Die ou teks wat Jesus beskryf as 'n vormveranderer

Die ou teks wat Jesus beskryf as 'n vormveranderer


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Dit was in Maart verlede jaar toe berigte oor die hoofopskrifte oor 'n nuut ontsyferde Egiptiese teks, wat byna 1200 jaar teruggekeer het, oorstroom het, wat Jesus op kontroversiële wyse beskryf het as die vermoë om van vorm te verander. Maar net so vinnig as wat die verhaal deur groot nuuswebwerwe regoor die wêreld gekom het, het dit verdwyn en sedertdien is dit amper nie genoem nie. Waarom het die studie en navorsing rondom hierdie teks in die vergetelheid verval? Waarom was daar feitlik geen wetenskaplike debat oor die onderwerp nie?

Die antieke teks in die Koptiese taal geskryf in die naam van die heilige Cyril van Jerusalem, 'n vooraanstaande teoloog wat gedurende die vierde eeu geleef het, vertel 'n deel van die kruisigingsverhaal van Jesus met apokriewe plotdraaie, waarvan sommige nog nooit gesien is nie voor. Dit is onthul danksy 'n vertaling wat deur Roelof Van den Broek van die Ultrecht-universiteit in Nederland uitgevoer is en gepubliseer is in die boek 'Pseudo-Cyril of Jerusalem On the Life and the Passion of Christ: A Koptic Apocryphon'.

Die ou teks verduidelik waarom Judas spesifiek 'n soen gebruik het om Jesus te verraai. Volgens die kanonieke bybel verraai die apostel Judas Jesus in ruil vir geld deur 'n soen te gebruik om hom te identifiseer wat lei tot Jesus se arrestasie. Hierdie apokriewe verhaal verduidelik dat die rede waarom Judas spesifiek 'n soen gebruik het, is omdat Jesus die vermoë gehad het om van vorm te verander.

Toe sê die Jode vir Judas: Hoe sal ons hom [Jesus] arresteer, want hy het nie 'n enkele gedaante nie, maar sy voorkoms verander. Soms is hy rooi, soms is hy wit, soms is hy rooi, soms is hy koringkleurig, soms is hy bleek soos aske, soms is hy 'n jeug, soms 'n ou man ...

Dit laat Judas voorstel om 'n soen te gebruik as 'n manier om hom te identifiseer. As Judas die gevangenes 'n beskrywing van Jesus gegee het, kon hy van gedaante verander het. Deur Jesus te soen, vertel Judas die mense presies wie hy is.

The Judas Kiss - 'Capture of Christ' deur Cimabue, 13de eeu nC (Wikimedia Commons)

Hierdie begrip van Judas se soen gaan ver terug. Volgens Van den Broek word die verduideliking van Judas se soen eers gevind by Origenes, 'n teoloog wat 185-254 nC geleef het. In sy werk het Contra Celsum, die ou skrywer, gesê dat 'vir almal wat hom [Jesus] gesien het, nie vir almal gelyk was nie'.

Van den Broek is versigtig om op te let dat hy nie suggereer dat Jesus in werklikheid verander het nie, maar dat sommige mense in die vroeë Christelike tyd moontlik gedink het hy was.

Die teks is een van die vyf en vyftig Koptiese manuskripte wat in 1910 gevind is deur dorpenaars wat kunsmis gegrawe het op die plek van die verwoeste klooster van aartsengel Michael van die woestyn naby Al Hamuli in Egipte. Blykbaar het monnike gedurende die tiende eeu die manuskripte van die klooster in 'n klipbak begrawe om dit te bewaar. Die klooster het in die vroeë 10de eeu gestaak, en die teks is in die lente van 1910 herontdek. In Desember 1911 is dit saam met ander tekste deur die Amerikaanse finansier JP Morgan aangekoop. Sy versamelings en die teks wat beskryf word, word nou in die Morgan Library and Museum in New York City gehuisves.

Hoewel die opskrifte ten tyde van die aankondiging nogal sensasioneel was en die teks beskryf as 'n Christelike inligting, bevat die uitgewersgeleerde nooit iets van die aard nie. Dit is ook duidelik dat die teks nie 'n hoax is nie, maar 'n ware item wat deur 'n gerespekteerde geleerde gepubliseer word deur 'n opvallende akademiese pers (E. J. Brill). Waarom het so 'n fassinerende teks nie gelei tot verdere navorsing, interpretasies of bespreking onder geleerdes nie?

Voorgestelde foto: Fragment van teks uit Morgan Library. Fotokrediet.

Verwysings

Vormveranderende Jesus beskryf in antieke Egiptiese teks-LiveScience

Pseudo-Cyril van Jerusalem oor die lewe en die hartstog van Christus-deur Roelof van den Broek

Skatte uit die kluis - die Morgan -biblioteek

Cyril van Jerusalem - Wikipedia


SKOKEIS: Jesus was 'n SHAPE-SHIFTER en kon enige vorm aanneem, sê antieke Egiptiese tekste

Skakel gekopieer

Die Bybel is verkeerd, volgens hierdie dokument

As u inteken, gebruik ons ​​die inligting wat u verskaf om hierdie nuusbriewe aan u te stuur. Soms bevat dit aanbevelings vir ander verwante nuusbriewe of dienste wat ons aanbied. Ons privaatheidskennisgewing verduidelik meer oor hoe ons u data en u regte gebruik. U kan te eniger tyd u inteken.

Twee afsonderlike tekste is ontdek wat nou in die Morgan Library and Museum in New York City gehou word en die ander by die Museum van die Universiteit van Pennsylvania, wat die afgelope paar jaar onlangs ontsyfer is.

Tekste wat ongeveer 1200 jaar terug dateer en in die Koptiese taal geskryf is, en 'n vorm van Egiptiese beskryf, beskryf hoe Pontius Pilatus die aand voor sy kruisiging saam met Jesus geëet het en sy seun vermoedelik ter dood veroordeel het in die plek van die Messias.

Meer spesifiek beskryf die teks egter hoe die owerheid Judas gevra het om Jesus te soen om hom te identifiseer omdat hy die vermoë gehad het om te verander.

'N Deel van die teks lui: & ldquo Sonder om te sê, berei Pilatus 'n tafel voor en eet hy saam met Jesus op die vyfde dag van die week. En Jesus het Pilatus en sy hele huis geseën. & Rdquo

Verwante artikels

Die Pierpont Morgan -biblioteek

Die Romein, wat in die gevange kerke as 'n heilige beskou word, wat die gunstige beskouing van hom sou verduidelik, sê dan vir Jesus: Nou, kyk, die nag het gekom, staan ​​op en trek terug, en as die oggend aanbreek, beskuldig hulle my vanweë jou , Ek sal hulle die enigste seun gee wat ek het, sodat hulle hom in u plek kan doodmaak. & Rdquo

Waarop Jesus reageer: "O Pilatus, u is 'n groot genade waardig geag omdat u 'n goeie gesindheid aan my bewys het."


Die antieke teks wat Jesus beskryf as 'n vormveranderer - Geskiedenis

Die oudste sienings en gegewens oor die uiterlike voorkoms van Jesus.
Die Apokriewe en Pseudepigrafa ( 1).
Die kerkvaders ( 2).
Ander gegewens ( 3). Letterkundige gegewens oor die oudste foto's van Jesus.
Bestaande foto's van Jesus.
Portrette oënskynlik eg.
Portrette deur skilders, beeldhouers, ens. ( 1).
Beweerde bonatuurlike prente ( 2). Beelde van Jesus in antieke kuns.
Simboliese en Allegoriese voorstellings ( 1).
Voorstellings as leraar en wetgewer ( 2). Oorsprong van die foto's van Jesus.
Ikonoklasma: Die godsdienstige en politieke vernietiging van heilige beelde of monumente.

Die beskrywing van Publius Lentullus

Die volgende is geneem uit 'n manuskrip in die besit van Lord Kelly, en in sy biblioteek, en is gekopieer uit 'n oorspronklike brief van Publius Lentullus in Rome. Dit was die gebruiklike gebruik van die Romeinse goewerneurs om die Senaat en mense te adverteer oor materiële dinge wat in hul provinsies gebeur het in die dae van Tiberius Caesar, en Publius Lentullus, president van Judea, het die volgende brief aan die senaat geskryf oor die Nazarener genaamd Jesus.

Daar het in hierdie dae 'n man uit die Joodse nasie, met groot deug, verskyn Yeshua [Jesus], wat nog onder ons en uit die heidene woon, word aanvaar as 'n profeet van waarheid, maar sy eie dissipels noem Hom die Seun van God- Hy maak die dooies opgewek en genees allerhande siektes. 'N Man van gestalte wat ietwat lank en mooi is, met 'n baie eerbiedige voorkoms, soos die aanskouers liefde en vrees kan hê, sy hare van (die kleur van) die kastaiingbruin, vol ryp, glad vir sy ore, waaruit dit na onder meer oriënteer en krul en wankel om Sy skouers. In die middel van sy kop is 'n naat of skeiding in sy hare, volgens die manier van die Nasareners. Sy voorkop glad en baie delikaat Sy gesig sonder vlek of rimpel, verfraai met 'n lieflike rooi Sy neus en mond so gevorm dat niks weergehou kan word nie Sy baard dik, in kleur soos sy hare, nie baie lank nie, maar sy voorkoms is onskuldig en volwasse Sy oë is grys, duidelik en vinnig. In die teregwysing van skynheiligheid is Hy verskriklik in vermaning, hoflik en regverdig, aangenaam in gesprek, gemeng met swaartekrag. Dit kan nie onthou word dat iemand Hom gesien het nie Lag, maar baie het Hom gesien Huil. In verhouding met die liggaam, uitstekend Sy hande en arms is delikaat om te aanskou. In gesprek, baie gematig, beskeie en wys. 'N Man, vanweë sy unieke skoonheid, wat die kinders van mense oortref & quot

Die brief van Pontius Pilatus aan Tiberius Caesar

Dit is 'n herdruk van 'n brief van Pontius Pilatus aan Tiberius Caesar waarin die fisiese voorkoms van Jesus beskryf word. Afskrifte is in die Congressional Library in Washington, DC

AAN TIBERIUS CAESAR:

'N Jong man verskyn in Galilea en preek met nederige salwing, 'n nuwe wet in die Naam van die God wat Hom gestuur het. Aanvanklik was ek bang dat sy bedoeling was om die mense teen die Romeine op te wek, maar my vrese het gou verdwyn. Jesus van Nasaret praat eerder as 'n vriend van die Romeine as van die Jode. Op 'n dag het ek te midde van 'n groep mense 'n jong man waargeneem wat teen 'n boom leun en kalm die skare toespreek. Daar is vir my gesê dit is Jesus. Dit kon ek maklik so groot vermoed het, was die verskil tussen Hom en diegene wat na Hom geluister het. Sy goudkleurige hare en baard het 'n hemelse aspek aan sy voorkoms gegee. Dit het gelyk asof hy ongeveer 30 jaar oud was. Nog nooit het ek 'n soeter of rustiger gesig gesien nie. Wat 'n kontras tussen Hom en sy draers met hul swart baard en bruin gelaatskleure! Omdat ek nie bereid was om Hom deur my teenwoordigheid te onderbreek nie, het ek verder gegaan, maar ek het vir my sekretaresse aangedui om by die groep aan te sluit en te luister. Later het my sekretaris berig dat hy nog nooit in die werke van al die filosowe iets gesien het wat in vergelyking met die leer van Jesus was nie. Hy het vir my gesê dat Jesus nie oproerig of opstandig was nie, en daarom het ons ons beskerming tot Hom gerig. Hy was vry om op te tree, te praat, om bymekaar te kom en die mense toe te spreek. Hierdie onbeperkte vryheid het die Jode uitgelok - nie die armes nie, maar die rykes en magtiges.

Later het ek aan Jesus geskryf om 'n onderhoud met Hom te vra by die Praetorium. Hy het gekom. Wanneer die Nasarener Sy verskyning maak dat ek in die oggend loop, en toe ek voor Hom staan, lyk dit asof my voete met 'n ysterhand aan die marmerpaadjie vasgemaak is en ek bewe in elke ledemaat as 'n skuldige, hoewel hy kalm was. Ek het 'n geruime tyd gestaan ​​om hierdie buitengewone Man te bewonder. Daar was niks in Hom wat afstootlik was nie, en ook nie in sy karakter nie, maar tog het ek ontsag in sy teenwoordigheid gevoel. Ek het vir Hom gesê dat daar 'n magnetiese eenvoud oor Hom en sy persoonlikheid was wat Hom ver bo die filosowe en leraars van sy tyd verhef het.

Nou, Noble Sovereign, dit is die feite rakende Jesus van Nasaret en ek het die tyd geneem om u in detail oor hierdie aangeleenthede te skryf. Ek sê dat so 'n man wat water in wyn kan verander, die dood in 'n lewe kan verander, 'n siekte in 'n gesondheid kan kalmeer, nie skuldig is aan 'n kriminele oortreding nie, en soos ander gesê het, ons moet saamstem - dit is werklik die Seun van God.

U mees gehoorsame dienskneg,
Pontius Pilatus

Die smarag van die keiser

"The Archko Volume"

'N Ander beskrywing van Jesus word gevind in "The Archko Volume" wat amptelike hofstukke uit die dae van Jesus bevat. Hierdie inligting bewys dat Hy afkomstig is van rasse wat blou oë en goue hare gehad het. In 'n hoofstuk met die titel & quotGamaliel's Interview & quot, word dit aangaande Jesus (Yeshua) se voorkoms gesê:

Ek het hom gevra om hierdie persoon aan my te beskryf, sodat ek hom kan ken as ek hom moet ontmoet. Hy het gesê: 'As jy hom ooit ontmoet [Yeshua] jy sal hom ken. Alhoewel hy niks anders as 'n man is nie, is daar iets aan hom wat hom van elke ander mens onderskei. Hy is die prentjie van sy ma, maar hy het nie haar gladde, ronde gesig nie. Sy hare is 'n bietjie meer goudbruin as hare, alhoewel dit net soveel van sonbrand is as enigiets anders. Hy is lank en sy skouers hang effens, sy voorkoms is dun en donker, maar dit is blootgestel. Sy oë is groot en sagblou, en nogal dof en swaar. 'Hierdie Jood [Nasaret] is oortuig dat hy die Messias van die wêreld is. . dit was dieselfde persoon wat ongeveer ses en twintig jaar tevore uit die maagd in Bethlehem gebore is. & quot

Josephus, die & quotAntiquities Of The Jewish & quot

Dit is 'n aanhaling van Josephus, uit sy geskiedkundige geskrifte uit die eerste eeu getiteld & quotAntiquities Of The Jewish, & quot Book #18, Chapter 2, section 3.

En nou was daar omtrent hierdie tyd Jesus, 'n wyse man, as dit geoorloof was om hom 'n man te noem, want hy was 'n doener van wonderlike werke, 'n leraar van mense wat die waarheid met plesier ontvang. Hy het baie van die Jode en baie van die heidene na hom toe getrek. Hy was [die] Christus. En toe Pilatus hom, op voorstel van die vernaamste manne onder ons, tot die kruis veroordeel het, het diegene wat hom aanvanklik liefgehad het, hom nie verlaat nie, want hy verskyn weer lewend aan hulle op die derde dag, soos die goddelike profete dit voorspel het en tienduisend ander wonderlike dinge aangaande hom. En die stam Christene, wat so van hom genoem is, is op hierdie dag nie uitgestorwe nie. & Quot

Cornelius Tacitus, 'n Romeinse historikus

Cornelius Tacitus was 'n Romeinse historikus wat omstreeks 56-120 nC geleef het. Daar word vermoed dat hy in Frankryk of Gallië in 'n provinsiale aristokratiese gesin gebore is. Hy word senator, konsul en uiteindelik goewerneur van Asië. Tacitus het ten minste vier historiese verhandelinge geskryf. Omstreeks 115 nC het hy Annale gepubliseer waarin hy uitdruklik verklaar dat Nero die Christene vervolg het om die aandag van homself af te trek weens die verwoestende vuur van 64 nC. In hierdie konteks noem hy Christus wat deur Pontius Pilatus doodgemaak is.

Christus: Annale 15.44.2-8

& quot Nero het die skuld vasgemaak en die mooiste marteling toegedien aan 'n klas wat gehaat is vir hul gruwels, wat deur die bevolking Christene genoem word. Christus, van wie die naam sy oorsprong gehad het, het tydens die bewind van Tiberius die uiterste straf opgelê deur een van ons prokureurs, Pontius Pilatus, en 'n onheilspellende bygeloof, wat op die oomblik nagegaan is, het weer nie net in Judea uitgebreek nie, die eerste bron van die bose, maar selfs in Rome. & quot

1. Die Apokriewe en Pseudepigrafa.

Nóg die Nuwe Testament, nóg die geskrifte van die vroeëre na-Bybelse Christelike skrywers, het enige uitsprake oor die persoonlike voorkoms van Jesus, wat 'n skerp kontras met die Apokriewe en die Pseudepigrafa en veral met die werke van die Gnostici het. In die & quot Herder & quot van Hermas (ix. 6, 12) word die verhewe gestalte van die Seun van God beklemtoon, en volgens die Evangelie van Petrus het hy selfs by die opstanding uitgestyg bo die hemel. Gnostiese invloed word verraai deur visioene waarin Christus verskyn as 'n herder, of 'n meester van 'n skip, of in die vorm van een van sy apostels, soos van Paulus en van Thomas, of weer as 'n jong seun. In die Handelinge van Andrew en Matteus neem hy die figuur aan van 'n seuntjie, en dieselfde vorm word aanneem in die Handelinge van Petrus en Andreas, in die Handelinge van Matteus en in die Ethiopiese Handelinge van Jakobus. Manazara word genees deur 'n jeug in die Handelinge van Thomas, en 'n pragtige seuntjie verskyn aan Petrus en Theon in die Actus Vercellensis, wat ook die glimlag van vriendskap in die aangesig van Jesus noem. 'N Knappe jeug met 'n glimlaggende gesig verskyn by die graf van Drusiana in die Handelinge van Johannes, maar sommige weduwees aan wie die Here hulle gesig herstel het, het hom 'n bejaarde man gesien met 'n onbeskryflike voorkoms, hoewel ander 'n jeugdige in hom beskou het, en ander nog steeds 'n seuntjie. Die jeugdigheid van Christus word ook genoem in die lewe en passie van St. C 棩lus en die visioen van die heiliges Perpetua en Felicitas wat toegeskryf word aan die opgestane Christus, die gesig van 'n jeug met sneeuwit hare.

2. Die Kerkvaders.

Die vroeë Christelike skrywers was geensins ooreenstemmend in hul opinies oor die persoonlike voorkoms van Jesus nie. Sommige, wat hul oordeel op Jes. Iii. en liii., het hom alle skoonheid en gemaksug ontken, terwyl ander, met verwysing na Ps. xlv. 3, beskou hom as die mooiste van die mensdom. Tot die voormalige klas behoort Justin Martelaar, Clement van Alexandrië, Basil, Isidor van Peluaium, Theodoret, Cyril van Alexandrië, Tertullianus en Cyprianus. Origenes verklaar dat Christus die vorm aanneem wat by die omstandighede pas. Eers in die vierde eeu het Chrysostomus en Jerome die klem gelê op die skoonheid van Jesus. Terwyl Isidor van Pelusium die frase verwys het, "is u eerliker as die kinders van mense" in Ps. xlv. 2, tot die goddelike deug van Christus, het Chrysotomus die gebrek aan gemaksug wat in Jes. liii. 2 as verwysing na die vernedering van die Here. Jerome sien die indruk wat die eerste gesig van Jesus op dissipels en vyande gemaak het, 'n bewys van hemelse skoonheid in gesig en oë. Uit die beledigings wat Jesus toegedien het, het Augustinus tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat hy haatlik aan sy vervolgers verskyn het, terwyl hy eintlik mooier was as almal, aangesien die maagde hom liefgehad het.

3. Ander data.

Die probleem van die lewenspassie van St. C? ons, en die uiterlike voorkoms van Jesus het maar 'n geringe belangstelling vir die kerkvaders gehad, alhoewel die Katolieke Handelinge van die Heilige Apostels hom 'n olyfkleurige voorkoms, 'n pragtige baard en flikkerende oë toeskryf. Verdere besonderhede word eers gevind in 'n brief aan die keiser Theophilus toegeskryf aan Johannes van Damaskus (in MPG, xcv. 349), wat praat van die wenkbroue wat saam gegroei het, die pragtige oë, die prominente neus, die krulhare, die voorkoms van gesondheid, die swart baard, die koringkleurige gelaatskleur en die lang vingers, 'n prentjie wat amper saamval met 'n handboek oor die skildery van Mount Athos, nie vroeër as die sestiende eeu nie. Net so het Nicephorus Callistus, wat sy beskrywing van die prentjie van Christus bekendgestel het (MPG, cxlv. 748) met die woorde, & kwotas wat ons dit van die ou mense ontvang het, & quot was beïndruk met die gesonde voorkoms, met die gestalte, die bruin hare wat nie baie dik was nie, maar effens krul, die swart wenkbroue wat nie heeltemal gebuig was nie, die see -blou oë wat bruin skyn, die pragtige blik, die opvallende neus, maar bruin baard van matige lengte, en die lang hare wat nie van kleins af gesny is nie, die nek effens gebuig en die olyf en effens rooierige gelaat van die ovaal gesig . Die sogenaamde brief van Lentulus, die oënskynlike voorganger van Pontius Pilatus, het 'n geringe afwyking van beide hierdie verslae, wat na bewering 'n verslag aan die Romeinse senaat oor Jesus opgestel het en 'n beskrywing van hom bevat. Volgens hierdie dokument besit Christus 'n lang en aantreklike figuur, 'n aangesig wat eerbied en liefde en vrees saam wakker gemaak het, donker, blink, krulhare wat in die middel geskei is in Nasarener mode en vloeiend oor die skouers, 'n oop en rustige voorkop, 'n gesig sonder plooie en vlekke en mooier gemaak deur sy delikate rooiheid, 'n perfekte neus en mond, 'n volrooi baard van dieselfde kleur as die hare en in twee punte gedra en deurdringende oë van 'n grysblou.

II. Literêre gegewens oor die oudste foto's van Jesus:

(1) Daar word gesê dat 'n sakdoek geborduur met die figure van Jesus en sy apostels en volgens die legende deur sy moeder deur die monnik Arculfus tydens sy woning in Jerusalem gesien is (Adamnan, De Locis sanctis, ek. 11 [12]). (2) In sy verslag van sy besoek aan C 泡rea Philippi, noem Eusebius (Hist. eccl. vii. 18) 'n groep beeldhouers in koper wat bestaan ​​uit 'n knielende vrou en 'n man wat met sy hande na haar gestrek staan. In die plaaslike tradisie was 'n figuur van Jesus en die vrou genees van 'n bloedstorting, wat na bewering uit C 泡rea Philippi gekom het. Hierdie legende is aanvaar deur Eusebius, Asterius Amasenus Photius, Sozomen, Philostorgius en Macarius Magnes, die laaste naam wat die vrou Beronike genoem het. Die werklike betekenis van die groep is onseker. Sommiges het 'n keiser en 'n provinsie daarin gesien, moontlik Hadrianus en Judea, terwyl ander dit beskou het as Ƴculapius en Hygeia, 'n siening wat gegrond is op die feit dat geen melding gemaak word van die slangstaaf wat kenmerkend is aan standbeelde van die god van genesing. Dit is heel moontlik dat die groep eintlik Christus verteenwoordig het, of die vrou met 'n bloedvloeiing, of moontlik die vrou van Kanaän wat hom gesmeek het om haar dogter te genees. (3) Volgens Iren 浳 (H.沼/i & gt., I., xxv. 6), was foto's van Christus in besit van die gnostiese sekte van Carpocratians, wat hulle met kranse bekroon het soos die foto's van filosowe-Pythagoras, Plato, Aristoteles en ander-terwyl Pilatus volgens die Carpocratians 'n portret van Jesus gehad het tydens sy leeftyd geskilder, en die Karpokraten Marcellina het 'n prentjie van Christus gehad wat sy geëer het, net soos dié van Paulus, Homeros en Pythagoras, met gebed en wierook. (4) Die keiser Alexander Severus het 'n beeld van Jesus gehad, maar dit moes egter slegs 'n ideale portret gewees het, soos dié van Apollonius, Abraham, Orpheus en ander, wat ook in sy lararium opgeneem is (Lampridius, Vita Alex. Sev. .xxix.). (5) 'n Koperstandbeeld van die Verlosser is deur Konstantyn die Grote voor die hoofdeur van die keiserlike paleis van Chalce opgerig (Theophanes in MPG, cviii. 817). (6) Die aartshertogin Margaret het 'n prentjie van Jesus wat uit die lewe geskilder is, wat dieselfde kan wees as D � � se altaarstuk van St. Luke in Brussel (M. Thausing, D � �, p. 420, Leipsic, 1876). Terwyl die pas genoemde portrette deur menslike instellings voorberei is, was daar ander wat aan 'n bonatuurlike oorsprong toegeskryf is. Tot hierdie kategorie behoort (7) 'n prentjie by Camulium in Cappadocia, blykbaar op doek en miskien 'n afskrif van die van Edessa (sien hieronder). Dit is genoem tydens die tweede raad van Nicea en is deur Justinus II na Konstantinopel gebring, waar dit as so heilig beskou is dat 'n spesiale fees ter ere van hom ingestel is, en dit is gereeld as 'n kragtige ikoon in die oorlog gedra (J. Gretsei opera, xv. 196-197, Regensburg, 1741). (8) In die oorlog teen die Perse het generaal Philippicus 'n prentjie van Christus gehad wat volgens die Romeine bonatuurlik van oorsprong was, en dieselfde portret het 'n muitery in die leër van Priscus, die opvolger van Philippicus, gedwing. Hierdie ikoon was blykbaar op doek en was 'n afskrif van 'n oorspronklike wat gereeld met 'n portret in Amida verwar is, hoewel laasgenoemde uitdruklik geverf is en gevolglik natuurlik van oorsprong was (Zacharias, MPG, Ixxxv. 1159). (9) 'n Siriese fragment noem 'n prentjie van Jesus wat op linne geverf is en in die lente deur 'n sekere Hypatia kort na die passie onnat gevind is. Hierdie portret het 'n wonderbaarlike afdruk gelaat op die servet waarin dit toegedraai is, en een van hierdie foto's het sy weg gevind na C 泡rea terwyl die ander na Comolia geneem is (moontlik identies aan die stad Camulium wat reeds genoem is), hoewel 'n kopie later gevind by Dibudin (?) (Lipsius, Die edessenische Abgarsage, p. 67, n. 1, Brunswick, 1880). (10) Ongeveer 570 is 'n linnemantel getoon by 'n kerk in Memphis wat die indruk van die Heiland se gesig getoon het en so helder was dat niemand dit kon aanskou nie (Antoninus Martyr, De locis sanctisxliv.). (11) Bisantynse literatuur maak gereeld melding van foto's van Christus wat op stene gedruk is. Volgens 'n legende wat verskillende variasies bevat, word vermoed dat die portret van homself wat Jesus na Abgar in Edessa gestuur het, ommuur is om dit te red van die aanval van koning Ananun en in 539 herontdek is saam met 'n baksteen wat het 'n wonderbaarlike kopie van die oorspronklike (Georgius Cedrenus, red. Bekker, i. 312, en andere) gedra. (12) Daar word gesê dat die aartsvader Germanus, toe hy gedwing is om Konstantinopel te verlaat, 'n foto van Christus saamgeneem het wat later in die besit van Gregorius II gekom het. (G. Marangoni, Istoria dell 'oratorio di San Lorenzo, pp. 78 vierkante meter, Rome, 1747). (13) Die doek met 'n prentjie van Christus wat Photius in die negende eeu aan die kluisenaar Paulus in Latro voorgehou het, was slegs 'n afskrif van 'n wonderbaarlike oorspronklike, hoewel slegs hy aan wie die geskenk gegee is, die portret kon waarneem slegs die lap (Gretses, ut sup. p, 186). (14) Belangriker as alle ander stellings aangaande die oudste foto's van Christus is 'n gedeelte van Augustinus (De trin. Viii. 4), waarin verklaar word dat die portrette van Jesus ontelbaar was in konsep en ontwerp.

III. Bestaande foto's van Jesus. 1. Portrette oënskynlik eg: 1. Portrette deur skilders, beeldhouers, ens.

2. Beweerde bonatuurlike prente.

Beweerde bonatuurlike prente kan verdeel word in die wat die hele figuur van Jesus voorstel, en dié wat slegs sy gesig gee. (1) Middeleeuse kledingstuk wat min of meer duidelike buitelyne bevat van die figuur van 'n man, wat almal beweer dat dit die 'servet' is waarin Jesus in die graf toegedraai was en waarop sy beeld beïndruk was, is voorheen gevind in Chamb 鲹, en tot aan die einde van die agtiende eeu, in Besan 篮, terwyl hulle nog bestaan ​​by Compi 觮e en Turyn, word laasgenoemde & quotnapkin & quot as outentiek verklaar deur 'n bul van Sixtus IV. Veel meer bekend is egter die doeke wat slegs die indruk van 'n kop of gesig dra, en een van die bekendste is (2) die prentjie van Edessa, of die Abgar -prentjie. Volgens die leer van Addai en Moses van Choren het Hanan, die gesant van die koning van Edessa, 'n portret van Jesus geskilder en dit na sy koninklike meester geneem. Evagrius, op gesag van Procopius, verklaar dat Christus 'n prentjie van wonderbaarlike oorsprong na die koning gestuur het. Die legende het blykbaar ongeveer 350 ontstaan, en is heel moontlik gebaseer op 'n werklike skildery wat in Edessa gebly het tot 944, toe dit deur die keiser Romanus I. na Konstantinopel gebring is. , veral Genua, Rome en Parys, die eersgenoemde stad wat die mees waarskynlike argumente vir egtheid voorlê en die bevestiging van Pius IX ontvang het. (sien 'nBGAR). Hierdie prentjie toon slegs die kop van Jesus, maar die legende ken ook 'n Edessene-portret oor die lengte op linne wat deur kontak met die liggaam van Christus gemaak is. Dit word genoem deur Gervase van Tilbury aan die begin van die dertiende eeu, wat sy stelling op antieke bronne baseer en sê dat dit op feeste in die hoofkerk van Edessa uitgestal is, en dat dit op Paasfees Jesus agtereenvolgens as kind, seun , jeug, jong man, en in die rypheid van jare. (3) Een van die keurigste skatte van die Roomse Kerk is die sakdoek van Veronica, wat slegs by spesiale geleenthede getoon word, veral tydens die Passieweek. Daar word gesê dat hierdie portret in 1297 deur Boniface VIII oorgedra is. van die Hospitaal van die Heilige Gees tot die Sint Petrus in Rome, waar dit agter die standbeeld van St. Veronica rus. Die prentjie, wat nou baie verbleik is, toon 'n elliptiese gesig met 'n lae boog voorkop, in teenstelling met die lang neus. Die mond is effens oop, en die skraal hare is slegs op die slape sigbaar. Die baard op die wange is dun, maar is sterker op die ken, waar dit eindig in drie punte, terwyl die snor meer opvallend is van kleur as van krag. Die oë wat deur skraal wenkbroue geboë is, is toe, en in kombinasie met kenmerke wat verdraai word deur pyn en met bloed bevlek, maak die prentjie van 'n martelaar wat vaal is in die dood, vol. Uit die oogpunt van estetika en die kunsgeskiedenis is die prentjie waarskynlik Bisantynse. Alhoewel 'n mens sou verwag dat die prentjie van Veronica beskou sou word as die servet wat die hoof van Christus bedek het, bestaan ​​daar geen tradisie oor die oorsprong daarvan nie, hoewel 'n warboel middeleeuse legendes dit verbind met die naam van 'n vrou.

Dit kan in twee klasse verdeel word. In die ouer groep, wat blykbaar kort voor die negende eeu geskryf is, verskyn Veronica as die vrou met 'n bloedkolletjie, wat 'n portret van Jesus laat skilder het, hetsy deur haarself of deur haar gebod, of deur Christus self op 'n stuk lap. Die tweede vorm van die legende het in die loop van die veertiende eeu in Frankryk en Duitsland ontstaan ​​en die ouer weergawe vervang voor 1500. Volgens hierdie tradisie het Veronica die Verlosser 'n sakdoek gegee op pad na Golgotha, en dit teruggevind onder die indruk van sy kenmerke. Verdere versterkings van die tradisie verklaar dat die servet deur Johannes VII., Of selfs tydens die bewind van Tiberius, na Rome gebring is, terwyl dit seker is dat Celestine III. 'n relikwie daarvoor voorberei. Wat in elk geval duidelik is, is dat Rome gedurende die Middeleeue 'n doekbeeld van Christus gehad het, wat blykbaar die wonderlike indruk van die kop van Jesus in die graf sou wees. Dit is ook belangrik dat dit die naam sudarium gedra het voor die opkoms van die legende van die sakdoek wat Christus gegee het om sy gesig af te vee op pad na die kruis, en dit was eers in die twaalfde eeu dat die naam van Veronica selfs begin vorm het 'n deel van die tradisie, 'n verband wat deur 'n gewilde etimologie van Veronica as Vera *? * voorgestel word servet van Veronica en die Verlosser met 'n doringkroon, wat die lyding in die gesig van Jesus kombineer met die hoogheid en die majesteit van die Seun van God, (4) Die prentjie van Christus in die apsis van St. John Lateran in Rome is veronderstel was om wonderbaarlik te wees vervaardig toe die kerk deur pous Sylvester ingewy is, alhoewel dit in werklikheid 'n mosaïek van die onlangse datum is.

2. Prente van Jesus in antieke kuns: 1. Simboliese en Allegoriese voorstellings.

Mettertyd het die voorstellings van Jesus óf werklik óf simbolies en allegories geword; laasgenoemde neiging het geleidelik plek gemaak vir eersgenoemde. Tot die kategorie simbole behoort die vis, die lam, die verskillende monogramme van Christus en die Goeie Herder, die laaste naam wat lei tot voorstellings van Jesus in menslike vorm. Reeds in Tertullianus het die Goeie Herder kelkies versier, en dit was 'n gunsteling vorm van versiering in die katakombe, waar die figuur gewoonlik 'n bok of 'n dam dra. Op hierdie foto's, dikwels versier met ander diere, bome en struike, en gebaseer op Luke xv. 5 Johannes x. en Ps. xxiii., verskyn die Christus slegs in jeugdige gedaante, alhoewel die herder gewoonlik in klere van 'n hoër rang geklee is en die Romeinse tuniek en pallium sowel as sandale dra. Die figuur is boonop Latyns in plaas van Oosters van aard, en verteenwoordig 'n jeugdige en baardlose soms selfs seunsagtige figuur, 'n ronde kop met krulhare en 'n openhartige gesig met gereelde voorkoms. Hierdie tipe prentjie, suiwer ideaal soos dit was, het mettertyd evolusie ondergaan. In die derde eeu word die gesig meer ovaal, terwyl die hare sonder hare effens oor die voorkop in die middel groei en aan die kante in golwende of krullerige lokke vloei.

2. Verteenwoordiging as Onderwyser en Wetgewer.

Die eerste werklike impuls tot artistieke voorstellings van Jesus is egter deur sy wonderwerke gegee, hoewel die opgestane Heer as leraar en wetgewer meer en meer 'n onderwerp geword het vir beeldende voorstelling. In the midst of all or a part of his disciples, including Paul, Christ appears either on a plain, as in Spain and southern France, or standing on a mountain either within or without the four rivers of Eden, or sitting on a throne with his feet on a footstool or on the clouds while mosaics represent him as seated on the celestial globe. As a teacher, he is depicted as speaking and as holding a book or scroll either in his hand or on his bosom, while as a lawgiver he proffers the Gospel to Peter or Paul. In both of these latter categories the beardless, youthful type gradually grows less frequent, so that on Roman, Upper Italian, and French sarcophagi the central Christ appears bearded, although in the reliefs on their sides he wears no beard, the former representing the risen Lord and the latter the earthly Savior. Originally a characteristic of the ascended Christ, the beard was attributed to Jesus during his earthly ministry after the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century. The struggle between the two types is seen in the mosaics of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna and of St. Michael, but the earliest specimen of the bearded Christ is generally believed to be the socalled Callistinian mosaic which was found in the catacomb of St. Domitilla. In conformity with the manhood implied by the beard, the body increased in height and breadth, while the features became more sharply defined as the bones gained in accentuation over the flesh. The nose became longer and more prominent, and the eyes were deeper and their pupils enlarged, while the angles of the nose and mouth were more sharply outlined. The hair, while frequently less curling than hitherto, was now represented as falling to the neck and shoulders, and was often parted in the middle. The color both of the hair and of the beard varied through all shades from yellow to gray and black. The upper lip was never clean-shaven, and the beard was sometimes close and sometimes either pointed or rounded, the parted type being found only in rudimentary form in early Christian art.

The bearded Christ represents the climax of the art of early Christianity, and the fifth century ushered in a period of decay marked by all manner of exaggeration. Majesty became stiffness, exaltation unapproachability, and earnestness gloom. Thus the Christ of Saints Cosmas and Damian (q.v.) in Rome, dating from the sixth century, is a figure with, long face, projecting cheek bones, ashen complexion, attenuated nose, mane-like hair, and scanty beard.

It was the task of the Middle Ages to reduce the multiplicity of concepts of the likeness of Christ to unity, a task which required centuries for its completion. The Carolingian period saw a sort of fruitless recrudescence of the process of evolution of the early Christian Period. Even during the Renaissance the beardless type struggled for supremacy with the bearded, especially in miniatures and ivories, but the former steadily lost ground, so that its last sporadic occurrence is a Scandinavian Christ in glory of the thirteenth century, such pictures as the Piet༯i> of Botticelli at Munich being mere anachronisms.

IV. Origin of the Pictures of Jesus:

While the theory may be advanced that the oldest pictures of Christ were based either on works of art still more ancient or on tradition, it is practically certain that they are not real portraits but ideal representations. This is clear both from their extreme diversity and from the words of Augustine: "What his appearance was we know not." The most primitive type, wherein early Christian and Gnostic documents agree, is that of a boy or youth. The youthful vigor of the early Church in religious and in moral thought, sustained by the belief in the second coming of the Lord and strengthened by persecution, inspired the artist to depict the Christ as the incarnation of undying youth, even as Noah, Job, Abraham, and Moses were represented as beardless boys. Herein, too, lay the genesis of the concept of the Good Shepherd.

With the fourth and fifth centuries the bearded type was evolved side by side with the beardless. The explanation of this change lies in the perfection, strength, and manliness implied by the beard. The parted hair, on the other hand, which is characteristic of the pictures of Christ in this period, especially in the mosaics, typifies his earthly lineage and designates him as one of the children of Israel, since of human beings only Jews and Judeo-Christians are represented with parted hair in early Christian art. The theory, advanced by many scholars, that Greek religious art influenced the various early Christian concepts of the personal appearance of Christ seems to lack sufficient evidence to be in any wise conclusive.

  • A square U-shape between the eyebrows.
  • A downward pointing triangle or V-shape just below the U-shape, on the bridge of the nose.
  • Two wisps of hair going downward and then to the right.
  • A raised right eyebrow.
  • Large, seemingly "owlish" eyes.
  • An accent on the left cheek and an accent on the right cheek that is somewhat lower.
  • A forked beard and hair parted in the middle, a custom of the Nazarenes.
  • Hair on one side of the head that is shorter than on the other side.
  • An enlarged left nostril.
  • An accent line below the nose and a dark line just below the lower lip.
  • A gap in the beard below the lower lip.
  • Draped clothing of white linen typical of the ancient Essenes.

Literally, iconoclasm is religious and political destruction of the sacred images or monuments, usually (though not always) of another religious group. People who destroy such images are called iconoclasts, while people who revere or venerate such images are called iconodules.

In 725 the Emperor Leo III, ignoring the opposition of both Patriarch Germanus of Constantinople and Pope Gregory II in Rome, ordered the removal of all icons from the churches and their destruction. Nearly all ancient images of Jesus were destroyed during the iconoclastic periods in the eighth and ninth centuries.

INHOUDSOPGAWE

1 Byzantine iconoclasm
1.1 The first iconoclastic period: 730-787
1.2 The second iconoclastic period: 813-843
2 Islamic iconoclasm
3 Reformation iconoclasm

Just as in our own time there is controversy about icons, so was there dispute in the early Church. Early critics of icons included Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Minucius Felix and Lactancius. Eusebius was not alone in fearing that the art of the pagan world carried with it the spirit of the pagan world while others objected on the basis of Old Testament restrictions of imagery. Christianity was, after all, born in a world in which many artists were employed doing religious or secular work. Idolatry was a normal part of pagan religious life. Thus we find that in the early centuries, in the many areas of controversy among Christians, there was division on questions of religious art and its place in spiritual life.

Bisantynse ikonoklasma

The first iconoclastic period: 730-787 Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (reigned 717-741) banned the use of icons of Jesus, Mary, and the Saints and commanded the destruction of these images in 730. The Iconoclastic Controversy was fueled by the refusal of many Christians resident outside the Byzantine Empire, including many Christians living in the Islamic Caliphate to accept the emperor's theological arguments. St. John of Damascus was one of the most prominent of these. Ironically, Christians living under Muslim rule at this time had more freedom to write in defense of icons than did those living in the Byzantine Empire. Leo was able to promulgate his policy because of his personal popularity and military success - he was credited with saving Constantinople from an Arab siege in 717-718 and then sustaining the Empire through annual warfare.

The first Iconoclastic period came to an end at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, when the veneration of icons was affirmed, although the worship of icons was expressly forbidden. Among the reasons were the doctrine of the Incarnation: because God the Son (Jesus Christ) took on flesh, having a physical appearance, it is now possible to use physical matter to depict God the Son, and to depict the saints. Icon veneration lasted through the reign of Empress Irene's successor, Nicephorus I (reigned 802-811), and the two brief reigns after his.

The second Iconoclastic period: 813-843

Emperor Leo V (reigned 813-820) instituted a second period of Iconoclasm in 813, which seems to have been less rigorously enforced, since there were fewer martyrdoms and public destructions of icons. Leo was succeeded by Michael II, who was succeeded by his son, Theophilus II. Theophilus died leaving his wife Theodora regent for his minor heir, Michael III. Like Irene 50 years before her, Theodora mobilized the iconodules and proclaimed the restoration of icons in 843. Since that time the first Sunday of Lent is celebrated in the churches of the Orthodox tradition as the feast of the "Triumph of Orthodoxy".

Islamic Iconoclasm

Because of the prohibition against figural decoration in mosques - not, as is often said, a total ban on the use of images - Muslims have on occasion committed acts of iconoclasm against the devotional images of other religions. An example of this is the 2001 destruction of frescoes and the monumental statues of the Buddha at Bamiyan by the Taliban, an element of the Islamist movement.

In a number of countries, conquering Muslim armies tore down local temples and houses of worship, and built mosques on their sites. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was built on top of the remains of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Similar acts occurred in parts of north Africa under Muslim conquest. In India, numerous former Buddhist monasteries and Hindu temples were conquered and rebuilt as mosques. In recent years, some Hindu nationalists have attempted to tear down these mosques, and replace them with Hindu Temples. This is part of the current conflict today between Indian Hindu nationalists and Indian Islamists.

Reformation Iconoclasm

Some of the Protestant reformers encouraged their followers to destroy Catholic art works by insisting that they were idols. Huldreich Zwingli and John Calvin promoted this approach to the adaptation of earlier buildings for Protestant worship. In 1562, some Calvinists destroyed the tomb of St. Irenaeus and the relics inside, which had been under the altar of a church since his martyrdom in 202.

The Netherlands (including Belgium) were hit by a large wave of Protestant iconoclasm in 1566. This is called the Beeldenstorm.

Bishop Joseph Hall of Norwich described the events of 1643 when troops and citizens, encouraged by a Parliamentary ordinance against superstition and idolatry, behaved thus:

'Lord what work was here! What clattering of glasses! What beating down of walls! What tearing up of monuments! What pulling down of seats! What wresting out of irons and brass from the windows! What defacing of arms! What demolishing of curious stonework! what tooting and piping upon organ pipes! And what a hideous triumph in the market-place before all the country, when all the mangled organ pipes, vestments, both copes and surplices, together with the leaden cross which had newly been sawn down from the Green-yard pulpit and the service-books and singing books that could be carried to the fire in the public market-place were heaped together'.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies. A Painter's Study of the Likeness of Christ from the Time of the Apostles, London, 1903 A. N. Didron, Iconographie chr鴩enne. Histoire de Dieu, Paris, 1843 W. Grimm, Die Sage vom Ursprung der Christusbilder, pp. 121-175, Berlin, 1844 Mrs. Jameson, History of our Lord as Exemplified in Works of Art, 2 vols., London, 1872 A Hauck, Die Entstehung des Christustypus in der abendl䮤ischen Kunst, Heidelberg, 1880 T. Heaphy, Likeness of Christ, New York, 1886 (illustrations valuable) H. M. A. Guerber, Legends of the Virgin and Christ, with Special Reference to . . . Art, ib. 1896 E. M. Hurll, Life of Our Lord in Art, Boson, 1898 (valuable) E. von Dobsch�� Christusbilder, Leipsic, 1899 F. W. Farrar, Life of Christ as Represented in Art, London, 1900 J. L. French, Christ in Art, Boston, 1900 F. Johnson, Have We the Likeness of Christ, Chicago, 1903: J. Burns, The Christ Face in Art, New York, 1907 J. S. Weis-Liebersdorf, Christus- und Apostelbilder, Freiburg, 1902 J. Heil, Die fr��ristlichen Darstellungen der Kreuzigung Christi, Leipsice, 1904 K. M. Kaufmann, Handbuch der christlichen Arch䯬ogie, Paderborn, 1905 G. A. M��r, Die liebliche Gestalt Jesu Christ, nach der schriftlichen und monumentalen Urtradition, Styria, 1909.


A bridge to the faery realm…

A little enigmatic beauty for today….

“Born in 1644 in Aberfoyle, a parish of Perthshire, Scotland, Reverend Robert Kirk is remembered for apparently making great strides in bridging the gap between the human and faery realms. He was the seventh son of his parents James and Mary, and went on to become a very intelligent, studious man. Attending the University of St. Andrews and the University of Edinburgh for his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees respectively, Kirk chose to follow in his father’s footsteps by becoming an Episcopal minister in Scotland. In the Christian world, he is known for having completed and published one of the first translations of the Bible into Gaelic. But aside from his work in the realm of humans, Kirk had spent much of his life enamored and immersed in the tales of faeries. This fascination is what propels Kirk’s name to the forefront of folkloric research.

What Reverend Robert Kirk is most known for, though his Biblical works were pertinent in his time, is the legacy of the faery race that he left behind. His The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns, and Faeries is thought today to be one of the best contributions to modern scholarship on the faery realm. What is most intriguing about this text however, is that it was initially believed to have been an amalgamation of legends and myths the reverend collected during his life, condensed into a single work. Yet in more recent years, there is a belief that the earlier editions of Kirk’s manuscript are actually much more personal….”


Normal-Sounding Ancient Egyptian Text Says Jesus Was a Shape-Shifting Mutant

Another day, another ancient text with an extra-canonical take on Jesus Christ. But this is an ancient Egyptian text, so you just know it’s not going to be another run-of-the-mill, Gnostic allegation of illegitimate children or secret wives. No, this text, according to Roelof van den Broek, emeritus professor of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, says that Jesus Christ of Nazareth was a shape-shifter.

“How shall we arrest him (Jesus),” the text quotes the Jewish leaders as saying. “For he does not have a single shape but his appearance changes. Sometimes he is ruddy, sometimes he is white, sometimes he is red, sometimes he is wheat coloured, sometimes he is pallid like ascetics, sometimes he is a youth, sometimes an old man.” The text goes onto say that this awesome-sounding mutant power is the reason Judas had to kiss Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane—because the Romans couldn’t tell which one was Jesus.

The text was written by someone claiming to be St. Cyril of Jerusalem, but Dr. van den Broek believes that to be a pseudonym, so we also have a name-shifter on our hands here. He’s releasing a novel on his findings in a new book called Pseudo-Cyril of Jerusalem on the Life and the Passion of Christ


The Report of Pontius Pilate

Which was sent to Tiberius Cæsar in Rome.

To the most potent, august, dreadful, and divine Augustus, Pontius Pilate, administrator of the Eastern Province.

I HAVE undertaken to communicate to thy goodness by this my writing, though possessed with much fear and trembling, most excellent king, the present state of affairs, as the result hath shown. For as I administered this province, my lord, according to the command of thy serenity, which is one of the eastern cities called Jerusalem, wherein the temple of the nation of the Jews is erected, all the multitude of the Jews, being assembled, delivered up to me a certain man called Jesus, bringing many and endless accusations against him but they could not convict him in anything. But they had one heresy against him, that he said the Sabbath was not their proper rest.

Now that man wrought many cures and good works: he caused the blind to see, he cleansed lepers, he raised the dead, he healed paralytics, who could not move at all, but had only voice, and all their bones in their places and he gave them strength to walk and run, enjoining it by his word alone. And he did another yet more mighty work, which had been strange even among our gods, he raised from the dead one Lazarus, who had been dead four days, commanding by a word alone that the dead man should be raised, when his body was already corrupted by worms which bred in his wounds. And he commanded the fetid body, which lay in the grave, to run, and as bridegroom from his chamber so he went forth from his grave, full of sweet perfume. And some that were grievously afflicted by demons, and had their dwellings in desert places, and devoured the flesh of their own limbs, and went up and down among creeping things and wild beasts, he caused to dwell in cities in their own houses, and by a word made them reasonable, and caused to become wise and honorable those that were vexed by unclean spirits, and the demons that were in them he sent out into a herd of swine into the sea and drowned them. Again, another who had a withered hand, and lived in suffering, and had not even the half of his body sound, he made whole by a word alone. And a woman who had an issue of blood for a long time, so that because of the discharge all the joints of her bones were seen and shone through like glass, for all the physicians had dismissed her without hope, and had not cleansed her, for there was in her no hope of health at all but once, as Jesus was passing by she touched from behind the hem of his garments, and in that very hour the strength of her body was restored, and she was made whole, as if she had no affliction, and began to run fast towards her own city of Paneas. And these things happened thus: but the Jews reported that Jesus did these things on the Sabbath. And I saw that greater marvels had been wrought by him than by the gods whom we worship. Him then Herod and Archelaus and Philip, and Annas and Caiaphas, with all the people, delivered up to me, to put him on his trial. And because many raised a tumult against me, I commanded that he should be crucified.

Now when he was crucified darkness came over all the world the sun was altogether hidden, and the sky appeared dark while it was yet day, so that the stars were seen, though still they had their luster obscured, wherefore, I suppose your excellency is not unaware that in all the world they lighted their lamps from the sixth hour until evening. And the moon, which was like blood, did not shine all night long, although it was at the full, and the stars and Orion made lamentation over the Jews, because of the transgression committed by them.

And on the first day of the week, about the third hour of the night, the sun appeared as it never shone before, and the whole heaven became bright. And as lightnings come in a storm, so certain men of lofty stature, in beautiful array, and of indescribable glory, appeared in the air, and a countless host of angels, crying out and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will among men: Come up from Hades, ye who are in bondage in the depths of Hades. And at their voice all the mountains and hills were moved, and the rocks were rent, and great chasms were made in the earth, so that the very places of the abyss were visible.

And amid the terror dead men were seen rising again, so that the Jews who saw it said, We beheld Abraham and Isaac, and Jacob, and the twelve patriarchs, who died some two thousand five hundred years before, and we beheld Noah clearly in the body. And all the multitude walked about and sang hymns to God with a loud voice, saying, The Lord our God, who hath risen from the dead, hath made alive all the dead, and Hades he hath spoiled and slain.

Therefore, my lord king, all that night the light ceased not. But many of the Jews died, and were sunk and swallowed up in the chasms that night, so that not even their bodies were to be seen. Now I mean, that those of the Jews suffered who spake against Jesus. And but one synagogue remained in Jerusalem, for all the synagogues which had been against Jesus were overwhelmed.

Through that terror, therefore, being amazed and being seized with great trembling, in that very hour, I ordered what had been done by them all to be written, and I have sent it to thy mightiness.


Jesus Christ, Wife Mary Magdalene Had 2 Kids, New Book Claims

— -- A new book based on interpretations of ancient texts features an explosive claim: Jesus Christ married Mary Magdalene, and the couple had two children.

In “The Lost Gospel,” set for release Wednesday, authors Simcha Jacobovici and Barrie Wilson argue that the original Virgin Mary was Jesus’ wife – not his mother – and that there was an assassination attempt on Jesus’ life 13 years before he was crucified.

The writers say they spent six years working on the book. Their arguments are based on an ancient manuscript dating back nearly 1,500 years, one they say they found in a British library, translating the text from an Aramaic dialect into English.

Mark Goodacre, a professor of religious studies at Duke University, is skeptical of the book’s findings.

“I don’t think that there is any credibility in these claims at all,” Goodacre said. “There is simply no evidence in this text or anywhere else that Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene, much less that they had a couple of children.”

This is not the first assertion that Jesus was married. A fragment of an ancient Egyptian papyrus known as the “Gospel of Jesus’s Wife” was unveiled in 2012, containing the phrase “Jesus said to them, ‘My wife,” although the document was written centuries after Jesus died.

The 2003 novel “The Da Vinci Code” by Dan Brown also highlighted the possibility of Jesus’ having been married to Mary Magdalene.


The Scribes - Jewish Leaders in the First Century AD.

During the time of Jesus Christ there were Jewish teachers who explained the Torah, the law of God, by translating it (The Targums arise from this group), and giving commentary in the form of Haggadah (parables and various sayings) and would carefully show how the instructions of the law, for example, laws relating to the Sabbath and food, were to be lived out in everyday life (Halachah).

At this time, in addition to the written law, volumes of explanations were given, believed to have been handed down orally by men of God. These oral commandments carried with them great authority. It is exactly these oral traditions which is referred to in the New Testament. (Mark 7:9 Matthew 15 Galatians 1:14).

Most of the time the Scribes earned their living by copying and interpreting the law. They were not in absolute agreement as to their explanations of Scripture, which were usually given in the Beth-hamidrash (House of study).

In the New Testament the Scribes are mentioned as the "teachers" of the law, the rabbis and the official leaders of the people, along with the Pharisees, and the Gospels referred to them as "doctors of the Law". According to the New Testament they sat in the Sanhedrin (Matt 16:21).

Jesus came into conflict with the Scribes often because He and His disciples did not observe their traditions. Mark 7 describes an example of Jesus and His followers not observing traditional rules in relation to the Sabbath and cleanness. In Matt. 23, where Jesus pronounces his woes upon the Scribes and Pharisees, He repeated His prophetic curse upon them, "Woe to you" eight times because of their arrogance, hypocrisy, self-seeking ambition and scrupulous observances.


History of Shape-shifting Legends and Folklore

half man half wolf. also known as the Aswang

Shape shifting, or the act of one species taking on the full or partial form of another for a period of time, has its place in many legends throughout history. Cave drawings discovered in Ariege, France have images of half animal/half human creatures, giving way to the knowledge that these types of legends go back even farther than once thought. Where did these legends come from? Indeed why was it believed that either by will or involuntarily, a person could change forms? With all that we know now of the physical impossibility of such a thing, why do people still believe there are those who may walk normally among the human race that have the ability to take on animal like characteristics?

The legends of shape-shifting are varied as far as the type of animal a person becomes. In rare cases, the belief for some is so strong that it actually gave birth to a diagnosable condition for those who think they can transform into a half human-half animal creature. It was said to generally accompany such mental illnesses as schizophrenia and manic depression and included symptoms of what was described as full blown psychosis. Hallucinations, and changes in gait and facial expressions were noted. Ironically, though the condition has the reputation of being associated with the belief in werewolves (half human/half wolf), the actual documented cases had a larger variety of animals mentioned.

Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius.

There are some who hold the belief that ‘lycanthropy’ is science’s way of explaining what can not be–and that is the connection between the human beings and others in the animal species. Let’s look at some of the history and how far back these legends go. While none of it is proof of anything definitive, it shows a deep belief that there were many sides to a human’s spirit, and part of that included animals. Each legend varies as far as what causes a person to be able to shape-shift and some say not all are willing. Whether it is looked at as a gift or a curse it is certainly interesting how long the legends have been around.

Theriacephaly, or a human having an animal head goes back to many of the ancient mythologies such as Anubis in the Egyptian legends who was said to have the head of a jackal. There are even Eastern Orthodox references to Saint Christopher having the head of a dog and of course many in modern Wicca pay homage to the Horned God. From all of these stories comes the definitive message that man and animal are deeply connected.

Cultures and legends of shape shifting

Norse legend speaks of the 'berserkers'

Norse legend speaks of the ” (yes this is where the word came from), who were warriors that came to battle allegedly dressed in the skin of a bear. These men would work themselves up into a furious rage leading to fighting in a frenzy until the battle was over. While these were not shape-shifters in the classical sense, they were a representation of the man/animal connection. It was said that when they entered battle without any suits of armor other than the animal skins, fighting with the strength of a wild bear.

In the pre-Columbian Americas in the areas that now make up Mexico and Costa Rica there were the legends of the Nagual. These were said to be people who could actually transform into a dog or hyena, but could also come in the forms of more powerful animals. These powers were considered magical and anyone who had the ability to shift into an animal was considered highly favored by the gods and were usually the religious leaders of the village.

Skin-walkers are a large part of the folklore of the nations indigenous to what is now the United States. In these legends, the person could turn into an animal at will, but only if they were wearing a pelt of the animal at the time. In the Navajo nation, the yee naaldlooshii has the literal translation of “one who walks on all fours”. The belief is based in Navajo ancient magic and it is thought that many of them had evil intent. As a matter of fact, in some Navajo cultures it is believed that when one of these people who some would call ‘witches’ attained a level of evil known as clizyati, which often resulted in the murder of one of their family members. Skin-walkers are regarded as those who achieved such a high level of priesthood or religious belief that it literally drove them insane–believed to be doomed to walking the earth filled with hate and revenge.

Hindu folklore includes the tale of the Ichchadhari Nag. This one takes a

Anubis the body of a man and the head of a dog

different turn from the usual human-to-animal transformation and instead describes a snake that can appear in any desired form, often that of a human. Legend says that this creature holds an extremely valuable jewel that if anyone attempted to steal it they would be felled by a poisonous bite. The musical instrument of the snake charmer known as the Been or the pungi can be used to control the Ichchadhari Nag. This creature has gone on to be a popular character in comics and fiction.

There are other legends of shape-shifting that simply involve humans taking on a more monstrous or exaggerated form. In Japanese mythology, the Rokurokubi are creatures that have fully human forms by day but at night can transform their necks and upper body to gigantic proportions. This form is thought to be evil in nature even if the human form is basically good. It was said some were not even aware of their nightly walks.

Modern Beliefs About Shape Shifting

The modern religion of Wicca stems from many of the pagan beliefs of ancient times. The religion itself is relatively new but the basic concepts and beliefs have been around thousands of years before the birth of Christ. The practices of shape-shifting are recognized in varying types, some of which have more to do with a state of consciousness than actual physical transformations. In consciousness shape-shifting, the idea that two or more people focusing on the same outcome can in effect cause it to happen. Another type of shape shifting, known as integration, (or channeling) is when someone believes they can focus on an object, another person, or animal and become one with it’s soul. None of this is proven of course, but it shows the modern turn this belief has taken. The transformation from human into animal is not lost completely in modern practices, however it is more symbolism than a tangible experience.

deathbed of a witch slash shape shifter.

Of course popular fiction stories have kept the werewolf alive for many decades. Lon Chaney’s “Wolf Man” and the Twilight series character of Jacob have brought a sad romanticism to what most would say is a fearsome creature. In the Hollywood version of the shape-shifting werewolf adds an element of wistfulness in the character. They usually do not desire to change into a wolf as it is usually part of either a curse or familial descent taking away their choices. In these stories, any harm that is done is unintentional, however the lack of control when they are in animal form is emphasized.

Is there any truth to the legends? Other than the interesting ancient cave art and the many legends and myths carried by word of mouth, there is no definitive proof. It is however an interesting reflection on humankind as a whole and the relationship with animals. Both man and beast can be either predator or prey and their connection defies any that exist in the animal ‘food chain’. Whether the legends are simply representations of a human/animal bond or actual re-telling of events is a matter of belief without proof to back it up. It is however a fascinating look into another mystery that goes back to ancient times and has somehow managed to remain a topic of interest.

Written by Angela Sangster, Copyright 2012 BestOfAllTopics.com

The Werewolf Handbook: An Essential Guide to Werewolves and, More Importantly, How to Avoid Them

Werewolves are more popular than ever–thanks largely to recent film hits–and this highly entertaining new title tells readers everything they’ve ever wanted to know about those terrifying preternatural members of the canis lupus family. Newcomers to werewolf lore will be surprised to learn that there are many different werewolf varieties.

Alphas are the leaders, and Betas are unwilling but deadly members of a werewolf pack. But there are also Benandanti, holy men who change into wolves in order to do battle with witches . . . and Loup-garoux, werewolves who can change from man to wolf even during daylight hours. The more ordinary werewolves achieve their terrible transformations from man to beast only by the light of the Moon.

Author Robert Curran also notes that Christopher, the mysterious saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church, has many werewolf characteristics. In addition, this book tells readers where werewolves live, describes their telltale traits, such as hairy palms, advises on how to avoid becoming a werewolf, and gives tips on what werewolf victims should do when they are attacked. More than 100 moody and atmospheric color illustrations accompany this intensely readable text.


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