6 April 1942

6 April 1942


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

6 April 1941

April 1942

1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
2930

Verre Ooste

Japanase troepe land by Bougainville en op die Admiraliteit -eilande

Japannese vliegtuie bombardeer dele van Madras



April 1942 Afwisselende Indiese Oseaan

1515 Ure, 6 April 1942, Center Force (Carrier Task Force) Maleise Forcebaai van Bengale - Skadebeheer deur deskundige het die vaartuig gekry Chokai tot 16 knope en kaptein Mikio het beveel dat alle torpedo's gestort moet word terwyl hy sy twee oorblywende Dave -vlotvliegtuie gelanseer het om die Britse verkenningsvliegtuie wat nog om die agterkant van die taakmag wentel, te hanteer. Die vyandige tweedekker vlieg in 'n wolkbank in en begin wegkruipertjie speel met die vlotvliegtuie. Ozawa het gedink dat hulle dit dalk net sou regkry toe uitkykpunte in 1530 nog tien van die verdoemde tweedekker sien wat laag kom, hierdie keer uit die suidweste. Die kaptein van die vernietiger het hul skepe naby die Chokai om die vaartuig te beskerm totdat Ozawa self op die radio klim en hulle beveel om ontwykende aksie te neem, aangesien hulle niks kon doen om die Chokai anders as om op te tree as torpedosponse, wat nutteloos was. Die twee Dave's wat patrollie gedoen het oor die taakspan het probeer om die aanval op te breek, maar hul 7,7 mm -masjiengewere was ondoeltreffend teen die stewige tweeplane en die agterste kanonne van die Albacores het een van die vliegvliegtuie in ruil neergesit. Vuurvliegtuigvuur het uit al drie skepe uitgebreek, maar soos voorheen het die Britse vlieëniers bestendig van bakboord en stuurboord aangeval en hul wapens op 2000 meter vrygelaat met een torpedovliegtuig wat na die Asagiri's gewere. Daar is wapens weg, die aanvallende vliegtuig draai huis toe.

Kaptein Mikio het sy bes gedoen om sy beskadigde skip te bestuur, maar twee torpedo's het die kruiser getref, een meter agter die plek waar die torpedo van die vorige aanval getref het. Die Chokai het tot stilstand gekom en begin water inneem. Kaptein Mikio het nog steeds gehoop om sy skip te red, maar die verwoesters is beveel om saam te kom om nie-noodsaaklike personeel op te neem, waaronder viseadmiraal Ozawa, asook om krag aan die geteisterde kruiser te verskaf. Na 30 minute van woedende skadebeheer het dit egter duidelik geword dat die vaartuig klaar was. Alle oorblywende personeel is van die skip verwyder, behalwe kaptein Mikio wat geweier het om die brug te verlaat. Om 1630 trek die vernietigers weg en die Asagiri sit twee Long Lance -torpedo's in die Chokaiwat veroorsaak dat die kruiser binne 'n paar minute omrol en sink. Met die Chokai die vernietigers het die spoed tot 20 knope verhoog en na Port Blair suidoos gedraai.


Somers, CT, 6 April 1942

Op 6 April 1942 het 'n Amerikaanse weermag P-38 Lightning (AF-112) bestuur deur 2de luitenant Raymond Allen Keeney (24) in 'n aartappelveld in die Somersville-gedeelte van die stad Somers, Connecticut, neergestort en daar uitgebars. vlamme. Die vlerk van die vliegtuig het 'n boom geknip net voor die ongeluk.

Lt. Keeney is gebore en getoë in Somers, Connecticut, en was bekend met die gebied waaroor hy gevlieg het. Hy het plaaslike skole bygewoon, en nadat hy aan die Texas Institute of Technology gestudeer het, het hy op 17 Maart 1941 in Lubbock, Texas, by die Air Corps aangesluit. Tydens die bywoning van die Texas Institute ontmoet hy sy vrou Christine, met wie hy getroud is op 31 Oktober 1941, wat ook die dag was toe hy sy vlieënier se vlerke ontvang het. Ten tyde van sy dood is hy by die 62ste Pursuit -eskader aangestel.

Luitenant Keeney is op sy 24ste verjaardag oorlede. Hy is begrawe in die familie -mausoleum in West Cemetery in Somers, CT.

Pawtucket Times, “U.S. Vlieënier dood in vliegtuigongeluk ”, 6 April 1942, bl. 7

U.S. Air Corps se tegniese verslag van vliegtuigongeluk #42-12-30-1

Onbekende koerant verbonde aan Air Corps se ondersoekverslag, “Flyer Meets Death Near Somers Home ”, onbekende datum.

Onbekende koerant verbonde aan Air Corps se ondersoekverslag, “Lt. Keeney vermoor in Somersville ”, onbekende datum.

Hartford Times, “Begrafnis Woensdag Vir Lieut. Keeney Air Crash Victim ”, 7 April 1942.


April 1942 Afwisselende Indiese Oseaan

Let op - addisionele gewere en enjinkomponente vir HMS Dorsetshire het inderdaad op 6 April OTL in Colombo aangekom.

0900 Ure, 10 April 1942, Colombo hawe - Die beskadigde slagskepe Besluit en Wraak het anker in die hawe van Colombo laat val saam met hul twee begeleiers vernietigers. Aanvanklike skadeverslag dui aan dat 'n paar dae se noodherstelwerk beide skepe die see kan toelaat om die lang reis na Durban, Suid -Afrika, te onderneem, waar hulle meer uitgebreide herstelwerk kan doen en dat dit makliker sal wees om vas te stel of hulle terug moet gaan na die tuiseilande. Viseadmiraal Layton was egter seker dat hulle nie 'n paar dae gehad het nie, en soveel as wat hy dit wou erken, sou geen skip die Japannese aanval wat almal later die dag of vroeg die volgende dag verwag het, oorleef nie. Layton het alle nie-noodsaaklike personeel van beide slagskepe beveel om slegs die senior offisiere, die wapenspanne en die nodige skadebeheerpersoneel aan boord te laat. Hy het ook die vernietigers beveel Verkenner en Pyltjie om aan te vul en dan voor sononder die hawe uit die weg te ruim. Alle ander seevaardige handelskepe en hulpdienste in die hawe by beide Colombo en Trincomalee het heftig voorbereidings getref om ook aan die gang te kom.

Daarbenewens kon Layton nie veel doen nie. Nr. 222 Groep se vegvliegtuie, die lugafweerspanne en die militêre en burgerlike noodspanne was almal gereed. Die verdediging teen vliegtuie van Colombo is aangevul deur 'n onverwagte geskenk. Op 6 April het 'n handelsskip die hawe ingetrek met enjinkomponente en bykomende lugafweergewere wat kaptein Agar vir die noodlottige kruiser HMS bestel het. Dorsetshire. Alhoewel dit ontwerp is vir skeepsgebruik, het ondernemende Royal Navy en Air Force -masjiniste daarin geslaag om die gewere in 'n tydelike plek om die hawe te rig. Dit was nie veel nie, maar elke bietjie het gehelp.

Johnboy

Let op - addisionele gewere en enjinkomponente vir HMS Dorsetshire het inderdaad op 6 April OTL in Colombo aangekom.

0900 Ure, 10 April 1942, Colombo hawe - Die beskadigde slagskepe Besluit en Wraak het anker in die hawe van Colombo gelê saam met hul twee begeleiers vernietigers. Aanvanklike skadeverslag dui aan dat 'n paar dae se noodherstelwerk beide skepe die see kan toelaat om die lang reis na Durban, Suid -Afrika, te onderneem, waar hulle meer uitgebreide herstelwerk kan doen en dat dit makliker sal wees om vas te stel of hulle terug moet gaan na die tuiseilande. Viseadmiraal Layton was egter seker dat hulle nie 'n paar dae het nie, en soveel as wat hy dit wou erken, sou geen van die twee skepe die Japannese aanval wat almal later die dag of vroeg die volgende dag verwag het, oorleef nie. Layton het alle nie-noodsaaklike personeel van beide slagskepe beveel om slegs die senior offisiere, die wapenspanne en die nodige skadebeheerpersoneel aan boord te laat. Hy het ook die vernietigers beveel Verkenner en Pyltjie om aan te vul en dan voor sononder die hawe uit die weg te ruim. Alle ander see -waardige handelskepe en hulpdienste in die hawe in Colombo en Trincomalee was besig om heftig voorbereidings te tref om ook aan die gang te kom.

Daarbenewens kon Layton nie veel doen nie. Nr. 222 Groep se vegvliegtuie, die lugafweerpanne en die militêre en burgerlike noodspanne was almal gereed. Colombo se skraal lugweer-verdediging is aangevul deur 'n onverwagte geskenk. Op 6 April het 'n handelsskip die hawe ingetrek met enjinkomponente en bykomende lugafweergewere wat kaptein Agar vir die noodlottige kruiser HMS bestel het. Dorsetshire. Alhoewel dit ontwerp is vir skeepsgebruik, het ondernemende Royal Navy en Air Force -masjiniste daarin geslaag om die gewere in 'n tydelike plek om die hawe te rig. Dit was nie veel nie, maar elke klein groot het gehelp.

Zheng Hy

Rob Stuart

Zheng Hy

Zheng Hy

Vl100butch

Zheng Hy

Die beskadigde slagskip HMS Besluit gesien vanaf die agterkant van HMS Wraak mank in die hawe van Colombo:

Zheng Hy

Rob Stuart

Rob Stuart

Ryk Rostrom

Ek mag verkeerd wees, maar die skade aan die twee slagskepe kan hulle laat sak, of ten minste gestrand het. Soos ander mag sê, kan dit die lokmiddel wees wat Nagumo op Colombo gefokus hou en die res van Force B en A laat wegkom. Jammer dat I-3 na die hinderlaag ontsnap het. Laat ons hoop dat die Geallieerdes 'n kans sal kry om die geur aan die KB terug te gee. Om 'n draer of twee te sink of ten minste te beskadig, kan baie help.

Alhoewel die verlies van resolusie en wraak pynlik kan wees, kan dit op die lange duur vrugte afwerp om die skepe uit die OOB te haal en die bemanning vir ander skepe te bevry. As hulle in vlak genoeg water sink, kan baie komponente gered word, insluitend die 15 in torings.

Hier is my voorstel met 'n baie slim idee.

Besluit en Wraak is reeds gereed vir groot herstelwerk, en IIRC is die naaste drydock wat dit kan neem, in die VSA of die Verenigde Koninkryk. Dus sal hulle in elk geval 'n jaar buite aksie wees en sal hulle moontlik nooit weer in aksie kom nie (die VSA moet die slagoffers van Pearl Harbor regmaak, en Koningin Elizabeth en Dapper). As hulle dus afgeskryf word, is dit nie 'n groot verlies nie, veral as die spanne goed is.

Besluit en Wraak klim in die hawe van Colombo. Hulle word op 'n egalige kiel gegrond in water wat hul hoofdekke ongeveer 1,5 meter bo die water laat, met alle interne ruimtes oorstroom.

Toegegee dat dit die binnekant van die skip gaan deurmekaar maak. Maar dit sal omslaan, sekondêre ontploffings in die tydskrifte voorkom, en ek dink dat die rompskade deur torpedo -treffers verminder word. (AIUI, onderwaterbeskadiging is ernstiger omdat die water buite die krag van die ontploffing teen die leë romp dryf, wat vervorm. As daar ook water binne is, word die skokgolf na die water oorgedra, deur interne skote en die teenoorgestelde romp terug in oop water.)

Die AA -batterye kan nog steeds bestry word, mits al die ammunisie uit die tydskrifte geneem word voordat dit oorstroom word.

Intussen - in Colombo, wat normaalweg van bo af lyk, sal hulle amper 'n staking kry Kido Butai. Baie staatsvliegtuie kan teen hierdie staking gekant word en ander lugversorgers op die land kan die Japannese draers opspoor en teister. Intussen kan Somerville met Force A na die suide en terug in die ooste loop vir 'n aanval.

Vir veiligheid kan die staking teen skemer begin word. Hulle kan nie herstel word nie, maar hulle kan bingo na Ceylon terwyl Force A voete na die weste slaan.

Dit ontbloot Besluit en Wraak tot bykomende aanval, maar dit word in elk geval waarskynlik nie duidelik nie. Dit hou hulle waar hulle gered kan word, voeg moontlik nog 'n (vloot!) Draer by Somerville se sak en kou op Kido Butaise luggroepe 'n klomp.


As Duitsland Barbarossa tot April 1942 vertraag het, sou hulle Rusland verslaan het

1. Japannese val die USSR uit die ooste binne
2. In plaas daarvan om 'n uiters aggressiewe grondgryp te doen en verder as die toevoerlynvermoë te gaan (wat aan die einde van die winter aansienlik verminder word, ja, onverharde paaie). In plaas daarvan doen hulle dit bestendig, verskans in die winter en lente, en in die tweede golf sou hulle verkrummel

Die meeste probleme wat die Europeërs ondervind om Rusland binne te val, is die feit dat hul lande op die taamlik dun "skiereiland" tussen die Middellandse See en die Oossee is - maar Europa begin verder groot word, wat nie toelaat om alles te haas nie.

Glenn239

Ek dink die beste opsie was as AGC in Oktober met beperkte magte konsentreer op 'n beperkte omsingeling, met die bedoeling om naby Smolensk te oorwinter, terwyl AGS die belangrikste poging word. Dit sou toelaat dat meer vragmotors vir die AGS -voorskot gebruik word. Ek het ondersteuning gaan soek vir my gevolgtrekkings. Hier,

Uittreksels hieronder. Let op dat die skrywer, net soos ek, ook PZ Groep 2 as die belangrikste swaaiseenheid geïdentifiseer het, en ook, soos ek, tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat Rostov ten minste gehou kan word,

Na die ramp naby Kiëf het die Rooi Leër daarin geslaag om 541 600 man bymekaar te skraap om die Oos -Oekraïne te verdedig. Dit beteken dat die Duitsers besluit het om oos eerder as noord te stoot met die belangrikste slagkrag van die Ostheer na die oorwinning in Kiev, maar die gesamentlike mag van 'n weermaggroep Suid versterk met Panzergroep twee sou maklik diep in die suide van Rusland gewees het.

Brauchitsch het Rundstedt egter nie net geïgnoreer nie, maar het ook op fantasievolle wyse daarop aangedring dat doelwitte wat tot by Stalingrad en die olievelde by Maykop, in die Kaukasus, nog bereik moet word, bereik moet word. Ironies genoeg, as Guderian se Tweede Panzer Army en Army Group South se magte wat voorheen na die Army Group Center gestuur is, in die Oekraïne gebly het na die ineenstorting van die Sowjet -sak naby Kiëf, is daar min twyfel dat die doel bereik kon word. Maar dit is natuurlik nie wat gebeur het nie.

Oor die algemeen moet 'n mens na die gebeure na die oorwinning in Kiëf kyk as 'n verlore geleentheid om 'n skoen in die keel van die Sowjetunie se oorlogspoging te sit. Weer ontneem van kragtige hulpbronne, het Army Group South die vermoë ontneem om die sukses daarvan te benut en die groot gaping in die rooi leër se strepe ten volle te benut. Alhoewel dit in die herfs van 1941 waarskynlik nie suidoos in die Kaukasusse ingedring het nie, sou weermaggroep Suid nie ontken word nie, is daar min twyfel dat Rostov ten minste gehou kon word.

Tog het Hitler en OKH in plaas daarvan reeds besluit om die pogings van die Wehrmacht terug te stuur na die sentrum van die front vir 'n stap op Moskou. 'N Beweging wat in stryd was met wat in die twee vorige grootskaalse Duitse veldtogte van die oorlog gedoen is - toe Warskou en Parys geneem is, was beslis sekondêre of selfs tersiêre doelwitte. Ironies genoeg was dit ook in stryd met Hitler se vorige aanvulling tot richtlijn 33, wat op 23 Julie uitgereik is, waardeur hy nie net Panzer Group One nie, maar ook Panzer Group Two en belangrike ander bates beveel het om te konsentreer op die neem van die hele Oos -Oekraïne en verby die Donrivier te dring. ver in Suid -Rusland en die koukusse. Maar as gevolg van die verandering in planne (gekodeer in richtlijn 35 op 6 September), het Army Group South beduidende bates noordwaarts gestuur (twee korps -kommandopersoneel, een panserdivisie, twee gemotoriseerde afdelings en sewe infanteriedivisies) na die Army Group Center for Operation Typhoon en die rit na Moskou. En dit was nie die ergste daarvan nie. Om hul pogings teen Moskou te herlei, moes die Duitsers ook Panzer Group Four 'n paar honderd kilometer suidwaarts skuif (tussen Panzer Group Three en Two plaas), terwyl Panzer Group Two heeltemal omdraai en 'n ewe groot afstand noordooswaarts moes gaan. Dit is alles gedoen in 'n tyd toe die Duitse spoor- en logistieke netwerk onder groot druk was. Dikwels word sulke vervaardiging amper blatant weggelê, terwyl dit in werklikheid nie net die reeds verswakte Duitse aanbodbasis belemmer het nie, maar ook enorme slijtage op die Duitse panzerleërs gelê het (byvoorbeeld die 11de Panzerdivisie, geneem uit Army Group South en aan Die nuut verworwe Panzer Group Four van Army Group Center moes 465 myl optrek om die nuwe byeenkomsterreine te bereik), wat andersins beter geposisioneer was om die stryd na enige plek, maar naby Moskou, te voer.


HistoryLink.org

Die Puyallup Assembly Center, beter bekend onder die eufemism Camp Harmony, 'n naam wat tydens 'n konstruksie in 1942 deur 'n weermag-skakelbeampte geskep is, was geleë op die kermis in Washington, in die hartjie van Puyallup, in Pierce County. Die vergaderingsentrum was 'n tydelike fasiliteit waarin Japannese Amerikaners, bekend as Nikkei, gedwing is om in Maart 1942 byeen te kom, na aanleiding van die Amerikaanse president Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) se uitvoerende bevel 9066, wat die uitsetting van 110,000 Japannese Amerikaners aan die gang gesit het. die Weskus. Die massa -uitsetting het ongeveer 7.500 mense uit Seattle en die plattelandse gebiede rondom Tacoma gedwing om die vergaderingsentrum in te gaan, waar hulle onder druk omstandighede gebly het totdat hulle na permanente "verhuisingsentrums" (binnelandse gevangeniskampe) oorgeplaas is. 'N Sleutelfiguur in hierdie gebeure was James Sakamoto (1903-1955), 'n koerantuitgewer en 'n stigter van die Japanese American Citizens League (JACL).

Gedwonge ballingskap

Op 30 Maart 1942 stap 257 Nikkei-inwoners van Bainbridge Island, Washington, onder militêre bewaking op 'n kruis-klankboot, en klim toe op 'n trein in Seattle op pad na die Manzanar-onthaalsentrum in Owensvallei van Kalifornië, 200 myl oos van Los Angeles. Met hierdie vervoer het die gedwonge ballingskap van 92 000 Japannese Amerikaners en hul immigrante-ouderlinge direk vanaf hul huise in Washington, Oregon, Kalifornië en Arizona begin na tydelike doringdraadfasiliteite wat bekend staan ​​as 'vergaderingsentrums'. Daar het hulle ongeveer 100 dae gebly totdat hulle na permanente "verhuisingsentrums" in afgeleë streke van die Amerikaanse Weste en Arkansas oorgeplaas is.

Die weermag se taak om 92 000 mans, vroue en kinders uit te sit en te huisves, was skrikwekkend. Begin Maart 1942 het beplanners van die Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA), met sy hoofkwartier in San Francisco, 15 operasionele openbare fasiliteite op kermis-, renbaan- en veepaviljoenplekke bewillig. Geleë naby stadsgrense met 'n aansienlike Nikkei -bevolking, is 12 nuwe terreine in Kalifornië ontwikkel en een elk in Arizona, Oregon en Washington. Die sentrums is gebou vir tydelike besetting en bied min geriewe en skraal sosiale dienste. Gevangenes sou in gemors sale eet en in lawaaierige kaserne slaap terwyl hulle tydens hul gevangenskap min privaatheid geniet.

Die Puyallup Assembly Center, beter bekend as die eufemism Camp Harmony, 'n naam wat tydens die konstruksie deur 'n weermag-skakelbeampte bedink is, was geleë op die kermis van die Wes-Washington in die hartjie van Puyallup. Die sentrum het ook drie aangrensende parkeerterreine ingesluit, waardeur vier afsonderlike gebiede deur stadsstrate afgesny is. Alhoewel hierdie reëling die werk van administrateurs belas met bewegings tussen gebiede bemoeilik, was dit die enigste manier waarop 7.500 mense uit Seattle en die landelike gebiede rondom Tacoma op 'n plek in die staat gestoor kon word.

Sakamoto se rol

Die weermag het hulp van leiers in die Seattle Nikkei -gemeenskap gekry om die gedwonge uitsetting tot stand te bring. Kort na Pearl Harbor, die 39-jarige Jimmie Sakamoto, redakteur van die Engels-taal Japannese Amerikaanse koerier en 'n uitgesproke persoonlikheid wat binne en sonder die Japannese gemeenskap bekend was, georganiseerde vriende en ander vertroude Nisei om te reageer op die nasionale noodgeval en toenemende negatiewe houding teenoor die Japannese gemeenskap.

Later, in April 1942, toe die gedwonge ballingskap nader kom, het weermagbeplanners versoek dat Sakamoto se noodverdedigingsraad hulp verleen met die dreigende ontruiming en 'n administratiewe liggaam by die Puyallup-vergaderingsentrum vorm om te help met die daaglikse aktiwiteite en as 'n koppelvlak tussen die gevangenes en administrasie.

Sakamoto se ondemokratiese proses om sy medewerkers met die hand te kies, gekombineer met die persepsie in die Japannese gemeenskap dat hy en sy groep akkommodante is, het onopgeloste spanning met mede-gevangenes veroorsaak en het tot ongelukkige gevolge gelei tydens die gevangenis-ervaring by Camp Harmony.

Voorbereiding vir ballingskap

Toe die weermag se gedwonge ontruiming uit die Puget Sound -streek nader kom, het Nikkei -gemeenskappe in die omgewing voorberei op hul ballingskap. Advertensies verskyn in die koerante in Seattle en Tacoma, en lesers het gou agtergekom dat daar winskopies is:

  • JAPANSE ontruiming vereis onmiddellike verkoop van 'n baksteenhotel met 55 kamers. Beste linne, meubels: stoomhitte, vaste huurders.
  • 1936 DESOTO sedan. Aangeboude oordryf, gasbesparende ratkas vier nuwe bande. Ontruimingsmagte verkoop.

Probleme vir Nikkei -plaasoperateurs in die Kent -vallei, die Witriviervallei en die Puyallup -riviervallei en elders was dikwels ingewikkeld. Langtermyn-huurkontrakte moes oorgedra word, duur boerderymasjiene weggegooi of geberg word deur simpatieke bure. Tot die laaste minuut het die regering die produsente onder druk geplaas om vir die 1942 -seisoen te plant, wat die voortgesette produksie gelykgestel het aan 'n mate van nasionale lojaliteit: Goue verwaarlosing van gewasse of skade word tot sabotasie verhef.

Die uitsettingsoperasie het gedeeltelik vlot verloop weens die burgerlike beheerstasies wat die Wartime Civil Control Administration in gemeenskapsale, skoolgimnasiums en ander openbare plekke naby Nikkei -sentrums opgerig het. Ses stasies is in die sentrale gebied van Seattle opgerig, met 'n sewende in Puyallup. Daar het regeringspersoneel gesinne geregistreer, mediese ondersoeke voor induksie verskaf en gehelp om die stoor of verkoop van eiendomme te reël. Vyf-syfer-identifikasienommers wat daar toegewys is, het familie-eenhede tot anonimiteit verplaas: die Itois van Seattle-familie 10710 die Unos-familie 10936.

Op elke vasgestelde ontruimingsdag het gesinne by vooraf gereëlde bymekaarkomplekke aangekom en hul persoonlike besittings gesleep. Die bymekaarkomplek in 8th Avenue en Lane Street naby die hartjie van Seattle se Japantown was in die rooi-lig distrik van die stad. Shosuke Sasaki onthou hoe bagasie aan weerskante van die straat gestaan ​​het en Nikkei in 'n koue lente -motreën gestaan ​​het en wag op die bevel om op busse te klim. Onder hulle sy suster en haar twee babakinders. Die deur van 'n bordeel het oopgegaan en die mevrou nooi die drie in haar salon om die reën uit te wag, 'n daad van vriendelikheid wat 'n halfeeu later met emosie herinner word.

Skok en druk

Aankomers van New Camp Harmony het vreemdelinge in ongewone nabye gebiede gekonfronteer, wat gemeenskaplike realiteite van gemorshale, latrines, stortkamers en die kaserne self deel. Laat in die nag was geen uitsondering nie, want oop ruimtes tussen mure en plafonne het versterkte geluide wat deur die hele verduisterde kaserne rits. Slapeloosheid verduur snork, hoes, fluister, stry, huil, loop en klanke van liefdesvermaak.

Terwyl reën op die teerpapierdakke by Puyallup geval het tydens die deurdrenkte fontein in die Stille Oseaan in die Stille Oseaan in 1942, het water teen lae hange deur krake en op komberse, klere en gesigte gedrup. Sulke ellende het die vroeë ervaring van die Nikkei -graafskap King en Pierce ingelig toe hulle die skok van hul skielike verlies aan vryheid verduur.

Nietemin het Camp Harmony -gevangenes 'n skyn van gemeenskap opgebou. Sakamoto se kader van Nisei (in Amerika gebore uit Japannese immigrante) vrywilligers, koördineer hul aktiwiteite met die instruksies van die sentrumbestuurder, georganiseerde werk, ontspanning en opvoedkundige aktiwiteite. Baie het gaan werk, die meeste na die gemorsale, terwyl ander gespesialiseerde vaardighede as klerke, organiseerders en mediese hulpverleners gebruik het. Nisei-onderwysers en vrywilligers het jong aanklagte deur middel van die "vakansieskool" gelei, terwyl ander vrywilligers 'n wisselende biblioteek in die omgewing opgestel het met boeke wat deur die Seattle Public Library geskenk is. Werknemers se betaalstaat wissel van $ 8 per maand vir ongeskoolde arbeid tot $ 16 vir professionele persone. In 2008 dollar het oorwerkte dokters 'n skamele $ 212 per maand verdien.

Ander werkers het ontspanningsaktiwiteite gereël om verveling te voorkom en moraal te versterk: boks, kendo, sumo, basketbal, hoefyster. Sagteballigas het onmiddellike onderlinge wedywerings veroorsaak wat herinner aan die gewilde Courier Leagues in die streek wat die vooroorlogse jare oorheers het. Vroue het brei-, naaldwerk- en hekelgroepe gevorm, en ouer mans het begin gaan en shogi toernooie. Dansgierige jongmense is op pad na die ontspanningsaal om na die opgeneemde klanke van Glen Miller te swaai.

Deur die dag kom

Tog het die tyd stadig verloop vir die meeste mense, afwesig van afleiding deur werk en vrywilligerswerk. Tamako Inouye onthou die somer verveling wat sy en vriende by die Camp Harmony beleef het:

"Daar was 'n ruimte tussen die kaserne. As dit regtig warm was, sou almal aan die een kant van die baan gaan, teen die gebou leun en net daar sit. En later op die dag as die son van koers verander, gaan ons aan die ander kant "(Inouye -onderhoud).

Net so nuttig soos Sakamoto en sy 'Japannese administrasie' was om gevangenes te help om hul tyd in beslag te neem en moraal te handhaaf, het die groep se hardhandigheid by die uitvoering van sentrumregulasies, soos 'n verbod op Japannese taalboeke en musiek en die opstel van 'n selfregering die gevangenes en ontsteld administrateurs. As gevolg hiervan het die Wartime Civil Control Administration, halfpad deur die beproewing by Camp Harmony, lede van die groep van Sakamoto na ander sentrums verban en die groep se status verminder tot 'n adviesraad wat van mag verwyder is. Erger nog, selfbestuur is by al die vergaderingsentrums verban.

Om deur die dag te kom, het meestal groter belang as selfbestuur gekry. Alhoewel hulle fisies van hul voormalige gemeenskappe afgesonder was, het die gevangenes toegang tot nuus en wêreldgebeurtenisse verkry deur middel van AM -bandradio -uitsendings en posintekeninge na Engelse koerante. Daarbenewens het die sentrum 'n mimeografiese nuusbrief vervaardig, bekend as die Kamp Harmonie-nuusbrief uitgegee deur Nikkei -redaksie en produksiepersoneel. Alle uitgawes is gratis versprei. Die sentrumbestuurder het sy voorskrifte en voorskrifte meegedeel, terwyl redakteur Dick Takeuchi gebeure in die middel berig het, soos geboortes en sterftes, baluitslae en kerkbyeenkomste op Sondag. Die inhoud is gesensor, wat Takeuchi en sy kollegas oral frustrerend maak. Die redakteur van die Manzanar Gratis pers het privaat opgemerk dat slegs die inskrywingsgeld vir sy publikasie gratis was.

Sonder toegang tot telefoon of vryheid om te beweeg, was briefskrywing die enigste manier om met die buitewêreld te kommunikeer. Alhoewel die nuusbrief sterk gesensor is, het eersteklas pos vrylik verbygegaan. Die poskantoor in die stad Puyallup het werknemers van die staatsdiens voorsien om seëls, poswissels en geregistreerde pos te verkoop, terwyl gevangenes teen $ 8 per maand op die WCCA -betaalstaat geplaas is om inkomende pos te sorteer en "huis" -aflewering aan die kaserne te verskaf.

Gesondheid en sanitasie

Vroeë onbevoegdheid deur weermagbeplanners het gelei tot die besetting van die vergaderingsentrums voor die installering van verkoeling en ander veilige voedselbergingstoerusting. Aanvanklik het gevangenes weermagrantsoene geëet wat ontwerp is vir troepe in die veld. Gelukkig het die ingemaakte vleis-, groente- en vrugte -dieet, wat 'n gebrek aan etniese sensitiwiteit gehad het, kort -kort plek gemaak vir vars en smaakliker kos. Gesonde sanitêre toestande het egter stadiger ontwikkel, wat oral bedreigings inhou vir die gesondheid.

Uitbrake van diarree het die meeste vergaderingsentrums geteister weens onervare werkers en onbehoorlike toesig. Begin Mei het bedorwe Wene-wors 'n ernstige opvlam onder die Puyallup-gevangenes veroorsaak. Simptome het na die uitgangspunt verskyn, en die rumoer het tot groot paniek gelei deur wagte in die wagtorings. Flitsligte help om die pad te verlig, met alle openbare stalletjies wat ligpunte beset, wat onreëlmatig in die duisternis beweeg. Die wagte was bang vir 'n opstand en het die kolligte beman en versterkings gevra. Maar toe die orde gou herstel is, is tragedie afgeweer en die epidemie het vinnig verbygegaan. Gegewe oorvol en onhigiëniese toestande by die meeste vergaderingsentrums, is dit verbasend dat meer gereeld, indien nie ernstig nie, gastro -enteritis plaasgevind het.

Nikkei -dokters, verpleegsters, tandartse en aptekers, self gevangenes, het die grootste deel van die gesondheidsorg by Camp Harmony verskaf. Alhoewel die tydelike besetting van die sentrum sy mediese fasiliteite na 'n siekeboegstatus verplaas het, het weermagstatistici 'n totaal van 37 geboortes, 11 sterftes en slegs in Augustus maand sewe operasie -kameroperasies en 2 260 polikliniese behandelings aangeteken.

Vroeg vertrek

'N Paar gelukkige gevangenes het daarin geslaag om Camp Harmony vroeg te verlaat. Namate die land se krisis in die plaasarbeid verdiep het met die trekarbeiders wat militêre diens aangaan of hoër betaalde poste in die oorlogsbedryf beklee, het suikerverwerkers hulle tot die vergaderingsentrums gewend as 'n onontginde arbeidsbron. Die werwing by die vergaderingsentrums in Portland en Puyallup het middel Mei begin, en binnekort het 72 vrywilligers van Camp Harmony na Oos-Oregon en Montana vertrek. Teen die tyd dat die tydperk van die byeenkomssentrum geëindig het, het byna 1,600 vrywilligers met 'n sterk steun uit 'n halfdosyn sentrums die suikerbietlande van die Amerikaanse Weste bewerk. Teen November het Nikkei -plaashanders, die meeste van hulle voormalige Camp Harmony -gevangenes, 25 persent van die suikerbietoes van Idaho geoes, terwyl die staat se boere hul dank betuig het.

Nisei -studente, hul opleiding aan die Universiteit van Washington skielik opgeskort, het skraler geleenthede gehad om die sentrum te verlaat. Alhoewel meer as 4 000 studente in die volgende drie jaar binnelandse kolleges en universiteite sou binnegaan, waaronder 'n paar honderd van die Universiteit van Washington, het die verhuisingsprogram vir studente beskeie in die vergaderingsentrums begin met 360 oordragte en slegs drie van Camp Harmony. Die weermag het die verhuising van studente om nasionale veiligheidsredes gekant en voldoende beperkings opgelê, wat slegs 'n paar kolleges en universiteite toegelaat het om deel te neem. Studente moes hul finansiële hulpbronne dokumenteer en omslagtige FBI -intelligensie -ondersoeke ondergaan.

Die eerstejaars van die ekonomie, Kenji Okuda, het sy aanvaardingsbrief van die Oberlin College byderhand gehad vir die herfsperiode van 1942. Maar selfs met 'n verklaring van sy finansiële hulpbronne ('n trustfonds van $ 3 000) en veelvuldige getuienisse van Kaukasiese vriende wat getuig van sy lojaliteit, het hy tevergeefs gewag op 'n uitklaring van San Francisco. Sy slot is aan 'n ander student gegee, wat sy opleiding tot die volgende lente vertraag het. Die meeste Nisei -voormalige UW -studente het hul universiteitsaansoeke voorberei terwyl hulle by die Minidoka Relocation Center was.

Verhuis na gevangeniskampe

Die oordrag na die vergaderingsentrums en na die verhuisingsentrums begin in Junie 1942 en duur tot Oktober. Die eerste beweging na Minidoka het op 9 Augustus plaasgevind toe 213 vrywilligers Camp Harmony verlaat het om die sentrum voor te berei vir die nuwe aankomelinge wat in treinvragte van 500 per dag sou arriveer. Oorlogstydse eise om troepe op die spoorlyne van die land te verplaas, het die Wartime Civil Control Administration genoop om passasiersmotors wat weer in gebruik geneem is, te gebruik, wat universele klagtes van Nikkei-passasiers en -amptenare veroorsaak het, en het tot die vernedering van gevangenisstraf bygedra. Vuil, met onvoldoende waterdruk, wankelende lugversorging en verseëlde vensters wat lugsirkulasie voorkom, het slegs die verbygaande landskap tydelike afleiding van die ellende gegee. Die oordrag na Minidoka vereis 21 treine wat spesiaal aangevra is.

Op 1 November 1942, ses dae na die finale oordrag van gevangenes van Santa Anita Assembly Center na die Manzanar Relocation Center, het die weermag onder vooraf ooreenkoms met die oorlogsverskuiwingsowerheid die jurisdiksie van 111 000 Japannese Amerikaners oorgedra. Die tydperk van die vergaderingsentrum het toe tot 'n einde gekom.

Jimmie Sakamoto, wat so 'n ontwrigting by Camp Harmony veroorsaak het, het sy mede -gevangenes na Minidoka vergesel, maar het nooit 'n leiersposisie gekry nie. Administrateurs by Minidoka het hom vooruit laat weet dat hy nie bo die rang van 'n blokbestuurder kon uitstyg nie.

'N Silwer randjie vir die moeilike tydperk van die byeenkoms kan wees dat die lewe in hierdie houers die gevangenes voorberei het op die jare lange gevangenisstraf wat voorlê. Sharon (Tanagi) Aburano het met die skrywer 'n insig uit haar eie ervaring gedeel:

"I think that was the best adjustment really the Army could give us, to herd us all together to get us used to queuing up in lines and being a bit more patient and learning to get along because we were in such tight quarters. I think without them knowing, it was the greatest thing to do. When we went to Minidoka the trauma wasn’t there.”

Barracks, Camp Harmony (Puyallup Assembly Center), 1942

Courtesy MOHAI (1986.5.6680.1)

Camp Harmony under construction, Puyallup, 1942

Courtesy UW Special Collections (UW6914)

Posting of Japanese Exclusion Order (No. 17, dated April 24, 1942), Seattle, 1942

Social Trends in Seattle Vol 14 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1944)

Bainbridge Island High School pupils bid farewell to their Japanese American classmates, March 1942

Social Trends in Seattle Vol 14 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1944)

Empty Japanese American business G. Oishi Co., Pike Place Market, May 1, 1942

Courtesy Seattle Municipal Archives (31900)

Camp Harmony (Puyallup Assembly Center), drawing titled "Air Conditioning!" Augustus 1942

Drawing by Eddie Sato, Courtesy UW Special Collections (PH Coll 664.27)

Japanese American evacuees, Camp Harmony (Puyallup Assembly Center), 1942

Photo by Howard Clifford, Courtesy UW Special Collections (UW526)

Internees lined up in the rain, Camp Harmony (Puyallup Assembly Center), 1942


1942 Siege of Sebastopol

The Siege of Sebastopol took place in 1942, after the Russian failure to re-take Kharkov. The Germans had to take Sebastopol if they were to fulfill their aim in completing the southern arm of Operation Barbarossa – taking the oil fields of the Middle East.

Sebastopol was a port in the Black Sea. As such, the city had a strategic value to the Germans in their drive south-east to the oil fields. The successful taking of the city would also compensate for the failure of the Wehrmacht to take Moscow and Leningrad. The German XI Army was already engaged in fighting in the Crimea during the time of the Kharkov Offensive. Five German divisions were assigned the task of blockading Sebastopol from the land side and were supported in the air by VIII Fliegerkorps and Luftflotte IV. The Luftwaffe had a two-to-one advantage in this campaign. The push to Sebastopol started on May 8th, 1942. Initially, the Germans were very successful. Russian defenders had little chance against 1,800 aerial sorties a day and the Russians had poor defences and fared badly on the ground. When the Russians lost the Kerch peninsula in the Crimea to the Germans in May 1942, it allowed the invaders to turn their full attention to Sebastopol. However, early success was to give way to rugged defending.

The city was defended by the Soviet Coastal Army led by General I.E. Petrov. This force amounted to 106,000 men, 600 artillery guns, 100 mortars and 38 tanks. Petrov only had 55 serviceable planes at his disposal. The Germans had a formidable array of weaponry at their disposal, including super-heavy 615mm mortars. The 800mm ‘Dora’ mortar (carried by rail) was also brought up for the attack. For the attack on Sebastopol, the Germans could muster 204,000 men, 670 artillery guns, 720 mortars, 655 anti-tank guns, 450 tanks and 600 aircraft. In the Black Sea, the Germans stationed 19 MTB’s, 30 patrol boats and 8 anti-submarine boats. Surrounded at land and sea, getting supplies into Sebastopol would prove to be very difficult for the Russians. Plans were already afoot for submarines to bring in food and ammunition and a number of fast boats from the Black Sea Fleet were almost tasked for the same. However, whatever they brought in would never be enough.

On June 2nd, the Germans started to bombard Sebastopol. This lasted for five days. On June 7th, German infantry started their attack. To start with, the Germans attacks were vigorously repulsed. But slowly, the impact of the blockade was felt by the defenders. Petrov only got one-third of what his forces needed on a day-to-day basis with regards to ammunition. The Germans later reported that the Russians had to fight hand-to-hand as they had no ammunition for their rifles etc. Russian machine gun fire was very sporadic – in an effort to preserve what ammunition there was. However, the Germans faced an almost fanatical enemy, willing to defend at all costs. The defenders of the ‘Maxim Gorky’ battery in Sebastopol is a classic example: of 1,000 men who defended the battery, only 50 were taken prisoner and all of them had been wounded. This alone represented an attrition rate of 95% for the Russians.

By the end of June, the Russian defenders were in a critical position and on June 30th, the Germans fought their way into Sebastopol itself. An evacuation of the Russian forces in the city was ordered. It started on June 30th and lasted until July 3rd.

The whole process of evacuation was gravely hindered by constant attacks by the Luftwaffe and by dug-in German artillery positions picking off targets at will. By the end of the siege, 90,000 Russian prisoners had been taken and the Russians had lost the equivalent of two armies. Russians who were not evacuated and had not been wounded, tried to get into the countryside of the Crimea to join up with the partisans.

“We knew how many planes they had, and they knew how hard it was to defend a city with all its roads cut. But they forgot one thing: Sebastopol is not merely a city. It is the glory of Russia, the pride of the Soviet Union. We have seen the capitulation of towns, of celebrated fortresses, of states. But Sebastopol is not surrendering. Our soldiers do not play at war. They fight a life-or-death struggle. They do not say ‘I surrender’ when they see tow or three more enemy men on the chessboard.”IIya Ehrenburg

In recognition of what the defenders had achieved against almost impossible odds, the defenders of Sebastopol were awarded the ‘Defence of Sebastopol’ medal by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.


April 1942: Message Received

Elmer also received a steady stream of letters from young women. Irene Sykes, Shirley Ryder, and Dorothy Wekking wrote him “every few weeks.” Pat had recently stopped writing him, mainly because Elmer once again stopped responding to her letters. In fairness, he had a lot of correspondence to answer, which promoted him to reassure his worried mother. “I’m not much for reading the Bible or religious literature,” he wrote, “but I do nothing that I am ashamed of.” In spite of Elmer’s aversion to such things, his father announced that he was going to send his son some Christian Science materials, presumably before Elmer could have had a chance to finish reading the New Testament his mother’s pastor sent him weeks earlier.

While Elmer did not necessarily find comfort in religion, he took his self-improvement seriously. At the end of the month he wrote that he was looking forward to coming home and visiting with his parents, but he hoped that he would be “more of a man” than “the boy who left a good home.” Nevertheless, he confessed that he did not regret joining the Navy, and that in spite of him now being in the middle of a war he believed that the experience would shape him in a positive way.

Of course, there was always a risk involved when serving in the Navy during a war. But Elmer wanted his parents to not spend their time worrying about it, and instead embrace his hope for a brighter future. And thanks to the Doolittle Raiders, that future seemed a little more likely than before.


Making the model minority

Over the past decade, from Pulitzer Prizes to popular films, Asian Americans have slowly been gaining better representation in Hollywood and other cultural industries.

Whereas “The Joy Luck Club” had long been the most infamous depiction of Asian-ness in Hollywood, by the 2018 Golden Globes, Sandra Oh declared her now famous adage: “It’s an honor just to be Asian.” It was, at least at face value, a moment of cultural inclusion.

However, so-called Asian American inclusion has a dark side.

In reality, as cultural historian Robert G. Lee has argued, inclusion can and has been used to undermine the activism of African Americans, indigenous peoples and other marginalized groups in the United States. In the words of writer Frank Chin in 1974, “Whites love us because we’re not black.”

For example, in 1943, a year after the United States incarcerated Japanese Americans under Executive Order 9066, Congress repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act. White liberals advocated for the repeal not out of altruism toward Chinese migrants, but to advocate for a transpacific alliance against Japan and the Axis powers.

By allowing for the free passage of Chinese migrants to the United States, the nation could show its supposed fitness as an interracial superpower that rivaled Japan and Germany. Meanwhile, incarcerated Japanese Americans in camps and African Americans were still held under Jim Crow segregation laws.

In her new book, “Opening the Gates to Asia: A Transpacific History of How America Repealed Asian Exclusion,” Occidental College historian Jane Hong reveals how the United States government used Asian immigration inclusion against other minority groups at a time of social upheaval.

For example, in 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration signed the much-celebrated Hart-Celler Act into law. The act primarily targeted Asian and African migrants, shifting immigration from an exclusionary quota system to an merit-based points system. However, it also imposed immigration restrictions on Latin America.


Russian trucks move towards Berlin. The final assault. Entering the hated foe's den. The Russian woman is beautiful.

The final chapter in the destruction of Hitler's Third Reich began on April 16, 1945 when Stalin unleashed the brutal power of 20 armies, 6,300 tanks and 8,500 aircraft with the objective of crushing German resistance and capturing Berlin. By prior agreement, the Allied armies (positioned approximately 60 miles to the west) halted their advance on the city in order to give the Soviets a free hand. The depleted German forces put up a stiff defense, initially repelling the attacking Russians, but ultimately succumbing to overwhelming force. By April 24 the Soviet army surrounded the city slowly tightening its stranglehold on the remaining Nazi defenders. Fighting street-to-street and house-to-house, Russian troops blasted their way towards Hitler's chancellery in the city's center.

Inside his underground bunker Hitler lived in a world of fantasy as his "Thousand Year Reich" crumbled above him. In his final hours the Fuehrer married his long-time mistress and then joined her in suicide. The Third Reich was dead.

VIDEO: YOUNG GERMAN SOLDIERS ON THE ODER FRONT 1945 WAIT FOR THE RUSSIAN ONSLAUGHT





Source: Eyewitnesstohistory


Berliners, gaunt from short rations and stress, had little to celebrate at Christmas in 1944. The mood in Germany had changed exactly two years before. Rumours had begun to circulate just before Christmas 1942 that General Paulus's Sixth Army had been encircled on the Volga by the Red Army. The Nazi regime found it hard to admit that the largest formation in the whole of the Wehrmacht was doomed to annihilation in the ruins of Stalingrad and in the frozen steppe outside. To prepare the country for bad news, Joseph Goebbels, the Reichsminister for Propaganda and Enlightenment, had announced a 'German Christmas', which in National Socialist terms meant austerity and ideological determination, not candles and pine wreathes and singing '
Heilige Nachf'
. By 1944, the traditional roast goose had become a distant memory.

Soviet soldiers loading Katyusha multiple barreled rockets. The Russian tactic was clear. Blow everything that comes in the way to bits.

Dorothea von Schwanenfluegel was a twenty-nine-year-old wife and mother living in Berlin. She and her young daughter along with friends and neighbors huddled within their apartment building as the end neared. The city was already in ruins from Allied air raids, food was scarce, the situation desperate - the only hope that the Allies would arrive before the Russians. We join Dorothea's account as the Russians begin the final push to victory:


"Friday, April 20, was Hitler's fifty-sixth birthday, and the Soviets sent him a birthday present in the form of an artillery barrage right into the heart of the city, while the Western Allies joined in with a massive air raid.

The radio announced that Hitler had come out of his safe bomb-proof bunker to talk with the fourteen to sixteen year old boys who had 'volunteered' for the 'honor' to be accepted into the SS and to die for their Fuhrer in the defense of Berlin. What a cruel lie! These boys did not volunteer, but had no choice, because boys who were found hiding were hanged as traitors by the SS as a warning that, 'he who was not brave enough to fight had to die.' When trees were not available, people were strung up on lamp posts. They were hanging everywhere, military and civilian, men and women, ordinary citizens who had been executed by a small group of fanatics. It appeared that the Nazis did not want the people to survive because a lost war, by their rationale, was obviously the fault of all of us. We had not sacrificed enough and therefore, we had forfeited our right to live, as only the government was without guilt. The Volkssturm was called up again, and this time, all boys age thirteen and up, had to report as our army was reduced now to little more than children filling the ranks as soldiers."

There was a pervasive atmosphere of impending downfall in personal lives as much as in the nation's existence. People spent their money recklessly, half-assuming that it would soon be worthless. And there were stories, although hard to confirm, of girls and young women coupling with strangers in dark corners around the Zoo station and in the Tiergarten. The desire to dispense with innocence is said to have become even more desperate later as the Red Army approached Berlin.


AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT (Contd.)

Encounter with a Young Soldier

"The Soviets battled the German soldiers and drafted civilians street by street until we could hear explosions and rifle fire right in our immediate vicinity. As the noise got closer, we could even hear the horrible guttural screaming of the Soviet soldiers which sounded to us like enraged animals. Shots shattered our windows and shells exploded in our garden, and suddenly the Soviets were on our street. Shaken by the battle around us and numb with fear, we watched from behind the small cellar windows facing the street as the tanks and an endless convoy of troops rolled by.

It was a terrifying sight as they sat high upon their tanks with their rifles cocked, aiming at houses as they passed. The screaming, gun-wielding women were the worst. Half of the troops had only rags and tatters around their feet while others wore SS boots that had been looted from a conquered SS barrack in Lichterfelde. Several fleeing people had told us earlier that they kept watching different boots pass by their cellar windows. At night, the Germans in our army boots recaptured the street that the Soviets in the SS boots had taken during the day. The boots and the voices told them who was who. Now we saw them with our own eyes, and they belonged to the wild cohorts of the advancing Soviet troops.

Facing reality was ten times worse than just hearing about it. Throughout the night, we huddled together in mortal fear, not knowing what the morning might bring. Nevertheless, we noiselessly did sneak upstairs to double check that our heavy wooden window shutters were still intact and that all outside doors were barricaded. But as I peaked out, what did I see! The porter couple in the apartment house next to ours was standing in their front yard waving to the Soviets. So our suspicion that they were Communists had been right all along, but they must have been out of their minds to openly proclaim their brotherhood like that.
As could be expected, that night a horde of Soviet soldiers returned and stormed into their apartment house. Then we heard what sounded like a terrible orgy with women screaming for help, many shrieking at the same time. The racket gave me goosebumps. Some of the Soviets trampled through our garden and banged their rifle butts on our doors in an attempt to break in. Thank goodness our sturdy wooden doors withstood their efforts. Gripped in fear, we sat in stunned silence, hoping to give the impression that this was a vacant house, but hopelessly delivered into the clutches of the long-feared Red Army. Our nerves were in shreds."



"The next morning, we women proceeded to make ourselves look as unattractive as possible to the Soviets by smearing our faces with coal dust and covering our heads with old rags, our make-up for the Ivan. We huddled together in the central part of the basement, shaking with fear, while some peeked through the low basement windows to see what was happening on the Soviet-controlled street. We felt paralyzed by the sight of these husky Mongolians, looking wild and frightening. At the ruin across the street from us the first Soviet orders were posted, including a curfew. Suddenly there was a shattering noise outside. Horrified, we watched the Soviets demolish the corner grocery store and throw its contents, shelving and furniture out into the street. Urgently needed bags of flour, sugar and rice were split open and spilled their contents on the bare pavement, while Soviet soldiers stood guard with their rifles so that no one would dare to pick up any of the urgently needed food. This was just unbelievable. At night, a few desperate people tried to salvage some of the spilled food from the gutter. Hunger now became a major concern because our ration cards were worthless with no hope of any supplies.

Shortly thereafter, there was another commotion outside, even worse than before, and we rushed to our lookout to see that the Soviets had broken into the bank and were looting it. They came out yelling gleefully with their hands full of German bank notes and jewelry from safe deposit boxes that had been pried open. Thank God we had withdrawn money already and had it at home."

"The next day, General Wilding, the commander of the German troops in Berlin, finally surrendered the entire city to the Soviet army. There was no radio or newspaper, so vans with loudspeakers drove through the streets ordering us to cease all resistance. Suddenly, the shooting and bombing stopped and the unreal silence meant that one ordeal was over for us and another was about to begin. Our nightmare had become a reality. The entire three hundred square miles of what was left of Berlin were now completely under control of the Red Army. The last days of savage house to house fighting and street battles had been a human slaughter, with no prisoners being taken on either side. These final days were hell. Our last remaining and exhausted troops, primarily children and old men, stumbled into imprisonment. We were a city in ruins almost no house remained intact."


Source: Eyewitnesstohistory.com

It was a pitiless battle. At Hermersdorf, south-west of Neuhardenberg, Soviet infantry advanced past a T-34 still burning from a panzerfaust. A German soldier in a nearby foxhole screamed to them for help. A grenade dropped in the foxhole had blown off his feet and he lacked the strength to pull himself out. But the Red Army soldiers left him there, despite his cries, in revenge for the burned crew.

German prisoners sent towards the rear were overawed by the endless columns of tanks,self-propelled guns and other tracked vehicles moving forward. 'And this is the army,'some of them thought, 'which in 1941 was supposed to have been at its last gasp.' Soviet infantrymen coming up the other side of the road would greet them with cries of ' Gitler kapuuutt!' , accompanied by a throat-cutting gesture.One of the German prisoners was convinced that a number of the dead they passed were 'Soviet soldiers who had been crushed by their own tanks'. He also saw Russian soldiers trying out some captured panzerfausts by firing them at the wall of a half-ruined house.Others were stripping greatcoats from their own dead, and in one village, he saw a couple of soldiers taking pot shots at nesting storks. Target practice seemed compulsive even after the battle. Some of the prisoners, taken to the magnificent schloss at Neuhardenberg,were alarmed when their escort, spotting a 'superb chandelier', raised his sub-machine gun and fired a burst at it. A senior officer reprimanded him, 'but that seemed to make little impression'.

The Feldgendarmerie and SS groups continued to search for deserters. No records were kept of the roadside executions carried out, but anecdotal evidence suggests that on the XI SS Corps sector, many, including a number of Hitler Youth, were hanged from tree son the flimsiest of proof. This was nothing short of murder. Soviet sources claim that25,000 German soldiers and officers were summarily executed for cowardice in 1945.This figure is almost certainly too high, but it was unlikely to have been lower than10,000.

Fighting the last vestiges of German resistance in the Berlin subway

The 19th of April was another beautiful spring day, providing Soviet aviation with perfect visibility. Every time Shturmoviks came over, strafing and bombing, the road emptied as people threw themselves in the ditches. Women and girls from nearby villages, terrified of the Red Army, begged groups of soldiers to take them with them: 'Nehmt uns mit, nehmt uns bitte, bitte mit!'


The remnants of trainee and officer candidate battalions from the CI Corps found themselves retreating 'village by village' westwards to Bernau, just north of Berlin. Most had lost nearly three-quarters of their strength. They were exhausted, hungry and thoroughly confused. As soon as they halted for a rest, everyone fell heavily asleep and their officers had to kick them awake several times when it was necessary to move on.Nobody knew what was happening on either side or even in front or behind. Radios and

field telephones had been abandoned. There was also no hope of re-establishing an effective front line, despite the best efforts of the more experienced officers, who grabbed any stragglers from other units and incorporated them into their own little command

Friday 20 April was the fourth fine day in a row. It was Adolf Hitler's fifty-sixth birthday.A beautiful day on this date used to prompt greetings between strangers in the street about 'Führer weather' and the miracle that this implied. Now only the most besotted Nazi could still hint at Hitler's supernatural power. There were still enough diehards left,however, to attempt to celebrate the event. Nazi flags were raised on ruined buildings and placards proclaimed, ' Die Kriegsstadt Berlin grüst den Führer!'

Captured employees of the infamous Ministry of Propaganda


Hitler told General Krebs to launch an attack from the west of Berlin against Konev's armies to prevent encirclement. The force expected to 'hurl back' the 3rd and 4th Guards Tank Armies consisted of the
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Division, made up of boys in Reich Labour Service detachments, and the so-called 'Wünsdorf Panzer formation', a batch of half a dozen tanks from the training school there.A police battalion was sent to the Strausberg area that day 'to catch deserters and execute them and shoot any soldiers found retreating without orders'. But even those detailed as executioners began to desert on their way forward. One of those who gave themselves up to the Russians told his Soviet interrogator that 'about 40,000 deserters were hiding in Berlin even before the Russian advance. Now this number is rapidly increasing.' He went on to say that the police and the Gestapo could not control the situation.

An intensive artillery bombardment of Berlin began at 9.30 a.m., a couple of hours after the end of the last Allied air raid. Hitler's SS adjutant, Otto Günsche, reported that the Führer, a few minutes after having been woken, emerged unshaven and angry in the bunker corridor which served as an anteroom. 'What's going on?' he shouted at Genera Burgdorf, Colonel von Below and Günsche. 'Where's this firing coming from?'Burgdorf answered that central Berlin was under fire from Soviet heavy artillery. 'Are the Russians already so near?' asked Hitler, clearly shaken.

The Reichstag paints a gloomy look. Perhaps it symbolised the condition of Germany dan

From that morning until 2 May, they were to fire 1.8 million shells in the assault on the city.The casualties among women especially were heavy as they still queued in the drizzling rain, hoping for their 'crisis rations'. Mangled bodies were flung across the Hermannplatzin south-west Berlin as people queued outside the Karstadt department store. Many others were killed in the queues at the water pumps. Crossing a street turned into a dash from one insecure shelter to another. Most gave up and returned to their cellars. Some,however, took what seemed like the last opportunity to bury silver and other valuables in their garden or a nearby allotment. But the relentlessness of the bombardment and the random fall of shells soon forced the majority of the population back underground.

Side roads and main routes alike were encumbered by civilians with handcarts, prams and teams of farm horses. Soldiers were surrounded by civilians desperate for news of the enemy's advance, but often had no clear idea themselves. Pickets of Feldgendarmerie at each crossroads again grabbed stragglers to form scratch companies. There were also men hanged from roadside trees, with a card on their chest stating, 'I was a coward.'Soldiers sent to defend houses either side of the road were the luckiest. The inhabitants gave them food and some hot water to shave and wash in, the first for many days.

Russian officers in the Reichstag

Perhaps as a side-effect of this law linking death with sexual maturity, the arrival of the enemy at the edge of the city made young soldiers desperate to lose their virginity. Girls,well aware of the high risk of rape, preferred to give themselves to almost any German boy first than to a drunken and probably violent Soviet soldier. In the broadcasting centre of the Grossdeutscher Rundfunk on the Masurenallee, two-thirds of the 500-strong staff were young women - many little more than eighteen. There, in the last week of April, a 'real feeling of disintegration' spread, with heavy drinking and indiscriminate copulation amid the stacks of the sound archive. There was also a good deal of sexual activity between people of various ages in unlit cellars and bunkers. The aphrodisiac effect of mortal danger is hardly an unknown historical phenomenon.

Berliners now referred to their city as the 'Reichsscheiterhaufen' - the 'Reich's funeralpyre'. Civilians were already suffering casualties in the street-fighting and house-clearing.Captain Ratenko, an officer from Tula in Bogdanov's 2nd Guards Tank Army, knocked at a cellar door in Reinickendorf, a district in the north-west. Nobody opened it, so he kicked it in. There was a burst of sub-machine-gun fire and he was killed. The soldiers from the 2nd Guards Tank Army who were with him started firing through the door and the windows. They killed the gunman, apparently a young Wehrmacht officer in civilian clothes, but also a woman and a child. 'The building was then surrounded by our men and burned down,' the report stated.

Mere boys. Perhaps of Hitler Youth. These were the fighters that were defending Hitler in his last days. Hartseer.


Serov was perhaps most surprised by the state of Berlin's defences. 'No serious permanent defences have been found inside the ten- to fifteen-kilometre zone around Berlin. There are fire-trenches and gun-pits and the motorways are mined in certain sections. There are some trenches just as one comes to the city, but less in fact than any other city taken by the Red Army.' Interrogations of Volkssturm men revealed how few regular troops there were in the city, how little ammunition there was and how reluctant the Volkssturm was to fight. Serov discovered also that German anti-aircraft defence had almost ceased to function, thus allowing Red Army aviation a clear sweep over the city.

The last of the German fighters surrender. The guns fell silent in Berlin


Civilian casualties had been heavy already. Like Napoleonic infantry, the women standing in line for food simply closed ranks after a shell burst decimated a queue.Nobody dared lose their place. Some claimed that women just wiped the blood from their ration cards and stuck it out. 'There they stand like walls,' noted a woman diarist, 'thosewho not so long ago dashed into bunkers the moment three fighter planes were announced over central Germany.' Women queued for a handout of butter and dry

sausage, while men emerged only to line up for an issue of schnapps. It seemed to be symbolic. Women were concerned with the immediacy of survival while men needed escape from the consequences of their war.



Kyk die video: Великая Война. 8 Серия. Кавказ. StarMedia. Babich-Design