F -104 maak sy debuut - geskiedenis

F -104 maak sy debuut - geskiedenis


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(1/7/54) Lockheed onthul sy nuwe vegter, die "F – 104 Starfighter." Die F -104 verteenwoordig 'n nuwe vlak van lugprestasie wat Mach 2 kan bereik, twee keer die spoed van klank.

8 maniere waarop die oorspronklike 'Star Trek' geskiedenis gemaak het

Gene Roddenberry omstreeks 1947. (Krediet: Keystone/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

Nadat hy tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog 'n B-17-bomwerper in die Amerikaanse weermag se lugkorps bestuur het, het Roddenberry in die Los Angeles-polisiekantoor gedien voordat hy vir TV begin skryf het. Hy het die kortstondige reeks “ The Lieutenant ” geskep voordat Desilu Studios (gestig deur Lucille Ball en Desi Arnaz) “Star Trek ” in 1966 opgetel het. ons na 'n wêreld van die 23ste eeu waar interplanetêre reise 'n vaste feit was: kaptein Kirk en die bemanning van die sterreskip Enterprise (vernoem na die werklike skip wat die gety na die Geallieerdes in die Slag van Midway gedraai het) het in die sterrestelsel rondgesak en bots met uitheemse vyande soos die Klingons, Excalbians en Romulans.


'Vir net 'n bloedige kanon': hoe 'n MiG-21 byna 'n PAF Saber by die debuut vir IAF in 1965 afgeneem het

'N Pakistanse lugmag F-86 Sabre in die guns van 'n Indiese lugmag MiG-21 in die oorlog in 1965. | Foto: Skrywersversameling

Die ikoniese MiG-21 en sy verskillende variante het die Indiese Lugmag (IAF) deur die jare goed gedien. Indië is die grootste operateur van MiG-21's buite die voormalige Sowjetunie, met meer as 1,200 MiG-21's wat in Indië gedien het toe die IAF gekies het om die MiG-21 te koop bo verskeie ander Westerse mededingers in 1962. Die MiG-21 was die eerste suksesvolle Sowjetvliegtuie wat veg- en onderskepeienskappe in 'n enkele vliegtuig kombineer. Dit was 'n ligte vegter wat Mach 2 behaal het met 'n relatief lae-aangedrewe naverbrande turbojet, en was vergelykbaar met die Amerikaanse Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, die Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter en die Franse Dassault Mirage III.

Sedertdien het dit in kapasiteit en vermoë ontwikkel en is dit wyd gebruik in konflikgebiede regoor die wêreld, met ongeveer 100 MiG-21 'Bisons' wat nog steeds in diens van die IAF is.

Terwyl die Vietnam People's Air Force die eerste lugmag buite die Sowjetunie was wat 'n operasionele doodslag op 'n MiG-21 teen die USAF in 1966 behaal het, het die Indiese lugmag MiG-21s 'n onvergeetlike ontmoeting met die Pakistanse lugmag gehad tydens die 1965 Indo-Pak oorlog.

Agtergrond - Operasie Grand Slam, 1 September 1965

Pakistan val op 1 September 1965 om 0400 uur op Indië aan en begin Operasie Grand Slam, 'n aanval op afdelingsvlak, ondersteun deur twee M48/47 Patton-tenkregimente op die Chamb-Akhnoor-as in Jammu en Kasjmir om Akhnur en die padverbinding van Jammu na Rajouri en Poonch.

Pak 7 Div + 2 Tank regt aanval in Chamb sektor. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Die Indiese 191 -brigade is verras en hard getref. Die Pakistanse weermag (PA) se offensief het die Indiese weermag (IA) -eenhede met sy gewig na die oewers van die Munnawar Tawi -rivier gedruk, waar 'n agterwagaksie deur 'n eskader van AMX 13 tenks van 20 Lancers en elemente van die 3de Mahar -regiment ondersteun is deur die lugaanvalle van die Indian Air Force Vampire en Mystere, het die vordering van die beroemde Pattons -tenks vertraag. Die bevelvoerder van die PA 7 -afdeling het dringende ondersteuning van die lugmag versoek, waarin die Pakistanse lugmag -sabers oor die Cease Fire Line (CFL) gekruis en drie argaïese IAF -vampiere tydens hierdie aanval neergeskiet het.

PAF Sabres in geveg met IAF Vampires oor Chamb -sektor. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

Aangesien die Indiese teenaanval egter baie versigtig was, het die PA 'n goeie 48 uur geneem om te reorganiseer en vorentoe te beweeg oor die Munnawar Tawi op die Palanwala-Jauria-as. Dit het die IA in staat gestel om in goeie orde oor die rivier terug te keer en sy verdediging rondom Palanwala/Jaurian te herorganiseer.

In 'n skerp lugaksie oor hierdie gebied op 3 September 1965 het die IAF sy eerste doodslag deur Flight Lieutenant Trevor Keelor ​​van No23 Squadron 'Panthers' behaal as deel van 'n Gnat -formasie onder leiding van vleuelbevelvoerder Johnny Greene, die hinderlaag van die PAF en 'n F-86F Sabre jet. Hierdie luggevegrekening kan hier gelees word.

Vlugluitenant Trevor Keelor ​​van 23 vierkante kry die eerste IAF -dood van die oorlog van 1965 oor die Chamb -sektor op 3 September 1965. | Foto: Skrywerversameling

Die IA ontruim intussen uit Palanwala, het haastig verdedigingsposisies in en om die stad Jauria ontplooi en gewag om vroeg op 4 September 1965 kontak te maak met PA se 7 Infanteriedivisie en sy wapenrustingselemente. ter ondersteuning van hul verdediging. Beide kante besef die belangrikheid van Jaurian, waarna die pad na Akhnur en moontlik Jammu oop was vir uitbuiting wat die staat Jammu en Kasjmir uit die Indiese hart sou skei volgens die neergelegde doelwitte van Operation Grand Slam.

Die Indiese en Pakistaanse lugmag het hul beste luggevegte en bates vir lugondersteuning (CAS) ingewin om die plaaslike lug superioriteit te behaal oor hierdie belangrike slagveld, wat baie hoog was. Aan die Indiese kant, saam met die Gnats en die Mysteres, is 'n komponent van die nuut ingewyde MiG-21's van die IAF se No28-eskader 'The First Supersonics' geïmplementeer na die Adampur-lugmagbasis (AFB) om die bedreiging van PAF te aanvaar jets, veral die supersoniese F-104 Starfighter en die gewilde F-86 Sabre.

Die F-86F Sabres vorm die ruggraat van die PAF se luggevegvloot. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

As tussen Jaurian en Akhnur. 1525 uur, 4 September 1965

Jaurian, die vlampunt van 'n hewige stryd tussen die grawe in die Indiese weermag en die Pakistanse leër en die 7de afdeling, was onder 'n volgehoue ​​aanval deur die Pakistanse lugmag.

Die PAF het die hele dag gedetailleerde 31 gevegsteun -missies teen die IA teen die IA uitgevoer. Hiervan bestaan ​​die sending met die hoogste digtheid uit Sargodha uit 'n staking deur 12 Sabres van No15 Sqn 'Cobras', gelei deur hul bevelvoerder, eskaderleier Irshad.

Die stakingspakket bestaan ​​uit drie Sabre -formasies van vier vliegtuie elk, wat elkeen vir 'n tydperk van nie meer as vyf minute oor die teikenarea werk nie. Die eerste twee formasies het die enigste padverbinding tussen Akhnur en Jaurian die afgelope vyftien minute met 'n positiewe besluit vasgebind en 'n aantal IA -vragmotors en ander voertuie met 'n sagte vel aan die brand gesteek met hul rakette van 2,75 duim wat van die Sabre's 'Mighty afgevuur is Muis se peule. Toe hulle vertrek, wag die Pakistan Forward Air Controller (FAC) geduldig op die koms van die laaste formasie oor Jaurian.

Hoog bo hulle het vier F-104's 'n boonste dekking van 20 000 voet gelewer. Die Starfighters, wat onder die radarbedekking van Sakesar werk, was op soek na Gnats van die Indiese Lugmag, wat net 'n dag tevore die PAF Sabres oor Jaurian gelok het. Die PAF wou die verlies wreek.

Supersoniese PAF F-104 Starfighters was die gevegsekwivalent van IAF MiG-21's in die oorlog 1965/1971. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Eskaderleier Muniruddin Ahmed, die vleueloperasiebeampte in Sargodha, het die laaste gedeelte van Sabres gelei, gewapen met twee napalmbomme elk. Munir, 'n gelukkige en gewilde vlieënier in die PAF, was bekend vir sy legendariese hakkel wat meer uitgespreek word namate hy opgewonde raak. Gelei deur die FAC se roosterverwysing, het sy formasie op 500 voet oor die doelgebied gekom. Hy het gesoek na waardevolle teikens vir hul napalmhouers. Anders as die vuurpyle, was napalm geskik vir wydverspreide teikens.

'Doel 2-uur, aanvalformasie GO,' het hy gebel nadat hy kontak gemaak het met 'n uitgestrekte gebouekompleks wat hy as 'n militêre installasie beskou het. Sy formasie -lede het styf om hom vasgesteek in die 'vinger vier' -posisie vir aflewering. Munir draai geleidelik in die rigting van die teiken en rol uit terwyl hy daal tot 200 voet bo die grondvlak vir die aanval. 'Wag vir vrylating. Nader teiken. Bom vrylating, bom vrylating nou! ”

Die Sabres suis verby hul doelwit, terwyl die napalmhouers lui na die grond val, ontplof in kontak met die grond in massiewe vuurballe en verswelg alle ontvlambare brandstowwe. Die aanval het goed verloop, alhoewel Munir nie seker was of hy iets waardevols getref het nie.

Sqn Ldr M. Ahmed het die PAF se napalm -bomaanval op Jaurian op 4 September 1965 gelei. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Na die aanval draai Munir hard links, vermy die basis van die inkomende heuwels en klim tot 1000 voet. Hy het na Pakistan gekyk en 'n radio -tjek van sy stigting opgeneem. 'Inskrywing van addervorming,' het Munir gevra, terwyl die ander vliegtuie in volgorde geantwoord het, 'Viper 2, Viper 3 … ” Daar was geen reaksie van Viper 4 nie.

'Viper 4 kom aan,' het Munir weer oor die radio geplaas. Daar was geen reaksie nie. “Waar de hel is Nasir?” hy soek angstig na Flight Lieutenant Nasir Butt, die vierde lid van sy formasie. Hy het sy vliegtuig rondgeweef in 'n desperate poging om uit te kyk vir 'n teken van 'n aanval op sy formasie. Hy het amper nie die brandstreep opgemerk wat 'n rookspoor agtergelaat het wat sy Sabre aan die regterkant oorsteek nie. 'N Geskokte Munir verskerp instinktief sy beurt weg van die vuurbal op die grond toe die rookspoor die grond tref.

'Hulle was onder aanval. Maar deur wie? En wat was daardie streep, 'n vuurpyl of 'n missiel? Dit kan nie wees nie! Gnats dra nie missiele nie. Damn, waar was die Starfighters? ” Munir loer hard aan weerskante van die vliegtuig en skuif dan sy blik na bo.

Sy hart het 'n maatslag oorgeslaan toe hy bo -op die Sabre sien, nie meer as 15 meter nie en groter word, die slanke onderbuik van 'n silwerkleurige deltavlerkvliegtuig. Toe paniek hom tref, herken hy die IAF MiG-21 ernstig en stamp sy vliegtuig wanhopig af en weg van sy pyniger, wat amper in die grond neerstort.

Daarna het die beroemde Muniruddin -hakkel al die radioverkeer op die Sakesar radar ops -frekwensie oorweldig en geblokkeer, terwyl hy opgewonde op die RT gestuur het oor die ontdekking van die MiG. Hy stamel krampagtig: 'Kontak met 'n M-M-MiG-21. B-B-B-B-By G-G-G-G-God, hy het my amper gehad. ”

Op daardie noodlottige dag het Munir se baie gewilde radiooproep vir die eerste keer die koms van die legendariese MiG-21 in die lug van die Indiese subkontinent uitgespreek.

Die MiG-21F13 (T-74). | Foto: By spesiale reëling

MiG-21-induksie in IAF

Die verhaal van die MiG-21 in die diens van die Indiese lugmag het in Augustus 1962 begin toe dit gekies is bo die Franse Mirage III en die Amerikaanse F-104 Starfighter om aan die vereiste van die Indiese lugmag te voldoen vir 'n supersoniese vegter om die Pakistanse lugmag teë te werk Starfighter vloot.

Die belangrikste aspek van hierdie ooreenkoms was die Indiese aandrang op lisensieproduksie van die gekose tipe in Indië. Slegs die Sowjetunie het tot hierdie deel van die kontrak toegesluit sonder om streng te wees, wat die Hindustan Aeronautics Limited moontlik gemaak het om die volgende generasie gevegsvliegtuie in Indië te begin vervaardig.

Helmteken van №28 vierkante meter, die Indiese lugmag. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

Die eerste groep van sewe IAF -vlieëniers en ingenieurs, onder leiding van die vleuelbevelvoerder Dilbagh Singh, het hard geoefen by Lugovaya AFB naby Tasjkent in Kazakstan. Met sy terugkeer na Indië in 1963, vorm hierdie personeel die kern van No28 Squadron 'The First Supersonic' gebaseer in Chandigarh. Soos met enige aanvanklike induksie van 'n hoëprestasievliegtuig, het die eskader egter probleme ondervind, veral omdat vlieëniers gesukkel het om ons betekenisvolle opleiding op die ses MiG-21F13s (T-74) in die opboujaar voor die oorlog van 1965 te kry. .

Die pioniers van die IAF se MiG-21. | Foto: Air Marshal B.D. Jayal -versameling

Die MiG-21 T-74 was 'n Mach 2-vliegtuig wat gewapend was met twee Vympel K-13 AAM's (NAVO-kodenaam AA-2 'Atol') en 'n enkele 30 mm-kanon in die romp. Die K-13 was die Russiese kopie van die beroemde Sidewinder-missiel, hoewel nie so gesofistikeerd as die AIM-9B-weergawe van die Sidewinder wat deur die PAF gebruik is nie.

K-13 IR huisvesting AAM. | Foto: Commons

In Maart 1965 is 28 eskader versterk met die aflewering van ses MiG-21PFs (T-76) variante. Die T-76 was toegerus met die R1L-lugondervangsradar, wat teikens tot op 'n afstand van 20 km kon opspoor en onderskep. Die Russe het die T-76 ontwerp in ooreenstemming met die wêreldwye taktiese filosofie om slegs missielbewapende vliegtuie in te stel-die T-76 het geen wapens nie, soos die T-74 wat dit moes vervang . Moderne missiele is as voldoende geag om vyandvegters op gevegsbane te betrek en te vernietig, met die gewere as wapens van 'n vervloë era. Dit het gelei tot die vervaardiging van die McDonnell Douglas F4 Phantom, die English Electric Lightning en die Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-21PF (T-76), gewapen met slegs lug-tot-lug missiele. Slegs die Franse met die Dassault Mirage III het aangedring op gewere as 'n integrale ontwerp as deel van hierdie generasie.

Die MiG-21PF (T-76) gewapen met 2 x K13 IR geleide AAM. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Hoe verkeerd was dit vir die operateurs van hierdie vliegtuie, veral die USAF in die Viëtnam-oorlog, wie se F-4 Phantom-bemanning hulpeloos sonder gewere teen die Viëtnamese MiG-17 en 19's was, meer as gevolg van die onbetroubaarheid van die eerste generasie AAM's in noue gevegsituasies. Dit sal 'n geruime tyd duur voordat die nodige wysigings aangebring word om 'n geweerpak op hierdie vliegtuie te dra.

Die IAF sou binnekort sy eie harde lesse leer oor die aanvaarding van hierdie filosofie.

Oorspronklik was daar nie 'n plan om aan die oorlog van 1965 deel te neem nie, weens onvoldoende opleiding van die bemanning, veral op die T-76, maar tog is besluit om 'n belangrike komponent van hierdie vloot na Pathankot te stuur na die verlies van IAF Vampires oor Chamb op 1 September.

Onder bevel van vleuelbevelvoerder M.S.D. 'Mally' Wollen, die 28 eskadervliegtuie wat op 2 September 1965 na Pathankot ontplooi is. Die vlieëniers het hulself vinnig georiënteer en het die taak gekoördineer om gevegs -lugpatrollie (CAP) te koördineer in samewerking met die IAF se Amritsar -radareenheid, die vyand en noue beheer sou die sleutel wees vir die optimale benutting van die IAF MiGs.

Na 'n paar bekendstellingsopdragte op 3 September 1965, die dag toe Trevor Keelor ​​die eerste sabel vir die IAF geskiet het, was die MiG's voorbereid op 'n offensiewe GLB -missie onder beheer van Amritsar GCI vir die volgende dag. Mally Wollen sou die missie saam met sy vlugbevelvoerder, eskaderleier A.K. Mukherjee as sy nommer 2.

IAF Vleuelbevelvoerder M.S.D. 'Mally' Wollen. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

Die MiG-21 maak sy gevegsdebuut met die IAF, 'n eerste buite die Sowjetunie deur enige lugmag.

As tussen Jaurian en Akhnur. 1515 uur, 4 September 1965

Die Indiese lugmag het sy plan verander om die Pakistanse lugmag te laat raai! Anders as die vorige dag, sou die Mysteres en die begeleide Gnats Akhnur vanaf Pathankot in twee verskillende rigtings nader en 'n afspraak maak oor Akhnur. Die MiG's sal die gebied ontsmet onder vriendelike radarbeheer wat op medium vlakke werk, met die doel om die verwagte PAF CAP -komponent na hulle toe te lok, weg van die Gnats.

Vier No31 Squadron Mysteres het op 'n afstand van 2000 voet na die Chamb -Jaurian -sektor gegaan om vuurpyle -aanvalle uit te voer teen die Pakistanse leër Pattons van 13 Lancers wat die Indiese weermag se verdedigers in Jaurian bedreig het. Rendezvous (RV), met die vier Gnats van No23 -eskader, is beplan oor die Akhnur -brug. Wing Commanders Johnny Greene het die 23 Squadron Gnats gelei, saam met eskaderleier A.S. Sandhu en Flight Lieutenants Pathania en Murdeshwar. Die Gnats het 1000 voet gehandhaaf en in die rigting van die RV -punt gestorm, terwyl elke vlieënier in die komende minute vir 'n Saber -kopvel gejeuk het. By die RV -punt het die Gnats agtergekom dat die Mysteres laat is en Greene die formasie in 'n los verdedigingsbaan oor die Akhnur -brug gesit het.

Die onverskrokke MiG-21-paar Wollen en Mukho, wat met groot belangstelling die radiofrekwensie van die Gnats en die Mysteres dopgehou het, vlieg bo die Gnats op 16.000 voet onder 'n streng CAP-profiel (Ground Controlled Interception (GCI) CAP). Hulle was op soek na PAF Starfighters, wat volgens die IAF -intelligensie sou inspring om die Sabres te ondersteun vanuit hul waargenome gebied in die CFL.

Terwyl die lugversorging op 16 000 voet ingeskakel was vir die MiG-21-paar. Alhoewel die dreigende opwinding van die missie oortyd op Wollen gewerk het en hy nog steeds baie sweet in die pak, moes 'n moet-dra vir alle vroeë MiG-21-vlieëniers. Dit was amper dieselfde uitrusting wat die Sowjet -kosmonaut Yuri Gagarin gedra het tydens sy ruimtesending, wat gebruik is vir supersoniese onderskepprofiele op groot hoogte op die MiG's. Hiervoor klim 'n mens tot 16 km in 'n vinnige aksiebaan, versnel na Mach 2.1, en zoom dan na 21 km, vlieg 'n onderskepprofiel met die radar wat volgens die grondbeheerstuk wys, terwyl hy versnel van Mach 1.8 tot 2.1. Die IAF beoefen hierdie profiel tot in die vroeë 1980's voordat dit gestaak is.

Vir hierdie missie het Wollen en Mukho die nuutste T-76 weergawe van die MiG-21 bestuur en was hulle gewapen met twee K-13 AAM's elk.

Twee IAF T-74's vlieg naby Jammu in 1964. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

Wollen het onrustig geraak namate die tyd verbygegaan het sonder 'n opdatering: 'Bevestig vreugde oor enige bogey', het Wollen 230 US by Amritsar uitgevra. 'Negatiewe kontak met vyande', antwoord die radarbeheerder. 'Jong, ons sit eende as ons radar ons nie van die Pak CAP waarsku nie,' het Wollen oorweeg en Mukho gevra om die visuele skandering te vergroot.

Noue GCI-beheer was die sleutel tot die suksesvolle gebruik van die MiG-21-vliegtuie gedurende daardie era, en dit het tans nie gebeur nie. Wollen het teruggekeer na uithouvermoë terwyl die MiG's 'n standaard baanbaan opgestel het om mekaar se sterte skoon te maak. Hy het sy R1L -radar oorgeskakel om te stuur terwyl hy na die klein omvang van die radar kyk in 'n poging om enige indringers van PAF op te tel. Die omvang toon slegs wydverspreide rommel, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die teenwoordigheid van heuwels. Terwyl Wollen die radar afskakel, kondig 'n skerp RT -oproep van Greene, die leier van die Gnat -vorming, kontak met vyandelike Sabres aan: 'Kontak met bogeys het tien uur, vier myl, dieselfde vlak gelaat. Hulle is Sabres wat hul bombardement voltooi. ”

Wollen het 'n stadige rol omgedraai terwyl hy die vliegtuig omgedraai het, terwyl hy hard geloer het om die Gnats op te tel en die Sabres te weerkaats. 'Mukho, versnel die taktiese spoed en rol die koers twee nul af,' het Wollen vir Mukherjee gesê, terwyl albei MiG's tot 750 km / h versnel het. Wollen was van plan om enige van die vyande in te haal wat na Pakistan ontsnap het.

Intussen het Greene die Mystere -formasie beveel om hul missie te beëindig en die gevegsgebied te verlaat, aangesien die geveg in dieselfde gang ontwikkel het. Aangesien sy MiG-21 vinnig tot taktiese snelhede versnel het, het Wollen 'n duidelike boodskap gekry van Amritsar-radar, wat geen kontak gehad het met enige vliegtuig bo die hoogte van die MiG-21's nie. Binnekort aangekla 'Pat' Pathania, kondig die Gnat -lid van Greene se stigting aan: "Moord, moord, moord", die rituele oproep om 'n vliegtuig af te skiet. Flight Lieutenant 'Pat' Pathania het Flt Lt N.H. Butt van die PAF neergeskiet, die vierde lid van Munir se formasie wat napalm -lopies oor Jaurian uitgevoer het.

Flt Lt V.S. Pathania het op 4 September 1965 'n Sabre -moord op 'n mug behaal. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

'Pragtig, een af,' brul Wollen 'n hoera in die gesigstuk van sy drukhelm. Die MiG's het kontak gemaak met die terugkerende Mystere -formasie wat onder hulle rits. 'Nie ver nie,' dink Wollen by homself terwyl hy opgewonde luister na die oproepe van Greene dat die vyand Sabres op koers twee sewe nul tuis gerol het en die Gnats breek.

Terloops, terwyl Pathania een afgeskiet het, het twee ander Sabers ontsnap weens 'n geweerstop -probleem op die Gnats, wat verhoed het dat Murdeshwar en Sandhu elk 'n doodslag in Greene se vorming kon kry. The Gnat was berug vir sy 30 mm geweerstop in die lugprobleem.

IAF -vegvlieëniers skarrel na hul geparkeerde Gnats by Pathankot. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

Die PAF -stigting het geen idee gehad dat dit onderskep is nie en dat een van sy lede neergeskiet is. Die Sabres versnel tuis, onbewus van die IAF -vegters wat in die omgewing skuil.

Air Sit -kaart vir 1–4 September 1965. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Jaurian -Chamb -as. 1529 uur

Toe die Gnats kontak met die ontsnapte Sabres verbreek, besluit Mally Wollen om die arena binne te gaan. Beide die MiG's het 'n vlak duik ondergaan in 'n poging om die indringers op te spoor. Wollen het 10 000 voet verbygegaan en twee Sabres opgehaal wat vlieg, van links na regs, van onder na die voorkant.

'Kontak twee bogeys om tien uur twee kilometer, Mukho, ek gaan na die regte kap,' het Wollen sy nommer 2 ingelig en 'n harde draai na regs gemaak om 'n broodnodige ruimte te skep en agteruit te draai, agterna te skandeer vir enige ander vyand.

Die sabel was besig om te daal tot 'n lae vlak en Wollen het verhit om vinnig in te sluit. By Wollen se ommekeer en ommekeer val Mukherjee terug en verloor hy kontak met sy leier weens die gesighelm van die drukhelm wat sy sig onder 'Gs' belemmer.

Wollen het die Sabre met sy K-13-missiele geteiken. Op 1,5 km kry hy 'n konstante 'slot op' toon op sy linkermissiel. Wollen het insette van die vaste ring en krale oor sy afstand van die teiken af ​​met die radar nutteloos op lae vlakke, en Wollen het die raketvuurknoppie op sy joystick op 1,2 km ingedruk. Die K-13-missiel het met 'n flits van die linkerrail geskei en na die Sabre gehardloop, skielik van koers verander en die grond ver onder die teiken getref. 'Damn,' mompel Wollen toe hy die raket die grond sien tref.

'Dit is die bloedige hitte -terugkeer van die grond,' het hy gesê, terwyl hy aanhou om in die laag vliegende Sabel te sluit en 'n 'sluit -op' toon op sy tweede missiel kry. Hy het homself op die Sabre -vlak geplaas en die missiel op 1000 meter van die Sabre gelanseer, met 'n skaduwee van meer as 300 meter van die grond af teen 850 km / h. Die missiel het die regterspoor verlaat en nadat hy ongeveer 'n sekonde lank 'n plat baan gevlieg het, het hy die Saber regs oorgesteek en die grond getref. “Wat de hel?” Wollen was woedend van woede toe hy die hopelose lot van albei sy missiele sien, terwyl sy prooi nog veilig en onbewus van die noue ontvlugting vlieg.

Wollen se woede het sy sintuie oorgeneem toe hy begin verhit en vinnig in die sabel toesluit. Hy was woedend oor sy penarie en besef dat daar geen gewere was om die Sabre af te skiet omdat hy met die nuwer T-76-weergawe vlieg nie .

'Wel,' het hy vir homself gesê, 'ek sal die gogga ram!' Met die oog het Wollen sy steengroef gesien en vinnig toegemaak met die doel om 'n fisiese impak te veroorsaak. Wollen mik vir die Sabre se agtervin. Minder as 10 meter van die teiken af, op pad om die sabel te ram, laat Wollen sy redenasie beheer oor sy emosies neem terwyl hy skerp opstaan ​​en weg van die sabel af, en die dreigende botsing met nie meer as vyf onewe meter nou vermy nie. Hy draai na regs en draai om, en sien hoe die nou paniekerige en baie bewuste Sabre -vlieënier 'n draai maak vir lae vlakke om aan die 'mal' MiG -vlieënier te ontsnap.

Vir Wollen, wat in die verlede in 'n vliegtuigbotsing betrokke was en oorleef het, was dit waarskynlik 'een keer gebyt, twee keer skaam!' Met die geveg wat eintlik verby is, draai Wollen terug na die basis. Hy en Mukho het saamgevoeg oor Jammu en 'n probleemlose landing by Pathankot uitgevoer.

Vir die tweede agtereenvolgende dag het die IAF die oppergesag oorheers en 'n sabel oor die Chamb-Jauriaanse sektor afgeskiet sonder enige verlies. Dit was ook 'n noemenswaardige dag in die geskiedenis van MiG-21-operasies, met die IAF MiG's wat hul eerste operasionele missie uitgevoer het. Hulle het byna hul eerste oorwinning behaal tydens hierdie debuut, wat, maar vir die teleurstellende prestasie van beide die K-13-missiele, onteenseglik moontlik sou gewees het-gegewe die feit dat die PAF Sabre-vlieënier geen idee gehad het dat hy 'n MiG op sy lyf gehad het nie stert.

Ironies genoeg, as Wollen die ouer T-74-weergawe van die MiG gevlieg het, sou hy Munir's Sabre maklik met die 23 mm-geweer kon ingepak het.

Muniruddin Ahmed is daardie dag gered deur blote voorsienigheid nadat hy aan die vel van sy tande uit die kloue van die MiG-21 ontsnap het. Hy was die volgende keer nie so gelukkig nie. Hy is op 11 September 1965 oor die Amritsar -radar neergeskiet, met sy lot wat 'n draai het. Hy is baie gemis in die PAF.

Wollen daarenteen het nooit versoen met die feit dat hy die dag gemis het om Munir neer te skiet nie en sy hele lewe lank ergerlik daaroor gebly het. Terwyl 'n siedende Wollen na sy eweknieë in die verspreiding kom nadat hy teruggekeer het van die wonderlike sortie, "Vir 'n kanon, net vir 'n bloedige kanon!"

Nadraai

Jaurian val in die vroeë oggendure van 5 September op die Pakistani's. Die Pakistan Army 7 -afdeling het egter al sy reserwes opgebruik om hierdie prestasie te bereik. Operasie Grand Slam het tot stilstand gekom.

Op 6 September het die Indiese leër Operasie Riddle begin, 'n aanval op korps op die Lahore-front, wat die omvang van die oorlog oor die hele internasionale grens met Pakistan uitgebrei het, en sodoende die lot van die Pak Army-offensief in Chamb-Jaurian effektief verseël het, soos sowel as die poging van PA om die oorlog in Jammu en Kashmir te beperk en in te perk.

Die Pakistanse lugmag het eers ná die visuele bevestiging van Muniruddin Ahmed die dag van die operasionele status van die MiG-21's met die Indiese lugmag bewus geword. Sakesar -radar het nie 'n radar opgetel tydens die geveg wat onder 15 000 voet plaasgevind het nie, en kon dus nie die Starfighters op CAP naby die CFL opneem om by die geveg aan te sluit nie.

Na daardie dag het die PAF 'n aantal van hul luggevegsbates in eksklusiewe afdelings vasgemaak om IAF MiG's op te spoor en te lok. Dit was tevergeefs, aangesien die MiG's nie val vir hul metodes nie. Dit is opmerklik dat die eerste verlowing in die geskiedenis tussen Mach 2-vegters op 11 September 1965 plaasgevind het. 'N Enkele PAF F-104 het 'n kort ontmoeting gehad met twee IAF MiG-21's wes van Halwara. Die PAF se No9-eskader F-104, toe hy gewaarsku is dat hy MiG's nader, sit neus neer en versnel na Mach 1.1 op boonste vlakke, wat sy ontsnapping goed maak. Die stoutmoedige MiGs het die Starfighter op Mach 1 plus gejaag, maar kon nooit inhaal nie, en draai terug na die basis by die internasionale grens.

Die klein mag van die MiG's by Pathankot was ook die primêre rede waarom die PAF hierdie basis met die grootste aantal bomaanvalle in die komende dae geteiken het, wat toevallig twee IAF MiG-21's (T-76's) uitgeslaan het 'n slag op 6 September in 'n gewaagde staking deur PAF se No19 -eskader.

'N Belangrike voordeel wat die PAF in 1965 teen die IAF gehad het, was te danke aan die FPS-20 en FPS-6 radarstelsels wat hulle via die Amerikaanse wapenhulp beskikbaar was. Dit het uitgebreide grondbeheerde onderskepvektore vir die PAF -vlieëniers moontlik gemaak sodat hulle voordelige posisies in 'n geveg kon behaal - die sleutel tot die wen van 'n hondegeveg.

Indië het slegs grondwaarnemers met radio's ondersteun deur een groot vroeë waarskuwingsradarstelsel gebaseer op Amritsar. Die PAF Starfighter en die Sabre was ook toegerus met die AIM-9B Sidewinder, 'n IR-geleide missiel met 'n baie beter prestasie as die vroeë model K-13's wat op 4 September by IAF MiGs gebruik is. Die PAF behaal ten minste 3 AAM -kills teen die IAF in 1965 met behulp van hierdie missiele. In die komende jare het die IAF hard gewerk om uitgebreide Sovjet- en Franse lugverdedigingsradars aan te skaf en sodoende 'n baie beter situasiebewustheid te verkry vir vektorvegters soos die MiG-21, wat ontwerp is om die beste te werk met behulp van GCI-beheer vir aanvanklike posisionering.

Alhoewel hul bydrae beperk was tot CAP-pligte in 1965, het die MiG-21-vlieëniers van No28 Squadron die bal aan die rol gesit vir die wydverspreide aanvaarding van die MiG in die naoorlogse jare, nadat hulle hul oorlogservarings van 1965 opgedoen en effektief gebruik het. Die poging het effektiewe dividend vir die IAF in die oorlog van 1971 opgelewer.

Flypast oor die hek van Indië met vier MiG-21FL's in 1967 onder leiding van Mally Wollen. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

Na 1965 oorlog MiG-21 gebruik deur IAF

Na die oorlog het die Indiese Lugmag in 1966 die MiG-21FL-weergawe begin ontvang. Die oorlog in 1971 was die eerste supersoniese luggeveg in die subkontinent toe 'n IAF MiG-21FL 'n Pakistanse Lugmag F-104 Starfighter met sy GSh- neergeskiet het. 23 tweevoudige 23 mm kanon. Teen die einde van die vyandelikhede het die IAF MiG-21FLs vier PAF F-104, twee Shenyang F-6, een F-86 Sabre en een C-130 Hercules geëis.

Volgens Westerse militêre ontleders het die MiG-21FL's die langverwagte luggeveg tussen die MiG-21FL en die F-104A Starfighter duidelik "gewen".

'N MiG-21FL gevlieg deur die vleuelbevelvoerder Soni wat 'n PAF Starfighter in 1971 afgeskiet het. | Foto: Society for Aerospace Studies

Opgedateerde MiG-21-variante het hul dienste voortgesit as die ruggraat van die vloot van die IAF in die 1980's en 1990's. Die MiG-21BIS T-75 en die MiG-21 T-96 is tydens die Indo-Pak Kargil-konflik in 1999 op groot skaal gebruik vir vuurpyl- en bomaanvalle op groot hoogtes teen indringers van die Pakistanse weermag. Begeleiding om te staak en CAP -missies is ook oor die slagveld gevlieg.

'N IAF MiG-21BIS wat 2 x S24-vuurpyle op die grond afvuur. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Op 10 Augustus 1999 het 'n IAF No45-eskader MiG-21BIS 'n Pakistanse vloot Atlantique MR-vliegtuig oor die Rann van Kutch neergeskiet, nadat die PN-vliegtuig binne die Indiese gebied binnegedring het.

Die laaste oomblikke van die PN Atlantique, voordat 'n R-60-missiel dit afgeskiet het. | Foto: bharatrakshak.com

In die IAF-PAF-betrokkenheid in Jammu en Kashmir op 27 Februarie 2019 het 'n IAF MiG-21 Bison gevlieg deur die vleuelbevelvoerder Abhinandan Varthaman van No51 Squadron 'Swordarms', 'n PAF-vliegtuig in Pakistan beset Kashmir (PoK) neergeskiet, wat volgens elektroniese handtekeninge wat by IAF beskikbaar is, is bepaal as 'n F-16 van die PAF. Hierdie rekening kan hier gelees word.

'N PAF-straal val uit die lug nadat dit getref is deur 'n R-73-missiel wat deur 'n MiG-21 Bison afgevuur is. | Foto: By spesiale reëling

Die laaste van die MiG-21 Bison-eskaders sal moontlik nog 'n aantal jare aan die IAF dien-'n erfenis wat min vliegtuie gedurende hul leeftyd kan pas.

Naskrif

Gewere op moderne gevegsvliegtuie - Ja of nee?

Die kort en lieflike antwoord - geleide missiele toon nog nie 'n waarskynlikheid van dood (Pk) of effektiewe omhulsels vir operasie/betrokkenheid vir alle gevegsscenario's wat in moderne luggevegte voorgestel kan word nie. 'N Geweer vul baie leemtes goed. Sommige operasionele praktisyns het beslis minagtend gewapende gevegte bejeën, wat herhaaldelik probeer het om dit in vegters te vermy, ondanks die nie-so-vaardige rekord van missiele in gevegte. Alhoewel daar voortdurend verbeterings word in geleide raketontwerpe, blyk dit dat die geweer in die toekoms 'n integrale komponent van luggevegte is.

Die dae van hondegeveg is ook nie verby nie. Air Combat Maneuvering is en sal altyd 'n fundamentele behoefte en gewenste aspek van luggeveg wees. Die begin en die einde van die proses. History is on the side of the dogfight. Ignore that at your own peril.

Acknowledgement: Society for Aerospace Studies (SAS). Discussion with Air Marshal B.D. Jayal (Retd). Inputs from the books Indo Pak Air War of 1965 by Jagan Pillariseti & Samir Chopra Battle for Pakistan by John Fricker and multiple online references.

Sameer Joshi is a retired Indian Air Force fighter pilot with experience on the MiG-21 and Mirage-2000 jets. Besides being a start-up entrepreneur, he has serious interests in aerospace & defence and military history.

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Waarom nuusmedia in 'n krisis is en hoe u dit kan regstel

Indië het meer, gratis, regverdige, nie-koppelteken en joernalistiek bevraagteken, omdat dit voor verskeie krisisse te staan ​​kom.

Maar die nuusmedia is in 'n krisis op sy eie. Daar was wrede afdankings en betaalverlagings. Die beste van joernalistiek is besig om te krimp en gee toe aan 'n growwe skouspel in die beste tyd.

ThePrint het die beste jong verslaggewers, rubriekskrywers en redakteurs wat daarvoor werk. Om joernalistiek van hierdie kwaliteit te handhaaf, moet slim en denkende mense soos jy daarvoor betaal. Of u nou in Indië of in die buiteland woon, u kan dit hier doen.


Huge titanosaur makes American Museum of Natural History debut

The American Museum of Natural History in New York has unveiled a new gigantic dinosaur exhibit, squeezing a 122-foot-long titanosaur cast into the famous building.

The dinosaur, which has not yet been formally named, was unveiled Thursday. Paleontologists think that that the giant herbivore weighed in at around 70 tons – as much as 10 African elephants. The titanosaur is too large even for the museum’s gallery, with part of its 39-foot neck extending out towards the building’s elevator banks.

The skeleton’s ‘bones’ are lightweight 3D prints made of fibreglass.

The huge cast was built over six months by Ontario, Canada-based Research Casting International and Argentina’s Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio. The titanosaur is based on 84 fossil bones that were excavated in the remote Argentine region of Patagonia in 2014. Scientists have discovered a total of 223 fossil bones from six individuals at the site, according to the American Museum of Natural History, including a colossal 8-foot femur.

The paleontologists were told about the site by a local rancher in 2012, and made several trips there over the next 18 months.

Fossils from the original discovery on temporary display with the titanosaur cast include the femur and forelimb.

“We are pleased to present this awe-inspiring exhibit as yet another icon in an inspiring journey of discovery that the Museum offers throughout its galleries,” said American Museum of Natural History President Ellen Futter, in a statement. “While the titanosaur itself is ancient, it nevertheless embodies and reflects the very modern, dynamic, and thrilling state of paleontology today.”


The F-35 just made its combat debut

Lockheed Martin’s F-35 has seen combat for the first time.

The Israel Defense Forces announced on its Twitter account that the Israeli version of the aircraft, using its “Adir” moniker was used in operational missions.

“The Adir planes are already operational and flying in operational missions,” the tweet said, quoting Israel Air Force head Maj. Gen. Amikam Norkin. “We are the first in the world to use the F-35 in operational activity.”

The Israeli Air Force used the F-35 in two recent strikes in the Middle East, Norkin said, according to the news outlet Haaretz.

The use of the F-35 in combat is a major milestone for the aircraft that has been in development since the early 1990s. The program has been marred not only by cost overruns and delays but persistent attacks by critics who have called into question the jet’s warfighting capabilities.

Syrian downing of F-16I begs question: Why didn’t Israel deploy F-35s?

Are these costly stealth fighters too precious to use? Or perhaps the Israeli Air Force is not sufficiently confident in the F-35 or its pilots’ proficiency in operating the fifth-gen fighter.

The combat debut could also bode well for future buys of the joint strike fighter. Israel has already put 50 F-35 Adir aircraft on contract. However, last year its parliament urged its defense ministry to conduct an analysis of alternatives before going forward with more orders, which could add another 25 to 50 jets to the IAF.

Israel’s decision to employ its Adir, or “Mighty One,” may stem from February’s downing of an IAF F-16 in Syria, which prompted some experts to question why the IAF was not using the stealthy jet against capable Syrian air defenses.


Sky High in a Starfighter

The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter looked more like a rocket than an airplane. Out in front was a sharply pointed nose with a long pitot tube. The airplane’s straight, stubby wings were canted downward, and they were so thin and small, like fins, that you wondered how it could fly. Lockheed press releases even described the airplane as “the missile with a man in it.” For pilots, its tiny cross-section made it the kind of aircraft you put on like a glove. The cockpit was small but comfortable, and the pilot sat reclined with legs extended, the way you sit in a sports car.

Early versions were designed with an ejection seat that fired downward, and to prevent injuries the pilot wore metal spurs attached to his flight boots, cowboy style. The spurs were connected to cables that would automatically pull his feet against the ejection seat during an ejection. Later, the seat was redesigned to fire upward, but the spurs stayed. Most pilots put their spurs on just before they boarded and took them off immediately after deplaning others wore them around to show off. When I was a second lieutenant attending flying school, I saw an Air Force colonel wearing an orange flying suit and a dress military hat with “scrambled eggs” on the visor. His spurs were clinking and clanking as he walked. Then and there I knew I wanted to fly the Starfighter.

I got my chance in December 1963, when I was selected to attend the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California. At the time, the grand old man of supersonic flight, Colonel Charles E. “Chuck” Yeager, was the commandant of the school, and he was guiding the Air Force toward the new frontier of spaceflight.

Our class had 10 Air Force pilots, two Navy pilots, two NASA pilots, and one pilot each from Canada and the Netherlands. We all wanted to be part of the Space Age even though our very presence here put us in competition with NASA. The Air Force had initiated its own manned space program with the Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, a single-seat space vehicle scheduled to make its first flight in 1966, just three years away.

All X-20 pilots would be graduates of Yeager’s school and actually fly their spacecraft from liftoff to an unpowered landing on Edwards’ Rogers Dry Lake. NASA astronauts, on the other hand, returned to Earth in a capsule suspended from a parachute and landed in the ocean.

Yeager was instrumental in changing the curriculum of the test pilot school to include spaceflight training. The name of the school was also changed to Aerospace Research Pilot School, though it was commonly referred to as Yeager’s Charm School. He still had the golden touch: Yeager seemed to have a credit card enabling him to tap into the Air Force budget, and there seemed to be no limit to what he could spend. His motto appeared to be “Follow me. I will put the Air Force in space.”

To give his students a real taste of space, Yeager contracted with Lockheed to modify three production F-104s for high-altitude flight. Designated NF-104s, they were inexpensive trainers that would expose students to altitudes above 100,000 feet. Like the X-15, the NF-104s had small directional thrusters in the nose and wingtips for attitude control up where normal controls had no effect.

Each NF-104 was equipped with a Rocketdyne liquid-fuel rocket engine that used JP-4 fuel and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer to produce 6,000 pounds of thrust. With the reaction control system, a student could control the NF-104 on a zero-G trajectory through the thin atmosphere at the edge of space for about 80 seconds. The pilot wore a pressure suit without engine power at that altitude there was no cockpit pressurization.

It was widely understood that whoever first pushed the NF-104 to its maximum performance was certain to set a world record for altitude achieved by an aircraft taking off under its own power. In 1961 the Soviets had set a record of 113,890 feet with the E-66A, a rocket-powered variant of the MiG-21 fighter. Some U.S. X-planes had flown higher, but they had to be carried aloft by a Boeing B-52 (see “Mother,” June/July 2001).

In 1963, Lockheed began shakedown flights on the NF-104 with company test pilot Jack Woodman. After a few months the program was turned over to Major Robert W. “Smitty” Smith at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), flying out of the Fighter Branch of Test Operations. A year later, when I was assigned to the fighter branch, I did a little off-the-record dogfighting against Smitty. By disabling the safety system that prevented loss of control at high angles of attack and high Gs, he could fly the F-104 near its aerodynamic limits. You couldn’t beat Smitty in an F-104.

To reach maximum altitude, the pilot accelerated the NF-104 at full power to maximum speed, then pulled up into a “zoom climb.” In a zoom, the more energy you could build up during acceleration—and the more precisely you could maintain the optimal climb angle—the higher the airplane would climb when it coasted to the top of the zoom. Smitty reached 120,800 feet on one zoom—not an official world record because it was a test flight and the official monitors were not in place. Optimum climb angle for the aircraft turned out to be between 65 and 70 degrees, which, added to a 14-degree seat cant and a five-degree angle of attack, left the pilot reclined at an angle of about 85 degrees. You couldn’t see the ground from that position, so all zoom maneuvers were made on instruments. On one flight, Smitty tried an angle of 85 degrees, but he lost control and tumbled, going over the top upside down. The aircraft entered a spin but he recovered. Smitty was fearless.

Yeager had taken the NF-104 up three times to get a feel for it, and on December 10, 1963, he was scheduled to fly two zoom flights in preparation for an all-out record attempt the next day. During the morning flight he reached 108,700 feet, but Yeager felt the Starfighter could be taken much higher.

On the afternoon flight, Yeager’s test profile called for him to accelerate to Mach 1.7 at 37,000 feet, light the rocket engine to accelerate to Mach 2.2 at 40,000 feet, and then climb at 70 degrees. As the aircraft passed through 70,000 feet, ground control informed Yeager that he had less than the desired angle of climb. He applied the reaction controls to get back on the flight path, a technique he had used before. But on this flight he was at a lower altitude (101,595 feet) and the reaction controls were not yet effective. There was a higher dynamic pressure on the control surfaces, meaning the horizontal tail would have been more effective. Then, when he attempted to lower the nose at the peak of his climb, he found that neither the aerodynamic controls nor the reaction controls could reduce the angle of attack enough to prevent a spin. Soon he was gyrating in all directions, and nothing would stop it. A mile above the desert and falling like a manhole cover, he ejected.

As his parachute opened, he was struck in the face by the base of his rocket seat. His helmet’s visor broke and burning residue from the rocket entered the helmet. Pure oxygen for breathing was flowing to the helmet, igniting a flame that started to fry his neck and face. As he descended, Yeager removed a glove and used his bare hand to try to put out the fire around his nose and mouth, charring two fingers and a thumb. The aircraft hit the ground in a flat attitude, and Yeager landed a short distance from the wreckage. Within a few minutes a helicopter and flight surgeon arrived. Yeager had second-degree burns on the left side of his face and neck and on his left hand, and a cut on one eyelid.

The loss of an NF-104 was not the only bad news that day: Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announced the cancellation of the X-20. The Air Force lost a manned space program, Yeager was injured and wrapped in bandages, and the Air Force had put a hold on his spending.


What Couldn’t the F-4 Phantom Do?

First, they tried an F-104.  “Not enough wing or thrust,” recalls Jack Petry, a retired U.S. Air Force colonel. When NASA engineers were launching rockets at Florida’s Cape Canaveral in the 1960s, they needed pilots to fly close enough to film the missiles as they accelerated through Mach 1 at 35,000 feet. Petry was one of the chosen. And the preferred chase airplane was the McDonnell F-4 Phantom.

“Those two J79 engines made all the difference,” says Petry. After a Mach 1.2 dive synched to the launch countdown, he “walked the [rocket’s] contrail” up to the intercept, tweaking closing speed and updating mission control while camera pods mounted under each wing shot film at 900 frames per second. Matching velocity with a Titan rocket for 90 extreme seconds, the Phantom powered through the missile’s thundering wash, then broke away as the rocket surged toward space. Of pacing a Titan II in a two-seat fighter, Petry says: “Absolutely beautiful. To see that massive thing in flight and be right there in the air with it—you can imagine the exhilaration.” 

For nearly four decades  of service in the U.S. military, the Phantom performed every combat task thrown at it—almost every mission ever defined.

“All we had to work with at the beginning was a gleam in the customer’s eye,” said James S. McDonnell of the Phantom’s inception. In 1954, the ambitious founder of McDonnell Aircraft personally delivered to the Pentagon preliminary sketches based on the U.S. Navy’s request for a twin-engine air superiority fighter. The Navy green-lighted McDonnell’s concept, as well as a competing offer from Chance-Vought that updated the F8U Crusader.

Revetments at an air base in Da Nang sheltered F-4s from mortar and rockets. (National Museum of the USAF) The F-4’s folding wing eased movement aboard aircraft carriers. (US Navy via D. Sheley) Steve Ritchie (front seat) and Chuck DeBellevue shot down four MiGs as a team. (National Museum of the USAF) In 2005, four Phantoms painted in Vietnam-era markings fly a U.S. Air Force Heritage demonstration over Florida. (USAF) Doug Joyce trained at Davis-Monthan Force Base in Arizona before flying the F-4 on night missions in Vietnam. (Courtesy Doug Joyce ) An F-4 makes a practice landing on the USS Midway on June 15, 1963. ( Del Laughery/jetwash images) Phantom pilot John Chesire flew combat missions from Midway during the Vietnam War. (Courtesy John Chesire) The U.S. Air Force would become McDonnell Aircraft’s biggest F-4 customer. (USAF) An F-4M goes vertical over Germany on October 24, 1989. McDonnell Douglas manufactured 116 M variants for Britain’s Royal Air Force, which used the aircraft for low-altitude strike and reconnaissance. (Stefan Petersen) The Phantom was known for its smoky engines. (DOD) An F-4G (left) and an F-16 prepare to deploy to Saudi Arabia for the first Gulf War. The F-4 was a Wild Weasel, tasked with destroying surface-to-air-missile sites in Iraq. (DOD) Weasel mission patch. (USAF via ebay)

In an area of McDonnell’s St. Louis, Missouri factory known as the advanced design cage—a cluster of three desks and a few drafting boards partitioned off with drywall topped with chicken wire—just four engineers worked on the airplane that would propel naval aviation into the future. As the engineers worked, the Navy clarified its concept of air superiority: The service wanted a two-seat, high-altitude interceptor to neutralize the threat Soviet bombers posed to America’s new fleet of Forrestal-class super-carriers. Now designated F4H-1, the project soon engulfed the entire resources of “McAir,” as the company was known. By 1962, F-4 program manager David Lewis would be company president.

McDonnell’s and the Navy’s design philosophy assumed the next war, not the last. The F-4’s rear cockpit was there for a backseater to handle what was sure to be a heavy information load. For the air-to-air encounters of tomorrow, gunnery was supplanted by radar-guided missiles. Though not strictly solid state, the airframe was stuffed with state of the art: Westinghouse radar, Raytheon missile fire control, advanced navigation systems, and an analog air-data computer. A network of onboard sensors extended nose to tail.

On the factory floor, integrating 30,000 electronic parts and 14 miles of wiring gave troubleshooters a fit—and job security. Cheek-by-jowl components generated clashing sources of electromagnetic energy. Voltage wandered wire to wire, producing crazy glitches: Gauges displayed 800 gallons when the fuel tanks were empty. Just how convoluted the glitches could get was demonstrated when baffling control losses were traced to a random match between the pitch of one test pilot’s voice in the headset mic and the particular resonance of a signal controlling autopilot activation.

After the F-4 eliminated the F8U-3 in a competitive fly-off, George Spangenberg, an official in the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, declared: “The single-seat fighter era is dead.” Though its General Electric J79 engines advertised its arrival with a smoke trail visible 25 miles away—a Phantom calling card that would take two decades to engineer out—the first F-4 production models rolled off McDonnell’s assembly line with Mach 2 capability as standard equipment and a 1,000-hour warranty. Delivered to California’s Naval Air Station Miramar in December 1960 as a fleet defender purpose-built to intercept high-flying nuclear foes, the massively powered, technology-chocked F-4 seemed to herald the same break from 1950s orthodoxy as John F. Kennedy’s torch-has-been-passed inauguration speech, then only weeks away.

Navy aviators of the early 1950s made do with jet aircraft hamstrung by the requirements for carrier landings. “I wouldn’t say I really aspired to fly the [McDonnell] F3H Demon,” says Guy Freeborn, a retired Navy commander, of the clunky subsonic he once had to eject from. “But then, one day, here was this beautiful new F-4 sitting right next to it.” Suddenly, carrier-based fliers like Freeborn—who would spend two Vietnam combat tours in the front seat of a Phantom—found themselves sole proprietors of the hottest fighter on Earth.

The new jet took some getting used to. Getting F-4s to fly and fight required a team effort: a pilot up front and a radar intercept officer (RIO) behind. The ethos of the solitary hunter-killer, not to mention the ability to single-handedly grease precarious landings on pitching carrier decks, fostered a strong DIY culture among Navy fighter pilots. How to process the notion of a RIO (aka “guy in back,” aka “voice in the luggage compartment”), who wasn’t even a pilot, looking over your shoulder?

Aerial combat in Vietnam had a clarifying effect on pilots’ attitudes toward RIOs. “I loved it,” says John Chesire, who flew 197 combat missions in the Phantom during two tours in Vietnam. “We split our duties, and he kept me out of trouble. Going into combat, the workload was so high that I really relied on the guy behind me.”

Flying into combat without a shooting iron was another matter. “That was the biggest mistake on the F-4,” says Chesire. “Bullets are cheap and tend to go where you aim them. I needed a gun, and I really wished I had one.”

“Everyone in RF-4s wished they had a gun on the aircraft,” says Jack Dailey, a retired U.S. Marine Corps general and director of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

McDonnell’s earliest concept included interchangeable nose sections to readily convert a standard F-4 into the RF-4B, a camera-equipped reconnaissance aircraft. The aircraft’s most photo-friendly asset, however, was speed. RF-4Bs flew alone and unarmed deep into unfriendly airspace. “Speed is life,” Phantom pilots liked to say.

In the front seat of a Marine Corps photo-recon Phantom on more than 250 missions, Dailey was tasked to support Marines on the ground with film and infrared imagery. “We were trying to track movement of the Viet Cong coming down the Ho Chi Minh Trail,” he says. “They moved their trucks a lot at night. We could fly along a road and pop flash cartridges and catch them out in the open.”

The recce pilots in RF-4s had good reason to wish for a gun: The focal length of the RF-4’s camera lens and the required photo coverage imposed a flight regime that didn’t include evasive action. “For photographic purposes, they wanted you flying straight and level at about 5,000 feet,” says Dailey. The predictable flight path and the absence of defensive weapons drew enemy calibers from anti-aircraft artillery down to small arms. “We got hosed down every day,” says Dailey. Often, ground forces simply used barrage fire—large groups firing rifles and other sidearms into the sky simultaneously. Dailey’s Phantom was nailed on nine occasions. A rifle round once penetrated the cockpit, narrowly missing him. Another time he landed with so much engine damage “you could see light shining through.”

Naval aviators were rudely initiated into an F-4 idiosyncrasy: As airplane and deck parted company, the Phantom’s nose initially rose slowly.  And with a bit of speed, the nose could over-rotate to a near-stall attitude if not controlled. “It got pretty wild,” says Chesire. “It was always lots of fun to watch new guys take off.”

About Stephen Joiner

Stephen Joiner writes about aviation from his home in southern California.


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New Eastern Outlook

P 13.11.2020 U F. William Engdahl

Bill Gates is actively financing and promoting new untested vaccines supposed to keep us at least somewhat safe from a ghastly death from the novel coronavirus and supposedly allow us to resume somewhat “normal” lives. The Pharma giant Pfizer has now announced what they claim were spectacular results in initial human tests. They use an experimental technology known as gene editing, specifically mRNA gene-editing, something never before used in vaccines. Before we rush to get jabbed in hopes of some immunity, we should know more about the radical experimental technology and its lack of precision.

The financial world went ballistic on November 9 when the pharma giant Pfizer and its German partner, BioNTech, announced in a company press release that it had developed a vaccine for Covid19 that was “90%” effective. The controversial US head of NIAID, Tony Fauci, rushed to greet the news and the EU announced it had purchased 300 million doses of the costly new vaccine. If you believe financial markets, the pandemic is all but past history.

Suspicious events

However it seems Albert Bourla, the CEO of Pfizer, doesn’t share the confidence of his own claims. On the day his company issued its press release on the proposed vaccine trials, he sold 62% of his stock in Pfizer, making millions profit in the deal. He made the sell order in a special option in August so it would not appear as “insider selling”, however he also timed it just after the US elections and the mainstream media illegitimately declared Joe Biden President-elect. It seems from appearances that Bourla had a pretty clear conflict of interest in the timing of his press release on the same day.

Bourla lied and denied to press that his company had received any funds from the Trump Administration to develop the vaccine when it came out they contracted in summer to deliver 100 million doses to the US Government. Further adding to the suspect actions of Pfized was the fact the company first informed the team of Joe biden rather than the relevant US government agencies.

But this is far from the only thing alarming about the much-hyped Pfizer announcement.

The German Partner

Pfizer, famous for its Viagra and other drugs, has partnered with a small Mainz, Germany company, BioNTech, which has developed the radical mRNA technique used to produce the new corona vaccine. BioNTech was only founded in 2008. BioNTech signed an agreement with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in September, 2019, just before announcement in Wuhan China of the Novel Coronavirus and just before BioNTech made its stock market debut. The agreement involved cooperation on developing new mRNA techniques to treat cancer and HIV. Curiously that press release, “The Gates Foundation sees BioNTech potential to ‘dramatically reduce global HIV and tuberculosis’” 05. September 2019, has now been deleted.

BioNTech also has an agreement with one of the largest drug producers in China, Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (“Fosun Pharma”) to develop a version of its mRNA vaccine for novel coronavirus for the Chinese market. Ai-Min Hui, President of Global R&D of Fosun Pharma said in an August statement, “Dosing the first Chinese subject with BNT162b1 marks a milestone of the global co-development program in China. We are closely working with BioNTech and regulatory authorities to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BNT162b1 and other mRNA vaccine candidates…”

This means that the same German biotech company is behind the covid vaccines being rushed out in China as well as the USA and EU. The vaccine is being rushed through to eventual approval in an alarmingly short time.

Both US and EU authorities and presumably also Chinese, waived the standard animal tests using ferrets or mice and have gone straight to human “guinea pigs.” Human tests began in late July and early August. Three months is unheard of for testing a new vaccine. Several years is the norm. Because of the degree of global panic engendered by WHO over the coronavirus, caution is thrown to the wind. Vaccine makers all have legal indemnity, meaning they can’t be sued if people die or are maimed from the new vaccine. But the most alarming fact about the new Pfizer-BioNTech gene edited vaccine is that the gene edited mRNA for human vaccine application has never before been approved. Notably, two year peer reviewed tests with mice fed genetically modified corn sprayed with Monsanto glyphosate-rich Roundup first showed cancer tumors after nine months as well as liver and other organ damage. Earlier Monsanto company tests ended at three months and claimed no harm. A similar situation exists with the gene edited mRNA vaccines that are being rushed out after less than 90 days human tests.

“ Explicitly experimental”

Dr. Michael Yeadon replied in a recent public social media comment to a colleague in the UK, “All vaccines against the SARS-COV-2 virus are by definition novel. No candidate vaccine has been… in development for more than a few months.” Yeadon then went on to declare, “If any such vaccine is approved for use under any circumstances that are not EXPLICITLY experimental, I believe that recipients are being misled to a criminal extent. This is because there are precisely zero human volunteers for…whom there could possibly be more than a few months past-dose safety information.”

Yeadon is well qualified to make the critique. As he notes in the comment, “I have a degree in Biochemistry & Toxicology & a research based PhD in pharmacology. I have spent 32 years working in pharmaceutical R&D, mostly in new medicines for disorders of lung & skin. I was a VP at Pfizer & CEO…. of a biotech I founded (Ziarco – acquired by Novartis). I’m knowledgeable about new medicine R&D.” He was formerly with Pfizer at a very senior level.

Human guinea pigs?

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is experimental and far from guaranteed safe, despite the fact that Pfizer, the EU and the notorious Dr Tony Fauci seem ready to roll it out even before year end to hundreds of millions of humans.

The experimental technology is based on a rather new gene manipulation known as gene editing. In a major article in the 2018 New York Council on Foreign Relations magazine, Foreign Affairs , Bill Gates effusively promoted the novel gene editing CRISPR technology as being able to “transform global development.” He noted that his Gates Foundation had been financing gene editing developments for vaccines and other applications for a decade.

But is the technology for breaking and splicing of human genes so absolutely safe that it is worth risking on a novel experimental vaccine never before used on humans? Contrary to what Bill Gates claims, the scientific answer is no, it is not proven so safe.

In a peer reviewed article in the October, 2020 journal Trends in Genetics , the authors conclude that “the range of possible molecular events resulting from genome editing has been underestimated and the technology remains unpredictable on, and away from, the target locus.”

Dr. Romeo Quijano, retired professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, noted some of the dangers of the experimental gene editing when applied to human vaccines. Quijano warns of, “the danger that the vaccine might actually “enhance” the pathogenicity of the virus, or make it more aggressive possibly due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), as what happened with previous studies on test vaccines in animals. If that should happen in a major human trial the outcome could be disastrous. This serious adverse effect may not even be detected by a clinical trial especially in highly biased clinical trials laden with conflicts of interest involving vaccine companies. Even when a serious adverse event is detected, this is usually swept under the rug.” He cites the case of another Gates mRNA vaccine candidate, Moderna, where “three of the 15 human experimental subjects in the high dose group suffered serious and medically significant symptoms. Moderna, however, concluded that the vaccine was “generally safe and well tolerated,” which the corporate-dominated media dutifully reported, covering-up the real danger…”

He notes, “Exogenous mRNA is inherently immune-stimulatory, and this feature of mRNA could be beneficial or detrimental. It may provide adjuvant activity and it may inhibit antigen expression and negatively affect the immune response. The paradoxical effects of innate immune sensing on different formats of mRNA vaccines are incompletely understood.” Quijano adds, “A mRNA-based vaccine could also induce potent type I interferon responses, which have been associated not only with inflammation but also potentially with autoimmunity… and may promote blood coagulation and pathological thrombus formation.”

Quijano writes in the extensively documented article, “among other dangers, the virus-vectored vaccines could undergo recombination with naturally occurring viruses and produce hybrid viruses that could have undesirable properties affecting transmission or virulence. The…possible outcomes of recombination are practically impossible to quantify accurately given existing tools and knowledge. The risks, however, are real, as exemplified by the emergence of mutant types of viruses, enhanced pathogenicity and unexpected serious adverse events (including death) following haphazard mass vaccination campaigns and previous failed attempts to develop chimeric vaccines using genetic engineering technology.”

Bill Gates, the mRNA vaccine makers including Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna, and their close allies such as Dr. Tony Fauci of the NIAID are clearly playing fast and loose with human lives in their rush to get these experimental vaccines into our bodies. Notably, the same Dr. Fauci and his NIAID owns the patent on a vaccine for dengue fever known as Dengvaxia, marketed by Sanofi-Pasteur and promoted as an “essential” vaccine by Tedros’ WHO since 2016. Robert F. Kennedy jr. noted that Fauci and NIAID “knew from the clinical trials that there was a problem with paradoxical immune response,” but they gave it to several hundred thousand Filipino kids anyway. It was estimated that as many as 600 vaccinated children died before the government stopped the vaccinations.

Clearly the well-established Precautionary Principle–if in serious doubt, don’t– is being ignored by Fauci, Pfizer/BioNTech and others in rushing to approve the new mRNA vaccine for coronavirus. Messenger RNA technology has yet to produce an approved medicine, let alone a vaccine.

F. William Engdahl is strategic risk consultant and lecturer, he holds a degree in politics from Princeton University and is a best-selling author on oil and geopolitics, exclusively for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook”.


How Nikola Tesla’s St. Louis lecture helped prove that he invented radio

The 1893 lecture was also the beginning of Tesla’s friendship with Mark Twain.

Illustration by Britt Spencer

Say “Tesla” and most people think “electric car.” Less commonly, they think of that vehicle’s eponym, Nikola Tesla, the inventor of the alternating current (and inspiration for the 2020 biopic that bears his surname and stars Ethan Hawke). Tesla has also been called the inventor of radio, though some will disagree and attribute that invention to Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi.

Tesla’s early experiments with radio began in the 1890s. They involved using what he dubbed a Tesla coil (something like those glass spheres you see at science museums that surge with purple bolts of plasma). In 1893, Tesla gave a private lecture describing his radio experiments in Philadelphia. Then, a few days later, he gave a public demonstration at the National Electric Light Association Convention in St. Louis.

The frenzy around Tesla began before he even hit the lectern. His talk had originally been booked in a modest lecture hall, but then tickets sold. and sold. and sold. Before the doors opened, there were scalpers on the steps. By the timeTesla strode out onto the stage, the hall was “crowded to suffocation,” according to The Electrical Engineer. Though most were too far away to see much of the stage, everyone was nevertheless thrilled to be there. Tesla did not disappoint—he went full Vegas, a decade before Vegas even existed. He used his body to conduct electrical currents and shot electric sparks and violet streams of electricity out of his fingers. He lit up lamps just by touching them. And he “made fine cotton-covered wires stretched on a frame over the table luminous, so that in the dark they looked like attenuated violet caterpillars yards long.” In the theater lobby, he was met with another predictable crush of people, all wanting to shake the hand of the man whose fingernails, it was said, glowed in the dark.

Between moments of wowing the crowd with balls of purple electricity and magic lamps, Tesla demonstrated that it was possible to send signals through space using a receiver. Thus he explained the technology that we now know as radio.

In 1900, Marconi filed a U.S. patent for radio technology—and was turned down, because it too closely resembled Tesla’swork. Then in 1904, the court abruptly reversed its decision, which is often chalked up to political maneuverings behind the scenes. Marconi even won the Nobel Prize for inventing radio in 1911. Tesla was emotionally destroyed by the whole affair. He was vindicated in 1945, when the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the radio patent should belong to Tesla—and the justices used his St. Louis lecture as evidence to invalidate Marconi’s claims to it.

Twain and Tesla

Tesla’s other connection to Missouri was his friendship with Mark Twain the two became good friends right around the time of Tesla’s St. Louis lecture. When Twain visited Tesla’s lab in 1894, he was photographed holding a vacuum lamp lit by Tesla coil and, on that visit, proclaimed alternating currents would “revolutionize the whole electric business of the world.” Twain modeled the character of Hank Morgan from A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court on Tesla, and Tesla credited Twain’s writings to helping him recover from a terrible illness 25 years before the two met. When Tesla told Twain that he'd found his books “so captivating as to make me utterly forget my hopeless state,” Twain cried—which may be as impressive as the invention of radio.