Geskiedenis van Fern- - Geskiedenis

Geskiedenis van Fern- - Geskiedenis


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Fern

'N Blomlose plant met veeragtige blare.

(Sleepboot: t. 50; dr. 6 '; s. 10 k; a. 1 12 par.)

Die eerste varing, voorheen Intrepid, was 'n sleepboot wat onder meester Alpheus Amiss saam met die Westelike Flotilla van die oorlogsdepartement gevaar het tot 1 Oktober 1862 toe al hierdie vaartuie na die vloot oorgeplaas is. Sy is in opdrag van Amiss, wat as waarnemende vaandel gemaak is, omstreeks 19 Oktober herdoop tot Fern.

Fern is aan die Mississippi -eskader toegewys om op westelike waters tussen Kaïro, III, en die monding van die Rooi Rivier te werk. Sy sleep bote gelaai met troepe, stuur aflewerings, vervoer offisiere en sorg vir steenkoolbote. Op 19 Maart 1863 tydens 'n gesamentlike ekspedisie om die Yazoo-rivier binne te dring, het sy generaal-majoor William T. Sherman na Steele's Bayou geneem. Van Augustus 1863 tot Mei 1865 was sy by Natchez gestasioneer om steenkoolbakke te versorg en te pomp, en het vroeg in Junie 1865 deelgeneem aan 'n ekspedisie langs die Rooi Rivier om die oorgawe van die Konfederale Vlootmanne en materiaal te ontvang.

Fern is beveel om na Mound City, Ill., Waar sy op 12 Augustus 1865 ontmantel is en later verkoop word.


Oor Varings

Varings is een van die oudste groepe plante op aarde, met 'n fossielrekord wat dateer uit die middelste Devoon (383-393 miljoen jaar gelede) (Taylor, Taylor en Krings, 2009). Onlangse skattings oor afwykingstyd dui daarop dat hulle selfs ouer kan wees, moontlik dat hulle eers tot 430 mya ontwikkel het (Testo en Sundue, 2016). Ten spyte van die eerbiedwaardige ouderdom van die groep as geheel, het die meeste van die vroegste varings sedertdien uitgesterf. Groepe soos die Rhacophytales, wat moontlik van die vroegste stamvaders van varings was, die ou boomvarings Pseudosporochnales en Tempskya, en die klein, bosagtige Stauropterids het al lankal verdwyn. Die diversiteit van varings wat ons vandag sien, het relatief onlangs in geologiese tyd ontwikkel, baie daarvan slegs in die afgelope 70 miljoen jaar.

Vandag is varings die tweede mees uiteenlopende groep vaatplante op aarde, wat slegs in die getal is deur blomplante. Met ongeveer 10 500 lewende spesies (PPG 1), is varings groter as die oorblywende nie-bloeiende vaatplante (die likofiete en gimnosperme) met 'n faktor van 4 tot 1. Hoe het varings so uiteenlopend geword, en wat is die geheime van hul sukses? Watter eienskappe deel hulle in gemeen, en hoe verskil hulle van ander groepe plante? Hierna volg 'n kort inleiding oor die biologie van varings, aan die begin, met die oorsprong en ontwikkeling van varings in die plante wat ons in die hede sien, en let veral op sommige van die groepe wat onderweg uitgesterf het. Daar is afsonderlike afdelings wat onderwerpe dek wat wissel van varingmorfologie, filogenetiese verwantskappe en die varingsiklus, asook die belangrike rol wat gametofiete speel in die biologie van varings.

GEDEELDE, AFGELEIDE EIENSKAPPE

Figuur 1. Stele struktuur van saadplante en varings, met uitgestorwe familielede, aangepas uit Kenrick en Crane, 1997. Die posisie van die protoksiel word aangedui deur sirkels en lyne binne die stele. Oop sirkels dui protoksielemlacunae aan.

Figuur 2. Geselekteerde anatomiese eienskappe van varings. Spesies wat voorgestel word, is Polypodium remotum Desv., Geïllustreer in Garden Ferns (1862) deur William Hooker.

Figuur 3. Sporangia gegroepeer in 'n sorus. Met vergunning van Rogelio Moreno.

Vanweë hul aansienlike ouderdom bevat varings 'n groot mate van diversiteit, en sommige groepe lyk niks soos die meer algemene verteenwoordigers wat ons gewoonlik met varings assosieer nie. Daar is gevolglik slegs een anatomiese kenmerk wat hulle verenig, 'n onopvallende eienskap wat die ontwikkeling van vaskulêre weefsel in die stam moet waarneem. Volgens Kenrick en Crane (1997) is die mesarg (afgelei in die middel) protoksiel (protoksiel = die watergeleidende selle wat die eerste groei in 'n ontwikkelende stam, die gevolg van primêre groei) by varings. die xileem -string (Fig. 1). Dit is in teenstelling met die toestand in saadplante waarin die protoksiel ook deur die middelpunte en middelpunt van die xileemstreng in 'n gegewe vaskulêre bondel ontwikkel. Gelukkig het verdere onderverdeelde groepe binne varings gedeelde eienskappe wat makliker waargeneem kan word.

Die meeste varings het risome, ondergrondse stamme waaruit die blare geproduseer word (Figuur 2). Baie varings het lang, kruipende risome wat ingewikkelde netwerke ondergronds vorm, en alhoewel die blare kan verouder en afval as gevolg van ouderdom of koue weer, kan hierdie risome onbepaald voortduur en jaar na jaar nuwe blare stuur. 'N Hele blaar word a genoem frond, terwyl na verdere onderafdelings verwys word as pinnae (eerste afdeling), wat langs die hoofstam groei (a genoem rachis in varings), en spelde (volgende afdelings). Die gedeelte van die rachis sonder pinnae word die steun (petiole), wat direk aan die risoom geheg word. Die meeste varingsblare het ook 'n sirkelvormige verniering, waarin die nuwe groei styf opgerol word in 'n fraktale spiraal, wat geleidelik ontvou soos die blaar ontwikkel, wat die meristeem beskerm. Hierdie krul vorm die bekende vioolkop aan die punt van nuwe fronds. Varings reproduseer deur spore, wat gewoonlik geproduseer word aan die onderkant (abaksiale kant) van blare deur gespesialiseerde strukture sporangia. Sporangia kan ontwikkel in trosse genaamd sori, wat sirkelvormig kan wees (Figuur 3), in verskillende rye, of selfs die hele onderkant van 'n blaar kan bedek (acrostichoid sori) en word soms beskerm deur 'n oorhangende struktuur wat 'n indusium. Ander spesies het 'n steriele/vrugbare fronddimorfie, waarin spore slegs op sekere blare geproduseer word en nie op ander nie.

VERHOUDINGS

Figuur 4. Individuele sporangium met selektiewe etikettering. Met vergunning van Rogelio Moreno.

Figuur 5. Tans aanvaarde filogenie van varings, volgens die Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG 1).

In die algemeen kan varings in twee groepe verdeel word, die eusporangiates en leptosporangiates, met die grootste deel van die diversiteit wat in laasgenoemde voorkom. Hierdie terme verwys na hoe sporangia ontwikkel en volwasse word. By eusporangiates ontwikkel 'n gegewe sporangium uit verskeie aanvanklike selle op die oppervlak van stingels of blare en bestaan ​​uit verskeie sellae in die vroeë ontwikkelingsfases. Elke sporangium kan honderde spore produseer. Daarteenoor ontstaan ​​leptosporangia uit slegs een aanvanklike sel, wat 'n gestengelde kapsule produseer wat slegs een sellaag in dikte is. Hierdie sporangia het ook 'n ry hol selle langs twee derdes van die boonste oppervlak wat met water gevul is (Figuur 4). Die dun, membraneuse selle is hoogs deurlaatbaar, sodat water maklik kan verdamp. Dit veroorsaak dat spanning binne die waterkolom binne bou, wat die oorblywende water laat saamtrek, wat veroorsaak dat die ring die dunwandige sporangium stadig oop trek en die spore daarin blootstel. Maar op 'n stadium word die spanning in die kolom sterker as die hechtingseienskappe van water, en die kolom klap, wat die spore teen hoë snelhede in die omliggende omgewing inlaat.

Die eusporangiates bestaan ​​uit die paardestertjies (Equisetales), klitsvarings (Psilotales), maanwortels (Ophioglossales) en marattioidvarings, wat altesaam ongeveer 255 spesies (PPG 1) tel (figuur 5). Die presiese verwantskappe van die eerste drie groepe was lank onbekend; dit was onduidelik of dit ware varings verteenwoordig of eintlik die laaste spore was van antieke plantgroepe wat heeltemal van varings geskei was. Om hierdie rede is daar dikwels na hierdie groepe verwys as die varing bondgenote. Onlangse molekulêre werk het egter getoon dat die sweepvarings (Psilotales) en maanwortels (Ophioglossales) onomwonde varings is en dat die paardestertjies die suster is van alle ander spesies binne die varingklade (Knie et al., 2014 Rothfels et al. 2015) . Baie navorsers gebruik nou die term 'monilofiet' om al hierdie groepe te omvat, insluitend alle eusporangiate en leptosporangiate clades.

Die leptosporangiate bevat die grootste deel van varingdiversiteit, wat bestaan ​​uit ongeveer 10 323 spesies, gegroepeer in 44 gesinne (PPG 1). Die meeste leptosporangiaatvarings, sowel as alle eusporangiate, is homospories, wat beteken dat elke spesie spore van net een grootte produseer. Die watervarings in die orde Salviniales is die enigste uitsondering op hierdie reël, met heterosporiese spore. In hierdie toestand produseer 'n enkele plant beide klein mikrospore, wat manlike gametofiete ontwikkel, en 'n paar veel groter megaspore, wat ontwikkel in endosporiese vroulike gametofiete. Terwyl die gametofiete van die meeste spesies die spooromhulsel by ontkieming oopbreek, onafhanklik en fotosinteties word, word die vroulike gametofiete van heterosporiese spesies in die megaspoor behou en is dit afhanklik van gestoorde lipiede en koolhidrate vir voeding. Dit is waarskynlik dat die behoud van die vroulike gametofiet in 'n heterosporiese plantgroep tot die ontwikkeling van die eerste sade gelei het.

EVOLUTIONARYRE GESKIEDENIS

Tabel 1. Lys van varings en uitgestorwe familielede met hul gepaardgaande fossielrekorddatums. Die groepe wat nog bestaan, word gemerk as 'teenwoordig' (uit Taylor, Taylor en Kring, 2009).

Die Devoon was 'n tydperk van groot verandering vir die planeet. Die voorouers van groen alge het vroeër in die Paleozoïese era uit hul mariene en varswateromgewings na die land getrek en begin om stamme en wortels te ontwikkel om hul oorlewing moontlik te maak in die moeilike omstandighede waarmee hulle in die aarde se prehistoriese aardomgewings te kampe gehad het. Hierdie eerste plante het egter miljoene jare lank nie ware blare gehad nie, maar het chloroplaste in hul stamme gehad om fotosintese moontlik te maak. In die middel en laat Devoon, toe plante oor die hele wêreld se ekosisteme begin versprei het, het hulle egter 'n aansienlike hoeveelheid CO2 opgesluit deur begrawe en die verwering van kaal rots, wat die planeet laat afkoel het (Mora, Driese en Calarusso, 1996 ). Dit het beteken dat plante groter strukture kon ontwikkel om meer lig te ondervang sonder om te oorverhit, en gedurende hierdie tyd begin die eerste blare verskyn (Beerling, Osborne en Chaloner, 2001). Alhoewel blare waarskynlik verskeie kere in landplante ontwikkel het, was die vroegste voorouers van varings een van die eerstes wat dit besit het.

Sommige bestaande varingsoorte het uiters klein en gespesialiseerde blare (perdestertjies) of selfs geen blare nie (klitsvarings), maar daar is bewyse dat dit nie altyd die geval was met hierdie groepe nie. Sommige van die voorouers van die moderne paardestert, die Kalamiete, het die grootte van bome geword en blare gehad met prominente vaskulêre bondels (Taylor, Taylor en Krings, 2009).

Terwyl varings vir die eerste keer in die Devoon ontwikkel het, het hulle tydens die koolstof (299-369 mya) een van die mees dominante groepe plante op die planeet geword. Groei langs die reuse -boom likofiete (bv., Lepidodendron) in groot moerasse het varings vir etlike miljoene jare gedy en gediversifiseer. Leptosporangiate varings het gedurende hierdie tyd ontwikkel en die eerste van drie groot stralings ondergaan, wat aanleiding gegee het tot verskeie gesinne (Rothwell en Stokey, 2008).

Toe hierdie plante doodgaan, sak hulle in die anoksiese moerasse, waar die gebrek aan suurstof voorkom dat bakterieë die dooie weefsel afbreek. Die hewige groei in hierdie moerasse, en die daaropvolgende begrafnis, het die meeste steenkool- en aardgasafsettings wat ons vandag het, veroorsaak. Elke keer as u met u motor ry, gebruik u versteende varings om u bestemming te bereik.

Namate die koolstofbome tot 'n einde gekom het, het die meeste van die eerste leptosporangiaanse families wat ontwikkel het, geleidelik uitgesterf. Ten minste een afstammeling het egter oorleef om aanleiding te gee tot die tweede groot bestraling van leptosporangiate varings, wat begin in die laat Perm (

250 mya) (Rothwell en Stokey, 2008). Sommige van die oudste fossiele uit hierdie diversifikasie is van die Osumundales, wat spesies insluit, soos die kaneelvaring (Osmundastrum cinnamomeum) en koninklike varing (Osmunda regalis) (sien tabel 1 vir 'n lys van gesinne en hul ouderdomme). Die meeste van die groepe wat gedurende hierdie tyd ontwikkel het, het tot op hede oorleef, en hoewel dit 'n beskeie diversiteit bevat, het die derde en laaste straling verreweg die grootste deel van varingsoorte tot gevolg gehad.

Ongeveer 135 mya, tydens die Kryt, het 'n klein groepie plante ontwikkel wat die ekosisteme van die planeet vinnig en drasties sou verander. Bloeiende plante (angiosperme) het hul oorsprong in die trope en het vinnig gediversifiseer en versprei na alle groot dele van die wêreld, wat verskeie groepe plante tot uitwissing gedryf het en die diversiteit in ander ernstig verminder het. Leptosporangiaatvarings blyk die enigste groep vaatplante te wees wat langs angiosperme gedy het, eerder as om gemarginaliseer te word (Schuettpelz en Pryer, 2009). Die koms van hoë, angiosperm-gedomineerde reënwoude in die trope het nuwe omgewings oopgemaak waarin varings suksesvol kon uitbuit en diversifiseer, wat gelei het tot die derde bestraling van leptosporangiate varings. Gevolglik groei die meeste varingsoorte vandag in die trope. Costa Rica is byvoorbeeld kleiner as die deelstaat Wes -Virginië en het tog byna 3X soveel varingspesies as die hele kontinentale Verenigde State en Kanada saam.

LEWENS SIKLUS

Figuur 6. Lewensiklus van varings, wat die verskillende voortplantingsmetodes uitbeeld wat kan plaasvind, uitgesluit ongeslagtelike voortplanting, soos apomixis (van Sessa, Testo en Watkins, 2016).

Figuur 7. Verskeie morfologieë van varing gametofiete (van Pinson et al., 2017 en Paul K).

Oor die landplantfilogenie is daar 'n patroon van toenemende kompleksiteit van sporofiete saam met 'n gepaardgaande afname in die onafhanklikheid van die gametofietgedeelte van die lewensiklus. Bryofiete, wat die eerste plante was wat grond gekoloniseer het, groei as onafhanklike gametofiete wat voedingsafhanklike sporofiete produseer. Omgekeerd, aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die landplantfilogenie, het die saadplante dominante sporofiete met afhanklike gametofiete wat tot slegs 'n paar selle gereduseer is. Varings en likofiete, wat die evolusionêre gaping tussen hierdie afstammings oorskry, is die enigste groepe plante waarin beide die sporofiet en gametofiet heeltemal onafhanklik van mekaar is.

By varings sal 'n volwasse sporofiet haploïede spore ontwikkel deur die proses van meiose. Sodra hierdie spore volwasse is, word dit versprei in die omliggende omgewing en sal dit uiteindelik in gametofiete ontkiem. By eusporangiale varings is die gametofiete ondergronds (met die uitsondering van Marattioid varings) en nie-fotosinteties, wat koolhidrate verkry uit 'n simbiotiese verhouding met 'n swam. By homosporiese leptosporangiaat varings groei die gametofiete bo die grond en is fotosinteties. Gametofiete produseer beide manlike (antheridia) en vroulike (archegonia) geslagsorgane, of hulle kan dit afsonderlik produseer. Sperm in alle varings is beweeglik en het verskeie flagella wat hulle toelaat om kort afstande te reis. Baie leptosporangiaanse varings het klein, hartvormige (kordate) gametofiete wat dus naby genoeg moet groei sodat sperms tussen hulle kan swem sodat uitkruising kan plaasvind (alhoewel sommige varings in staat is om self te bevrug). Sodra die sperm met die eier verenig het, groei 'n nuwe diploïede sporofiet direk uit die gametofitiese weefsel, waarna die gametofiet senuwees en/of in die nuwe groei ondergaan word (Figuur 6).

Die hartvormige gametofiete van die meeste leptosporangiaanse varings word dikwels aangetref in onlangs versteurde gebiede, aangesien spore wat in die grond begrawe word, blootgestel word en kan ontkiem met min omliggende mededinging. Die gametofiete groei dan vinnig om nuwe sporofiete te vestig voor die volgende versteuring (Watkins, Mack en Mulkey, 2007). 'N Groot persentasie varings (

10%) is egter epifities, omdat hulle gediversifiseer het in die afdakke van deur die angiosperm gedomineerde woude in die Kryt (Schuettpelz en Pryer, 2009). Die lewe in tropiese afdakke plaas heeltemal ander beperkings op die groei van beide sporofiete en gametofiete, wat vereis dat elke fase van die lewensiklus aanpas om te oorleef. Tropiese afdakke ondersteun digte plantegroei, wat dit moeilik maak vir nuwe plante om gevestig te word en om die beperkte beskikbare hulpbronne mee te ding. Digte matte van bryofiete belemmer ook die groei van die gametofietmatte wat nodig is vir uitkruising. Die gametofiete van baie epifytiese varings het gevolglik 'n baie meer vertakte en ontleedde morfologie as hul aardse eweknieë (lintvormig, filamentagtig of bandvormig), wat in staat is tot voortgesette meristematiese groei (Figuur 7) (Dassler en Farrar, 2001 ). Dit stel hulle nie net in staat om mee te ding in 'n digte netwerk van bryofietgroei nie, maar as twee spore 'n aansienlike afstand van mekaar op dieselfde boom beland, eerder as om selfbemesting te ondergaan, kan hierdie gametofiete groei totdat hulle naby genoeg is vir sperms om tussen hulle te swem.

Die vermoë om aanhoudend, en dikwels aseksueel, in hierdie gametofiete te groei, beteken dat hulle onbepaald kan lewe. Vanweë hul klein grootte kan hulle ook klein, beskermde mikrobewoners uitbuit in gebiede waar toestande andersins ongunstig is vir hul groei. Omdat die sporofiete baie groter is, beteken dit dat gametofiete dikwels kan groei op plekke waar die sporofiet nie kan nie, wat gelei het tot 'n ruimtelike skeiding van die twee generasies (Pinson et al., 2017). Daar is ook bewys dat gametofiete van sommige spesies 'n groter verskeidenheid omgewingstoestande verdra as hul sporofiete -eweknieë (Watkins en Cardelús, 2009 Sato en Sakei, 1981). Ongeveer dertig bekende varingsoorte het verspreidings waarin die gametofiet 'n groter geografiese omvang het as die sporofiet, en ten minste drie varingspesies het geen sporofiet op aarde nie.

Literatuur aangehaal

Beerling, D. J., Osborne, C. P., & amp; Chaloner, W. G. (2001). Evolusie van blaarvorm in landplante wat verband hou met atmosferiese CO2-afname in die laat paleozoïese era. Natuur. 410: 352-354.

Dassler, C. L., en Farrar, D. R. (2001). Betekenis van gametofietvorm in langafstandkolonisasie deur tropiese, epifitiese varings. Brittonia. 53: 352-369.

Kenrick, P., & Crane, P. R. (1997). 'N Kladistiese studie oor die oorsprong en vroeë diversifikasie van landplante. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Knie, N., Fischer, S., Grewe, F., Polsakiewicz, M., & Knoop, V. (2015). Perdestertjies is die sustergroep vir alle ander monilofiete en Marattiales is die suster van leptosporangiate varings. Molekulêre filogenetika en evolusie. 90: 140-149.

Mora, C. I., Driese, S. G., & Colarusso, L. A. (1996). Middel tot laat Paleozoïese atmosferiese CO2 -vlakke van grondkarbonaat en organiese materiaal. Wetenskap. 271: 1105.

Pinson, J. B., Chambers, S. M., Nitta, J. H., Kuo, L. Y., & amp; Sessa, E. B. (2017). Die skeiding van generasies: Biologie en biogeografie van langlewende Sporophyteless Fern Gametophytes. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 178: 1-18.

PPG 1: Die Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group*. (2016) 'n Klassifikasie wat deur die gemeenskap afgelei word vir bestaande likofiete en varings. Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54: 563-603. *Hierdie projek is gereël deur E Schuettpelz, H Schneider, AR Smith, P Hovenkamp, ​​J Prado, G Rouhan, A Salino, M Sundue, TE Almeida, B Parris, EB Sessa, AR Field, AL de Gasper, CJ Rothfels, MD Windham, M Lehnert, B Dauphin, A Ebihara, S Lehtonen, PB Schwartsburd, J Metzgar, LB Zhang, LY Kuo, PJ Brownsey, M Kato en MD Arana, met 68 addisionele bydraers.

Rothfels, C. J., Li, F. W., Sigel, E. M., Huiet, L., Larsson, A., Burge, D. O.,. & amp; Shaw, S. W. (2015). Die evolusionêre geskiedenis van varings is afgelei van 25 lae-kopie-kerngene. American Journal of Botany. 102: 1089-1107.

Rothwell, G., en Stokey, R. (2008). Filogenie en evolusie van varings: 'n paleontologiese perspektief. In T. Ranker & C. Haufler (reds.), Biologie en evolusie van varings (pp. 332-366). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sato, T., & Sakai, A. (1981). Koue verdraagsaamheid van gametofiete en sporofiete van 'n paar koel gematigde varings inheems aan Hokkaido. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59: 604-608.

Schuettpelz, E., & Pryer, K. M. (2009). Bewyse vir 'n Cenozoic bestraling van varings in 'n deur die angiosperm gedomineerde afdak. Verrigtinge van die National Academy of Sciences, 106: 11200-11205.

Sessa, E. B., Testo, W. L., & Watkins, J. E. (2016). Oor die wydverspreide kapasiteit vir en funksionele betekenis van uiterste inteling by varings. Nuwe fitoloog. 211: 1108-1119.

Taylor, E. L., Taylor, T. N., & Krings, M. (2009). Paleobotany: die biologie en evolusie van fossielplante. Londen: Akademies.

Testo, W., & Sundue, M. (2016). 'N Dataset van 4000 spesies bied nuwe insig in die evolusie van varings. Molekulêre filogenetika en evolusie. 105: 200-211.

Watkins Jr., J. E., & Cardelús, C. (2009). Habitatdifferensiasie van varings in 'n tropiese reënwoud in die laagland. American Fern Journal. 99: 162-175.

Watkins, J. E., Mack, M. K., & Mulkey, S. S. (2007). Gametofiet -ekologie en demografie van epifitiese en terrestriële tropiese varings. American Journal of Botany. 94:701-708.


Die rivierdraai wat ons nou ken as Fernhill, was eeue lank 'n belangrike plek vir mense, plante en wild.

Sedert die vroegste tye het die Atfalati- of Tualatin Kalapuya -mense die grond rondom Fernhill gebruik en gevorm. Na die Willamette Valley -verdrag van 1855 is Kalapuya met geweld na reservate in Wes -Oregon verwyder. Vandag is lewende afstammelinge van hierdie mense deel van die Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde -gemeenskap van Oregon.

As deel van die New Deal het die federale regering geselekteerde gesinne gehelp om plase in landelike gebiede te begin. Lees die herinneringe van Doris Byer Swope oor die grootwordjare op die webwerf wat ons nou ken as Fernhill.

In 1950 verkoop die Byer -gesin die grootste deel van die plaas aan die City of Forest Grove, wat 10 hektaar groot is om op te woon. 'N Uitbreiding van die behandelingsfasiliteit in 1952 het 'n anerobiese verteerder bygevoeg en die besproeiingsprogram uitgebrei na weiding van pampoen, komkommers, gars en skape. In 1954 verkoop die Byers die oorblywende oppervlakte en verhuis hulle na die nabygeleë stad Cornelius.

Die City of Forest Grove het 'n afvalwaterbehandelingsfasiliteit aan die westekant van Fern Hillweg, naby die treinspoor, gebou. Dit het bestaan ​​uit 'n Imhoff -tenk, twee afsinkbakke, slikbeddingsbeddings en 'n laboratoriumgebou. Die skoongemaakte water is vir besproeiing gebruik. Hierdie tekening uit 1952 toon dat uitbreidingsplanne nie lank nadat die fasiliteit geopen is nie, op die tafel was.

Die stad het die fasiliteit uitgebrei na die oostekant van Fern Hillweg. Nuwe kenmerke sluit in 'n primêre verhelderings-, chloor- en afvalstabiliseringsopdamme - ook bekend as rioolvalleine.

Kiesers keur die stigting van die Unified Sewerage Agency goed om 'n verspreide netwerk van behandelingsfasiliteite te konsolideer en te verbeter. 'N Jaar later het die VSA afvalwaterbehandelingsbedrywighede by Forest Grove oorgeneem. In 2001 sou die VSA die naam Clean Water Services hernoem word. 1973 foto met vergunning van Pacific University Archives.

In die vroeë sewentigerjare het die VSA die Forest Grove -afvalwaterbehandelingsfasiliteit uitgebrei en gemoderniseer.

Met die opening van die Solids Hantering Facility begin die damme 'n minder sentrale rol speel in die behandeling van afvalwater-en word dit belangriker vir die voëlhabitat.

Hierdie projek het waardevolle buigsaamheid in die behandeling van afvalwater geskep deur die Forest Grove -fasiliteit te verbind met dié in Hillsboro. Danksy hierdie twee 24 "pype, stuur Forest Grove jare lank sy vaste stowwe na die groter Hillsboro -fasiliteit, op River Road, vir finale verwerking. Meer onlangs het die kleiner fasiliteit op Hillsboro Hwy 'n deel van sy invloede na Forest Grove gestuur vir skoonmaak en keer terug na die rivier.


Geskiedenis van Fern- - Geskiedenis

Aangesien kinders oral hul ouers beïnvloed, het die McBain -kinders hul ouers oortuig om na die nabygeleë Orillia te verhuis, maar hulle was mal oor die onderneming en die invloed daarvan op hul lewens.

Eerste generasie en#8211 Wil iemand 'n oord hê?

Mnr. McBain het die onderneming verhuur aan 'n Ierse gesin, die Kennys, wat slegs drie somers geduur het. Mev. Kenny se Ierse temperament was nie geskik vir die onderneming nie; sy kon nie altyd oog met oog met die somergaste sien nie.

Mnr. McBain het in verskeie sakereise na Ottawa 'n juweliersverkoper, Samuel Breadner, ontmoet. By toeval kon mnr. Breadner se suster en swaer nie die huurkontrak op hul somerhotelonderneming in Noorweëbaai naby Ottawa hernu nie.

Na baie oortuigend het James A. Pettapiece, 'n bakkermeester, sy vrou en hul drie kinders, Gwen, Ross en Ola-Mae, in 1918 na 'n nuwe lewe in “Fern Cottage ” gebring.

In … Oor hul koppe

Hulle aankoms was nie sonder probleme nie. 'N Perd-en-snyer-span wat gehuur is om hulle oor Lake Couchiching te neem, het deur die ys gebreek toe hulle die strand nader en die hele gesin en al hul wêreldse goedere in die vlak, vrieswater gegooi.

Toe die hele gesin aan die kus gebring is, oor sneeudrywe twintig voet diep, het Mimi se gees en opsetlike goeie natuur deurgedring soos sy gesê het, dit sal pragtig wees as die sneeu in die lente smelt.

Die voorste vyf of die agterste vyf?

In 1919 het gholf in baie kringe die belangrikste sportbelang geword en James Pettapiece het besluit om 'n gholfbaan te bou om tred te hou met die veranderende tye.

Sy bates was beperk en hy het 'n koeiveld, aan twee kante begrens deur water en aan die een kant deur bos, en heeltemal bedek met die meerjarige varingsbedekte rotse en geen geld nie.

Onverskrokke begin hy met die hulp van sy perd, met die hulp van sy perd, met die hulp van sy perd skoonmaak, vorm en bou, so genoem omdat sy oud was en voortdurend val. In vyf jaar was daar 'n ruwe vorm van gholfbaan.

Deur die jare het die ou gholfbaan bewys dat hy 'n sportiewe baan is en dinge soos teëlbeddens en tennisbane, rolbalbane en personeelkwartiere oorkom. Die baan het omtrent alles gesien, alles behalwe nog 'n gat … of twee!

Met 'n groot liefde vir die onderneming, werk Gwen hard saam met haar ouers, ondanks baie hindernisse soos die gebrek aan loodgieterswerk en elektrisiteit en die tragiese kindersterftes van beide Ross en Ola-Mae Pettapiece.

Teen die 1920's is Fern Cottage omskep in een van die gewildste vakansieoorde in sy soort in Ontario.

EIENAAR:
Meneer en mev James Pettapiece

SEISOEN:
2 1/2 maande

HEAD CHEF:
Meneer Pettapiece

PRYS:
$ 15,00 en#8211 $ 20,00 per week

Die geskiedenis van Fern Resort

Tweede generasie – Die ingenieur van die gesin

In 1928 trou Gwen Pettapiece met George Bertyl (Bert) Rumble, 'n ingenieur, en verhuis na Philadelphia en keer elke somer saam met haar dogter, Mary Lou, terug om saam met haar gesin in die onderneming te werk.

By die dood van Gwen ’ se pa in 1935 besluit Bert Rumble om sy ingenieursloopbaan prys te gee en sy tyd daaraan bestee om die sukses van die oord voort te sit. Die besluit was nie maklik tydens die depressie nie, maar harde werk en toewyding aan die oord deur die hele gesin het die onderneming weer gedurende die 1930's laat floreer.

EIENAAR:
Mnr Bertyl en mev Gwen Rumble

SEISOEN:
2 1/2 maande

HEAD CHEF:
Meneer Rumble met hulp van Mimi Pettapiece

ONDERHOUD:
John Simcoe

HUISHOUDING:
Mevrou Anderson

PRYS:
$ 18,00 en#8211 $ 22,00 per week

Die geskiedenis van Fern Resort

Wie ken jy …

Die oorlogsjare het weereens nuwe wendings tot die onderneming gebring. Tydens die oorlog is Bert deur Kanada as 'n burgerlike ingenieur vir die RCAF beroep.

Op 1 Oktober 1939 pak Bert Rumble twee weke voor sluiting in vir Ottawa, en laat Mary Lou en Gwen om die seisoen af ​​te handel.

Bert ’s se dienste het Fern ‘Bertless ’ nie vir die somer verlaat nie. In die lente het die hoof van die lug, Marshall Lloyd Breadner (let op die van) dit nodig gevind om elke somer Bert Rumble af te dank sodat hy vir die volgende seisoen na Fern kon terugkeer. Dit het hom nie van sy pligte vir sy land afgestaan ​​nie, en sy kantoor was daar in Oktober volgende jaar met 'n somer se werk op die lessenaar.

EIENAAR:
Mnr Bertyl en mev Gwen Rumble

SEISOEN:
4 maande

KOP HOOF:
Elwood Simcoe

ONDERHOUD:
John Simcoe

HUISHOUDING:
Mevrou Anderson

EETKAMER:
Gwen Rumble

KANTOOR:
Buela Perrin

PRYS:
$ 32,00 tot $ 45,00 per week

Die geskiedenis van Fern Resort

Sterkte of goeie bestuur

Net voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog val Bertyl ten prooi aan 'n gladde verkoopsman wat 200 pond aan hom verkoop het. van swartpeper. Mimi het vir Bertyl die besonderhede van die bestuur van 'n oord geleer toe dit gebeur het en sou hom nie in die steek laat nie. Gevolglik was Fern egter die enigste oord in Ontario wat tydens oorlogsjare regte swartpeper gehad het. Dankie Bert.

EIENAAR:
Mnr Bertyl en mev Gwen Rumble

SEISOEN:
4 maande

HEAD CHEF:
Elwood Simcoe

ONDERHOUD:
Carl Fawn en John Simcoe

HUISHOUDING:
Sarah Wilson

EETKAMER:
Mary Lou Rumble

KANTOOR:
Lee Latimer

PRYS:
$ 42,00 tot $ 75,00 per week

Die geskiedenis van Fern Resort

Derde generasie Hoe gaan jy hulle op die plaas hou?

Mary Lou trou in Januarie 1958 met Robert Downing van Port Dover, Ontario.

Robert studeer aan Ryerson op 21 -jarige ouderdom en word aangestel as die assistentbestuurder van die restaurant van Hudson Bay Company in Vancouver. Die restaurant het 'n sitplek vir 750 en personeel van 130. Terwyl hy by die groot nasionale onderneming was, het Robert die werking van 'n groot onderneming met baie aspekte geleer, 'n ervaring wat ongetwyfeld bygedra het tot die ontwikkeling van Fern.

Een van die beleid by die Hudson Bay Company op daardie tydstip was dat bestuurders oor die hele onderneming beskik. Wat hieroor gesê kan word, is dat Robert Downing in 1958 op 22 -jarige ouderdom onderklere kan verkoop? ”

Robert en Mary Lou was daardie somer regte toeriste en het dit geniet om vriende te besoek op Vancouver Island en in die Okanagan Valley, Calgary en Banff en Jasper National Parks. Robert en Mary Lou het 2 1/2 jaar in Vancouver gewoon en is daarna na Saskatoon oorgeplaas om die nuwe restaurantafdeling vir die Hudson Bay Company te open.

“Ek sal#8217 slegs vir een jaar help

Die jaar na hul aankoms in Saskatoon het die Rumbles Mary Lou en Robert gevra om terug te keer na die oord, aangesien mev. Rumble siek was. So, in 1961, het Robert Downing, wat belowe het om nooit in die vakansiebedryf te werk nie, vir 'n jaar na Fern gekom en dat die een jaar tot vandag toe gestrek is!

Wisseling

Gesinsondernemings is nie soos gewone ondernemings waarin die oorgangstyd tussen base in sekondes op een hand getel kan word nie. In familieondernemings kan u een hand gebruik, maar u moet in denominasies van jare tel. Gesag word mettertyd oorgedra, aangeneem of gesteel van die een generasie na die ander.

Getroud met die baas se dogter

Robert Downing het sy werk met selfversekerde aggressie benader. Veranderinge en nuwe beleide het in alle rigtings gevlieg. Nie almal het hierdie beleide met ope arms en warm harte aangeneem nie.

Die meisies uit die eetkamer protesteer teen verandering deur hulself met uniforms in die water te gooi. Nie een wat ontsteld was oor die probleme van sy nuwe werk nie, het Robert die situasie reggestel deur die volgende jaar 'n manlike wagpersoneel aan te stel. Kelners is nie in die oordbedryf beskou nie, en Fern was die eerste man wat op tafels wag. As die enigste kelners in die bedryf het hulle almal vroulike byname gekry, waarvan sommige tot vandag toe gebly het.

Die hoofsjef is van dag een af ​​opgelei deur Bert Rumble. Hy het sy werk goed gedoen, maar het 'n ongelukkige gewoonte gehad om sommige dae net nie op te daag nie. Bert aanvaar hierdie eienaardigheid van die sjef. Robert was not as understanding and told the chef the next time he did it he would fire him, and he did. This did not sit well with Bert and he hired the chef back one day after Robert had fired him. The story ends with Robert proving his point and with help from Mary Lou was able to convince Bert to let him go.

While power shifted from the one generation to the next, there was need of a mediator. This compromising position was personified through Mary Lou. She had a tight rope walk between her father and her husband. Hats off to Mary Lou.

The Winter Months

At this time the resort was open for the summer and closed for eight months of the year. During these winters the Downings busied their days with many different projects. Teaching, farming, jumping horses, managing a bar, designing record covers and managing a music group were all on the winter “to do” list.

Fernwood Trio

In 1962, three gentlemen from the resort started up a group, called themselves The Fernwood Trio, and asked Robert to manage them. They played at The Club Of Two Levels as the house band during the summer, and toured eastern and western Canada during the winter. They produced two LP’s and six singles, did many radio and television appearances, and climaxed their careers by playing Massey Hall. After two years of fun and frolic the boys went back to university.

Dealing with Disaster

March 23, 1964, brought disaster to Fern Resort fire engulfed and destroyed the entire main building.

Through tremendous co-operation and hard work, employing every construction worker within a 10 mile radius of the resort, there was a new Main Inn within 81 working days. The Inn was opened on schedule, June 20th, 1964.

Secondly, Gwen Rumble passed away that year, but not before seeing the new building open on time, and knowing the resort was to continue as the respected resort to which she had devoted her life.


Gordon Barnett Surrenders, Moves On

With the decorative fern industry on a downward spiral and Hibbard seemingly beating him at every turn, Gordon Barnett was weary of the fight. He began to look for his exit from Fern Park in the early 1940s.

Although he did not actually sell his fernery until 1954, Barnett left Fern Park in 1944. The family (wife and two children) purchased a corner-lot home in Edgewater (College Park) from J. Neal Greening, former president of the Florida Bank at Orlando, for $14,000. Today the corner-lot residence (built in 1940) is valued at over a million dollars.

From that west Orlando vantage point Barnett scouted for new real estate frontiers to conquer and he found it. In 1945 he closed on 2,100-acres of pine woods, well past the western edge of town. Back then Colonial Drive stopped at Orange Blossom Trail, and not even a dirt road touched Barnett’s parcel. However, perhaps learning from Hibbard’s success, the entrepreneur heard rumors of a future cross-state highway.

Five years later, Highway 50 was built directly through his land. His bet had paid off, and Barnett opened up the booming subdivision of Pine Hills. With its country club and reasonable prices, it was the preeminent suburban locale for white working class during the 1950s and 1960s.


Not What You Thought You Knew

Sex: Lessons from History, the new book by Dr Fern Riddell - host of Not What You Thought You Knew - takes the reader on an illuminating journey to uncover the sexual lives of our ancestors, asking the question: What is sex for?

From flirtation to orgasm and everything in between, Fern Riddell shows us that they were just as preoccupied as we are with sexual identity, masturbation, foreplay, sex and deviance – facing it with the same confusion, joy, and accidental hilarity that we do today.

Sky HISTORY spoke to Fern over email about the book and what she thinks explains the changing attitudes towards sex throughout history.

Win a copy of 'Sex: Lessons from History' by Dr Fern Riddell

1. Sky HISTORY: What inspired you to write this book?

Dr Fern Riddell: I think our modern sexual culture is a total mess, and I wanted to set out to write about why that was, and how history might have done things better in the past than we do today.

2. What do you hope readers will get from it?

This book is for everyone who is interested in pleasure, love, passion and sex, and how people have felt about those things over the centuries. It’s also for anyone interested in the history of LGBT people, and their treatment over the last few centuries. You can’t separate out those histories from each other, they are all inextricably linked.

3. What’s the biggest lesson you took from it?

Ek weet nie. Probably that I need about another 50 million years to even scratch the surface of the lives people in the past have lived. Even when you finish writing a book, it never feels like it’s enough!!

Read more about: Medieval History

Get your cloak, you’ve pulled! Top 10 medieval dating tips

4. What were your most useful sources in writing the book?

Historians are incredibly lucky to have so much archival source material that has been digitised. So I work a lot with online records like prison registers, censuses, as well as the British Newspaper Archive Online. Nothing beats a trip to a proper archive though, and for me, the Science Museum and the Wellcome Collection in London, and the Thackeray Museum of Medicine in Leeds (which I’m a Patron of) are fantastic places for real, tangible artefacts. Holding something from the past in your hands can be absolutely life-changing because you learn so much more from the real thing than seeing just a picture of it on screen.

5. What are the biggest historical misconceptions people have about sex and where do they come from?

I think that people tend to think that the idea of sex or gender identity as diverse is somehow new or modern when of course it isn’t. In Sex: Lessons From History I trace this history of the words we use to describe ourselves, and the people who lived LGBT lives in the past.

One of my favourites was Charley Wilson, who was born in the nineteenth century as Catherine Coombes. A student at Cheltenham Ladies College, Charley was forced into an abusive marriage with a much older man, but always had a desire and need to dress in men’s clothing. After escaping from her husband, she lived as a man for the rest of their life, marrying twice and becoming a well-respected Union man and painter/decorator. His life story was told in the press and he was given a huge amount of support from local working men to carry on living as he wished. I think it’s really important to show ordinary lives like this, and the acceptance they got from their communities, to try and combat the bigotry many face today.

Read more about: Espionage

Chevalier d'Eon and gender non-conformity in the 18th century

6. Which period of history do you think was the most sex-obsessed?

We’re all sex-obsessed, I think if anything writing the book has proved that to me beyond a shadow of a doubt. We’ve never had an era of history where sex wasn’t important. It turns out while governments and religious institutions were arguing about war and power or trade, ordinary people were basically just concerned about how to get the most pleasure out of life. For most of them, that meant how to have sex well, and with someone you loved.

7. How do modern attitudes towards sexuality differ from previous generations and why?

I think we’ve become more sexually repressed today than in the past. We’re fixated on definitions and boundaries, people have to fit into a specific group whereas sexual and gender identity in the past could be far more fluid. There weren’t the boundaries that people seem so obsessed by today. You know a lot of the terms we have for identity have only really come about since the 20th century, even though we have so much evidence that people lived those lives for hundreds of years. But I understand why those definitions have come about, we needed to fight to make our laws and our rights available to everyone, and you can only do that by defining who deserves them and if they’ve been discriminated against in the past. Unpicking the history of those definitions is something I really enjoyed, it surprised me to learn how new they really are.

Read more about: Modern History

How Stonewall Changed the World

8. Did you discover anything unusual about the sex lives of famous historical figures?

The book mainly focuses on the lives of ordinary people, that’s what I’m really interested in, but it also gave me the chance to talk about some of my favourite research into the lives of certain members of the British Royal family - but you’ll have to buy the book to find out more!!

9. What is the most bizarre sexual practice featured in the book?

I really want people to understand this is about celebrating our sexual historical culture, and the funny thing about that is: there really isn’t that much that’s bizarre. When you look at old sex guides from the last couple of hundred years, one of the things you find over and over again is actually really good, informative sex advice.

Take ‘The School of Venus or The Ladies Delight’, first published in 1680. This 17th-century pamphlet causes an absolute riot of excitement when it hits the London booksellers. It’s a sex guide for young or inexperienced couples, set out as a dialogue between two women. So it takes you through foreplay, what genitals look like, what sex feels like, you know?

'Bad women are great characters to write': Philippa Gregory on her new novel

This is really erotic, sexually aware, profound advice, that’s still as useful today as it was nearly 350 years ago. The great 17th-century diarist, Samuel Pepys is so scandalised by its existence he has to work his way up to buying a copy - which he then rushes home to hide from his wife - and then writes about happily reading in bed. And it’s moments of connection like that I really love. It’s not about the bizarreness of sex, but its brilliance.

10. You specialise in sex and gender but is there anything in the book that made even you blush?

The history itself doesn’t make me blush at all, but recording the audiobook was a different story!! There’s lots of bawdy song lyrics and rude medieval poetry from Chaucer that I never expected to say out loud, and getting through that without laughing has been a bit of a challenge. There are definitely a few moments that have needed a Benny Hill soundtrack.


Inhoud

Like the sporophytes of seed plants, those of ferns consist of stems, leaves and roots. Ferns differ from seed plants in reproducing by spores. However they also differ from spore-producing bryophytes in that, like seed plants, they are Polysporangiophytes, their sporophytes branching and producing many sporangia. Also unlike bryophytes, fern sporophytes are free-living and only briefly dependent on the maternal gametophyte.

Stems: Fern stems are often referred to as rhizomes, even though they grow underground only in some of the species. Epiphytic species and many of the terrestrial ones have above-ground creeping stolons (e.g., Polypodiaceae), and many groups have above-ground erect semi-woody trunks (e.g., Cyatheaceae). These can reach up to 20 meters (66 ft) tall in a few species (e.g., Cyathea brownii on Norfolk Island and Cyathea medullaris in New Zealand). [3]

Leaf: The green, photosynthetic part of the plant is technically a megaphyll and in ferns, it is often referred to as a frond. New leaves typically expand by the unrolling of a tight spiral called a crozier or fiddlehead into fronds. [4] This uncurling of the leaf is termed circinate vernation. Leaves are divided into two types a trophophyll and a sporophyll. A trophophyll frond is a vegetative leaf analogous to the typical green leaves of seed plants that does not produce spores, instead only producing sugars by photosynthesis. A sporophyll frond is a fertile leaf that produces spores borne in sporangia that are usually clustered to form sori. In most ferns, fertile leaves are morphologically very similar to the sterile ones, and they photosynthesize in the same way. In some groups, the fertile leaves are much narrower than the sterile leaves, and may even have no green tissue at all (e.g., Blechnaceae, Lomariopsidaceae). The anatomy of fern leaves can either be simple or highly divided. In tree ferns, the main stalk that connects the leaf to the stem (known as the stipe), often has multiple leaflets. The leafy structures that grow from the stipe are known as pinnae and are often again divided into smaller pinnules. [5]

Roots: The underground non-photosynthetic structures that take up water and nutrients from soil. They are always fibrous and structurally are very similar to the roots of seed plants.

Like all other vascular plants, the diploid sporophyte is the dominant phase or generation in the life cycle. The gametophytes of ferns, however, are very different from those of seed plants. They are free-living and resemble liverworts, whereas those of seed plants develop within the spore wall and are dependent on the parent sporophyte for their nutrition. A fern gametophyte typically consists of:

    : A green, photosynthetic structure that is one cell thick, usually heart or kidney shaped, 3–10 mm long and 2–8 mm broad. The prothallus produces gametes by means of:
      : Small spherical structures that produce flagellate sperm. : A flask-shaped structure that produces a single egg at the bottom, reached by the sperm by swimming down the neck.

    Carl Linnaeus (1753) originally recognized 15 genera of ferns and fern allies, classifying them in class Cryptogamia in two groups, Filices (e.g. Polypodium) and Musci (mosses). [6] [7] [8] By 1806 this had increased to 38 genera, [9] and has progressively increased since (see Schuettpelz et al (2018) Figure 1). Ferns were traditionally classified in the class Filices, and later in a Division of the Plant Kingdom named Pteridophyta or Filicophyta. Pteridophyta is no longer recognised as a valid taxon because it is paraphyletic. The ferns are also referred to as Polypodiophyta or, when treated as a subdivision of Tracheophyta (vascular plants), Polypodiopsida, although this name sometimes only refers to leptosporangiate ferns. Traditionally, all of the spore producing vascular plants were informally denominated the pteridophytes, rendering the term synonymous with ferns and fern allies. This can be confusing because members of the division Pteridophyta were also denominated pteridophytes (sensu stricto).

    Traditionally, three discrete groups have been denominated ferns: two groups of eusporangiate ferns, the families Ophioglossaceae (adder's tongues, moonworts, and grape ferns) and Marattiaceae and the leptosporangiate ferns. The Marattiaceae are a primitive group of tropical ferns with large, fleshy rhizomes and are now thought to be a sibling taxon to the leptosporangiate ferns. Several other groups of species were considered fern allies: the clubmosses, spikemosses, and quillworts in Lycopodiophyta the whisk ferns of Psilotaceae and the horsetails of Equisetaceae. Since this grouping is polyphyletic, the term fern allies should be abandoned, except in a historical context. [10] More recent genetic studies demonstrated that the Lycopodiophyta are more distantly related to other vascular plants, having radiated evolutionarily at the base of the vascular plant clade, while both the whisk ferns and horsetails are as closely related to leptosporangiate ferns as the ophioglossoid ferns and Marattiaceae. In fact, the whisk ferns and ophioglossoid ferns are demonstrably a clade, and the horsetails and Marattiaceae are arguably another clade.

    Molecular phylogenetics Edit

    Smith et al. (2006) carried out the first higher-level pteridophyte classification published in the molecular phylogenetic era, and considered the ferns as monilophytes, as follows: [11]

      Tracheophyta (tracheophytes) - vascular plants
        Euphyllophytina (euphyllophytes)
        • Infradivision Moniliformopses (monilophytes)
        • Infradivision Spermatophyta - seed plants,

        Molecular data, which remain poorly constrained for many parts of the plants' phylogeny, have been supplemented by morphological observations supporting the inclusion of Equisetaceae in the ferns, notably relating to the construction of their sperm and peculiarities of their roots. [11] However, there remained differences of opinion about the placement of the genus Equisetum (see Equisetopsida for further discussion). One possible solution was to denominate only the leptosporangiate ferns as "true ferns" while denominating the other three groups as fern allies. In practice, numerous classification schemes have been proposed for ferns and fern allies, and there has been little consensus among them.

        The leptosporangiate ferns are sometimes called "true ferns". [12] This group includes most plants familiarly known as ferns. Modern research supports older ideas based on morphology that the Osmundaceae diverged early in the evolutionary history of the leptosporangiate ferns in certain ways this family is intermediate between the eusporangiate ferns and the leptosporangiate ferns. Rai and Graham (2010) broadly supported the primary groups, but queried their relationships, concluding that "at present perhaps the best that can be said about all relationships among the major lineages of monilophytes in current studies is that we do not understand them very well". [13] Grewe et al. (2013) confirmed the inclusion of horsetails within ferns sensu lato, but also suggested that uncertainties remained in their precise placement. [14] Other classifications have raised Ophioglossales to the rank of a fifth class, separating the whisk ferns and ophioglossoid ferns. [14]

        One problem with the classification of ferns is that of cryptic species. A cryptic species is a species that is morphologically similar to another species, but differs genetically in ways that prevent fertile interbreeding. A good example of this is the currently designated species Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort). This is actually a species complex that includes distinct diploid and tetraploid races. There are minor but unclear morphological differences between the two groups, which prefer distinctly differing habitats. In many cases such as this, the species complexes have been separated into separate species, thus raising the total number of species of ferns. Possibly many more cryptic species are yet to be discovered and designated.

        Phylogeny Edit

        The ferns are related to other higher order taxa, as shown in the following cladogram: [10] [15] [16] [2]


        Mayor Joseph J. Fern

        A city and county government system for Honolulu was decreed by the Organic Act of 1900. But the oligarchy, protective of its power, resisted until, under pressure from Washington, a mayor’s post was created in 1907. The two principal candidates were John C. Lane, Republican, and Joseph James Fern, Democrat. Colorful election rallies featured bands and hula dancers. There was a heavy voter turnout.

        Born in Kohala on the Big island in 1872 into a Hawaiian family of modest means, Joe Fern had only rudimentary schooling. Self-taught, he rose from bullock cart driver to shipping master for Inter-Island Steamship Co. Campaigning in Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, and English, he won a seat on the Board of Supervisors. In 1908 he ran for mayor. With rampant appeals to ethnic prejudice, oligarchy-owned papers ridiculed and sneered at Fern’s English and manners. Die Advertiser prematurely headlined Lane’s victory and had to retract—Fern was the winner, by seven votes.

        Warm-hearted, welcoming, with a sense of humor, Fern brought his personal style to City Hall. He built a city government and proposed acquiring land for parks and playgrounds. A devout Catholic twice widowed, he lived modestly on Alapa‘i Lane and reared fourteen children. He was mayor until 1919, except for one term that he lost to Lane. Suffering from diabetes, Fern died in 1920. Thousands mourned him. Fern Elementary School and Playground are named in his honor.


        Ferns, Folklore, and Fiddleheads

        I find ferns and fiddleheads fascinating (say that five times!). Harvesting the young tips of the ostrich fern is a spring tradition that has its roots in Native American times. As a family, ferns are truly ancient—growing BEFORE dinosaurs walked the Earth! Learn more about magical fern folklore, history, healing, and all about the young ferns called fiddleheads!

        What Are Fiddleheads?

        In April, young ferns sprout from wet soil here, appearing bright green against the decaying leaves. These are the fiddleheads, so-called because the very tops—furled tight when young—look like the tuning end of a fiddle. Similar in looks (and taste) to asparagus, fiddleheads are usually only available for a few weeks in the spring before the fern leaves unravel.

        The fiddleheads of the Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) are the most popular for foraging, as they are the tastiest. You’ll find them in central and eastern U.S. and Canada near streams and moist, forested areas. Many Native American tribes would harvest fiddleheads, and they are even commercially harvested in the spring.

        Some other varieties of ferns are also edible as fiddleheads, such as western sword fern, bracken fern, and lady fern. All must be cooked before consuming.

        Photo: “Ostrich Fern/ Fiddleheads” by Almanac reader Diane Peck

        Cooking With Fiddleheads

        Have you ever eaten fiddleheads? Many readers say it tastes like a cross between asparagus, baby spinach, and artichoke. It has a grassy, spring-y flavor with a touch of nuttiness. Fiddleheads are a very healthy green tonic, packed with antioxidants, omega acids, iron, and fiber.

        Caution: Some ferns are toxic so it’s very important that you can identify the fiddleheads of the Ostrich fern. Fiddleheads must be picked before the fronds open to be edible. Each fern plant will produce several tops that turn into fronds. It’s best to take only half the tops per plant so they grow back. If you aren’t clear on how to forage, visit your local green grocer. They’re only available fresh or a few weeks in springtime, but they’re also sold frozen and canned.

        Many people in this area cook the young fiddleheads for an asparagus-like treat. They need to be cooked thoroughly before eating. Although the Ostrich fern is not identified as toxic, it’s a safe precaution. Remove the husk, wash three times in cold water, and then either boil for 15 minutes or steam lightly in a steam basket for 10 to 12 minutes, just until tender crisp.

        Here are some excellent fiddlehead recipes from the Almanac archives:

        A Little Fern History

        Ferns first show up in fossil records from a time over 100 million years BEFORE dinosaurs walked the Earth. In fact, ferns grew before flowering plants existed. There are thousands of species from those which are a few inches tall to others which resemble trees.

        Long ago, people couldn’t explain how ferns reproduced since they lack flowers or seeds. Fern seeds were thought to make one invisible!

        Today we know that ferns truly don’t have flowers or seeds. How do they reproduce? They have “spores.” With sunlight and photosynthesis, the spores grow into what is called gametes which are able to fertilize the sperm and start to move it into the fern plant. This is completely different than anything that happens with any other sort of flower! No wonder people were confused.

        It was this mystery of the non-flowering fern that led to folklore about mystical flowers as seeds.

        Midsummer Eve Lore

        During the Middle Ages, ferns were thought to flower and produce seed only once a year—at midnight on St. John’s Eve (June 23) prior Midsummer’s Day. Traditionally, this was a celebration accompanying the summer solstice.

        • Since the seeds couldn’t be seen, they were believed to be invisible. According to lore, they could only be found once a year on St. John’s Eve (June 23), also called Midsummer Eve. The possessor of these “seeds” could understand the language of birds, find buried treasure, and have the strength of forty men.
        • This folklore is also intertwined with Midsummer Day (June 24) bathing in the dew on this morning was said to bring youthful glow and healing.

        Ferns for Healing

        Historically, ferns have been an important source of medicine for various ailments, especially for ancient tribes.

        When boiled in oil or fat, Ophioglossum vulgatum has been used for wounds and to reduce inflammation.

        A poultice or lotion made from the roots of Botrychium. virginianum has been applied to snakebites, bruises, cuts and sores in the Himalayas.

        The powdered rhizomes of Adiantum lunulatum has been used as an antidote to snakebite in India.

        Extract of fresh leaves of Nephrolepis cordifolia has been used to stop bleeding of cuts and help in blood coagulation.

        The paste of the leaf of O. reticulatum has been applied to the forehead to get rid of headache.

        Filtered water extract of rhizome of Abacopteris multilineata has been used for stomach pains.


        A beautiful fern in the fern garden at Como Park in Minneapolis. Credit: Jasanna Czellar

        Fern Symbolism

        The ancient fern has a history rich in symbolism. As mentioned above, ferns were seen as good luck, often for new lovers. The fern symbolizes eternal youth.

        • To the indigenous Maori of New Zealand, the fern represented new life and new beginnings.
        • To the Japanese, the fern symbolizes family and the hope for future generations.
        • According to Victorians, the fern symbolized humility and sincerity. Click to see the meaning of plants and flowers.

        Growing Ferns Indoors and Outdoors

        People love ferns, whether they grow them in their yard or as houseplants. They have graceful fronds, lush green color, grow well in low light, and even clean the air!

          The most common houseplant is a “Boston Fern. ” Like most ferns, the plant prefers bright indirect or filtered sunlight with day temperatures of 68 to 72 °F and night temperatures of 50 to 55 °F. The biggest issue is providing high humidity (50 to 80%) so keep the soil moist and never let them dry out. It helps to mist the leaves. Place near kitchens and bathrooms for higher humidity or set on a tray of wet pebbles. Fertilize lightly once a month from April through September. Liquid houseplant fertilizers should be applied at about one-half the recommended rate. Ferns will leaf scorch when fertilized too heavily. In the winter, reduce watering since the plant is dormant and overwatering can lead to root rot. Do not fertilize ferns during the winter.

        Note: The fern’s root system can occupy up to three quarters of the solid space in the pot without harm, and this plant does not like to be repotted. Remember that ferns produce spores on the underside of the leaves. Do not mistake these dark brown or black spots for insect or disease damage.


        Photo: Boston Fern. Indoors, ferns cleans the air, lessening air pollutants!

        Outdoors, ferns are perfect for shade gardens, adding elegance, rich green hues, and interesting texture. Ferms are one of the more deer-resistant plants, too. Most ferns are 1 to 3 feet wide. (Ostrich ferns can grow to six feet). They prefer shade, well-drained soil with added organic matter, and acidic soils with a pH of 4 to 7. Fertilizing should be done in spring, just after new growth has begun. Ferns are very sensitive to fertilizing so use a slow release fertilizer, such as Osmocote 14-14-14. As ferns in nature normally grow in woodland areas, they appreciate some leaf mulch in the spring and fall.

        There are many fern varieties to add texture to your shade garden! Here are a few varieties that tend to do well in the landscape.

        • Ostrich ferns (Matteuccia struthiopteris) are perennials which are easy to grow, happy in moist or wet soil that is slightly acidic. Hardy in Zones 2 to 7.

        • Japanese Painted Fern (Athyriumniponicum ‘Pictum’) are deciduous perenntials that adds some color with soft fronds that are silvery-gray, green and burgundy on dark purple stems. It grows 10 to 15 inches tall. Hardy in Zones 4 to 8.

        • Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) has cinnamon-colored fronds that grow in their centers, and big, green fronds surrounding them, adding color and texture to shady spots. They’ll often grow in both sun and shade. Hardy in Zones 4 to 8.

        • Autumn Fern (Dryopteris erythrosora) is an evergreen fern with fronds of coppery-pink in spring which turn green in summer and then bronze in autumn. Grow in light to full shade. Hardy in Zones 5 to 9.

        Do you have ferns in your area or do you grow ferns? Please share your thoughts on ferns—and folklore!


        The evolutionary history of ferns inferred from 25 low-copy nuclear genes

        Premise of the study: Understanding fern (monilophyte) phylogeny and its evolutionary timescale is critical for broad investigations of the evolution of land plants, and for providing the point of comparison necessary for studying the evolution of the fern sister group, seed plants. Molecular phylogenetic investigations have revolutionized our understanding of fern phylogeny, however, to date, these studies have relied almost exclusively on plastid data.•

        Methods: Here we take a curated phylogenomics approach to infer the first broad fern phylogeny from multiple nuclear loci, by combining broad taxon sampling (73 ferns and 12 outgroup species) with focused character sampling (25 loci comprising 35877 bp), along with rigorous alignment, orthology inference and model selection.•

        Key results: Our phylogeny corroborates some earlier inferences and provides novel insights in particular, we find strong support for Equisetales as sister to the rest of ferns, Marattiales as sister to leptosporangiate ferns, and Dennstaedtiaceae as sister to the eupolypods. Our divergence-time analyses reveal that divergences among the extant fern orders all occurred prior to ∼200 MYA. Finally, our species-tree inferences are congruent with analyses of concatenated data, but generally with lower support. Those cases where species-tree support values are higher than expected involve relationships that have been supported by smaller plastid datasets, suggesting that deep coalescence may be reducing support from the concatenated nuclear data.•

        Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the utility of a curated phylogenomics approach to inferring fern phylogeny, and highlights the need to consider underlying data characteristics, along with data quantity, in phylogenetic studies.

        Sleutelwoorde: Equisetum codon models curated phylogenomics divergence time dating fern chronogram incomplete lineage sorting low-copy nuclear gene model selection monilophytes transcriptome.


        Kyk die video: GEEN GESKIEDENIS