Cahuachi

Cahuachi


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Cahuachi, geleë aan die suidelike kus van Peru, was die belangrikste heilige plek van die Nazca -beskawing. Die Nazca floreer tussen 200 vC en 600 CE, en Cahuachi dek 'n soortgelyke tydperk. Die terrein, wat gebruik is vir oesfeeste, aanbidding van voorouers en begrafnisse, word oorheers deur 'n reeks groot seremoniële heuwels en pleine. Dit was 'n ryk bron van Nazca-artefakte, wat wissel van mummies tot tekstiele, almal goed bewaar in die droë klimaat.

Plek en funksie

Op 'n spesifieke plek in die suidelike Nazca -vallei vloei die Nazca -rivier 'n kort entjie ondergronds, en dit was op hierdie plek, aan die suidelike oewer, dat Cahuachi gebou is. Die watertafel hier sou die meeste droogtes oorleef het en word dus as 'n heilige plek beskou huaca deur die Nazca. Die water word bestuur deur middel van ondergrondse akwadukte en reënbakke met ingange op die terras om die omgewing te besproei en konstante toevoer te verseker. Die heilige aard van die terrein word verder aangedui deur die groot aantal lyne of geogliewe op die omliggende woestynvloer. In 'n ander poging om die natuur in hul stedelike landskap op te neem, het die Nazca groot heuwels gebou bo -op 'n noue groep van ongeveer 40 heuwels. Die terrein is verbind met die ander belangrike Nazca -sentrum Ventilla deur 'n heilige pad wat die San José -woestyn oorsteek.

Die grafte in Cahuachi bevat mummies van albei vereerde individue toegedraai in fyn tekstiele en offeroffers.

Daar is geen argeologiese bewyse van 'n woongebied in Cahuachi (vullis, gewone erdewerk, ens.), En pelgrims na die terrein het waarskynlik in tente gebly vir hul kort besoek. Daar is wel 'n paar geboue wat waarskynlik gebruik is vir die stoor of as werkswinkels wat verband hou met die godsdienstige aktiwiteite van die terrein. Die teenwoordigheid van pleine dui op gereelde byeenkomste van 'n groot aantal mense met die grootste ruimte van 47 x 75 meter. Hierdie pleine het plek -plek gate en die oorblyfsels van houtpale wat daarop dui dat groot afdakke daaroor opgerig is. Die hele heilige gebied word omring deur 'n muur van 40 cm hoog. Cahuachi was dus 'n pelgrimstog, aanbidding en begrafnis, en dit het uiteindelik meer as 150 ha beslaan.

Begrafnisheuwels

Die 40 grafheuwels by Cahuachi is gebou met grond- en adobe -stene. Die vroegste strukture dateer voor 100 vC terwyl die nuutste gebou is c. 550 CE, in ooreenstemming met die tydsraamwerk van die Nazca in die algemeen. Heuwels is gebruik as begraafplaas vir familie- of familiegroepe, met elke heuwel die grafte van spesifieke groepe. Dit is 'n tipiese kenmerk van die Nazca: gedeelde kulturele praktyke, maar word op individuele basis uitgevoer sonder enige waarneembare invloed van 'n geïntegreerde politieke mag. In baie Andes -kulture was voorvaderaanbidding algemeen, en daarom kan ons ons voorstel dat pelgrims Cahuachi met die doel besoek het en gereeld grafte heropen om nuwe mummies by te voeg.

Die grootste heuwel, bekend as die 'Groot Tempel', bestaan ​​uit ses of sewe terrasse gemaak van aarde wat bo -op 'n natuurlike heuwel geleë is en in adobe baksteenmure geleë is. Dit bereik 'n hoogte van 30 meter. Benewens grafte in die binnekant, is daar ook klein kamers waarin groot kleipanpype geplaas is, wat aandui dat musiek 'n belangrike deel van die Nazca -seremonies was. Die beste bewaarde graf is by 'n ander heuwel en word die kamer van poste genoem. Dit bevat 'n sentrale altaar omring deur kolomme wat 'n dak ondersteun. Die mure is versier met beelde van panpype en gesigte met blink strale.

Hou jy van geskiedenis?

Teken in vir ons gratis weeklikse e -pos nuusbrief!

Argeologiese vondste

Alhoewel baie van die grafte van Cahuachi geplunder is, het af en toe vondste van ongeskonde begrafnisse mummies onthul wat in fyn tekstiel toegedraai is. Sommige van hierdie mummies - van mans, vroue en kinders - toon tekens van opoffering. Die individue was Nazca -mense, byvoorbeeld nie gevange vyande nie, en hulle vertoon sulke tipiese kenmerke van Andes -begrafnisse soos 'n geperforeerde skedel, die verwydering van die tong en dit in 'n sak, uitskeiding in die mond en oë en lippe wat met kaktusstekels verseël word. . Sommige grafte bevat bewyse van diereoffers.

Ander vondste op die terrein sluit in pottebakkery, tipies van fyner gehalte as vir daaglikse gebruik, en geverf met diere en hibriede mens-dierfigure, veral katte, ape, voëls, akkedisse en spinnekoppe met menslike gesigte. Tekstiele is dikwels in groot keramiekflesse begrawe. Die beelde wat in die doek geweef is of soms op die doek geverf is, toon soortgelyke temas as die erdewerk, asook tonele van oorvloedige oeste en landbou. Baie tekstiele het grense wat sterwende menslike skedels voorstel. Twee buitengewone vondste is 'n enkele doeklengte van 7 meter by 60 meter en 'n winkel van 50 vroue -rokke. Hierdie laasgenoemde het beelde van kolibries wat baie ooreenstem met dié wat in die beroemde Nazca -lyne geogliewe oor die nabygeleë woestynvloer uitgebeeld word. Uiteindelik het opgrawings in een spesifieke gebied van Cahuachi, miskien 'n werkswinkel vir weefwerk, verskillende instrumente en gereedskap gevind wat gebruik word om tekstiele soos spindels, kleurstowwe, katoendrade en weefstowwe te maak.

Verlating

Cahuachi is vanaf die middel van die 6de eeu nC verlaat, miskien as gevolg van klimaatsverandering namate die plaaslike omgewing meer dor raak. Ook aardbewings kan 'n bydraende faktor tot die agteruitgang van die sentrum wees. Dit is interessant om op te let dat die aantal geogliewe wat in hierdie tyd geskep is, toegeneem het, wat moontlik dui op die dringende behoefte aan goddelike hulp om die krisis die hoof te bied. Die heuwels was stelselmatig bedek met aarde, en daarom was die verlating van Cahuachi beplan en doelbewus. Die webwerf het eeue daarna steeds offerandes en begrafnisse ontvang, maar dit het aangedui dat die plaaslike mense Cahuachi 'n heilige natuur toegeskryf het lank nadat die Nazca -kultuur verdwyn het.


Verlore stad Cahuachi

Die Nazkaanse stad Cahuachi was 'n pragtige en wonderlike plek. 'N Tot nog onbekende aantal piramides en tempels wat langs die stowwerige heuwels bokant die Nazca-riviervallei strek, is 'n goeie aantal van die golwende heuwels. Sommige ramings van die gebied wat die stad beslaan, is tot 24 km2 groter as selfs die beroemde Chimú -stad Chan Chan.

Ondanks die grootte daarvan het niemand behalwe die elite van die beskawing permanent hier gewoon nie. Cahuachi was eers 'n godsdienstige en seremoniële stad, en die administratiewe sentrum van die Nasca se tweede wêreld. Daar word vermoed dat daar groot byeenkomste hier plaasgevind het, waar 'n groot aantal pelgrims van regoor die omliggende vallei aan rituele kom deelneem het. Die meeste keramiekpotte wat hier gevind is, was van hoogstaande gehalte, pragtig versierde godsdienstige aardewerk, en daar is min eenvoudige huishoudelike items gevind.

Van die seremoniële stad af is dit net 'n entjie oor die vallei en oor die heuwels na die hoofwoestynvlakte waarop u die beroemde geometriese patrone, vorms en lyne van die beskawing sal vind. Kan die rituele wat by Cahuachi uitgevoer is en die by die reëls uitgevoer word, deel uitmaak van dieselfde gebeurtenis, deel van die massa -byeenkomste? Dit is tot dusver onbekend.

Die eerste ding wat besoekers aan hierdie argeologiese kompleks tref, waaraan die Italiaanse Giuseppe Orefici werk, is die Gran Piramide, miskien die beste gerestoureerde monument in die stad waar nog tientalle begrawe bly in die sand. Alhoewel dit nog 'n lang pad voorlê, lyk dit nie meer net soos 'n hoop sand nie.

Die piramide, en die ander geboue wat 17km van die vallei strek, is ongeveer tussen 1500 en 2200 jaar oud. Behalwe piramides is daar seremoniële geboue, werkswinkels, oop ruimtes en plekke vir pelgrims om te bly.

Aan die voet van die Gran Piramide is die Templo del Escalonado, een van die oudste geboue en die belangrikste gedurende die vroeëre tydperk van die bestaan ​​van die stad. Hierdie gebou is as sodanig genoem omdat die mure versier was met die boonste helfte van chakanas (Andes -kruise) wat 'n bietjie soos trappe lyk.

Ons weet dat musiek vir die Nazca belangrik was, en ons vind beelde van musikante op baie tekstiele en keramiek, maar slegs uit Cahuachi vind ons uit hoekom. Op grond van argeologiese vondste van instrumente soos fluite en tromme op belangrike seremoniële gebiede, blyk dit dat musiek tydens godsdienstige rituele en seremonies gebruik is.

Cahuachi bestaan ​​al 8 eeue lank, vanaf 400 v.C. tot 450 n.C. toe die stad verlaat is. Daar was geen haas om dit te laat vaar nie, maar groot hoeveelhede hulpbronne is mettertyd aangewend om die buitemure te sloop en die vele piramides onder die sand te begrawe. Die piramides was opgehou om kunsmonumente te wees en het teruggekeer na die natuur as hoë sandheuwels. Die stad was nie meer die hoofstad van die Nasca nie, en het 'n heilige plek geword, selfs 'n begraafplaas.

Dit is nie bekend wat die stad se verlating veroorsaak het nie, en wat die mense na ander nuwer stedelike sentra laat beweeg het, maar dit is te danke aan hul gehegtheid aan hierdie plek en hul sorg om hul stad te begrawe en te bewaar, dat ons eendag deur ons eie aanwending van groot hoeveelhede hulpbronne, kan u dit weer in sy oorspronklike vorm sien, ontbloot en herstel – die grootste van die antieke stedelike sentrums van die suidelike Peruaanse kus.


Cahuachi Peru: grootste seremoniële webwerf ter wêreld ter wêreld

Cahuachi, in Peru, was 'n belangrike seremoniële sentrum van die Nazca -kultuur, gebaseer van 1 nC tot ongeveer 500 nC in die kusgebied van die Sentraal -Andes. Dit kyk uit oor sommige van die Nazca -lyne. Die Italiaanse argeoloog Giuseppe Orefici grawe die afgelope paar dekades op die terrein op. Die webwerf bevat meer as 40 heuwels bedek met Adobe -strukture. Die groot argitektoniese kompleks beslaan ten minste 28 vierkante kilometer.

Die meeste skoliere hou egter nie rekening met die teenwoordigheid van die vroeëre Paracas -kultuur nie, miskien die bekendste om langwerpige koppe. Daar is toenemende bewyse dat die Paracas Cahuachi gestig het en moontlik met geweld deur die Nazca ingehaal is.

Geleerdes het eens gedink dat die plek die hoofstad van die Nazca -staat is, maar het vasgestel dat die permanente bevolking redelik klein is. Hulle glo dat dit 'n bedevaartsentrum was, waarvan die bevolking aansienlik toegeneem het in verband met groot seremoniële geleenthede. Nuwe navorsing het voorgestel dat 40 van die heuwels natuurlike heuwels was wat aangepas is om as kunsmatige konstruksies te verskyn.

Onder die mees uitgebreide navorsing wat by Cahuachi gedoen is, was die opgrawings wat deur William Strong gedoen is. Strong was die enigste argeoloë wat 'n breë benadering tot die webwerf gehad het, en dit kontekstualiseer in die Nasca -samelewing en die voorgeskiedenis van die suidkus. Hy was op soek na stratigrafiese bewyse wat die gaping tussen Paracas- en Nasca -style in die streek sou oplos. Hy het ook nedersettingspatroonstudies gedoen om uit te vind watter soort aktiwiteite by Cahuachi plaasgevind het.

Neem deel aan een van die volgende 2 toere terwyl ons die gebiede Paracas en Nazca verken:

Volledige besonderhede van hierdie toer HIER

Volledige besonderhede van hierdie toer HIER

Brien se boek oor die Paracas- en Nazca-kulture is hieronder beskikbaar in sagteband- en e-boekformate:


Die Nazca -lyne

Buite Cahuachi is daar kriptiese geogliewe, bekend as die Nazca -lyne, wat slegs van honderde voet in die lug gesien kan word. Dit is eers in die 1920's in die moderne era ontdek toe lugrederye vlieg en dit opgemerk het. Die Nazca het hierdie lyne geskep deur 'n laag rots en vuil te verwyder, waarskynlik deur tou tussen twee pale vas te bind en self riglyne op te trek. Die oorblyfsels van hierdie poste is ontdek, wat hierdie teorie bevestig, maar hul metode om sulke groot tekeninge met presiese metings te maak, is nogal 'n raaisel.

Die lyne strek oor 200 vierkante myl en bestaan ​​uit tekeninge van flora, fauna en meetkundige patrone. Hulle het behoue ​​gebly weens 'n windstil, dorre klimaat en dit was vermoedelik groter projeksies van ontwerpe wat hulle in hul tekstiele sou verweef. Onder die 70 verskillende zoomorfe lyne is daar afbeeldings wat wissel van ape, tot voëls en jaguars. Daar is selfs 'n mensagtige figuur waaroor debat gevoer is oor wat dit presies uitbeeld. Sommige beskou dit as 'n ruimtevaarder wat werk met die teorieë van die lyne 'n oproep aan buiteaardse besoekers.

Die realistiese perspektief op die Nazca -lyne sien dit in 'n paar verskillende ligte. Een teorie is van mening dat dit rituele wandelpaaie is wat die ou Nazcans tydens hul pelgrimstogte na seremonies soos in Cahuachi gehou het. 'N Ander teorie beskou dit as 'n teken van besproeiingspaaie of werklike besproeiingskanale, en hulle ontwerp bedank die gode vir vrugbaarheid. 'N Eenvoudiger verduideliking beskou dit as deel van 'n astrologiese kalender.

Hoewel radikale teorieë, soos die wat deur Erich von Däniken voorgehou word wat die Nazca -lyne as 'n landingsgids vir buitenaardse mense interpreteer, vir sommige vergesog kan wees, is die realistiese teorieë ook nie bewys nie. Die idee dat die lyne besproeiingstelsels verteenwoordig, lyk vreemd in hul eksentrisiteit, veral met inagneming van hul uitgebreide stelsel van ondergrondse akwadukte. 'N Ander onduidelike teorie beweer dat die Nazcane die tegnologiese insig gehad het om lugballonne te skep, sodat hulle die ontwerpe wat hulle geskep het, in hul lyne kon sien. Hoe dan ook, hulle bly in geheimsinnigheid gehul met die onlangse ontdekking in Peru wat hulle toevoeg.


Cahuachi - Geskiedenis

NARRATOR (SAM WEST): In 'n dorre woestyn in Suid -Amerika is een van die grootste argeologiese wonders ter wêreld. Op die oppervlak van die pampa is honderde reguit lyne, meetkundige vorms en die beelde van diere en voëls geëtste. Dit is die Nasca -lyne wat deur die Nasca -mense gebou is, maar die rede waarom dit geskep is, het die verduideliking weerlê. Nou het argeoloë begin om die verlore wêreld van die lynbouers te ontbloot. Hierdie nuwe ontdekkings kan uiteindelik een van die groot raaisels uit die antieke verlede oplos.

In 1983 begin die Italiaanse argeoloog Giuseppe Orefici met 'n langtermynprojek om die Nasca te ondersoek. Elke jaar bring hy 'n span spesialiste na Suid -Amerika vir drie intensiewe maande se opgrawing. Orefici het hom toegespits op een merkwaardige Nasca -terrein, 'n antieke stad genaamd Cahuachi. Hy is oortuig dat hierdie geheimsinnige plek die sleutel is tot die verstaan ​​van die lynbouers. Cahuachi lyk vandag soos 'n reeks laagliggende heuwels. Dit is moeilik om te glo dat dit eens 'n wonderlike stad was.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI (Direkteur, Nasca -projek): Die Groot Tempel is onder ons voete. Hier is ons op die wonderlike platform wat lank gebruik is. Dit was een van die belangrikste strukture in Cahuachi. Ons moet ons hierdie platform voorstel met kolomme en dakke en groot trappe en met verborge kamers binne. Maar toe is alles vernietig.

VERTELLER: Die Cahuachi -terrein is groot en strek oor 370 hektaar. Die indrukwekkendste monument is hierdie 30 meter hoë piramide wat die ou stad oorheers het. Dit is gebou deur 'n natuurlike hoogtepunt in die land te verander. Benewens die piramide, was daar ook 40 ander strukture, elk gevorm uit die landskap self en versterk deur massiewe modderstene. Uitgebreide pleine en terrasse het die land hier, byna 2 000 jaar gelede, gedek. Cahuachi lê 75 kilometer die binneland in van die kus van Peru. Dit is gebou op die rand van die woestynplato, 'n pampa genoem, begrens deur twee welige riviervalleie. Dit was die tuiste van die ou Nasca -mense. Noord van Cahuachi is die pampa en die Nasca -lyne.

Hulle is die eerste keer opgemerk toe kommersiële lugrederye in die 1920's oor die Peruaanse woestyn begin vlieg het. Passasiers het berig dat hulle geheimsinnige primitiewe landingsstroke op die grond daaronder gesien het. Niemand het geweet wie hierdie merkwaardige wonders van die Antieke Wêreld gebou het nie, of waarom. Daar is meer as 800 reguit lyne, sommige loop baie kilometers. Daar is spirale en ander meetkundige vorms en trapeziumvormige ruimtes wat baie vierkante meter beslaan. Die opvallendste is 'n woestyn -dieretuin - 'n aap met 'n geboë stert, 'n spinnekop en 'n bromvoël.

Wat het die Nasca -lyne verbind met die verlore stad Cahuachi? Die terrein is eers in die 1950's opgegrawe en was vermoedelik die middelpunt van 'n ekspansionistiese militêre ryk, maar in die 1980's het argeoloë soos Giuseppe Orefici hierdie idees begin omverwerp. Hulle kon geen bewyse vind vir 'n bruisende stedelike sentrum en beslis geen teken van militêre aktiwiteite nie. Dit lyk asof die stad uitsluitlik toegewy was aan rituele en seremonies.

Hierdie jaar beplan Orefici en sy span om die teorie aan die argeologiese bewyse te toets. Al hierdie vondste is 'n aanduiding van die soort plek waar Cahuachi in die ou tyd was, maar Orefici en sy span ondervind hewige mededinging - van grafrowers. Nasca -artefakte behaal fantastiese pryse en Cahuachi het een van die mees geplunderte terreine ter wêreld geword. Oral lê die bene van die mense wat eens hier gewoon het, verstrooi. Die grafrowers het hulle enigiets van waarde ontneem. Vir die argeoloë is dit 'n ramp. Die Cahuachi -dooies is van hul identiteit beroof.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Dit is die materiaal wat die grafrowers agtergelaat het - stukke lap en koord, meer tekstiele. Daar is honderde en honderde hiervan. Al die materiaal wat hier oorgebly het, is materiaal wat vir argeoloë noodsaaklik sou wees by die rekonstruksie van hierdie mense se geskiedenis en alles vernietig word. Die graf-rowers sal nooit ophou nie. Kyk byvoorbeeld hierna. Dit is baie lekker - 'n veelkleurige seremoniële slinger, maar die graf -rowers stel nie daarin belang nie. Hulle is geïnteresseerd in erdewerk en goeie stukke lap wat hulle internasionaal kan verkoop

NARRATOR: Daar word beraam dat 5 000 grafte by Cahuachi geplunder is. Die terrein word gemerk deur die graf-rowers se werk.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Inligting gaan elke dag verlore. Elke dag gaan 'n bladsy met geskiedenis verlore wat nooit herbou kan word nie. Maar die plek is so groot dat ons werk nog steeds nuttig is om ten minste 'n paar inligting te herwin, en ons hoop om op hierdie manier kan voortgaan om bladsye en bladsye uit die geskiedenis van Nasca te herstel.

VERTELLER: Aan die einde van elke dag bring die span van Orefici hul vondste terug na sy museum in die plaaslike stad. Hier word hulle veilig geberg in 'n skathuis van die Nasca -kultuur. Die potte is versier met mitologiese wesens, diere en meetkundige vorms. Baie van hierdie beelde verskyn op 'n baie groter skaal op die pampa. Nasca -pottebakkery verander mettertyd en argeoloë kon die verskillende style koppel aan verskillende tydperke, eenvoudig Nasca 1 tot 5. Aardewerk is gebreek en versprei op die Nasca -lyne gevind, en dit het argeoloë 'n manier gegee om hul konstruksie te dateer.

Op grond van die keramiekgetuienis was die dierfigure die oudste, dateer uit ongeveer 200 nC. Die reguit lyne en meetkundige ontwerpe is later gemaak. Die Nasca bou al meer as 500 jaar lank lyne op die pampa. Twee weke na die seisoen is Orefici ontbied om 'n gedeelte van die graaf te ondersoek. Sy span het 'n goed-agtige struktuur gevind en dit lyk asof dit verstop is met stofbondels. In baie Suid -Amerikaanse kulture hou stowwe soos hierdie verband met begrafnisse ...

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Hier is baie stof.

VERTELLER: ... so dit kan 'n belangrike ontdekking wees en Orefici het die delikate weefsels self onttrek. Hulle was amper 2000 jaar begrawe en is wonderbaarlik bewaar.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Is dit by iets aangesluit? Daar is vere aan hierdie kant, maar daar is geen aan die ander kant nie. Dit is waarskynlik nie 'n graf nie. As daar een is, is dit laer af.

NARRATOR: Hierdie keer was daar geen teken van 'n menslike begrawe onder die weefsels nie, maar die ontdekking was amper net so opwindend.

MAN: Kyk hoe mooi is dit nie.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Ek het nog nooit so iets gesien nie. Ons het 28 stukke lap. Dit is die eerste deel van 'n bundel. Ons begin eers met die res. Al die stukkies lap was van hooggeplaastes en was versier met godsdienstige beelde, veral geverfde voëls.

NARRATOR: Terwyl die woestynwind opkom, moes die werk afgehandel word. As plaaslike grafrowers van hierdie ontdekking gehoor het, sou hulle moontlik besluit het om hul eie ondersoeke te doen.

Die argeoloë het uiteindelik 63 stukke Nasca -stof opgegrawe, maar daar is 'n raaisel. Die weefsels kom uit verskillende tydperke in die Nasca -geskiedenis, maar tog is hulle almal saamgevoeg.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Alle data oor hierdie lap moet gedokumenteer word. Baie dele word erg ontbind weens die teenwoordigheid van organiese materiaal en blootstelling aan humiditeit. Hierdie stukke lap is in 'n graf in Cahuachi gelê. Hulle het 'n spesiale betekenis, nie net as voorbeeld van tekstielkuns nie, maar omdat die doek opgeoffer is. Dit is met sy naalde en naaldhouers in hierdie groot graf geplaas.

VERTELLER: Die opoffering van die weefsels het belangrike bewyse gelewer oor die soort plek waar Cahuachi in die ou tyd was. Die tekstiele is ryklik versier met beelde uit die Nasca -mitologie en blykbaar nie bedoel vir daaglikse gebruik nie. Dit lyk asof die mense van Cahuachi nogal spesiaal was, 'n Nasca -elite. As die gemiddelde Nasca -burger nie hierdie materiaal gedra het nie, wie was dit dan? Al die bewyse uit die groot versameling tekstiele van Orefici dui op een gevolgtrekking: die mense van Cahuachi was nie soldate of burgers nie, hulle was priesters.

Orefici en ander argeoloë het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat Cahuachi 'n plek was wat nie toegewy is aan die alledaagse lewe of militêre verowering nie, maar aan rituele en seremonies. Voordat die argeoloë by die opgrawing kon terugkeer, het die wind teruggekeer, hierdie keer met baie groter krag. Vir baie dae kon geen werk op die terrein gedoen word nie. Orefici het die kans aangegryp om terug te keer na die belangrikste raaisel van die Nasca, die lyne op die pampa. Hierdie merke, geogliewe genoem, is die mees skouspelagtige skepping van die ou Nasca. Waarom het hulle honderde jare lank lyne gemaak?

Sedert hul ontdekking byna 80 jaar gelede, het die Nasca -reëls fantastiese verduidelikings geïnspireer. Die Oostenrykse skrywer, Erich von Daniken, het berug dat dit bewys is dat die aarde deur buiteaardse gebied besoek is. Die lyne was volgens hom die aanloopbane vir hul ruimtetuie, maar soos Horizon in 1977 gewys het, sou hulle nie baie effektiewe landingsplekke gemaak het nie.

ARGIEFFILMVERTELLER: As iets swaar een van die moderne paadjies die vlakte oorsteek en op 'n Nasca -lyn ry, dan val dit eenvoudig vas.

NARRATOR: Wetenskaplike studie het in die veertigerjare begin met die aankoms van 'n Duitse wiskundige en sterrekundige, Maria Reiche. Sy het tot haar dood in 1998 op Nazca gewoon en was deur die plaaslike mense bekend as die Lady of the Lines en as Saint Maria. Reiche het geglo dat die lyne 'n gesofistikeerde astronomiese kalender was. In 1965 het sterrekundige Gerald Hawkins pas na Nazca gekom nadat hy Stonehenge ondersoek het. Hy het rekenaars gebruik om Reiche se teorie na te gaan.

GERALD HAWKINS: Ons het die asimute, die hoeke, in die rekenaar gevoer om die rigting te bepaal waarna hulle in die lug gewys het, en ons het gekyk of dit pas by die 45 helderste sterre of met die son, maan of planete.

VERTELLER: Hawkins kon glad nie 'n verband tussen die lyne en die sterre vind nie. Sterrekunde was nie die oplossing vir die raaisel nie. Moderne argeoloë soos Giuseppe Orefici het ontdek dat daar geen raaisel bestaan ​​oor hoe die lyne gemaak is nie.

Die woestyn is bedek met 'n laag donkerkleurige klippe. Onder is 'n ligter gekleurde sediment. Om 'n lyn te maak, moes die Nasca eenvoudig die klippe op die oppervlak verwyder in die patrone wat hulle wou. Die lyne het hier byna 2000 jaar geduur. Hoe kan hierdie merkwaardige bewaring verduidelik word?

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Hierdie lyne is deur die mens onaangeraak gelaat omdat niemand ooit in hierdie gebied geboer het nie. Boonop is daar die aard van die grond self. Dit bestaan ​​uit klei en gips. Die vogtige nagte laat die klippe dieper in die grond self sak. Dan, gedurende die dag, verhard die son die oppervlak en laat die klippe nog veiliger in die grond vas. Die wind is konstant, maar dit kan nie baie groot klippe beweeg nie. Daarom kan die lyne na 2000 jaar nog gesien word.

NARRATOR: Wat almal deurgaans verbaas het, is dat die Nasca -reëls slegs van bo waardeer kan word. Een afslag-teorie het bespiegel dat die Nasca balloniste was wat bo die pampa kon dryf. Die idee het die ruimte van von Daniken se ruimteskepe verloop. So, hoe het die Nasca sulke enorme ontwerpe gemaak?

In die plaaslike stad Nazca is 'n model van die pampa en die lyne gebou. Orefici het die taak gehad om dit aan die burgemeester voor te lê. By hulle was Josue Lancho Rojas, die voorste kenner van Peru oor die Nasca -kultuur. Oor baie jare het Rojas nuwe teorieë oor die lyne ontwikkel en getoets op grond van 'n interessante kenmerk van die Nasca -tekstiele. Hulle is almal geweef uit 'n enkele draad lama -wol en die foto's van diere wat op die pampa geskep is, is almal gebaseer op een lyn in die woestyn. Lancho Rojas meen dit was die vaardigheid van die Nasca as wewers wat hulle in staat gestel het om foto's en ontwerpe op groot skaal uit te voer.

Op die pampa het Lancho Rojas 'n eksperiment gereël. Hy het gehoop dat dit sy teorie sou ondersteun dat die Nasca die lyne gevleg het.

Wewers begin met klein ontwerpe en skaal dit dan op weefgetalle. Lancho Rojas meen dieselfde tegniek sou op die pampa toegepas kon word. Die lynbouers sou met 'n skets begin het en dan die skaal met penne en merkers vergroot het.

Die resultaat, na slegs 'n paar uur se werk, is 'n perfekte Nasca -spiraal. Maar waarvoor was die Nasca -lyne?

JOSUE LANCHO ROJAS (historikus): Daar is 'n teorie wat deur baie antropoloë ondersteun word, wat sê dat veral die samelewings van antieke Peru en die Nasca uit gesinsgroepe bestaan ​​en dat elkeen van hulle 'n godheid het, 'n minderjarige god. Elkeen van hierdie klein gode was op die pampa voorgestel. Op belangrike datums het hierdie gesinsgroepe na die pampa gegaan en seremonies op die lyn gehou as 'n offer aan die oppergode in die lug.

VERTELLER: Dit was die enkele reël wat 'n belangrike leidraad verskaf het. Dit sou toegelaat het dat die pampa -merke vir 'n spesifieke doel gebruik word. Dit lyk asof die lyne deurlopende seremoniële paadjies gelewer het. Om sy eksperiment af te rond, het Lancho Rojas die moderne afstammelinge van die Nasca genooi om die lyne te gebruik soos hulle voorouers meer as 15 eeue gelede moontlik gedoen het.

Daar is ook ander bewyse dat die lyne vir rituele loop was. Aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die pampa van Cahuachi het argeoloë 'n verdere, interessante ontdekking gemaak. Hulle het 'n ander groot Nasca -nedersetting met die naam Ventilla gevind. Alhoewel Ventilla gedeeltelik deur die boerdery vernietig is, was daar genoeg bewyse om aan te toon dat dit 'n ware stedelike stad was, nie 'n rituele sentrum soos Cahuachi nie. Een lang Nasca -lyn verbind Ventilla met Cahuachi. Dit lyk waarskynlik dat dit 'n pelgrimstogroete tussen die twee baie verskillende terreine was, en daar is kragtige bewyse wat dui op 'n ander doel vir baie ander lyne. Dit hou verband met die kosbaarste goedere in die Nazca -streek.

Die enigste betroubare waterbronne vir die mense van die Nazca -vallei is die hoë berge van die Andes. Hier onder is droogte die reël en die riviere vloei slegs twee kort seisoene uit hul bergbronne. Op 'n stadium in die verlede het die Nasca 'n indrukwekkende besproeiingstelsel gebou om die kosbare water te beheer. 150 kilometer akwadukte, die meeste ondergronds, het die streek deurkruis. Die ou Nasca -stelsel word vandag nog gebruik. Dit is 'n puquio. Dit bied toegang tot diep, ondergrondse tonnels wat deur puin versper kan word.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: In hierdie streek waar die moderne Nazca geleë is, kan ons nog steeds sien dat daar 'n vrugbare gebied is wat 'n unieke bron vorm wat deur die mens benut kan word. Die rede hiervoor is dat deur die vloei van water, die vloei van water na die verskillende gebiede van die Nasca-mense en veral die groep priesters wat die mag in Cahuachi gehad het, te beheer, oor die kennis en die gesofistikeerde tegnologie beskik. die verspreiding van die water in die verskillende valleie sodat die landbou kan floreer, wat gelei het tot die groei van die Nasca -beskawing self.

NARRATOR: Onlangse ondersoek het die lyne direk met water verbind. Alhoewel die dierbeelde die bekendste is, is daar ook die 800 reguit lyne wat baie kilometers oor die pampa loop. Daar is getoon dat hierdie lyne almal behalwe een begin by sterre-agtige radiale punte wat dikwels gekenmerk word deur 'n lae heuwel en dat elkeen van die punte aan riviere en sytakke grens, so as die lyne gebruik word vir seremoniële loop, lyk dit baie waarskynlik dat sommige Nasca seremonies is gewy aan die kosbare waterbronne.Water is ook intiem verbind met Cahuachi. Die Nazca -rivier loop groot dele van sy lengte ondergronds. Waar dit weer na vore kom, het die Nasca hul seremoniële hoofstad gebou.

Terug by die span van Cahuachi Orefici is twee nuwe lede - Brian Harrison, 'n Amerikaanse mediese antropoloog, en saam met hom Andrea Drusini van die Universiteit van Padua. Hulle kundigheid is die ontleding van antieke skeletreste en wat hulle oor die Nasca kan onthul. Hierdie skelet is deur grafrowers gestort. Harrison en Drusini het gehoop op 'n ongeskonde begrafnis wat meer as hierdie verstrooide bene sou onthul.

DR BRIAN HARRISON (Universiteit van Oregon): Ons sou verkies dat die begrafnis ongeskonde was en in die oorspronklike posisie, die oorspronklike ligging, ongeag watter grafgoed die individu tot die dood vergesel het. Ons wil ook graag hierdie soort inligting hê.

VERTELLER: Binnekort is 'n opwindende vonds gemaak. Dit was 'n gemummifiseerde lama en dit het gelyk asof dit geoffer is.

Vir die argeoloë kan hierdie ontdekking baie betekenisvol wees. 'N Opgeoffer dier is dikwels deel van 'n groter begraafplaas. Hierdie potte word gewoonlik gebruik om dooies te bedek. Dit het gelyk asof die argeoloë 'n ou Nasca-begraafplaas gevind het, maar dat daar eers graf-rowers hierheen gekom het? Kort daarna kom 'n merkwaardige ontdekking. Die argeoloë was verbaas oor die uitsonderlike behoud van die mamma se hare. Die Nasca -dooies is begrawe in 'n fetale posisie, die onderste ledemate onder die ken gevou. Daar was nog 'n graf naby. Dit bevat nog 'n mummie toegedraai in sy kleed. Dit was nie 'n maklike taak om dit uit 15 eeue se slaap te verwyder nie.

Uiteindelik het Brian Harrison 'n ongeskonde begrawe vir lykskouing.

BRIAN HARRISON: Dit is duidelik die geraamte van 'n jong vrou. U kan dit sien aan die vorm van die bekken. Sy is 'n volwassene, maar sy is nie baie oud nie, dink ek. Ek het geen artritis op die gewrigte gesien nie. Hierdie uitstekende bewaring van organiese materiaal hier. Dit is 'n fantastiese gesig. Die hare is in 'n perfekte toestand en ons kan baie inligting kry oor die bevolking wat duisend jaar gelede hier gewoon het. Een manier waarop ons kan sien dat sy gesond was, is deur die toestand van haar tande. Geen lyne nie, die emalje is baie sterk, so sy was 'n gesonde jong vrou, waarskynlik 20-25 jaar oud.

NARRATOR: Die merkwaardige bewaring van die Nasca -begrafnisse is 'n gevolg van chemie. Die sand wat die dooies bedek het, is ryk aan soute en nitrate en het 'n ou kultuur vir meer as 1500 jaar bewaar. At the archaeologist improvised laboratory Andrea Drusini has been using the burials to investigate the types and extent of disease among the ancient people of Cahuachi.

ANDREA DRUSINI (University of Padua): We have gathered information on about 350 individuals so far. As with every population, we found examples of diseases: anaemia, malnutrition illnesses which affect children, infectious diseases, but based on the statistics we've gathered about this people, statistics based on the age at the time of death, we can say that their life expectancy was around 37 or 38 years. That's comparable to Europeans at the turn of the nineteenth century when life expectancy was only 42 years. We should remember that there are 2,000 years separating them.

BRIAN HARRISON: If we were sitting in this spot 2,000 years ago it would seem like an oasis. We have the river valley with fields, we have very strong, healthy people, plenty of food to eat, no warfare. They were fairly short, long black hair, probably muscular from working very hard and we have evidence from the skeletal materials, particularly the teeth, that they were very healthy people and also from those same skeletons we see no evidence of trauma. There was no warfare here.

NARRATOR: The Nasca were not the warrior empire builders imagined by the archaeologists who first dug at Cahuachi. But violence of another sort was part of their society, as a new discovery soon revealed.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: Hang on, Andrea, the lower jaw seems to be broken.

ANDREA DRUSINI: This is a very unusual position.

GIUSEPPE: Could it be natural?

ANDREA: No, there was probably an execution and the body was left in this position. It's bent under the stomach.

GIUSEPPE: This is very strange.

ANDREA: In my opinion there was a very heavy blow that nearly fractured the base of the skull. However, judging by the shape of the fracture the blow seems to have come from the front and not from behind. The head was pushed back and the neck bent.

GIUSEPPE: A massive fracture.

ANDREA: So, Giuseppe, it was a powerful blow to the frontal area, a sharp blow which completely smashed the nasal septum. It completely smashed the bones of the face.

GIUSEPPE: Was this a young person?

GIUSEPPE: 35 years old, 40 perhaps. There's fossilised excrement in the mouth.

NARRATOR: Although this isn't the first time that excrement has been found in the mouth of a mummy, it is a very unusual discovery.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: We've found excrement inserted into the head. We still don't know what this means. It could imply contempt or maybe it was a punishment. We simply don't know.

NARRATOR: Over the course of a single day 7 intact burials were discovered. The mummies will become a part of Orefici's collection and play a vital part in unravelling the secrets of the line builders. Andrea Drusini has discovered that the world of the Nasca was, to modern eyes, a strange one indeed. More than 90% of the skulls found here have been artificially distorted. The Nasca wrapped the heads of their new-born with bands made of leather or wood. As a result, the still malleable skull grew upwards into this extraordinary shapes. There was another, puzzling discovery. Many of the skulls have circular holes cut into the forehead. For Orefici this bizarre feature offers a crucial insight into Nasca society at Cahuachi.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: This is a group of 'trophy heads'. Why 'trophy heads'? It's a term that doesn't seem very logical to me because all the material we've found is unique to Cahuachi. It is linked to specific structures, not graves or other places. They are offerings, so I'd call them 'offering heads'. This one has a special feature. A cord was inserted into the hole and this was used to carry the head, as part of a ritual in which the head was deposited at the sacred place at Cahuachi.

NARRATOR: So the skulls were not the spoils of inter-tribal war, but offerings from the Nasca people themselves, and they have other ritual features. In some, the mouth is closed with a cactus needle. Often the eyes are blocked and the tongue is removed from the mouth and placed in a leather pouch.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI: One of the most exciting things is to see, to verify daily through the rituals, through what is left of the ceremonial life of Cahuachi the way of thinking of the Nasca people. A way of thinking that was based on ritual linked to their past and that was constantly evolving and that is still present in modern Nasca culture. It is as if without a past there was neither present nor future.

NARRATOR: After 17 years of excavation Giuseppe Orefici has been able to use the hard archaeological evidence to reconstruct the world of Cahuachi. Moulded from the desert itself the pyramids and plazas of the lost Nazca city were the site of ceremony and ritual. It was a city of priests who were guardians of Nasca culture and religion. On the other side of the pampa lay the big, urban settlement of Ventilla. Between Ventilla and Cahuachi the Nasca people created their lines etched in the dry stony desert. According to Orefici and other modern archaeologists, they were sacred walkways linking Ventilla with Cahuachi and the vital sources of water. Ritual and survival came together between the lines. Then 1500 years ago disaster overtook the ceremonial capital of the Nasca.

GIUSEPPE OREFICI (WITH SUB-TITLES): What happened at Cahuachi? Between 300 and 350 A.D. there were two natural disasters. A great, very powerful flood - we have found the evidence in all the excavations - and an earthquake, an earthquake which split the temples in two. We have also found dead bodies under the fallen walls. That's when the Nasca religion seemed to lose its power, at least some gods or the ceremonial centre itself lost power and that's when the place was abandoned. But before they left, since everything was ceremonial, everything was ritual, everything had religious significance for the Nasca, they completely sealed all the monuments. If we examine the higher levels we can see that a crust of clay has been deliberately applied on top of a man-made layer. They left behind a sacred place, called a 'Huaca'. Absolutely everything where we are standing has been covered by men themselves.

NARRATOR: At the end of the excavation season, to protect what they had found this year, Orefici and his team filled in the precious site. Just as the Nasca did before them, they buried Cahuachi under the desert sands. By the time the Inca empire rose to dominate the Andes during our Middle Ages the Nasca and their culture had been forgotten. It was not until the people of the 20th-century sent planes into the sky above the pampa that the Nasca and the spectacular wonders they created in the desert were rediscovered.


Silverman, Helaine. The early Nasca pilgrimage center of Cahuachi and the Nazca lines: anthropological and archaeological perspectives

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records Silverman, Helaine

Title: The early Nasca pilgrimage center of Cahuachi and the Nazca lines: anthropological and archaeological perspectives

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph The lines of Nazca, edited by Anthony Aveni

Published By: Original publisher The lines of Nazca, edited by Anthony Aveni Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. 1990. 207-244 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Helaine Silverman

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2015. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Nazca (SE51)

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The author makes a case that the site of Cahuachi was a sacred place or a pilgrimage site, and that the geoglyphs or Nazca lines on the adjacent plain can be directly associated with it. Findings from excavations at Cahuachi are presented first, most pertaining to the middle Nazca phases (circa AD 1-600). The site contains only minor domestic remains and there are large open areas between the multiple mounds that are modifications of existing hill. Expectations for what a pilgrimage site ought to look like, archaeologically, are developed through study of the modern pilgrimage destination of Yauca del Rosario in the Ica Valley, consisting of little more than a church and plaza. Prior to the annual festival people come to sweep the plaza clean. The day before the festival the area fills up with pilgrims, and there is a market that continues the day of the festival. Afterward the area empties out again. The site is not cleaned immediately, and refuse is blown about by the winds three months later the festival area is largely devoid of surface refuse. This is compared to the pattern of material remains at Cahuachi, along with comparisons to the coastal pilgrimage site of Pachacamac near Lima that reached its peak in subsequent pre-Columbian periods, and to early historical accounts of Andean pilgrimages.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 10

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. se51-010

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Essay

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: For bibliographical references see document 12:Aveni (1990, References cited…)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1985, 1988

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor 2 - fair 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent 4 - excellent secondary data 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry 2013

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 2000-1250 BP (AD 1-750)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)

Cahuachi and the "Pampa" (Nazca Lines), El Ingenio and Nazca districts, Nazca, Ica, Peru

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Nazca culture//Social structure--Peru--History//Nazca Lines Site (Peru)

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the links below to export the citation to your chosen bibliographic manager.


Cahuachi in the Ancient Nasca World

Ever since its scientific discovery, the great Nasca site of Cahuachi on the south coast of the Central Andes has captured the attention of archaeologists, art historians, and the general public. Until Helaine Silverman's fieldwork, however, ancient Nasca culture was seen as an archaeological construct devoid of societal context. Silverman's long-term, multistage research as published in this volume reconstructs Nasca society and contextualizes the traces of this brilliant civilization (ca. 200 B.C.-A.D. 600).

Silverman shows that Cahuachi was much larger and more complex than portrayed in the current literature but that, surprisingly, it was not a densely populated city. Rather, Cahuachi was a grand ceremonial center whose population, size, density, and composition changed to accommodate a ritual and political calendar. Silverman meticulously presents and interprets an abundance of current data on the physical complexities, burials, and artifacts of this prominent site in addition, she synthesizes the history of previous fieldwork at Cahuachi and introduces a corrected map and a new chronological chart for the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage system.

On the basis of empirical field data, ethnographic analogy, and settlement pattern analysis, Silverman constructs an Andean model of Nasca culture that is crucial to understanding the development of complex society in the Central Andes. Written in a clear and concise style and generously illustrated, this first synthesis of the published data about the ancient Nasca world will appeal to all archaeologists, art historians, urban anthropologists, and historians of ancient civilizations.


Cahuachi - History

Nazca: (Altered Landscapes).

The Nazca desert drawings are probably the largest and best known of their kind in the world. Their original function is still only guessed at.

The Nazca valley is a strip of level desert ground 37 miles long and a mile wide. The enormous drawings were made by removing the dark purple granite pebbles which cover the floor, and exposing the light yellow sand beneath. The drawings were first confirmed when commercial airlines began flights over the Andes.

They are clear enough to be viewed by astronauts aboard Skylab, orbiting 270 miles above Earth.

There are essentially two kinds of drawings at Nazca Those that are Zoomorphic in nature (above), and the larger geometric ones, some of which run into the surrounding hills. The purpose of these designs is still unknown, although astronomy and a form of ritual worship is suspected.

The Nazca drawings are largely believed to have been created by the Nazca culture between 200 BC and 700 AD.

The first detailed study of the drawings was initiated by the German astronomer and archaeologist Dr. Maria Reiche. She discovered that the lines, some of which run for up to five miles, have an average error of no more than 9 minutes of arc, a deviation of only 4.5 yards per mile. The same figure that is the limit of accuracy which can be obtained by modern photogram-metric survey techniques. One drawing represents a thin-limbed monkey, recently identified as the Spider Monkey from the Amazon jungle, while a remnant of Nazca pottery has a distinct picture of a Penguin indigenous to either Antarctica or possibly the Galapagos islands. Another piece of pottery found has the faces of five girls on it one white, one red, one black, one brown and one yellow (9) .

Article: The Lost City of Nazca.

In 1983 Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici began a long-term project to investigate the Nasca. Every year he brings a team of specialists to South America for 3 intensive months of excavation. Orefici has concentrated on one remarkable Nasca site, an ancient city called Cahuachi. He is convinced that this mysterious place is the key to understanding the line builders.

The Cahuachi site is huge, extending across 370 acres. The most impressive monument is this 30 metre high pyramid which dominated the ancient city. It was built by modifying a natural high point in the land. As well as the pyramid, there were 40 other structures, each sculpted from the landscape itself and enhanced by massive mud brick adobe walls. Extensive plazas and terraces once covered the land here, nearly 2,000 years ago. Cahuachi lies 75 kilometres inland from the coast of Peru.

The archaeologists eventually unearthed 63 pieces of Nasca fabric, but there is a puzzle. The fabrics come from different periods of Nasca history and yet they were all jumbled up together. Many parts are badly decomposed due to the presence of organic matter and due to exposure to humidity. These pieces of cloth were laid in a tomb in Cahuachi. They have a special significance not only as example of textile art but because the cloth has been sacrificed. It was placed with its needles and needle cases in this large tomb. The sacrifice of the fabrics provided important evidence about the kind of place Cahuachi was in ancient times. The textiles are richly decorated with images from Nasca mythology and don't appear to be intended for everyday use. It looks as if the people of Cahuachi were rather special, a Nasca elite. If the average Nasca citizen wasn't wearing these fabrics, who was? All the evidence from Orefici's huge collection of textiles points to one conclusion: the people of Cahuachi weren't soldiers or citizens, they were priests.

2,000 years ago it would seem like an oasis. We have the river valley with fields, we have very strong, healthy people, plenty of food to eat, no warfare. They were fairly short, long black hair, probably muscular from working very hard and we have evidence from the skeletal materials, particularly the teeth, that they were very healthy people and also from those same skeletons we see no evidence of trauma. There was no warfare here.

One skeleton was found with a powerful blow to the frontal area of the head, a sharp blow which completely smashed the nasal septum. It completely smashed the bones of the face. It had fossilised excrement in the mouth. This isn't the first time that excrement has been found in the mouth of a mummy, it is a very unusual discovery.

Recent investigation has linked the lines directly with water. Although the animal images are the best known, there are also the 800 straight lines which run for many kilometres across the pampa. It's been shown that all but one of these lines start from star-like radial points often marked by a low mound and every one of those points bordered rivers and tributaries so if the lines were used for ceremonial walking, as seems very likely, some Nasca ceremonies were devoted to the precious sources of water.Water is also intimately connected with Cahuachi. For much of its length the Nazca river runs underground. Where it re-emerges the Nasca built their ceremonial capital.

After 17 years of excavation Giuseppe Orefici has been able to use the hard archaeological evidence to reconstruct the world of Cahuachi. Moulded from the desert itself the pyramids and plazas of the lost Nazca city were the site of ceremony and ritual. It was a city of priests who were guardians of Nasca culture and religion.

What happened at Cahuachi? Between 300 and 350 A.D. there were two natural disasters. A great, very powerful flood - we have found the evidence in all the excavations - and an earthquake, an earthquake which split the temples in two.

Japanese researchers find new giant picture on Peru's Nazca Plateau

A new giant picture on the Nazca Plateau in Peru, which is famous for giant patterns that can be seen from the air, has been discovered by a team of Japanese researchers.

The image is 65 meters long, and appears to be an animal with horns. It is thought to have been drawn as a symbol of hopes for good crops, but there are no similar patterns elsewhere, and the type of the animal remains unclear.

The discovery marks the first time since the 1980s that a picture other than a geometrical pattern has been found on the Nazca Plateau. The picture was found by a team of researchers including Masato Sakai, an associate professor at Yamagata University, after they analyzed images from a U.S. commercial satellite.

They confirmed it was a previously undiscovered picture in a local survey in March this year. It is located south of the Nazca Plateau, and apparently went undiscovered since few tourist planes pass over the area.

Two parts of the picture, that appear to be horns, bear close resemblance to those that appear on earthenware dating from 100 B.C. to A.D. 600, during the time when the Nazca kingdom flourished, and it is thought that they relate to fertility rites.

The research team will use images from the advanced land-observing satellite "Daichi," which was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in January this year, to create a distribution map of images on the earth that can be seen from the air. There is evidence that vehicles had driven in the area, and part of the picture is destroyed. "We want to identify all the images, and work to preserve earth pictures that are gradually being destroyed," Sakai said.

New designs found that predate the famous Nazca lines.

A group of about 50 drawings of giant figures recently discovered in the hills of Peru s southern coastal desert near the city of Palpa has been said to predate the famous Nazca lines nearby.

Mr. Johny Isla, director of the Andean Institute of Archaeological Studies, said the geoglyph figures appear to have been created by the Paracas communities between 500 and 400BC, whereas the Nazca culture developed after 50 BC. Mr. Isla and his partner Dr. Markus Reindel from the Dutch Institute of Archaeology discovered the Paracas figures using aerial photography and land-based surveys. The figures of humans, birds, monkeys and cats vary in size from 10m to 50m across, and are also grouped together in areas up to 60 m to 90 m across.

Most of these geoglyphs belong to the Nazca culture but our recent studies demonstrated that there are at least 50 geoglyphs pertaining to the Paracas culture. These new figures are definitely different and older than those of the Nazca culture.

First, the Paracas figures were drawn on the slopes of the hills, while the Nazca images were drawn in level areas. Second, the Paracas figures are smaller and were made in a naturalistic style, while the Nazca figures are bigger and stylised. Third, the Paracas figures are mostly arranged in groups, while the Nazca figures are arranged individually. Finally, it is important to note that not one of the Paracas figures were repeated in the Nazca iconography,

One set of figures is known as the Temple of Fertility as one image represents a man, another a woman and the center image seems to represent a divine figure with a head from which emanates a series of rays that end in human heads.

A five-year study by British archaeologists has shed new light on the enigmatic drawings created by the Nazca people between 100 BC and CE 700 in the Peruvian desert. They discovered an itinerary so complex they can justify calling it a labyrinth, and see it as serving ceremonial progressions.

In the midst of the study area is a unique labyrinth originally discovered by Prof Ruggles when he spent a few days on the Nazca desert back in 1984. When I set out along the labyrinth from its centre, I didn t have the slightest idea of its true nature, Prof Ruggles explained. Only gradually did I realize that here was a figure set out on a huge scale and still traceable, that it was clearly intended for walking. Invisible in its entirety to the naked eye, the only way of knowing its existence is to walk its 2.7 miles (4.4 km) length through disorienting direction changes which ended, or began, inside a spiral formation.

The labyrinth is completely hidden in the landscape, which is flat and virtually featureless. As you walk it, only the path stretching ahead of you is visible at any given point. Similarly, if you map it from the air its form makes no sense at all.

But if you walk it, discovering it as you go, you have a set of experiences that in many respects would have been the same for anyone walking it in the past. The ancient Nazca peoples created the geoglyphs, and used them, by walking on the ground. Sharing some of those experiences by walking the lines ourselves is an important source of information that complements the hard scientific and archaeological evidence and can really aid our attempts to make anthropological sense of it.


The Ancient Nazca Culture

Geographical location of the Nazca culture

The Nazca society developed in one of the most difficult zones of Peruvian territory with a subtropical climate, arid with deserts which surround the small valleys of the department of Ica, like the Rio Grande, Ica, Pisco these rivers dry up in summer and increase their water level in winter, which determines the geographical landscape which the Nazca population inhabited. From these zones they expanded to the Chincha Valley, in the North and to the Acari Valley (Arequipa), in the South.

Origin and decline of the Nazca

Archaeology has divided the history of the Nazca culture into four stages:

  • Early Nazca: the first Nazca communities which developed in the basin of the Rio Grande appear.
  • Middle Nazca: a proper culture takes shape, under the influence of the Paracas Necropolis culture the ceremonial center of Cahuachi is built.
  • Late Nazca: Cahuachi is abandoned, its population spreads, creating new religious centers, the center at La Estaqueria stands out.
  • Final Nazca: the decline of the Nazca society begins around 600 A.D., its exact causes being unknown, it is believed that a mix of climatic reverses could have caused the relapse in agricultural activity, or that other warlike peoples may have exterminated them.

Political and social organization

The Nazca society was divided hierarchically into social classes. Being a State of the theocratic militaristic type, power was concentrated in the priests and the military leaders who in general were the landowners. This elite had the capacity to organize community work and direct ceremonial activities, they lived in pyramidal buildings, in special sectors whose rooms were made with adobe and walls covered with a layer of gypsum or lime to fill the cracks.

At the service of this leadership were the qualified artisans (ceramists, architects, weavers, astrologists, musicians, soldiers) who lived in small cities and ceremonial centers among which the complex ceremonial center of Cahuachi stands out. At the base of the society were the farmers and fishers. The farmers occupied the fertile valleys, lived in thatched-roof huts situated outside of the cultivated surface, and grouped together in villages around an adobe pyramid which acted as a religious temple.

The Nazca society did not have a unified government, rather it was a group of individual manors. These manors had their own authority who was generally a priest, and they occupied the valleys, in whose extremes were found the settlements, as the rest of the territory along the length of each river was dedicated solely to agriculture. It is generally accepted that the expansion of the Nazca culture was of a military, violent type, primarily because of the existence of fortified cities in the Nazca area, plenty of weapons found in tombs, and the custom of the trophy heads which adorn a great part of their artistic expressions.

Nazca Economy

The Nazca economy was fundamentally based on agriculture, its principal crops being corn, beans, pumpkin, squash, yucca, guava, peanuts, peppers and cotton. Fishing in the sea and shellfishing were of great importance for the inhabitants of the coast who through barter exchanged their products in order to complement their nutritional diet. Hunting was another activity which helped in the Nazca economy.

Trade had vital importance because in this way they could satisfy the necessities of the population often affected by long droughts. They maintained a continuous exchange with the Huarpa culture, who traded products like potatoes and wool in exchange for fish, cotton, and ceramics (craftwork) from the Nazca culture.

They also stood out for their knowledge and use of hydrological resources, especially subterranean ones, which thanks to ingenious projects they utilized for irrigation. Among their principal aqueducts are those of Ocaña, Matara, Aja, Curve, and the Achirana, among others. The underground passages constructed to take advantage of the water tables, in the area where the rivers run underneath the surface receive the name of springs and apparently were the basis of agricultural irrigation for the Nazca inhabitants. Their hydraulic intervention by means of aqueducts, canals, and wells served to provide water for the fields called irrigation canals, proof of which is the construction of the Cantalloc aqueducts and the springs.

Nazca Rituals

The Nazca civilization carried out rituals to their gods of the sea, the sky, the earth, fire, water, and the wind. They carried out their constructions for their gods, with the purpose of avoiding droughts. Their religion also had much to do with the mystery of the Nazca Lines, which are considered by some as a place for numerous rituals offered to their gods.

The funerary burials typical of the Nazca are in general individual, inside a shallow pit. The hierarchy of the deceased could be established by the complexity of the lining of the chamber and the number of objects which accompanied it (vessels, blankets, plumes, hats, bouquets, etc.). The mummy was placed in a fetal position, wrapped in layers of blankets until it formed a bundle, similar to that of the Paracas. Some bundles include the so-called “false head,” a small bulge in the upper part, which simulates a head. The tombs of the men and women of the people are not luxurious, this was a distinct fortune of the nobility.

The mummification of heads was a custom propagated among the Nazca, possibly those of defeated warriors. It was thought that the greater number of heads a warrior possessed, the greater prestige, power and authority he would have. These rites have their origin in the Chavín and Paracas cultures. To make a trophy head, they took out the brain from the base of the skull, then sewed the mouth of the head and made a small hole in the forehead, where they placed a cord to hang them by. The exact purpose of the trophy heads is dim, the most considered has been that the conquering warrior had the right to cut off the head of the defeated enemy and make it into a trophy which he always carried with him. However, the discovery of heads of women and children which are not associated with warrior passages has made it be thought that they may also have been practices linked to the fertility cult.

Chauchilla Cemetery: It is a necropolis from the Pre-Inca era situated some 30 km from the city of Nazca, Peru. Some relate it to the Huari Culture and others to the Nazca Culture which flourished in the area. The mummies are in a good state of conservation in spite of their age and in many of them remains of hair and even some of skin can be seen. This conservation has been possible in part thanks to the arid climate of the Nazca desert in which the cemetery is set.

Artistic expressions of the Nazca

Considered as successors of the Paracas civilization, they stood out for their pictorial, ceramic, and textile creativity. However, it is the famous Nazca Lines which make up their most transcendental legacy. Made up in their entirety by more than 30 drawings of enormous dimensions, they faithfully reproduce zoomorphic, phytomorphic, and geometric figures, among which the hummingbird, the spider, and the monkey stand out. The techniques of tracing employed, which allowed them to continue their lines through hills and ravines without straying from their direction, still surprise the most eminent specialists.

Ceramic

The Nazca ceramics reproduced figures of animals, plants, as well as men and women carrying out everyday activities. In general, they were decorated with mineral paints, carefully ground and mixed with water or sap from local plants. In ceramic productions, figures of mutilated men also stand out, which makes one suppose that they carried out human sacrifices.

The Nazca ceramic is considered to be the best achieved in ancient Peru, for its high quality and variety. Over their ceramics, they painted and decorated the whole surface without leaving blank spaces because of which it is said that they had a “fear of emptiness.” The most typical form of their vessels is the globular jug with two beaks or spillways and an arched handle, they also made spherical pots, mugs, and glasses.

The decoration of their ceramics stands out for its polychromatic nature and its complexity as they used up to eleven gradations of color in only one piece, and they managed some 190 different shades. The motifs are different and can be classified as naturalist, when they draw the environment mythical or religious, when they show representations of their gods and geometric, when they use circles, semicircles, rhombuses, lines, spirals, steps, etc.

Argitektuur

The Nazca architects employed wood, adobe, and the bark itself from the trees to construct their dwellings and ceremonial centers. Using earth kneaded with water they made adobes to construct sanctuaries for the nobility in the shape of a truncated pyramid the cities of Tinguiña and Cahuachi are an example of this. These last two are displays of urban planning the first constitutes the best architectural expression the second was considered to be the capital of the Nazca. In the outskirts of Cahuachi is found the Estaqueria, originally made up of 240 mesquite posts, distributed in 12 rows of 20 stakes in each one, over an artificial platform. Each stake is separated from the next by two meters and they appear to be columns which supported a roof, although its purpose is unknown. Other Nazca urban centers were Tambo Viejo, Huaca del Loro, and Pampa de Tinguiña.

Goldsmithing

They manipulated gold and silver to make masks, ear flaps, nose rings, and other ritual objects, adorned by means of embossing, as they were laminate. These objects were for ceremonial or religious uses.

Tekstiele

To produce fabrics, they utilized cotton and wool from camelids, mastering the techniques of brocading, tapestry, muslin, painted cloth, tridimensional weaving, and embroidery. Over the flat cotton cloth, they embroidered with wool from camelids dyed with varied colors. The Nazca were heirs of the Topará culture (Paracas Necropolis) in that which is related to the production of extremely refined blankets of cloths, although they did not achieve the same quality and magnificence in the end products.

Music

Musical instruments have been found in the tombs of the Nazca, made of ceramic, they are flutes, trumpets, bass drums, and drums. All these are decorated artistically, many times with anthropomorphic figures, like heads of people, or of animals. The finding of ceramic flutes surpasses all the musical instruments of Pre-Columbian America these Nazca flutes have 8, 9, 10, and even 11 different notes. They use chromatic scales, which have been used in the present by musicologists to create musical works like the symphony “Las Pampas de Nazca” and the “Danza Nazca” among others.

The Nazca Lines

Appreciable in all their dimensions and form only by flying above the area at high altitude, the lines combine extensive and smooth routes in which circular holes of great depth can be made out. The Nazca made them by following a model constructed on a small scale. Later, over the ground, they traced the lines with stakes joined by cords. The cultural importance of these creations was established by the UNESCO in 1990 when it declared the Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de Jumana a World Heritage Site.

The Nazca Lines are the most known artistic expressions of the Nazca. They are composed of large designs drawn in the plains of the desert to the north of the settlement of Cahuachi. There were more than 350 of these drawings which can be: anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and phytomorphic figures, in addition to geometric lines several kilometers in length. They were all drawn and created with a precision by which even today the world continues to be impressed.

Some 450 km to the south of Lima and near the Pacific Ocean are found the pampas of Ingenio, Nazca, Palpa, and Socos. Between Palpa and Nazca, in the pampa of Socos, these lines are located, traced on the ground, whose width varies between 40 and 210 centimeters. A semicircle of hills in the distance makes up a gigantic natural amphitheater open towards the West.

Maria Reiche Neuman (1903-1998), from Germany, was considered to be one of the greatest specialists in this culture. After 40 years in the area, she held that the lines were points of astronomical observation useful for agriculture.

Antonini Archaeological Museum

Located in the Peruvian city of Nazca, it exhibits the archaeological heritage of the Nazca area, coming from the works of research carried out by the “Nazca Project” in the ceremonial center of Cahuachi and other important sites in the Nazca River Valley. The Antonini Museum is dedicated to the conservation and study of this heritage. There, one can learn in a very didactic way about the evolution of the Nazca culture, as well as appreciate magnificent ceramics, fabrics, mummies, trophy heads, and many other extraordinary remains of this culture.


Cahuachi: an example of nazca architecture

The history of the architecture of the Nazca culture is characterized by substantial changes in the use of materials, construction techniques and space organization. And Cahuachi, the most important sacred site of Nazi civilization, was no exception.

This site was used for harvest festivals, worship of ancestors and burials. It is made up of a series of enormous ceremonial mounds and squares.

Ligging

Cahuachi was built on the southern bank of the Nazca River, where it runs underground.

The water table here would have survived most droughts. For that reason it was considered a sacred place.

The water was managed by underground aqueducts and cisterns with entrances on terraces, to irrigate the surroundings and ensure a constant supply.

Architectural features

The initial phase is distinguished by the use of quincha walls. The quincha is a traditional construction system in South America. It is a framework made of cane or bamboo, which is then covered with a mixture of mud and straw.

In the later phases, however, adobe elements were used to construct the walls. These were originally conical in shape, then resembled bread.

The final phase was characterized by the substantial presence of an artificial filler, and by the reuse of old walls and adobe elements.

In addition, the use of public spaces varied, as well as the more exclusive spaces located on the stepped terraces that shape the pyramidal constructions.

The use of separate rooms was maintained over time and intensified during the fourth phase of Cahuachi. These were supported by columns on the outer perimeter of the temples.

These temples were interspersed with large public areas, such as plazas, ceremonial precincts and corridors.

Main Structures

In this ceremonial center two structures stand out. The first is the Great Temple, whose dimensions exceed 150 x 100 meters at the base, and 20 meters in height. This is the center of the southern part of the site.

The second structure, the"Great Pyramid", is located next to the Great Temple.


Kyk die video: Adal Ramones golpeado en Otro Rollo por un poeta