10's ontwerp met sweeftoestelle wat hulle in staat stel om self te vlieg sonder straalstuwers.
    • Atletiek / behendigheid: Daar word gesien dat wagters baie rats is, hulle kan salto vorentoe en agtertoe in die lug doen en op 'n hoër afstand kon spring. Daar word gesien hoe hulle oor mure in die Chinese klooster kruip (een klim op en min klim af)
    • Vormverandering/wapening: Danksy Mystique se vormveranderende krag, word daar ook gesien dat Sentinels hul vorms kan aanpas vir verskillende doeleindes:

          Hulle kan kleiner/groter word, soos verduidelik deur ontwikkelaars. Dit kan ook gesien word in die eerste toneel toe vervoerders deure begin oopmaak en Sentinels een vir een aflaai. Daardie Sentinels het nie hande en bene gehad nie, miskien omdat meer Sentinels in vervoer kon pas.       Hulle kan ook hul arms uitsteek tot lang en uiters skerp spykers wat betonmure kan breek en mutante kan steek/sny. (Sentinel het Sunspot se hand afgesny, 'n ander Sentinel het Sunspot in sy lawavorm getref en met lang kloue uit elke vinger gedood).       Voor die eerste geveg teen X -manne het Sentinels deur betonmure geboor met kragtige bore. Dit het 'n paar sekondes geduur totdat hulle deur beton breek, en bore is onmiddellik in hande verander.

    • Immuniteit teen sekere wapens: As robots is Sentinels immuun vir psigiese aanvalle van Xavier en ander telepatiese mutante. Hulle is opgebou uit 'n ruimtetydse polimeer, wat hulle immuun maak teen Magneto se beheer. Hulle het 'n X-Gene-detektor om mutante op 'n baie lang afstand op te spoor, wat beteken dat veranderende mutante, soos Mystique, hulle nie kan mislei deur mense te vermom nie.

    Wapens

    Sentinels het ontwikkel sedert hul ontstaan ​​in die 70's en het daarom 'n verskeidenheid verskillende wapens gebruik.


    By die voltooiing van limfknope-disseksies ten tyde van die primêre operasie, is gevind dat dit die plaaslike siektebeheer verbeter, asook om prognose te verseker. Daar was geen toename in die oorlewing van melanoom by pasiënte met sentinelknoopmetastases nie.

    Melanoom word tydens die chirurgiese uitskeidings uitgevoer met behulp van 'n sentinel limfknoopbiopsie (SLNB). Hierdie minimaal indringende tegniek word uitgevoer met metileenblou kleurstof en/of limfosintigrafie met intra-operatiewe gamma sonde-analise. SLNB is belangrik in die voorspelling van melanoom. Klinies by pasiënte met positiewe SLNB word 'n voltooiing limfknoop disseksie (CLND) uitgevoer ten tyde van die SLNB met die doel om plaaslike siektebeheer te hê. Hierdie pasiënte kan ook aanvullende mediese terapieë ontvang. Daar is tans geen bewyse oor die nut van onmiddellike CLND nie. Hierdie prosedure is nie sonder risiko nie, veral infeksie, seroom, wondskeiding en limfoedeem. [1]

    Die Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial-1 (MSLT-1) het bevestig dat SLNB 'n belangrike rol speel in die behandeling van pasiënte met melanoom. [2] [3] [4]. Die MSLT-1-proef het getoon dat patologiese ontleding van wagwag limfknope die belangrikste faktor was vir die prognose van melanoom, en dat pasiënte wat 'n sentinel limfknoopbiopsie gehad het, 'n afname in herhaling van melanoom gehad het in vergelyking met pasiënte met groot uitskeiding geen nodale biopsie nie. Daar is gevind dat sentinel limfknope biopsie verband hou met 'n verbeterde 10 jaar melanoom spesifieke oorlewing (62% Biopsie met nodale betrokkenheid vs 41,5% waarneming met nodale betrokkenheid, P = 0,006) sowel as 10 jaar ver siektevrye oorlewing (54,8% Biopsie met nodale betrokkenheid versus 35,6% waarneming met nodale betrokkenheid, P = 0,002) by patente met melanoom van medium dikte (1,2-3,5 mm Breslow-diepte).

    Die MSLT-2-proef het getoon dat CLND plaaslike siektebeheer bied, maar dat dit nie siekte-spesifieke oorlewingsyfers verhoog by pasiënte met melanoom met sentinel limfknoopmetastases nie.


    Variante

    Cruiser Tank Sentinel AC III

    'N Totaal van 65 Sentinel Tanks is vervaardig. 4 variante is vervaardig

    • Sentinel AC I: Het die Ordnance QF 2-ponder gemonteer
    • Sentinel AC II: Opgradeer Sentinel AC I
    • Sentinel AC III: Gemonteer 'n dubbele vat Ordnance QF 25-ponder gewere
    • Sentinel AC IV: Het die Ordnance QF 17-ponder geweer gemonteer


    Eienskappe [wysig | wysig bron]

    A Sentinel-klaspendel met 'n houer

    Ontwerp deur Sienar Fleet Systems in die vorm van sy neef, die Lambda-klas T-4a-pendelbus, is hierdie groter, ruimer pendeltuig hoofsaaklik gebruik om 'n kompliment van 75 stormsoldate na die geveg te vervoer, en#918 ] 󈠇 meer troepe as die Lambda-klas. ⎗ ] Die skip het drie vlerke: een stilstaande middelfoelie en twee geartikuleerde flankvlerke. Ώ ] Die landingsvaartuie was ook sterk genoeg om verskeie treffers van a te weerstaan Quasar Fire-torings van die kruisvervoerder. ⎘ ] Hulle kan ook aangepas word met spesiale houers wat voertuie bevat. ⎙ ] Die shuttle het ook twee kolligte aan die voorkant van die vaartuig gehad. ⎚ ] Die pendelbus het verskeie ingangspunte gehad, waaronder 'n voorrit, 'n agteroprit, ⎛ ] en deure na die sykant. ⎜ ] Die binnekant van die skip het 'n hoof passasiersgedeelte en 'n kajuit. In die passasier-/vraggebied was daar banke en tuie aan elke kant met 'n leer aan die kant van die voorste oprit wat direk na 'n luik lei vir toegang tot die kajuit. Die kajuitafdeling het vier sitplekke. ⎛ ] Die pendelbus kan ook 'n opknapper aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die leer hê. ⎝ ]


    RQ-170 SENTINELOORSPRONG DEEL II: DIE SEINSON VAN “TACIT BLUE ”

    My eerste stuk oor die afkoms van die RQ-170 Sentinel, Amerika se geheime onbemande stealth sensorvoertuig, het baie verkeer gekry en was die onderwerp van een van my onlangse kleurvolle onderhoude oor John Batchelor se nasionale radioprogram (http : //johnbatchelorshow.com/). Maar nadat ek die stuk geskryf het, was daar iets vreemds oor my oor die ontstaan ​​van die nou berugte taktiese verkenningsplatform met vlerkvlerke. Ek het gehoor van sy unieke missievereiste iewers langs die abstrakte tydlyn van lugvaart-tegnologie wat ek oor die jare in my kop ingebou het, lank voordat selfs die hele TIER3-konsep amptelik bestaan ​​het. Trouens, hierdie masjien was selfs vóór Operation Desert Storm en die gerommel oor die moontlike bestaan ​​van 'n TR-3A “Black Manta ” soos 'n sluipbemande taktiese verkenningsvliegtuig wat aan die einde van die tagtigerjare verskyn het en 'n crescendo getref het na die eerste Golfoorlog. Toe tref dit my, Northrop se raaiselagtige “Whale, ” ja, dit was dit! Die stamvader van die USAF ’s TIER3- vereiste van die middel 1990's, en dus die gevolglike RQ-3 Darkstar, wat later ook die RQ-170 Sentinel was, was beslis die nederige, maar intrigerende “Tacit Blue ” program wat dateer uit die begin van die stealth -era. Na baie ondersoek het ek besef dat ons Tacit Blue se kleinkind, die RQ-170 Sentinel, beter kan verstaan ​​as ooit tevore.

    Amerika se gesondheidsrevolusie het in die middel van die 1970's plaasgevind, wat gelei het tot vooruitgang in rekenaarverwerking en tegnieke vir die vervaardiging van vliegtuie, sowel as die voortgesette Koue Oorlog. By the turn of decade multiple “low observable” programs, spearheaded by a variety of manufacturers, were well underway. Most notable of all of these programs was Lockheed’s notorious bleeding edge “Skunkworks” design house’s “Have Blue” demonstrator, aka the “Hopeless Diamond.” The successful Have Blue program would eventually morph into the world’s first true “Stealth” production aircraft, the infamous F-117A Nighthawk Stealth Fighter (the Nighthawk was really an attack aircraft but marketing is a powerful thing even in the Pentagon’s black budget world). Yet another smaller, less glamorous, but arguably as influential top-secret technology demonstration was also underway around this same period in time, known ambiguously as “Tacit Blue.”

    The Tacit Blue aircraft, known affectionately as “The Whale” amongst those who were involved with the program over at legendary aerospace manufacturer Northrop, had an entirely separate set of objectives than Lockheed’s proposed stealth attack aircraft, although radar invisibility was one they both had in common. Whereas Lockheed, leveraging its innovative “ECHO1” radar predictability software, found the “faceted,” diamond like structural approach suitable for a stealth tactical attack aircraft, where speed and agility were on the requirement list, a few years later Northrop would take an almost entirely opposite route to achieve groundbreaking “low observable” results.

    In the late 1970’s the DoD’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was working hard at breaking open stealth technology’s virtual “Pandora’s box,” and diligently figuring out new ways to leverage the still very young and emerging capability. Never before could America actually build an invisible warplane, and the creative minds over at the Pentagon were deciding exactly where this new revolutionary method of designing aircraft could make the most impact. One of the areas where they wanted to push the stealth envelope was in the business of battlefield reconnaissance. Op daardie stadium, tactical aerial intelligence was collected via fighter jets, or other very un-stealthy aircraft, that were fitted with cameras and sent out to make daring runs, sometimes at very low-level and at very high speeds, over enemy territory. At best these systems could capture a snapshot in time of the enemies force posture, which could never be exploited in real-time, and was only gained at incredible risk to the aircrews involved. Ander strategiese surveillance assets, such as the SR-71 Blackbird and especially reconnaissance satellites had similar, if not even more severe drawbacks, as the information they gathered was momentary in nature, and resolutions were at times inconsistent. With these limitations in mind, DARPA hired the Northrop company to answer a simple question: Could emerging “low observable” aircraft technology be used to build an aircraft that could survive while loitering for hours at a time deep behind enemy lines, all the while collecting real-time battlefield tactical intelligence that commanders could exploit in real-time, while being located safely behind friendly lines?

    During this same period of time the USAF was looking to develop an aircraft that could take advantage of recent air to ground radar technology revelations. The concept behind such emerging capabilities was to use a large phased array radar, mounted on an airplane, to provide real-time Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) intelligence. GMTI is a radar mode that basically sees the movement of vehicles across large land masses, as well an associated Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode that could theoretically map the battlefield using high-resolution radar beams and computer processing instead of optical photography. Both modes are able to peer through inclement weather with ease, can be implemented at long-range, and are persistent in nature. In other words, they can be used to survey enemy territory for long periods of time, looking for not just targets but operational trends in the enemy’s force posture, under almost any conditions. This new radar technology development program was known as “Pave Mover,” and it would prove to have drastic effects on the future of airborne intelligence collection.

    With the “Pave Mover” radar concept and Northrop’s stealthy and persistent tactical intelligence aircraft in mind, the folks at DARPA decided to combine the two into a top-secret program now known officially as the Battlefield Surveillance Aircraft-Experimental (BSAX), code name “Tacit Blue.” By combining the deep penetrating radar capabilities of “Pave Mover” and Northrop’s stealthy surveillance platform, commanders would theoretically be able to look deeper into enemy territory than ever previously imagined, and the products of such a capability could truly be war winning. The only problem would be, how would Northrop engineers leverage a new design philosophy that was still in its infancy to be able to carry a massive radar array while staying invisible to radar at the same time? Further, how would they ensure that the radar itself was not detected through its high power emissions? The program’s goals were truly groundbreaking and in being so they were also incredibly challenging. Literally, the BSAX had to not just blaze a single trail, but many in order to be successful.

    Around the turn of the decade, Northrop had designed an aircraft that was so ugly that it had to be genius, and it was. Resembling a whale, including its blow-hole on top (the jet air intake!) the Tacit Blue was a marvel of function over form. Instead of using the faceted, almost diamond like approach to designing their stealth aircraft, as Lockheed had done a couple of years prior, Northrop engineers took a different approach, one of continuous curvatures, chined edges, and masked vulnerabilities. Much of this design philosophy was demanded by the “loiter” part of Tacit Blue’s mission requirements. The aircraft had to feature “all aspect stealth,” whereas an aircraft like the F-117 could be optimized for front and rear, or “coming and going” stealth aspects, as their mission was sneak inside a defense network, drop bombs, and high tail it out of danger. Tacit Blue had no such luxury as it would have to loiter for hours over enemy territory, and thus every angle would be susceptible to radar surveillance for prolonged periods of time. Tacit Blue’s rounded approach to stealth, known as curvilinear design, would be a massive development that would affect future stealth technology arguably more than the famous F-117’s “faceted” approach to masking radar signatures.

    The Tacit Blue Weighed in at some 30,000lbs, measured around 55’X55′ and looking more like a motor-home than an aircraft. With a massive phased array radar, provided by Hughes, shoehorned into its boxcar fuselage, the ugly Whale was one unaerodynamic flying creature. It’s surfaces were so smooth that it almost took on a sculpted appearance. This does make some sense as one of its main designers actually sculpted its unique fascia while sitting on a park bench after being stumped on how to come up with a solution for DARPA’s BSAX challenge. By its very nature, Tacit Blue was a highly unstable design and thus had to utilize an advanced fly-wire-system similar to the one used on YF-16. Making the aircraft even more awkward, the design team utilized many parts from existing aircraft to minimize design time, complexity and cost. At a price tag of about $130,000,000 to build, with a total program cost of about $170,000,000, the Whale was an expensive ugly duckling, but it would pay for itself in spades over some 135 test flights between 1983 and 1985.

    During these 135 test flights Tacit Blue and the whole BSAX team would not only pave the way for a multitude of stealth and surveillance technologies, but in doing so it would make the exact case for a TIER3- unmanned stealth and persistent tactical reconnaissance requirement that would spawn the RQ-3 Darkstar some ten years later, and eventually the RQ-170 another decade after that. In many ways Tacit Blue was the manned experimental RQ-170 of decades past. Here are some of the key BSAX program’s accomplishments:

    1.) “Curvilinear” and “All-Aspect” Stealth- Tacit Blue’s design was incredibly unique for its time, and many, if not all of its features can be seen today on modern stealth aircraft and UAVs. Its continuously curving architecture was revolutionary and would pave the way and help validate the design for Northrop’s B-2A Bomber, still America’s most valuable (that we know of) deep penetrating weapon system some 20+ years after it’s unveiling. Also, the “Whale’s” exact design was almost exactly copied for the Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile (TSSAM), although the program was cancelled in 1993 due to budget and technological reasons, similarities are still abundant on the JASSM missile system currently in service. Its chined forward fuselage bears a close family resemblance to that seen on the YF-23, and it’s elliptical exhaust can be identified on the RQ-170 Sentinel. It’s overhead stealthy jet inlet, and deep buried motors are both concepts utilized to a great degree on the B-2 and RQ-170 as well.

    Tacit Blue’s “all aspect” stealth design philosophy has been used in almost every low observable product in existence today and can be seen extrapolated to a greater, more refined degree on the f-22 and F-35. In fact the “curvilinear” design method, aided by much more powerful computer aided design software and processors, would allow stealth aircraft to be configured more freely for many different kinds of missions and uses as compared to the F-117’s inefficient and limiting faceted architecture. Although the Tacit Blue’s design was so ahead of its time it seems as if it is still being used today with minimal modifications. Case in point is General Atomics’s new Predator C, also known as the Avenger, which possesses and uncanny resemblance to Tacit Blue some 25 years after its last flight. In summary, structurally alone, the Tacit Blue changed the way America builds aerial weaponry forever, arguably more so than the more popular “Have Blue” demonstrator and it’s infamous F-117 successor.

    2.) Infra Red Heat, Noise, and Optical Signature Reduction- It is said that the Tacit Blue was literally the coolest aircraft ever tested at the time. The aircraft ejected its exhaust before and above the end of aircraft’s tail section. This made the motor’s direct heat signature masked to anyone viewing the aircraft from below. It is also said that Tacit Blue’s exhaust was “after cooled” or chilled after being ejected from the aircraft’s engine, and this, combined with chemicals injected into the exhaust, all but eliminated the possibility of creating a contrail or being detected with infra-red sensors. Further, its light paint was optimized for medium and high altitude operations during daytime, and its deeply buried motors made the aircraft incredibly quiet. All of this and of course the unlikely overall shape of the Tacit Blue would make the aircraft almost entirely undetectable. These low-signature revelations would be exploited in advanced military aircraft design for decades after the Whale’s last flight.

    3.) Low Probability Of Intercept (LPI) Radar- The Tacit Blue’s design was extremely stealthy, but packing a huge radar that emits tremendous amounts of energy over or near an enemy battlefield is not stealthy to say the least. Passive detection devices and Electronic Support Measures (ESM) could alert the enemy to the BSAX’s whereabouts almost as easily as radar detection if it’s radar were to be employed in a normal fashion. So engineers from Hughes and Northrop worked on cutting-edge ideas to make what was already a breakthrough radar technology, that being Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) capability, all that more revolutionary by making its electronic emissions almost impossible to detect by the enemy.

    LPI radar works using a variety of tactics that combine collectively to lower the possibility of a radar being detected while turned on. Advanced methods such as utilizing agile frequency modulation over a very wide band, emitting a much more finely tuned beam at lower power for short bursts instead of long continuous emissions, all via a phased array radar design that is paired with advanced back-end computing power fantastically lowered the chances of the Tacit Blue being detected via its emissions. Today LPI radar techniques, especially when joined with new Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar sets has changed the way radar is used in aerial and sea combat. The technology was most certainly used in the ATB program which produced the B-2A Spirit that was fielded just a few years after the Whale made its last flight. At the time the B-2 was a fantastic asset to migrate LPI airborne radar technology into because it had massive real estate on it’s leading edge for a pair phased array radar arrays to be installed, and it could utilize them while under it’s stealth cloak. Today, stealth fighters like the F-22 and F-35, and even modern combat ships use advanced LPI radars to their advantage, allowing them to keep tabs and engage their enemies while maintaining a high degree of invisibility. Further, the exact LPI and GMTI technology pioneered by Tacit Blue, improved and miniaturized over time, most likely makes it possible for the stealthy RQ-170 Sentinel to penetrate deep into enemy territory and actively gather high-resolution radar intelligence without being detected. This has been further confirmed by Pentagon officials in a recent piece posted over at Aviation Week where sources said that the RQ-170 started out as a radar platform and then was refitted for electre-optical streaming video as well a few years back.

    4.) Data Links: Unlike Tacit Blue’s larger, standoff oriented successor, the Boeing 707 based E-8 J-STARS, which emerged as the chosen production platform as a result of the multi-tiered “Pave Mover” demonstration program, Tacit Blue had no radar and intelligence support operators on-board. Seeing how the requirement for real-time intelligence was a key part of the “Pave Mover” program and thus the BSAX program, engineers had to figure out a way to not only control the radar but also broadcast the stealthy Tacit Blue’s intelligence data back to operators on the ground for immediate exploitation. This was a massive departure from airborne intelligence collection of the day, which either saw large airframes utilized so that operators on-board could control the surveillance systems and utilize the information collected, or smaller airframes would be utilized to go out and collect intelligence that could only be leveraged once deciphered by specialists well after the mission ended. The incredibly high-risk nature of a deep penetrating, loitering, airborne surveillance platform’s mission set could be somewhat offset by relocating the radar operators and intelligence professionals off the aircraft and far behind friendly lines. These operators would be connected to the small stealthy airframe via a data link. Without breakthroughs data link technology Tacit Blue’s objectives would have been virtually impossible to achieve.

    Tacit Blue used line of sight data links that were also low probability of intercept in nature and thus difficult to detect by the enemy. All the data collected over “enemy” territory was transferred back to the control station it was “tethered to,” theoretically far away from the front lines of the battlefield. At the time data links were used mainly between air superiority fighters to sort targets and to provide other situational awareness functions that would help crews be less reliant on radio communications, or in TV guided weaponry like the “Popeye” series of missiles. Tacit Blue stepped way beyond this capability and truly blazed the way for modern UAV technology and their related ground control and information exploitation concepts as we know them today. Most notably those used to satisfy the TIER2+ (which became the RQ-4 Global Hawk) and TIER3- (which became the RQ-3 Darkstar) requirements put forth by the USAF almost a decade after the Tacit Blue took its last flight. Today, data links, and LPI optimized data links, are used in almost every combat aircraft flying in the US’s inventory. These links primarily exist in the form of the Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)/Link-16 architecture. Further, a new data link optimized for stealth aircraft, which utilizes cutting edge LPI technology, is currently under development. This system is known as Multifunctional Advanced Data Link (MADL) which will be fielded on America’s stealth F-22, B-2, F-35 and Next Generation Bomber force. Modern data links have been described as the most game changing weapon system of the 21st century, and offer a single pilot a gods eye view of battlefield around him, with massive amounts of data being fused into a single tactical picture right at his or her fingertips. Never before has such a widespread capability existed, and it is arguably the most significant “force multiplier” concept combat aircraft have seen for decades.

    5.) Ground Moving Target Indicators (GMTI) Radar Technology: As the deeply classified arm of the “Pave Mover” program, the Whale proved that such technology could be shoehorned into a relatively small tactical asset, when paired with a tethered ground station, and this aircraft could also be invisible to radar, loiter for hours in denied air space, peering deeper into enemy territory than a standoff asset could, literally into a foe’s vulnerable rear echelons. The testing done with Tacit Blue no doubt added greatly to the E-8 J-STARS program, and was further leveraged in the RQ-4 Global Hawk over a decade later, of which GMTI capability was one of the main capability requirements. It is also widely speculated that the RQ-170’s original mission was to provide high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) pictures and possibly GMTI data back to commanders on the ground to be used in real time. GMTI is not only effective at tracking armored columns, but it is also effective at cataloging critical “pattern of life” intelligence data in and around a target area. Since Tacit Blue flew with it’s mini-van sized Sideways Looking Aerial Radar (SLAR), such radar technology has been miniaturized to a massive degree. These radars can now be packed inside the dimensions of a targeting pod, while offering much more capability, and have become ideal for UAV operations.

    6.) Dual-Role, Stealthy Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) Concept: Although the Tacit Blue may never have flown with passive ELINT hardware on-board, those involved with the program have made it clear that they were very aware of the “Whale’s” unique potential for carrying automated electronic listening equipment to passively collect the enemy’s electronic order of battle and their communications without them ever knowing. This ELINT suite of equipment could be manipulated and it’s products exploited in real-time by the ground control station just like the radar array. This information could then be used to great effect for Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) and general intelligence purposes. In other words, Tacit Blue could provide similar functions as the much larger, standoff in nature RC-135 “Rivet Joint,” as a secondary mission while conducting radar surveillance. Since the aircraft was already being theoretically risked over enemy territory it was only logical that such a risk be leveraged to its maximum potential in order to gain the maximum amount of rewards. This “cherry on top” added capability is very similar to what we know about the F-22 and it’s ALR-94 ESM kit, which some say is the most potent part of the Raptor weapon system, and supports what many hypothesize about the RQ-170, that it has a secondary ELINT capability built-in.

    7.) Advanced Fly-By-Wire: The malformed Tacit Blue was unstable in both pitch and yaw and depended on a quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system in order to literally keep its nose pointed in the right direction. The aircraft was proven to flip on its back and weather-vein tail first into the airstream during wind tunnel tests! It has been said that the Whale was the most unstable aircraft mankind had ever flown at the time, a situation fraught with danger and pitfalls. Yet engineers were able to refine the flight control system enough so that the aircraft would fly reliably, although it was in no way a hot rod or high-performance machine. Lessons learned during the design and implementation of the “Whale’s” flight control system would be used later on as aircraft designs became more function over form. Thus opening up the opportunity to fly aircraft of strange, inherently unstable shapes, such as the B-2 flying wing bomber, and later the RQ-170 Sentinel. In the end, and against great odds, Northrop built an invisible sensor truck, and a flyable one at that.

    As you read through the incredible accomplishments of the Tacit Blue / Whale / BSAX or whatever you want to call it, there can be little doubt that this aircraft was the progenitor of the TIER3- program, and thus the RQ-170 Sentinel as we know it today. The BSAX program definitively marks the first time in aerospace history where such a concept was envisioned, tested and validated. Additionally, as part of the decision to fund the Tacit Blue program, the USAF had a strong interest in utilizing the technology for an unmanned aircraft, a concept that was really beginning to emerge as the possible future of air combat at the time. Tacit Blue’s mission, persistent tactical reconnaissance over enemy airspace, is a very risky one. By taking human risk out of the equation the concept could be more readily applied during a time of conflict and the USAF knew this, although the technology to make such a capability reality simply did not exist at the time.

    Almost everything we know about the TIER3- program that emerged in the mid 1990’s and the subsequent RQ-170 Sentinel that sprang from its ashes can be traced directly to Tacit Blue. It’s curvilinear low observable design was utilized extensively on the B-2 and can be seen leveraged to even a greater degree on the RQ-170. The same can be said for the RQ-170’s overhead inlet, deep buried motor and light paint optimized for daytime operation. Even the exhaust of the RQ-170 matches that of the Whale’s to an uncanny degree. Then there is the Tacit Blue’s data link systems, cutting edge at the time, that now represents the genesis of all unmanned aerial vehicles control interfaces. In effect the offspring of the Tacit Blue’s ground control stations and data links would make the unmanned aircraft concept as we know it today actually feasible. By the 1990’s breakthroughs in computer automation and satellite communications would let unmanned aircraft dream become a reality.

    Low probability Of intercept surveillance radar and advance data links would make it so the RQ-170 could penetrate deep into enemy airspace and operate for hours without a high risk of being detected by passive listening systems. Even the proposed secondary ELINT capability of the BSAX is almost certainly on-board the RQ-170. Beyond logical deduction there were multiple reports from sources in the Pentagon that the RQ-170 not only transmitted real-time video on the night of the Bin Laden raid but that it was also providing key ELINT information so that commanders could monitor the Pakistani’s response, or lack thereof, at critical times during the fragile operation. Even the concept of using an aircraft as a sensor platform only, and communicating its collected data back to a ground station in real-time for interpretation, was the forerunner of the RQ-170’s real-time tactical reconnaissance capabilities.

    The definitive proof that establishes a direct ancestral link between Tacit Blue and the RQ-170 Sentinel can be found in the very reason why the BSAX was created in the first place, to prove that a small stealthy tactical intelligence platform could loiter for long periods of time over denied airspace undetected, all the while transmitting its high fidelity intelligence back to commanders on the ground in real-time. Klink dit bekend? Of course it does, as this is the exact same unique mission requirements as the unmanned TIER3- concept that emerged almost a decade after the Whale’s last flight. Further, the BSAX was really a minimally manned asset, the pilot providing the flight control only because remote systems were simply incapable of doing so at the time, and were not needed in order to prove the concept during controlled tests. So although the larger 707 based E-8 J-STARS become the known winner of the “Pave Mover” program, the idea of a stealthy and persistent tactical surveillance aircraft was proven by Tacit Blue with flying colors. Further, it was realized that by simply replacing Tacit Blue’s radar, or in addition to it adding advanced imaging equipment, you would have an asset that would be almost entirely undetectable and capable of collecting multiple forms of intelligence during its high risk missions.

    It would take a decade for satellite data links and computer hardware to catch up with the BSAX in order to make the concept an unmanned reality. Even the TIER3- requirement of the early 1990’s stated the need to leverage miniaturized LPI radars as part of the program, along with fully passive electro-optical surveillance payloads. And from the TIER3- minus requirement, and the program’s resulting RQ-3 Darkstar, the RQ-170 Sentinel was born, as was detailed in my prior piece linked above. So the Sentinel’s direct lineage, its exact reason for existing, dates back some 30 years to the birth of the BSAX program and Tacit Blue.

    In the end the RQ-170’s pedigree is a long one of secret successes and public failures, culminating in a drone so effective and so critical to national security that it was used on the most sensitive American mission since the Doolittle Raid on Japan at the beginning of WWII. The fantastically successful Tacit Blue demonstrator, the clear father of the troubled Darkstar, the grandfather of the history making Sentinel, and the uncle of so many other successful aircraft that used smaller parts of its innovative technologies to accomplish their own diverse missions, leaves a legacy that is truly stunning. Yet one question does emerge out of this epic family saga: After learning so much about the success of the Tacit Blue, did this aircraft and it’s mission set in fact go the way of the RQ-3 Darkstar, being evolved into a more operational form under a dark classified cloak? Even the Tacit blue took over a decade from its last flight to become partially declassified. What is to say that a follow-on, much more capable system was not fielded once the BSAX technology demonstration program shutdown? Just as the standoff oriented “TIER2+” RQ-4 Global Hawk was pursued in the white world and the “TIER3-” RQ-170 was pursued in the black, maybe the similarly standoff oriented E-8 J-STARS and a stealthy tactical Tacit Blue follow-on blazed a similar path? Isn’t this more probable than not when compared to historical patterns of evolution regarding such programs and game changing capabilities?

    Was Tacit Blue’s first actual offspring the fabled manned TR-3A “Black Manta” that was spotted around the globe, supposedly assisted the F-117A over Baghdad, and possibly crashed at Royal Air Force Base Boscombe Down in the 1994, or an aircraft similar to it? Only a couple of months after this mysterious crash at Boscombe Down of an aircraft that fits the proposed tactical manned stealth reconnaissance aircraft mold, the SR-71 program was reactivated against huge odds. Regardless of any speculative details it just seems somewhat apparent there may in fact be a manned missing link in the RQ-170’s murky family tree. Something existing between the Tacit Blue technology demonstrator and the TIER3- unmanned requirement of the mid 1990’s seems like almost a given considering the historic continuity of such programs. Or are we really to believe that the USAF, after the conclusion of the Tacit Blue program, with such an innovative and proven tactical battlefield intelligence technology in hand, decided not to pursue a follow-on in any form until the curious announcement of the TIER3- program that resulted in the still-birth of Darkstar in the mid 1990’s? Was there really no aircraft to fill this role, even in very small numbers, between the triumphant Tacit Blue’s last flight, and the far-reaching unmanned TIER3- program? Would the existence of such a craft in fact also provide an answer to the odd SR-71 Blackbird retirement initiative of the late 1980’s?

    The SR-71 was designed during a time when true stealth was a pipe-dream and thus it had to leverage high altitudes, great speed, and some rudimentary low observable techniques to survive. It would make sense that once the proverbial stealth genie was out of the bottle there would be no need for hugely expensive ultra high-speed reconnaissance over enemy territory. In fact a theoretical aircraft like the TR-3A that utilized subsonic, and/or moderate super-cruise operating speeds while at medium altitudes, and offered near radar invisibility, could actually possess an advantage over one that utilized blistering high speeds and altitudes. Slower speeds would give the platform more time to soak up intelligence data while remaining undetected, and if need be, like the Tacit Blue, it could loiter for long periods of time over denied territory. Did this reasonably faster, more capable and survivable offspring of Tacit Blue nicely fill the gap, along with modern strategic satellite reconnaissance, left by the retirement of the SR-71 Blackbird? One that not only inhabited Tacit Blue’s unique mission set and exploited it’s groundbreaking innovations, but also one that incorporated some of the innovations applied to the B-2 bomber, and the technologies that were publicly showcased during the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program in the form of the YF-23, although a few years prior, while they were still under a dark shroud of secrecy? Was this in fact Northrop’s ASTRA (Advanced Stealth Reconnaissance Aircraft) that was rumored to exist during the time period in question? It sure makes a lot more sense than the almost mainstream obsession with the possible existence of the “Aurora” high-speed, high altitude spy plane, that would have been unbelievably expensive to develop and operate, while only furnishing similar capabilities than those of spy satellites that the DoD and US intelligence apparatus has already invested in heavily.

    If you asked me my opinion on this a month ago I would have said it would be anyone’s guess, but after the hours of research on the RQ-170’s lineage, it would appear that there is indeed an aircraft flagrantly missing from its family tree. Some 10+ years would have gone by between the time that this invaluable capability was proven and when we would see a publiek requirement from the USAF to fill such a role in the guise of the unmanned TIER3- program. But was the TIER3- the first attempt at an operational stealth tactical reconnaissance capability, or was it set in place to replace an aircraft that already existed, its main weakness being that human beings were at risk in the cockpit?

    I believe that the BSAX did in fact result in a semi-operational manned airframe of a different configuration, but one of the exact same mission, that leveraged both Tacit Blue, and it’s emerging B-2 cousin’s technology innovations. Such an aircraft would help more evenly fill the gap left by the aging and vulnerable SR-71s on a tactical level, leaving satellites for the strategic reconnaissance mission. Theorizing freely, possibly this program never reached its full potential and was abandoned after a fatal crash at RAF Boscombe Down in 1994, thus ushering in the Blackbird as a stopgap and the TIER3- as a final replacement.

    Like so many things that prowl the skies high above the central Nevada desert, we may never truly know their whole story, although we can apply logic, patterns in aerospace development, known facts and liberal creativity to create a story that is more probable than possible, and probably more believable than the actual truth….

    LINKED BELOW IS A THOROUGH WRITEUP ABOUT THE CRASH AT RAF BOSCOMBE DOWN IN SEPTEMBER OF 1994. THERE IS LOTS OF SPECULATION HERE BUT STILL IT IS AN ENLIGHTENING PIECE:


    Kyk die video: Sentinel - The Primordial Ruin Official EP Stream. The Circle Pit