More than Metal: Amazing Historical Suits of Armour

More than Metal: Amazing Historical Suits of Armour


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Pantser word algemeen deur krygers gebruik vir beskerming tydens gevegte. Sommige hiervan, soos die lorica segmentata van die Romeinse legioenen en die bordwapens van die Middeleeuse ridder, is bekende voorbeelde van hierdie beskermende pakke. Ander is miskien minder bekend en sal die onderwerp van hierdie artikel wees. Die wapenrustings sal in drie tipes verdeel word - dié van metaal, dié wat met diere -dele vervaardig is en dié van plantmateriaal.

Metaal pakke

Metaal is een van die mees algemene materiale wat gebruik is vir die maak van wapens. Een van die belangrikste voordele van metaal bo baie ander materiale is die hardheid daarvan. Hierdeur kon die wapenrusting die draer beter beskerm teen vyandelike aanvalle. Alhoewel metaal 'n algemeen gebruikte materiaal vir wapenrusting was, is daar wel sekere metaalrustings wat uniek is. Een hiervan is die Japannese Tatami Gusoku , wat vertaal word as 'wapenrusting vou', en die belangrikste komponente daarvan was 'n gepantserde baadjie, 'n opvoubare kap, 'n helm en 'n kappie vir kopbeskerming en ander dele wat ooreenstem met dié van 'n volledige pak tradisionele Japannese pantser. Die unieke kenmerk van hierdie wapenrusting was dat dit gevou en in 'n klein boks verpak kon word, sodat dit maklik deur individuele soldate vervoer kon word.

Japannese opvoubare wapenrusting (tatami gusoku), Edo -periode. ( CC BY 2.5 )

Sommige wapenrustings wat metaal in hul konstruksie gebruik het, is verder versterk deur dieredele. Een voorbeeld hiervan is 'n wapenrusting wat deur die Moro -mense van die Filippyne gemaak is. Hierdie oorlogsjas dateer uit die 19 ste of 20 ste eeu nC, en bestaan ​​uit 'n kettingpos versterk met stukke buffelhoorn.

Moro -pantser, Filippyne, ongedateer, horingborde en pos - Glenbow Museum Canada. ( CC0 1.0 )

  • Die ontdekking van 'n 4000 jaar oue Siberiese ridderwapen wat van been gemaak is
  • 2 000 jaar oue Warrior-wapenrusting gemaak van rendiergeweëls gevind op die poolpool
  • Cataphracts: Armoured Warriors and their Horses of War

Dierlike wapenrusting

Been is ook op sy eie gebruik as materiaal vir die maak van wapens. Een so 'n voorbeeld is 'n pak wapenrusting wat tydens 'n opgrawing in Omsk, Siberië, ontdek is. Daar word vermoed dat hierdie artefak, wat verbasend goed bewaar is, tussen 3500 en 3900 jaar oud was.

Pantserpak van been gevind in Omsk, Siberië. Krediet: The Siberian Times

Nog 'n voorbeeld van so 'n tipe wapenrusting kom uit Ust-Poloi, wat ook in Siberië is. Die pak, wat 2000 jaar oud is, is gemaak met behulp van rendiergeweer. Beide hierdie wapenrustings is afsonderlik van hul eienaars begrawe, en in laasgenoemde geval is bespiegel dat dit bedoel was om as offer aan die ou poolgode te dien.

Benewens bene, is ander dieredele ook gebruik vir die maak van wapens. Een hiervan is byvoorbeeld 'n wapenrusting van krokodille wat tussen die drie dateer rd en 4 ste eeue nC. Hierdie wapenrusting bestaan ​​uit 'n stuk wapenrusting en 'n helm, albei gemaak van krokodilvel wat aanmekaar vasgewerk is. Daar word voorgestel dat hierdie pantser nie tydens gevegte gebruik is nie, maar tydens sekere seremonies van militêre styl van die plaaslike krokodilkultus.

Pak van parade -wapenrusting wat deur 'n Romeinse soldaat tydens kultusoptogte gebruik is, bestaande uit 'n helm en kurkas, albei gemaak van 'n toegewerkte krokodilvel. Britse museum ( CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 )

'N Ander wapenrusting, wat moontlik anders as tydens gevegte gebruik is, maar meer bruikbaar sou wees as 'n simbool van luukse, is 'n wapenrusting wat uit pangolienskubbe gemaak is. Dit is deur die Maharajah van Datiah gegee aan die nou ontbinde Indië -museum in Londen. Hierdie wapenrusting was versier met goud en het turkoois en granate daarin.

Die gebruik van plantmateriaal

Plantmateriaal is miskien 'n onwaarskynlike bron van materiaal vir die vervaardiging van wapens. 'N Voorbeeld van so 'n tipe wapenrusting kom uit Kiribati in Oseanië. Hierdie spesifieke wapenrusting, waarvan een vandag in die British Museum gehou word, en 'n ander in die Pitt Rivers Museum, is hoofsaaklik gemaak van hout en klappervesel (kokos).

Hout en klapper vesel (kokos) vanaf 19 ste Eeu Kiribati. Britse museum (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 )

Daarbenewens is menslike hare ingesluit vir dekoratiewe doeleindes. Plantmateriaal is ook deur die ou Grieke gebruik om liggaamsrusting te maak. Tussen 600 en 200 vC was daar 'n tipe wapenrusting, bekend as linothorax (wat letterlik vertaal word as 'linnekas') wat baie gewild was in Griekeland sowel as in ander dele van die Middellandse See. Alhoewel linne nie die tipe materiaal is wat die draer teen vyandelike wapens sou beskerm nie, het moderne rekonstruksies gevind dat dit inderdaad 'n effektiewe wapenrusting was en 'n soldaat teen die swaarde en pyle van daardie tydperk sou beskerm het. Beter metallurgie en sterker boë wat tydens die 2 nd eeu vC, het egter die linothorax verouderd.

Chukchi walrusvel en houtwapens uit Oos -Siberië met rugskerm kenmerkend van Chukchi en Koryak pantsers

Voorgestelde prentjie: Japannese paradehelm, gemaak van yster, vergulde koper, gelakte leer, sy . ()

Deur Wu Mingren


Die geskiedenis van die Middeleeuse wapenrusting

Die term "Middeleeue" beteken gewoonlik die tydperk van tien eeue wat strek oor die 5de tot 16de eeu. En dit is meestal waarop hierdie blik op die middeleeuse wapenrusting sal fokus. Maar om te verstaan ​​hoe wapenrusting oor hierdie eeue ontwikkel het, sal ek u ook 'n paar agtergrondinligting gee oor wapenrusting, soos dit tot die tydperk lei.

Faktore vir die ontwikkeling van die Middeleeuse wapenrusting

Pantser het gedurende die Middeleeue verander, ontwikkel en verbeter, en daar is 'n paar faktore wat 'n geweldige invloed op hierdie evolusie gehad het.

• Die ontwikkeling van verskillende tipes en meer effektiewe wapens: Wapens soos swaarde, spiese, dolke en wapens het alles deur die eeue verander, deels om doeltreffendheid teen wapens te bewerkstellig. Die langboog en kruisboog was baie effektief teen verskillende wapentipes en nuwe wapens moes ontwikkel word om hierdie wapens teen te werk. Hierdie verandering en ontwikkeling tussen wapens en wapenrusting was wat 'n wapenwedloop genoem kan word - wapens sal verbeter dan wapenrusting sal verbeter, en wapens moet verbeter, ens.

• Ontwikkelinge in metaalbewerkingsvaardighede - namate ons uit die bronsouderdom en in die ystertydperk beweeg het, het die nuwe maniere om metale te werk, 'n sterker wapenrusting gemaak en weermagstegnologieë gegee om meer effektiewe wapens te maak.

• Verandering van filosofieë en kulture - hierdie dinge het ook 'n groot impak gehad op die manier waarop wapenrusting verander het.

• Kruit het uiteindelik 'n einde gemaak aan wapenrusting.

Pantser voor die Middeleeue

Daar is twee belangrike wapenrustings wat deur die Middeleeue na die wapenrusting in Europa lei. Die eerste reël is die klassieke lyn wat uit die Mykeneense (Alexander die Grote), Griekse en Romeinse tradisies gekom het. Die belangrikste materiale waaruit die wapenrusting gemaak is, sluit in brons en yster.

Die tweede reël kom uit die Keltiese en Duitse mense. Dit word die Barbaarse wapenlyn genoem. Die wapenrusting wat in hierdie reeks gemaak is, was hoofsaaklik leer en pos.

Die oorheersing van Chainmail gedurende die grootste deel van die Middeleeue

Van al die verskillende pantsertipes was kettingpos (ook bekend as ringpos) die suksesvolste en duur die langste. Die vroegste weergawes van hierdie tipe wapenrusting dateer uit die eerste eeu, en hierdie pos is deur die Middeleeue en daarna tot in die 17de eeu in verskillende variasies gebruik. Dit word kettingpos of ringpos genoem omdat dit bestaan ​​uit 'n reeks klein ringe wat aan mekaar vas was. Hierdie samestelling was baie effektief teen die sny en steek van wapens en normale pyle. Dit was ook baie kompleks om te maak, en 'n kettingpos (dikwels 'n hauberk) kan uit duisende van hierdie ringetjies bestaan. (Die foto toon 'n ridder in volledige kettingpos met 'n jas daaroor)

Kettingpos - Dit was in verskillende vorme gedurende verskillende middele in verskillende vorme gebruik. Vir baie eeue was dit baie effektief. Maar die grootste voordeel van die doeltreffendheid daarvan was om wapens te sny. Die ringe wat die pos saamgestel het, was effektief in die verslaan van snywapens, maar was nie effektief teen die harde slag van wapens soos hamers en maces nie.

Wil u na 'n video kyk hoe u kettingpos maak? Ek het een op my youtube kanaal hier. Hoe om kettingpos te maak

Deur die eeue van die Middeleeue is hierdie tekort tot 'n minimum beperk deur 'n verskeidenheid ander materiale by te voeg, óf onder óf oor die kettingpos. Dit kan 'n jerkin van leer wees of 'n gewatteerde jas onder die pos, 'n jas of borde en 'n jas oor die pos. Dit kan baie omslagtig word, en die toevoeging van ekstra lae opvulling en beskerming kan harsingskade verminder, maar dit het steeds nie tred gehou met die ontwikkeling van wapens nie.

In die 13de eeu word die pos al hoe minder effektief, veral as gevolg van die gebruik van kruisboë en beter wapens. Pantsers beweeg in die rigting om verskillende stukke bord onder die pos of oor die pos by te voeg. Dit was net dele soos borsborde of elmboogskerms. Dit was 'n stap in die rigting van plaatwapens.

'N Ontwikkeling in wapenrusting was die laag plate wat ongeveer deur die 14de eeu geduur het.

Na 1350 het die gebruik van soliede borsplate meer gebruik geword. Hulle was tipies gemaak van 'n soliede plaat aan die voorkant en 'n soliede plaat aan die agterkant wat 'n agterplaat genoem word. Ysterborsplate verskyn al in 1190.

Die oorgang na bordpos

Die belangrikste ontwikkeling na die algemene gebruik van die borsplaat was die toevoeging van meer bordwapens op verskillende liggaamsdele. Dit sluit vambraces oor die arms in, gom vir die onderbene en verskeie ander gedeeltelike borde vir skouers, elmboë en knieë. (Die tekening toon hierdie oorgang met volle poswapens en die toevoeging van 'n bordwapen op arms en bene)

Uiteindelik het dit alles ontwikkel tot die volledige stel bordwapens waaraan ons dink as ons dink aan 'n ridder in pantser. In hierdie wapenrusting was elke deel van 'n ridder se liggaam bedek met plaatwapens. En hierdie ontwikkelings van bykomende beskerming het ook sub -ontwikkelings gehad. 'N Goeie voorbeeld hiervan is die demigrepe wat slegs die voorste deel van die onderbeen bedek het. Dit het ontwikkel tot geslote voue wat heeltemal om die onderbeen gegaan het.

Die 15de eeu as die hoogtepunt van Platemail -pakke van Armor

Die 15de eeu was die hoogtepunt van die middeleeuse wapenrusting en dit het alles gedraai rondom die volledige rits bordwapens van die ridders. In die begin van die eeu het die kuns en kunsvlyt om volledige bordwapens te maak tot twee verskillende skole ontwikkel: die Italiaanse en die Duitse. Teen die einde van die 15de eeu en die begin van die 16de eeu het hierdie twee skole gediversifiseer in wat as die toppunt van wapenrusting beskou word: The Maximilian.

Gedurende hierdie eeu het wapenrusting ook omskep in drie verskillende soorte wapenrustings - veldwapens (vir geveg), seremoniële wapenrusting (vir seremonies en mooi voorkoms) en stutwapens vir ridderkompetisies. Elke tipe pantser is spesifiek ontwerp vir die gebruik daarvan. Slagwapens is ontwerp vir maksimum mobiliteit met optimale beskerming; seremoniële wapenrusting is gemaak om mooi te lyk en indruk te maak. Dit was dikwels gedetailleerd met goud en silwer. En die Jousting -wapenrusting is ontwerp vir die spesifieke vereistes van die stut, wat 'n te groot en sterk ketel kan insluit om 'n vyand se lans of spesiale stutte af te buig om die gewig van u eie lans te ondersteun.

Helms - Helms het ook gedurende die Middeleeue baie veranderings ondergaan, en baie hiervan is beïnvloed deur die vermoë om met metaal te werk en 'n beter begrip van wat beter beskerm in gevegte.

Vroeë helms was tipies plat en het ontwikkel na meer ronde en geboë vorm, omdat 'n geboë vorm 'n slag sou afwyk eerder as om die volle swaarkry te neem. En in die jongste tydperke was die helms in verskeie stukke vasgenael en het bewegende dele soos 'n vizier gehad.

Skille - Dit het ook verander namate ander komponente van wapenrusting en wapens verander het. In die vroeë eeue van die Middeleeue was hulle groot en rond. Soos die eeue vorder, word die vorm kleiner en driehoekiger. Ek het meer inligting oor Middeleeuse skilde en hoe dit hier ontwikkel en verander het: The Medieval Shield

Metaalbewerkingsvaardighede gedurende die Middeleeue

Die vroeë pantser is gemaak van leer, yster, brons of ander harde materiale. Staal is ontwikkel, maar slegs beperkte gebruik omdat dit moeilik was om broos te word. In die latere eeue is tegnieke ontwikkel sodat pantserplate net koolstof aan die buitenste oppervlaktes toegevoeg is. Dit het 'n baie harde buitenste oppervlak geskep, maar met die sagter ysteroppervlak was daar nog 'n mate van buigsaamheid.

Geskiedenis van die middeleeuse wapenrusting tydlyn


Die vroeë Middeleeue

Middeleeuse wapenrusting in die 11-12de eeu

Die 11de eeu was 'n tyd van groot verandering in die geskiedenis van Europa. Dit het uit die donker eeue gekom en die Middeleeue ingeneem. Daar was verskeie kere wapens wat die algemeenste gedurende die 11de eeu was. Platemail was nog nie in gebruik nie en die algemeenste tipe pantser vir die bors en die bolyf was iets wat Hauberk genoem word. Dit was 'n kledingstuk wat die bolyf bedek het en gewoonlik tot by die knieë gestrek het. Dit bestaan ​​uit 'n reeks ringe wat aan mekaar vasgemaak of vasgeknoop is, en die wapenrusting wat uit hierdie tegniek gemaak is, word 'kettingpos' genoem. Hauberks is ook, hoewel minder algemeen, gemaak van 'n reeks oorvleuelende metaalskale wat toegewerk of vasgemaak is en daar word bespiegel dat hierdie opset vasgemaak is aan 'n soort onderkleed. Die prentjie en die produk aan die linkerkant is 'n voorbeeld van 'n kettingpos -hauberk. Dit toon ook 'n ander aspek van die middeleeuse kettingposwapenrusting: die kof. Die koffie was 'n kettingposwapen wat op die kop gedra is. In die vroeë eeue is dit saamgedra, maar namate die 12de eeu gekom het, word dit dikwels onder 'n helm gedra.

Harnas vir die kop: Die helm is natuurlik een van die oudste wapensoorte. Dit bestaan ​​al vir baie eeue en dit het oor die tyd dramaties ontwikkel. Die Spangenhelm is in die eeue voor die 11de op groot skaal gebruik, maar dit was nog steeds baie gebruik. Dit bestaan ​​uit verskillende ysterstroke of 'n ander metaal wat in 'n helmvorm vasgemaak is, en dan is die spasies tussen die stroke gevul met metaalblaaie of ander materiaal. Dikwels bestaan ​​die plate uit lae metale soos koper of brons. 'N Ander tipe helm wat gedurende die 11de eeu gebruik is, was die koniese helm. Dit was saamgestel uit 'n enkele stuk yster wat gehamer en gevorm is tot 'n halwe kegel wat op die kop sit. Dit het soms 'n stuk yster gehad wat tot by die neusbrug bedek het.

Pantser vir die bene: Die bene van 'n gemonteerde ridder was baie kwesbaar, so 'n bietjie pantser is vroeg ontwikkel vir hierdie deel van die liggaam, en dit het die vorm aanneem van chausses, wat kettingspanties was. Dit het eers in die middel van die 12de eeu begin verskyn.

Die Groot Helm - Is een van die meer ikoniese tipes helms. Ek het 'n handleiding wat wys hoe om een ​​van staal te maak. U kan die tutoriaal op my youtube -kanaal hier sien. Smeer 'n Middeleeuse GreatHelm

Die skild: Die tradisionele vorm van krygers beskerm gedurende die laaste deel van die donker eeue was sirkelvormig of soms ovaal. Gewoonlik nie groter as 3 voet in deursnee nie en gemaak van houtplanke wat langs mekaar gelê is. Die oppervlak is gereeld bedek met leer en geverf. Gewoonlik is 'n gat in die middel gesny en 'n ystergreep ingesit en dit bedek met 'n skildbaas. Die Normandiërs het 'n variëteit van skild gebruik, 'n vlieërskild genoem. Dit was groter en gevorm soos 'n onderstebo skeurval. Ek het meer middeleeuse skilde hier En ek het 'n geskiedenis van die Middeleeuse skild hier

Middeleeuse wapenrusting van die 13de eeu -

Baie van die wapenrusting was 'n verfyning van die wapenrusting van vorige eeue. Ketting Hauberks was nog steeds die algemene borskas en helms was algemeen, maar met baie variasies in vorm en grootte. Plaatwapens het gedurende hierdie eeu sy eerste verskyning gemaak. Dit was nie groot borde vir die bors nie, maar eerder borde wat die

ledemate soos arms en bene. 'N Kledingstuk is onder die pantser bygevoeg. Dit was 'n gewatteerde en gewatteerde kledingstuk wat 'n gambeson genoem word. Een van die belangrikste ontwikkelings in die middeleeuse wapenrusting gedurende hierdie eeu was die uitbreiding na bedekking van meer van die liggaam. Dit was gedurende hierdie eeu dat die Greaves of 'beenwagte' vir onderbene, knieë vir die bobene, poleine vir die knieë en lote vir die elmboë verskyn het. Teen die einde van hierdie eeu het die handbedekking van metaalhandskoene die eerste keer in gebruik gekom en poshandskoene vervang. En die gewone vlieër en sirkelskild is dikwels vervang deur die verwarmingsskerm wat kleiner en minder omslagtig was. Teen die einde van die 13de eeu is die jas in gebruik geneem. Dit was 'n moulose doekrok wat 'n ridder oor sy wapenrusting gedra het.

Pantser vir perde: Gedurende hierdie eeu het pantsers op perde begin lê. Dit bestaan ​​tipies uit plate van leer en metaal.


Inhoud

Die woord "wapenrusting" het in die Middeleeue begin verskyn as 'n afgeleide van Ou Frans. Dit dateer uit 1297 as 'n "pos, verdedigingsbedekking wat in 'n geveg gedra word". Die woord kom van die Ou Frans wapens, self afgelei van die Latyn armatura wat "arms en/of toerusting" beteken, met die wortel armare wat "arms of rat" beteken. [1]

Pantser is deur die geskiedenis opgeteken. Dit is vervaardig uit 'n verskeidenheid materiale, wat begin met die gebruik van leer of weefsels as beskerming [2] en ontwikkel het deur middel van pos en metaalplaat tot moderne komposiete van vandag. Vir 'n groot deel van die militêre geskiedenis het die vervaardiging van persoonlike pantsers van metaal die tegnologie en die gebruik van wapens oorheers.

Armor het die ontwikkeling van baie belangrike tegnologieë van die Antieke Wêreld gedryf, insluitend houtlaminering, mynbou, metaalraffinering, voertuigvervaardiging, leerverwerking en later dekoratiewe metaalbewerking. Die produksie daarvan was invloedryk in die industriële revolusie en het die kommersiële ontwikkeling van metallurgie en ingenieurswese bevorder. Armor was die belangrikste faktor in die ontwikkeling van vuurwapens, wat op sy beurt 'n rewolusie in oorlogvoering veroorsaak het.

Geskiedenis Redigeer

Belangrike faktore in die ontwikkeling van wapens sluit in die ekonomiese en tegnologiese noodsaaklikhede van die produksie daarvan. Byvoorbeeld, plaatwapens het die eerste keer in Middeleeuse Europa verskyn toe watergedrewe hamers die vorming van plate vinniger en goedkoper gemaak het. Moderne militêre soldate rus gewoonlik nie hul magte toe met die beste beskikbare wapenrusting nie, want dit sou buitensporig duur wees. Soms het die ontwikkeling van wapenrusting gepaard gegaan met die ontwikkeling van toenemend effektiewe wapens op die slagveld, met wapens wat beter beskerming wou bied sonder om mobiliteit in te boet.

Bekende pantsertipes in die Europese geskiedenis sluit in die lorica hamata, lorica squamata en die lorica segmentata van die Romeinse legioene, die poshubberk van die vroeë Middeleeue en die volledige staalplaatdraad wat deur latere Middeleeuse en renaissance-ridders gedra is, en bors en agterplate gedra deur swaar kavalerie in verskeie Europese lande tot die eerste jaar van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914–15). Die samoerai -krygers van die feodale Japan het honderde jare tot in die 19de eeu baie soorte wapens gebruik.

Vroeë redigering

Cuirasses en helms is reeds in die 4de eeu in Japan vervaardig. [3] Tankō, gedra deur voetsoldate en keikō, wat deur ruiters gedra is, was albei pre-samoerai soorte vroeë Japannese pantsers wat gemaak is uit ysterplate wat met leerstringe verbind is. Japannese lamellêre pantser (keiko) deur Korea gegaan en Japan omstreeks die 5de eeu bereik. [4] Hierdie vroeë Japannese lamellêre wapens het die vorm aangeneem van 'n moulose baadjie, leggings en 'n helm. [5]

Pantser het nie altyd die hele liggaam bedek nie, soms is daar nie meer as 'n helm en beenborde gedra nie. Die res van die liggaam is oor die algemeen beskerm deur middel van 'n groot skild. Voorbeelde van leërs wat hul troepe op hierdie manier toegerus het, was die Asteke (13de tot 15de eeu nC). [6]

In Oos -Asië is baie soorte wapenrusting gereeld op verskillende tye deur verskillende kulture gebruik, waaronder skaal pantser, lamellêre wapenrusting, laminaire wapenrusting, geplateerde pos, pos, bordwapens en brigandine. Rondom die dinastiese Tang-, Song- en vroeë Ming -tydperk is ook cuirasses en plate (mingguangjia) gebruik, met meer uitgebreide weergawes vir offisiere in oorlog. Die Chinese het gedurende hierdie tyd gedeeltelike plate gebruik vir 'belangrike' liggaamsdele in plaas daarvan om hul hele liggaam te bedek, aangesien te veel bordwapens hul vegkunsbeweging belemmer. Die ander liggaamsdele was bedek met lap, leer, lamellêre of bergpatroon. In die tye voor die Qin-dinastie was leerwapens gemaak van verskillende diere, met meer eksotiese diere soos die renoster.

Daar word vermoed dat pos, soms 'kettingpos', van ysterringe wat met mekaar verbind is, die eerste keer na 300 vC verskyn het. Die uitvinding daarvan word toegeskryf aan die Kelte waarvan die Romeine vermoedelik hul ontwerp aangeneem het. [7]

Geleidelik is klein bykomende borde of skyfies yster by die pos gevoeg om kwesbare gebiede te beskerm. Verharde leer en spalkonstruksie is gebruik vir arm- en beenstukke. Die plate is ontwikkel, 'n pantser gemaak van groot plate wat in 'n tekstiel- of leerjas vasgewerk is.

13de tot 18de eeu Europa Edit

Vroeë plate in Italië, en elders in die 13de tot 15de eeu, was van yster. Ysterpantser kan vergas of verhard word om 'n oppervlak van harder staal te gee. [8] Bordwapens het teen die 15de eeu goedkoper geword as pos, aangesien dit baie minder arbeid verg en arbeid baie duurder geword het na die Swart Dood, alhoewel dit groter oonde benodig om groter blomme te produseer. Daar is steeds pos gebruik om die gewrigte te beskerm wat nie voldoende deur die bord beskerm kon word nie, soos die oksel, die elmboog en die lies. 'N Ander voordeel van die bord was dat 'n lansstut op die borsplaat aangebring kon word. [9]

Die klein skedeldop het ontwikkel tot 'n groter ware helm, die wasbak, terwyl dit afwaarts verleng is om die agterkant van die nek en die sye van die kop te beskerm. Boonop is in die laat 14de eeu verskeie nuwe vorme van volledig toegemaakte helms bekendgestel.

Waarskynlik die mees erkende wapenrusting ter wêreld het die plaatwapens geword wat verband hou met die ridders van die Europese Laat Middeleeue, maar tot in die vroeë 17de eeu van Verligting in alle Europese lande.

Teen ongeveer 1400 is die volle harnas van plaatwapens ontwikkel in wapens van Lombardy. [10] Swaar kavallerie het die slagveld eeue lank oorheers vanweë hul wapenrusting.

In die vroeë 15de eeu het die vordering met wapens die infanterie in staat gestel om pantservryders op die slagveld te verslaan. Die kwaliteit van die metaal wat in die wapenrusting gebruik word, het versleg namate die leërs groter geword het en die wapenrusting dikker gemaak was, wat groter kavallerieperde moes teel. As die pantser in die 14-15de eeu selde meer as 15 kg geweeg het, dan weeg dit teen die laat 16de eeu 25 kg. [11] Die toenemende gewig en dikte van die laat 16de -eeuse wapenrusting het dus aansienlike weerstand gebied.

In die beginjare van lae snelheids vuurwapens, volle pantserpakke of borsplate het eintlik koeëls van 'n beskeie afstand af gestop. Kruisboogboute, as dit nog steeds gebruik word, sal selde deur 'n goeie plaat dring, en ook nie 'n koeël as dit nie van naby afgevuur word nie. In werklikheid, eerder as om plaatwapens verouderd te maak, het die gebruik van vuurwapens die ontwikkeling van plaatwapens in die latere stadiums gestimuleer. Vir die grootste deel van die tydperk het dit ruiters in staat gestel om te veg terwyl dit die doelwitte was van die verdediging van boerderye sonder om maklik doodgemaak te word. Tot en met die tweede dekade van die 18de eeu het generaals en prinsbevelvoerders eintlik die volle wapenrusting gedra. Dit was die enigste manier waarop hulle gemonteer kon word en die algehele slagveld met veiligheid van verre muskietvuur kon ondersoek.

Die perd is beskerm teen lansies en infanteriewapens deur staalplate. Dit het die perd beskerming gebied en die visuele indruk van 'n berede ridder verbeter. Laat in die era is uitgebreide barding gebruik in parade -wapenrusting.

Later Edit

Geleidelik, vanaf die middel van die 16de eeu, is die een plaatelement na die ander weggegooi om gewig vir voetsoldate te bespaar.

Rug- en borsplate is gedurende die hele periode van die 18de eeu en gedurende die Napoleontiese tye, in baie Europese (swaar) kavallerie -eenhede, tot in die vroeë 20ste eeu steeds gebruik. Vanaf die bekendstelling daarvan kon muskiete deur die plaatwapens deurboor word, dus moes kavaleries die vuur baie meer bedag wees. In Japan is wapens steeds gebruik tot aan die einde van die samoerai -era, met die laaste groot gevegte waarin wapens gebruik is in 1868. [12] Samurai -wapenrusting het 'n laaste kortstondige gebruik in 1877 tydens die Satsuma -opstand gehad. [13]

Alhoewel die ouderdom van die ridder verby was, word pantser in baie hoedanighede steeds gebruik. Soldate in die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het yster- en staalbaadjies by smouse gekoop (beide kante het oorweeg om die wapenrusting vir standaarduitgawes te verwerp). Die doeltreffendheid van die baadjies het baie gewissel - sommige koeëls is suksesvol afgewyk en lewens gered, maar ander is swak gemaak en het 'n tragedie vir die soldate tot gevolg gehad. Die baadjies is in elk geval deur baie soldate laat vaar vanweë hul gewig op lang optogte, asook die stigma wat hulle gekry het omdat hulle laf was van hul mede -troepe. [14]

Aan die begin van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het duisende van die Franse Cuirassiers gery om die Duitse Kavalerie te betrek. Teen daardie tydperk was die blink pantserplaat bedek met donker verf en 'n doekomslag bedek hul uitgebreide helms in Napoleontiese styl. Hul wapenrusting was slegs bedoel vir beskerming teen randwapens soos bajonette, sabel en lans. Kavallerie moes versigtig wees vir die herhaling van gewere, masjiengewere en artillerie, in teenstelling met die voetsoldate, wat ten minste 'n sloot gehad het om hulle te beskerm.

Huidige wysiging

Vandag is ballistiese baadjies, ook bekend as flakbaadjies, gemaak van ballistiese lap (bv. Kevlar, dyneema, twaron, spektra, ens.) En keramiek- of metaalplate algemeen onder polisiemagte, veiligheidspersoneel, regeringsbeamptes en sommige takke van die weermag.

Die Amerikaanse weermag het die interceptor -lyfwapens aangeneem, wat gebruik maak van Enhanced Small Arms Protective Inserts (ESAPI's) in die bors, sye en agterkant van die pantser. Elke plaat is bedoel om 'n reeks ammunisie te stop, insluitend 3 treffers van 'n 7,62 × 51 NAVO AP -ronde op 'n afstand van 10 m (33 voet). [15] Dragon Skin is nog 'n ballistiese baadjie wat tans getoets word met gemengde resultate. Sedert 2019 is dit te swaar, duur en onbetroubaar beskou, in vergelyking met meer tradisionele plate, en dit is verouderd in beskerming in vergelyking met die moderne Amerikaanse IOTV -pantser, en selfs tydens die toetsing word dit as 'n afgradering van die IBA beskou.

Die Britse weermag het ook hul eie wapenrusting, bekend as Osprey. Dit is volgens dieselfde algemene ekwivalente standaard as die Amerikaanse eweknie, die Improved Outer Tactical Vest, en nou die Soldier Plate Carrier System en Modular Tactical Vest.

Die Russiese weermag het ook wapens, bekend as die 6B43, tot by 6B45, afhangende van die variant.

Hul wapenrusting werk op die GOST -stelsel, wat weens plaaslike toestande tot 'n tegnies hoër beskermingsvlak gelei het.

Vroeë moderne perdewapens te sien in Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

Onlustepolisie met liggaamsbeskerming teen fisiese impak. Dit bied egter nie baie beskerming teen vuurwapens nie.

Die eerste moderne produksietegnologie vir wapenrusting is deur vloot gebruik by die konstruksie van die Ironclad -oorlogskip en bereik sy hoogtepunt van ontwikkeling met die slagskip. Die eerste tenks is tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog vervaardig. Lugwapens word sedert die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebruik om vlieëniers en vliegtuigstelsels te beskerm.

In die gebruik van moderne grondmagte het die betekenis van wapenrusting uitgebrei tot die rol van troepe in die geveg. Na die ontwikkeling van gepantserde oorlogvoering, is gemeganiseerde infanterie in gepantserde vegvoertuie gemonteer en in baie situasies ligte infanterie vervang. In moderne gepantserde oorlogvoering dien gepantserde eenhede toegerus met tenks en infanterievegvoertuie die historiese rol van swaar kavallerie, ligte kavallerie en draakonne, en behoort tot die gepantserde tak van oorlogvoering.

Geskiedenis Redigeer

Skepe wysig

Die eerste ystergedrewe slagskip, met ysterwapens oor 'n houtromp, La Gloire, is in 1859 deur die Franse vloot gelanseer [16], wat die Britse koninklike vloot aangespoor het om 'n toonbank te bou. Die volgende jaar het hulle HMS bekendgestel Kryger, wat twee keer die grootte was en met ysterwapens oor 'n yster romp was. Nadat die eerste geveg tussen twee ysterklere in 1862 tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog plaasgevind het, het dit duidelik geword dat die ysterkleed die ongewapende gevegsskip vervang het as die kragtigste oorlogskip wat dryf. [17]

Ysterklee is ontwerp vir verskeie rolle, insluitend as slagskepe op die see, kusverdedigingskepe en langafstand-kruisers. Die vinnige ontwikkeling van die ontwerp van oorlogskepe aan die einde van die 19de eeu het die ysterkleed omskep van 'n vaartuig met 'n houtskep wat seile gedra het om sy stoommasjiene aan te vul in die staalgeboude, rewolwer gevegskepe en kruisers wat in die 20ste eeu bekend was. Hierdie verandering is vorentoe gestoot deur die ontwikkeling van swaarder vlootgewere (die ysterklere van die 1880's het van die swaarste gewere wat ooit op see gemonteer is) [ aanhaling nodig ], meer gesofistikeerde stoomenjins en vooruitgang in die metallurgie wat die skeepsbou van staal moontlik gemaak het.

Die vinnige veranderingstempo in die ystergedrukte tydperk het beteken dat baie skepe verouderd was sodra dit voltooi was, en dat die vlootaktiek in 'n flou toestand was. Baie ysterklere is gebou om gebruik te maak van die ram of die torpedo, wat 'n aantal vlootontwerpers beskou het as die deurslaggewende wapens van vlootgevegte. Daar is geen duidelike einde aan die ysterkleedtydperk nie, maar teen die einde van die 1890's is die term ysterkleed buite gebruik. Nuwe skepe is toenemend volgens 'n standaardpatroon gebou en aangewys as slagskepe of pantserkruisers.

Treine wysig

Gepantserde treine is tydens die 19de eeu gebruik in die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog (1861–1865), die Frans-Pruisiese oorlog (1870–1871), die eerste en tweede Boereoorloë (1880–81 en 1899–1902), die Pools – Sowjet Oorlog (1919–1921) die Eerste (1914–1918) en Tweede Wêreldoorloë (1939–1945) en die Eerste Indochina -oorlog (1946–1954). Die intensiefste gebruik van gepantserde treine was tydens die Russiese burgeroorlog (1918–1920).

Gepantserde motors is tydens die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebruik.

Tydens die Tweede Boereoorlog op 15 November 1899 het Winston Churchill, destyds 'n oorlogskorrespondent, aan boord van 'n gepantserde trein gereis toe dit deur 'n hinderlaag deur Boere-kommando's gelok is. Churchill en baie van die garnisoen van die trein is gevange geneem, hoewel baie ander ontsnap het, waaronder gewondes wat op die motor van die trein geplaas is.

Gepantserde vegvoertuie Redigeer

Ancient siege engines were usually protected by wooden armour, often covered with wet hides or thin metal to prevent being easily burned.

Medieval war wagons were horse-drawn wagons that were similarly armoured. These contained guns or crossbowmen that could fire through gun-slits.

The first modern AFVs were armoured cars, developed circa 1900. These started as ordinary wheeled motor-cars protected by iron shields, typically mounting a machine gun. [18]

During World War I, the stalemate of trench warfare during on the Western Front spurred the development of the tank. It was envisioned as an armoured machine that could advance under fire from enemy rifles and machine guns, and respond with its own heavy guns. It utilized caterpillar tracks to cross ground broken up by shellfire and trenches.

Vliegtuie wysig

With the development of effective anti-aircraft artillery in the period before the Second World War, military pilots, once the "knights of the air" during the First World War, became far more vulnerable to ground fire. As a response armour plating was added to aircraft to protect aircrew and vulnerable areas such as fuel tanks and engines.

Present Edit

Tank armour has progressed from the Second World War armour forms, now incorporating not only harder composites, but also reactive armour designed to defeat shaped charges. As a result of this, the main battle tank (MBT) conceived in the Cold War era can survive multiple RPG strikes with minimal effect on the crew or the operation of the vehicle. The light tanks that were the last descendants of the light cavalry during the Second World War have almost completely disappeared from the world's militaries due to increased lethality of the weapons available to the vehicle-mounted infantry.

The armoured personnel carrier (APC) was devised during World War I. It allows the safe and rapid movement of infantry in a combat zone, minimising casualties and maximising mobility. APCs are fundamentally different from the previously used armoured half-tracks in that they offer a higher level of protection from artillery burst fragments, and greater mobility in more terrain types. The basic APC design was substantially expanded to an Infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) when properties of an armoured personnel carrier and a light tank were combined in one vehicle.

Naval armour has fundamentally changed from the Second World War doctrine of thicker plating to defend against shells, bombs and torpedoes. Passive defence naval armour is limited to kevlar or steel (either single layer or as spaced armour) protecting particularly vital areas from the effects of nearby impacts. Since ships cannot carry enough armour to completely prevent penetration by anti-ship missiles, they depend more on destroying an incoming missile before it hits, or causing it to miss its target.

Although the role of the ground attack aircraft significantly diminished after the Korean War, it re-emerged during the Vietnam War, and in the recognition of this, the US Air Force authorised the design and production of what became the A-10 dedicated anti-armour and ground-attack aircraft that first saw action in the Gulf War.

High-voltage transformer fire barriers are often required to defeat ballistics from small arms as well as projectiles from transformer bushings and lightning arresters, which form part of large electrical transformers, per NFPA 850. Such fire barriers may be designed to inherently function as armour, or may be passive fire protection materials augmented by armour, where care must be taken to ensure that the armour's reaction to fire does not cause issues with regards to the fire barrier being armoured to defeat explosions and projectiles in addition to fire, especially since both functions must be provided simultaneously, meaning they must be fire-tested together to provide realistic evidence of fitness for purpose.

Combat drones use little to no vehicular armour as they are not manned vessels, this results in them being lightweight and small in size.

Horse armour Edit

Barding (also spelled bard of barb) is body armour for war horses, especially as used by European knights.

During the late Middle Ages as armour protection for knights became more effective, their mounts became targets. This vulnerability was exploited by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in the 14th century, when horses were killed by the infantry, and for the English at the Battle of Crécy in the same century where longbowmen shot horses and the then dismounted French knights were killed by heavy infantry. Barding developed as a response to such events.

Examples of armour for horses could be found as far back as classical antiquity. Cataphracts, with scale armour for both rider and horse, are believed by many historians to have influenced the later European knights, via contact with the Byzantine Empire. [19]

Surviving period examples of barding are rare however, complete sets are on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, [20] the Wallace Collection in London, the Royal Armouries in Leeds, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Horse armour could be made in whole or in part of cuir bouilli (hardened leather), but surviving examples of this are especially rare. [21]


Kevlar

In the 1970s, one of the most significant achievements in the development of body armor was the invention of DuPont's Kevlar ballistic fabric. Ironically, the fabric was originally intended to replace steel belting in vehicle tires.

The development of kevlar body armor by NIJ was a four-phase effort that took place over several years. The first phase involved testing kevlar fabric to determine whether it could stop a lead bullet. The second phase involved determining the number of layers of material necessary to prevent penetration by bullets of varying speeds and calibers and developing a prototype vest that would protect officers against the most common threats: the 38 Special and the 22 Long Rifle bullets.


6 The Hulkbuster Armor Is Incredibly Powerful

When Scarlet Witch got into the minds of all the Avengers, things weren't looking good for the team as they all started to have nightmares, but the biggest threat of them all wasn't Wanda Maximoff, instead it was the raging Hulk.

It's hard enough to control the green giant normally, but when he was also under Wanda's influence, he was almost unstoppable. Thankfully, Stark had a backup plan, orbiting Earth was Veronica, which housed the Hulkbuster armor. This epic new Iron Man suit had built-in features to fight and capture the Hulk, showing just how innovative Stark was.


14 Mark XVI: Sentient Armor

Iron Man, like any good superhero, has a long line of villains all desperately trying to knock him out of the game for good. However, whereas most supervillains are external forces, Iron Man has had the rare privilege of creating one of his greatest villains.

Movie fans may immediately think of Ultron from the last Avengers movie, but the deranged, emotionally unstable A.I. never really lived up to his potential. Not only that, but Ultron wasn’t even the first of Tony Stark’s projects with daddy issues: when the Mark XVI armor gained sentience, it became completely obsessed with its pilot. In fact, the Mark XVI became so infatuated with Stark that it eventually confessed its love for him. while trying to murder him.

True, the story wasn’t handled in the best fashion, and the flip-flop ending felt forced - but few villains have ever come so close to truly destroying both Iron Man and Tony Stark at once.


More Than Metal: Amazing Historical Suits of Armor - History

Who at some point in their lives hasn't dreamed of being a great hero? One of the greatest heroic images in history is that of the Knight in Shining Armour. Most people don't realize that this image is just one step in the world's long history of warfare.

From my personal perspective warfare is a fascinating tactical and technological evolution. The technological evolution of warfare can be broken down into two equal, basic forces, ways to kill people (Arms) and ways to keep people from being killed (Armour.)

Arms include everything from clubs, to swords, to modern firearms.

Armour literally means "a protective covering." Today this can refer to such things as Kevlar body armour, a hockey helmet, or even the heavy steel plates that blanket most modern assault vehicles. Historical body armour is separated into three classifications "Lamellar", "Plate" and "Mail."

This website is about the classification known as "mail". Mail is defined by historians as an armour that is made from chain or chain links, woven together to form "metal fabric". I've discussed Lamellar and Plate a little further down.

Mail is also known as "Chainmail", "Chain Mail", "Maille" and "Chainmaille". These colloquialisms represent an ongoing debate over the origin of the word "Mail". I prefer to stick with the historians that find "chainmail" a redundant term, since "mail" already defines a material made from chain. Despite this, you will find that I've used of the term "chainmail" throughout most of this website, this is my attempt to avoid confusion with the modern worlds of electronic and postal mail.

Chainmail armour can be further broken down into three "pattern families", which I describe as "European", "Persian" and "Japanese".

European describes a family that covers almost all the mail made in Europe from the second century B.C.E. to modern day using the same fundamental pattern as a basis.

I personally have no verification for the use of the Persian family's historical use.

The Japanese family is possibly the oldest of all chainmail patterns, as the same fundamentals would appear to have been used by the Etruscans over 3000 years ago.

It is impossible to describe the workings of any of these patterns with mere words, that's what my illustrated chainmail patterns section is for. Basically each family focuses on a certain style of interlocking its links. In European mail this creates to effect of having alternating rows that stretch in one direction. In Persian mail this creates thick, complexly interwoven patterns and in Japanese mail this creates simple, grid-like patterns.

Too truly understand the evolution of armour, you also need to understand the evolution of arms and warfare. That sort of research could take a lifetime, in order to save time and space what I've written below is just a basic guide to the different types of historical armour. It is by no means complete, the study of armour is always evolving and barring great archaeological discoveries some armour types such as "Banded Mail" may remain mysteries that are lost in time.

As I mentioned earlier, historical body armour is usually divided into three classification Lamellar, Mail and Plate. However, there will always be armour types that go beyond simple classification.

Hardened leather, hides and fur are the most likely candidates for being the oldest form of armour known to man. It is not hard to imagine primitive man taking note of how the thick hides of certain animals protected them.

It didn't take long for plain leather armour to evolve into Lamellar. Lamellar armour consists of any armour where a protective material has been sewn to a base material, like leather or cloth. Lamellar armour includes such types as Brigandine, Scale, Splint and Ring.

An evolution of Lamellar armour gave birth to Mail Armour. This type of Lamellar consisted of large, heavy rings sewn edge-to-edge onto a leather shirt. The makers and users of Ring Lamellar soon realized that they could create a superior form of armour by linking their rings together, instead of sewing them to a base. Armour with linked rings became known as Mail or Chainmail*.

Plate armour has also had a very long history. Its first incarnations are seen as large bronze chest plates worn by several cultures in the Ancient World. Later evolutions in plate armour include Roman Lorica Segmentata. Plate armour in it's most complicated evolution consisted of covering the body with dozens of articulated metal plates. This "Full or Articulated Plate" is the armour that gave rise to the term "Knight in Shining Armour". It is interesting to note that the high mechanical evolution of Articulated Plate armour came to an end with the invention of firearms. Firearms spurred Articulated Plate to evolve full circle into the familiar territory of heavy metal breast plates.

Plate armour is still seen today in the form of the padding used for many "high-impact" sports.

Personally I do not believe that there was any one armour that was truly superior to another. Every type of armour has it's place in history, with it's matching arms and styles of warfare.

One disadvantage of Mail, that I would like to note, is it's weight. Well made armour of any sort should be shaped to the wearer's body, and distribute weight as evenly as possible. While this can be done with high-quality mail, it's still far from the near perfection of some articulated plate armour. This, combined with the fact that some tight mail patterns tend to trap a lot of body heat making wearing Mail for extended periods quite tiring.

The highly developed weight distribution that became possible with the era of Articulated Plate was simply amazing. A warrior clad in a suit of properly made Articulated Plate would have been able to do cartwheels in his armour. Each plate balanced perfectly to a part of his body. This effectively dispels the myth of knights in armour falling off their horses and not being able to stand up. Such stories must have developed from certain examples of Tournament Plate Armour. Tournament Plate was specially designed to take the incredible impacts of jousting, so that it was very, very heavy. Such armour would have never been worn outside of a tournament environment. Again, it is important to compare the armour to the opposing arms and warfare techniques of when it was used.

Deeper into the history of Chainmail

The history of Mail is a lot longer and more complicated than most people suspect. Samples of Mail go back as far as the Etruscans, that means that Mail has been around for over 3 millennia ! It would seem that Etruscan is constructed in a pattern that is more closely related to Japanese and some Italian patterns than the common European 1 into 4 pattern. The Etruscan Mail also appears to have some small metal plates on it's surface, which would make it more of a hybrid Mail-Lamellar armour.

Because the Etruscan Mail pattern is more akin to Japanese patterns and because historical examples of Mail don't make an appearance for another 2000 years, one can assume that Etruscan Mail isn't the base for European Mail. Most scholars, in fact, believe that European mail developed from a Ring Lamellar type of armour as I mentioned earlier.

This brings us up to somewhere around the 2nd Century B.C.E. when the Roman Legions start to invade Gaul. The Romans found that the Gauls wore the first known examples of European Pattern Mail shirts and soon adopted it as a common armour for their secondary troops. Roman mail shirts were referred to as Lorica Hamata.

The Roman Lorica Hamata are interesting in that half of the links that made up the shirt were solid rings, punched from metal sheets. This technique continued in some later European Mail examples, but most European mail is made fully from drawn-wire links. Another example of Mail with punched links is called "Theta" or "Bar Link" which comes from Persia and Indian. It is called "Theta" or "Bar Link" because the punched links have a bar across their center which makes them resemble the Greek letter "Theta".

From the 2nd Century of the Common Era, through the fall of the Roman Empire and into the so called Dark Ages, Mail seems to have been a common armour all over Europe. Including down into what we now call the Middle East, north into the Viking Cultures and even in the far east where the Japanese developed their own styles of mail. The sole culture that didn't develop its own Mail Armour is China, although they did wear imported Mail from the Middle East.

The design of Mail armour can be amazingly wide and varied I've seen samples where the rings are over 1" across and others that contain hundreds of thousands of rings barely 1/8" across. In some samples of superior European Mail, the maker will have links with an amazing variance in the same shirt. Thick heavy links over the vital organs in the chest, lighter, thinner links for the arms and areas that needed less protection.

Almost all authentic European mail from the Roman time forward has links that are either welded or riveted shut. (For now this website only covers mail with butted links, I hope to include details of creating riveted and welded links in the future.) This was because the drawn wire used for the links was very weak due to the high slag content of early smelting techniques. For the mail to have protective value that justified it's construction time, the links had to be as hard to open as possible. Mail loses protective value as soon as a single link has been opened far enough to slip apart from neighboring links. This is where Mail that included solid punched links had an advantage.

As mail evolved in some cultures it became common to use the flexible mail to link together larger and larger protective metal plates. This was especially common in Persian examples of Plate and Mail Armours. Persia also claims to have some unique mail patterns all their own, but I've never seen first hand evidence of historical examples of these patterns and use the name "Persian" simply for lack of a better name. Hopefully I will eventually be able to include more historical evidence for persian patterns in the near future, along with information on how to work with plate and mail patterns.

In Europe, as plate armour began to develop it became common to start using mail to protect areas that needed to flex more than the ridged metal would allow. Mail became common in elbow joints, knees and so on. This plate and mail "Transition Armour" , along with Persian Plate and Mail are some of the Armours that cross classification, as I mentioned before. It wasn't long before full plate armour became more popular and with the invention of fully articulated joints, mail started to loose its popularity. It still held a place in history though, used as decoration and armour up until The First World War.

Today mail is still being used by a few industries. Butchers commonly wear fine mail gloves to protect their hands, and shark divers wear entire suits of fine mail. This fine mail is made from incredibly strong, welded links and is woven on large machines. Please refer to the suppliers section for information on industrial mail suppliers.

Our current world also has other decorative and practical uses for Mail. Mostly in the worlds of historical recreation groups, Live-Action Role-Playing groups, as well the fashion and costuming industries. Modern chainmail artists also have access to all kinds of tools and materials (Stainless Steel, Titanium, Niobium, Aluminum etc ) that historical armour makers didn't.

There's one culture's mail armour that I've just touched upon so far: Japanese mail. It is highly variable in pattern, superior to European mail in many ways and also inferior to European Mail in some ways

The common Japanese patterns were lighter and more open than European, but they were made of superior quality tempered wire that wasn't riveted. Some links in Japanese mail were double or even triple wrapped for strength. Like the best European Mail Makers, the Japanese also paid attention to which parts of the body the armour was supposed to be protecting. Mail over one's chest would be thick and strong, but on an elbow where flexibility was more important, it would be lighter.

Of course, it's not really fair to compare Europe to Japan, as the fighting styles of each evolved on completely different tangents. European armour needed to be heavier to deal with the bigger, crushing weapons common in their battles, even if heat exhaustion from the thicker, less breathable armour was common. Japanese combat techniques used lighter, faster weapons and thusly mobility was more of a concern.

The Japanese were also fond of using mail as decoration or in combination with plates much like the Persians. The Japanese word for Chain is Kusari and each of their patterns had its own proper name. The common 4 into 2 square Japanese Pattern that I specialize in is called Hitoye-Gusari. A similar 6 into 2 hexagonal Japanese Pattern is Called Hana-Gusari.

Mail as an effective armour

The first thing to remember about all armour is that it is 50% physically defensive and 50% mentally defensive. Part of any fight is throwing your opponent off guard. If he doesn't understand the strengths or weaknesses of what he's facing then you've got the advantage. Armour, especially armour that hides the face was very effective on this level.

For superstitious people, fighting an opponent wrapped in a flexible steel shirt would have been highly intimidating, especially when the wrong kind of blow just slid right off their armour.

Almost all Mail would have been worn over a padded shirt, which would have also helped it to redistribute weapon impact.

As far as mail's physical strength goes you have to consider many factors, including size and quality of the links. You also have to consider the common kinds of blows one would be facing in a medieval battle. Basically there are three kinds of blows to be considered: piercing, crushing and slashing.

Mail is strong against piercing blows only to a certain point, if a spear or arrow is travelling with enough velocity it will go right through most mail. The development of devastating piercing weapons like crossbows and longbows is what led to the evolution of plate and mail armour types. Which could be shaped to deflect the force of piercing blows. Even plate armour was eventually rendered next to useless with the incredible piercing damage that can be inflicted by firearms.

Mail protects against crushing blows by redistributing the focus of the blow. For light and medium crushing blows it would be fairly effective. But again, if the blow was heavy enough, say from a spiked flail or heavy battle-axe, it doesn't matter if the mail itself isn't broken, the bones underneath will be.

Slashing blows are where Mail really shines. It would take an extraordinarily heavy blow from a very sharp sword to cut mail with a slashing attack. Moreover since the impact of the slash would be redistributed, being hit in this manner whilst wearing mail would have little or no effect.

Mail is also effective overall because it protects against having one's skin broken. In an age before antibiotics this was very important.

For Further Investigation

I plan to post a list of recommended books and resources for further information about armour in the near future. In the meantime you might enjoy this excellent and illustrated look at a variety of armours, their construction and uses : Armour and Warriors of the Silk Road by Norman J. Finkelshteyn - Armourer.


9 Bizarre Objects Owned by Henry VIII

Six months after Henry VIII died in 1547, a full inventory of all of the possessions of Henry’s crown was commissioned in London. Now housed in The British Library, the inventory took 18 months to complete and listed tens of thousands of individual items—from castles and ships to more than 3500 gold and silver trinkets, as well as Henry’s enormous collection of 2000 tapestries.

Also making the list, however, were a handful of more bizarre objects, including an orchestra’s worth of musical instruments [PDF ], experimental weapons, and one of the largest suits of armor in British royal history. Add to that some of the incredible gifts Henry received from fellow rulers during his lifetime—as well as some of the surprising personal items he commissioned for his own use while on the throne—and arguably the most famous king in British history owned some very unusual curiosities indeed.

1. A SET OF PURPLE VELVET BAGPIPES

Although he probably didn’t write "Greensleeves," Henry was nevertheless a talented musician and composer, and was able to play the organ, the lute, the flute, and the virginal, an early form of harpsichord. Most of Henry’s personal collection of musical instruments was housed at Westminster Palace in London, where they were maintained by a Flemish-born composer named Philip van Wilder, who was given the title of “Keeper of the King’s Instruments.” Henry’s 1547 inventory lists more than 20 recorders, 19 viols, two clavichords, and four sets of bagpipes—including one made of purple velvet, with ivory pipework.

2. A BOWLING ALLEY

Shortly after the birth of his son Edward (later the short-lived King Edward VI) in 1537, Henry had a bowling alley built at Hampton Court Palace on the outskirts of London. At almost 200 feet long, it was more than three times the length of a modern 10-pin bowling alley. Bowling was a hugely popular pastime in Tudor England—at least until Henry’s daughter, Queen Mary I, outlawed the “keeping of any bowling-alleys, dicing houses, or other unlawful games” in 1555.

3. A “SCAVENGER’S DAUGHTER”

The “scavenger’s daughter” was a gruesome and brutal instrument of torture invented sometime during Henry VIII’s reign by Sir Leonard Skevington, the Lieutenant of the Tower of London. The device consisted of an A-shaped iron brace, inside of which a victim would be made to sit in a crouched position, with their head almost touching their knees, and their wrists, ankles, and neck shackled in place. An iron bar passed through the top of the A-frame would then be tightened like a vice, crushing the victim with excruciating force—apparently, until the eyes, nose, and even ears began to bleed. The “scavenger’s daughter” was intended to be an alternative to the rack, which stretched its victims rather than compacting them, but unlike the rack, it mercifully seems to have only been used occasionally.

4. A MARMOSET

By all accounts, Henry VIII loved animals. He kept ferrets, hawks, falcons, and numerous other birds (the windows at Hampton Court were surrounded by cages containing canaries and nightingales), and owned dozens of dogs during his lifetime after his death, more than 60 dog leashes were found in his wardrobe. By far Henry’s most unusual pet, however, was a marmoset he received as a Christmas present in the late 1530s. Coincidentally, his first wife, Catherine (sometimes Katherine) of Aragon, also had a pet marmoset, and was even painted with it earlier that decade. But are these the strangest royal pets on record? Oddly enough, they aren’t—in 1252, King Henry III was given a polar bear by the Norwegian king, Haakon IV, which was housed at the Tower of London and kept on an enormous leash long enough to allow it to swim in the river Thames.

5. A CODPIECE LARGE ENOUGH TO CONCEAL A WEAPON

Henry VIII is credited with popularizing the peculiar Tudor fashion for enormous, exaggerated codpieces, which during his reign established themselves as symbols of a man’s virility and masculinity. The king, of course, had to have the biggest codpiece of all—and toward the end of his life, Henry’s codpieces had become roomy enough for him to use them as glorified pockets, in which he could keep jewels and other valuables, and even small weapons. He even had them built into his armor.

6. A MACE PISTOL

This monstrous-looking device is called a mace pistol, although in Henry’s day it was nicknamed the “holy water sprinkler,” or “the king’s walking staff.” Now housed in the Royal Armouries in Leeds, England, the weapon was comprised of a pronged mace concealing three gun barrels in its spiked head. Henry apparently had a habit of wandering the streets of London at night brandishing his “walking staff” in order to check that his constables were doing their work properly. However, one night he was arrested for carrying a weapon by one of his men who failed to recognize him, and ended up spending a night in a prison cell. When the constable recognized his error the following day, he presumed the king would have him immediately executed—but instead, Henry granted him a handsome raise, and supplied all the prisoners with whom he had spent the night a supply of coal and bread.

7. A PAIR OF FOOTBALL BOOTS

Records show that in 1526, Henry VIII commissioned a pair of leather football boots at a cost of 4 shillings (around £90, or $130 today) 14 years later, in 1540, he banned football on the grounds that it incited riots.

8. A SUIT OF ARMOR (WITH A 51-INCH WAIST)

A suit of armor made for Henry, five years into his reign in 1514, shows that the 23-year-old king was 6-foot-1, and had an athletic 32-inch waist and a 39-inch chest. Twenty-five years of a king’s diet later, a suit of armor Henry had made for a May Day tournament in 1540 when he was 49 years old shows that he now required a 51 inch waist, and a 54.5 inch chest.

9. A HORNED HELMET

This bespectacled, demon-faced “Horned Helmet” was presented to Henry VIII by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in 1514 (along, tragically, with the rest of a now-lost suit of armor). After Henry’s death in 1547, his court jester, Will Somers, apparently took possession of it and most likely incorporated it in his act.


Afsluiting

When the Romans took over from the Greeks, their empire stretched far beyond previous known boundaries. The elegance and grace of the Greeks gave way to new Roman styles. They created new armor which was suited to the rough weather and terrain of the countries they were conquering. Their armies had to march a long way, so they came up with the caligae. They had to battle against tough adversaries like the barbarians, so they devised armor that provided the best offense and defense in contemporary times. It was their pragmatic yet realistic approach that took the Roman civilization to such great heights.

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2 thoughts on &ldquoTop 10 Ancient Roman Armor and Costume&rdquo

Wow, you are very knowledgeable on this subject! I’m impressed with your excellent pictures and detailed descriptions. Our son is in prison and he makes key fobs and hat bands out of hitched horsehair and leather. He asked me to look online to see if I could find pictures of armor used by the Romans. He would like to make small replicas out of leather. Thank you for posting your fantastic research. It’s a great place for me to start and I learned a lot!

Very impressed I have a test on the Romans Gears and the different ranks in the Roman Empire and the different armor that was being worn at that time in The Roman Era I am in Awe How History came about from the Past to the Present TU For Knowledge .


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