New Mexico

New Mexico


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Gekoloniseer deur Spanje, het die land wat nou New Mexico is, tot 1912 Amerikaanse staat geword. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was New Mexico die tuiste van die geheimsinnige Manhattan-projek, waarin top Amerikaanse wetenskaplikes gejaag het om die eerste atoombom te skep, wat getoets op die Trinity Bomb -terrein, naby Alamagordo, op 16 Julie 1945. In 1947 word Roswell, New Mexico, 'n onderwerp van bespiegelings oor buiteaardse lewe toe 'n plaaslike boer onbekende puin op sy eiendom ontdek, waarvan sommige glo die oorblyfsels was 'n vreemde ruimtetuig wat neergestort het. Besoekers aan New Mexico besoek gereeld besienswaardighede soos die Very Large Array -teleskoop in Socorro en die historiese stad Santa Fe, wat die kunstenaar Georgia O'Keeffe beroemd tuisgemaak het.

Datum van staatskaping: 6 Januarie 1912

Hoofstad: Santa Fe

Bevolking: 2,059,179 (2010)

Grootte: 121,590 vierkante myl

Bynaam (s): Land van betowering

Leuse: Crescit Eundo (“Dit groei soos dit gaan”)

Boom: Piñon Pine

Blom: Yucca

Voël: Groter Roadrunner

Interessante feite

  • Die paleis van die goewerneurs in Santa Fe, wat in 1610 gebou is, is die oudste setel van die regering in die Verenigde State.
  • Op 16 Julie 1945 is die wêreld se eerste atoombom getoets op die Trinity Site in die middel van New Mexico. Die bom was die skepping van die Manhattan -projek, wat in 1942 die opdrag gekry het om 'n kernwapen te bou nadat hy intelligensie ontvang het dat Duitsland 'n eie atoombom ontwikkel. Inwoners het die ontploffing van 19 kiloton tot 160 kilometer daarvandaan gevoel.
  • Toe 'n boer 'n ongewone puin in 'n skaapweiding buite Roswell in Julie 1947 ontdek, het amptenare van die lugmag beweer dat dit die oorblyfsels van 'n ballon was wat neergestort het. Jare later het 'n reeks proefdummy -eksperimente wat ontwerp is om vlieëniers se kans op oorlewing te verbeter wanneer hulle van hoë hoogtes val, die mening van baie versterk dat vreemdelinge en UFO's die bron van die geheimsinnige gebeurtenisse was. Die stad het sedertdien 'n toeristebestemming geword vir diegene wat in buiteruimtes geïnteresseerd is. Die Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta begin in 1972 en lok elke Oktober honderde duisende besoekers wat die meer as 600 kleurvolle lugballonne in die lug sien opkom.
  • White Sands Nasionale Park bevat die grootste gipsduinveld ter wêreld. Die gevolg van water wat uit langdurige mere met 'n hoë mineraalinhoud verdamp, word gipsafsettings in 'n skilderagtige wit sandduin oorwinter wat 275 vierkante kilometer beslaan.
  • Die Spaanse taal wat deur bykans 'n kwartmiljoen mense in New Mexico en die suide van Colorado gepraat word, is 'n antieke dialek wat grotendeels uit Castiliaanse oorsprong is.
  • Die eerste atoombomme is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in New Mexico ontwikkel en getoets. Los Alamos National Laboratory, wat in 1943 daarvoor opgerig is, dien steeds as een van die land se voorste navorsingsinstellings.

FOTOGALERIES









New Mexico geskiedenis

Kyk gerus na die geskiedenis van New Mexico. Ontdek 'n oorsig van die ryk geskiedenis, erfenis, historiese gebeure en kultuur van New Mexico.

In 1540 trek die Spaanse veroweraar Coronado deur die gebied wat vandag bekend staan ​​as New Mexico op soek na die legendariese sewe goudstede. New Mexico, die 'Land of Enchantment' genoem, was die 47ste staat wat in 1912 die Unie binnegekom het. Die invloed van die Apache -Indiane wat daar woon, blyk duidelik uit die kunswerk en kultuur. Die teenwoordigheid van die Indiese Pueblo is ook baie duidelik, veral in die stam se geboue. Die staat het ook 'n groot Spaanse bevolking, aangesien New Mexico onder die Spaanse beheer was van die 16de eeu tot ongeveer 1846. Die hoofstad Santa Fe, wat in 1610 gestig is, het die oudste regeringsetel in Noord -Amerika. Die staatsblom is die yucca.


Grondgebied en staat

Tydens die Mexiko-Amerikaanse oorlog, wat in 1846 begin het, is New Mexico deur Amerikaanse magte ingeneem onder bevel van genl Stephen Kearny. Alle inwoners het amnestie en burgerskap gekry in ruil vir 'n eed van trou aan die Verenigde State. Die gebied New Mexico is deur die kongres in 1850 gestig. Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog is 'n indringende konfederale mag deur die Colorado -vrywilligers (infanterie) verdryf, hoewel die suide van New Mexico 'n vesting gebly het vir rebelle -simpatiseerders tydens en na die oorlog.

Die Navajo -stamme is in 1864 onderdruk en met geweld hervestig op 'n reservaat naby Fort Sumner. In 1868 kry hulle 'n groot reservaat in die noordweste van New Mexico en noordooste van Arizona, maar die Apache, wat in 1880 op twee voorbehoude gevestig is, het hul opstand tot 1886 voortgesit. Die ontluikende beesbedryf was die belangrikste ontwikkeling van die laat 19de eeu, en Bloedige gevegte is gereeld tussen bees- en skaapboere en groot en klein grondeienaars in 'n reeks reeks oorloë gevoer. Die legendariese geweerskieter Billy the Kid en sy wetgewende akteur Pat Garrett was deel van hierdie stryd in Lincoln County, die episentrum van die plaaslike reeksoorlog in sy bloedigste jaar, 1878. Die Apache-leiers Geronimo, Cochise en Victorio, hoewel hoofsaaklik aktief in Arizona, het ook uitval gemaak in die suidweste van New Mexico. Die spoorweg Atchison, Topeka en Santa Fe, wat Albuquerque in 1880 bereik het, het nuwe immigrasie meegebring, en die boerdery het vinnig gegroei met die ontwikkeling van nuwe besproeiingsmetodes en hulpbronne.

Na die toelating van New Mexico as 'n staat op 6 Januarie 1912, was die ekonomie nog steeds gebaseer op landbou, en dit het sy grensbeeld behou. In sommige geïsoleerde gebiede het stagecoaches nog steeds verbindings met treine gemaak, en cowboys het beeste op boerderye aangepak, waarvan sommige groot ondernemings was. Hispano en inheemse Amerikaanse gemeenskappe was min geraak deur die veranderinge wat die staatskaping meegebring het. Daar was egter kragte aan die werk wat die staat en sy mense wesenlik sou verander.

Nie die minste van hierdie magte was die bekendstelling van die motor, wat spoedig die isolasie van selfs die mees afgeleë dorp of Indiese pueblo beëindig het. Jonger mense het na die stad verhuis, en plaasprodukte is makliker per vragmotor bemark. 'N Ander krag wat hierby gespeel is, was die implementering van die New Deal, die federale hulpverleningsprogram van die Groot Depressie, wat die meeste plattelandse Nuwe Mexikane vir die eerste keer met die regering in aanraking gebring het.

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het as 'n katalisator gedien om die veranderinge wat reeds aan die gang was, te bespoedig. Jong Spaanse en "wit" mans is in die weermag ingeroep, en ander het werk gekry by regeringsinstallasies in New Mexico of in die verdedigingsaanlegte in ander state. 'N Japannese interneringskamp is buite Sante Fe opgerig. Navorsingsfasiliteite wat in Los Alamos gevestig is, het die middelpunt geword van die projek wat die eerste atoombom in 1945 geskep het. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het baie van die militêre aktiwiteite in New Mexico voortgegaan, en 'n groot aantal militêre gesinne het hulle in die staat gevestig.

Van 1940 tot 1960 het die bevolking van New Mexico byna verdubbel. Santa Fe en Taos het 'n toevlugsoord geword vir gesondheidsoekers, sowel as die ligging van tweede huise vir die meer gegoede. Die bevolking het tot in die negentigerjare bly groei, aangesien baie inwoners van Kalifornië na die staat gemigreer het. Ondanks die vinnige toename in die bevolking, bly New Mexico een van die armste state in die land, alhoewel daar 'n toename in die ontginning van olie, aardgas en ander minerale hulpbronne was, sowel as die uitbreiding van die landbou deur verbeterde besproeiing. Ondanks 'n mate van weerstand van omgewingsaktiviste, het die Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, die wêreld se eerste ondergrondse bergingshouer vir radioaktiewe afval, in Maart 1999 in die suidooste van New Mexico geopen.

Die bevolking van New Mexico het in die vroeë 21ste eeu steeds toegeneem, veral in die groter Albuquerque- en Santa Fe -gebiede. Die groei van Albuquerque was veral duidelik in die hoë vlaktes oos van die Tijeras -canyon, wat eens 'n formidabele hindernis was; dit is sedertdien deur paaie en brûe deurkruis. Santa Fe was ook 'n vinnige groei op die vlaktes suid van die stad.


New Mexico

10 grootste stede (raming van 2012): Albuquerque, 555.417 Las Cruces, 101.047 Rio Rancho, 90.818 Santa Fe, 69.204 Roswell, 48.477 Farmington, 45.854 South Valley, 40.976 Clovis, 39.197 Hobbs, 35.007 Alamogordo, 31.500

Geografiese sentrum: In Torrance Co., 12 myl. SSW van Willard

Aantal provinsies: 33

Grootste graafskap volgens bevolking en gebied: Bernalillo, 662 564 (2010) Catron, 6 928 vierkante myl.

Bevolkingstelling van 2010 (rang): 2,059,179 (36). Manlik: 1,017,421 (49.4%) Vroulik: 1,041,758 (50.6%). Wit: 1,407,276 (68.4%) Swart: 42,550 (2.1%) Amerikaanse Indiër: 193,222 (9.4%) Asiaties: 28,208 (1.4%) Ander ras: 308,503 (15.0%) Twee of meer wedrenne: 77,010 (3.7%) Spaans/Latino: 953,403 (46.3%). 2010 persent bevolking 18 en ouer: 74.8 65 en ouer: 13.2 mediaan ouderdom: 36.7.

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, 'n Spaanse ontdekkingsreisiger wat op soek was na goud, reis deur die streek wat in 1540-1542 New Mexico geword het. In 1598 is die eerste Spaanse nedersetting aan die Rio Grande -rivier gestig deur Juan de Onate in 1610 is Santa Fe gestig en die hoofstad van New Mexico gemaak.

Die VSA het die grootste deel van New Mexico in 1848 verkry as gevolg van die Mexikaanse oorlog, en die res in die Gadsden -aankoop van 1853. Unie -troepe het die gebied tydens die Burgeroorlog van die Konfederate ingeneem. Met die oorgawe van Geronimo in 1886 is die Apache -oorloë en die meeste Indiese konflikte in die gebied beëindig.

Sedert 1945 is New Mexico 'n leier in energie -navorsing en -ontwikkeling met uitgebreide eksperimente wat uitgevoer is by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory en Sandia Laboratories in die kern-, son- en geotermiese gebiede.

Minerale is die rykste natuurlike hulpbron van die staat, en New Mexico is een van die Amerikaanse leiers in die produksie van uraan- en kaliumsoute. Petroleum, aardgas, koper, goud, silwer, sink, lood en molibdeen dra ook baie by tot die staat se inkomste.

Die belangrikste vervaardigingsbedrywe sluit voedselprodukte, chemikalieë, vervoertoerusting, hout, elektriese masjinerie en klipglas-produkte in. Ongeveer twee derdes van die plaasinkomste van New Mexico kom uit veeprodukte, veral suiwel en beeste. Pekanneute, hooi en uie is die belangrikste veldgewasse. Mielies, grondboontjies, boontjies, uie, brandrissies en blaarslaai word ook verbou.

Toeriste -aantreklikhede sluit in die Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Inscription Rock by El Morro National Monument, die ruïnes by Fort Union, Billy the Kid -aandenkings by Lincoln, die White Sands en Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monuments, Bandelier National Monument en die Chaco Culture National Historical. Park.


Die meeste was myndorpe, waar mans begeer het na die rykdom van die aarde en goud, silwer, turkoois, koper, lood en steenkool. 'N Paar was boerderygemeenskappe wat 'n tyd lank floreer en geheimsinnig stil geword het. Letterlik het honderde dorpe nie net gesterf nie, hulle het ook verdwyn.

Volgens sommige ramings is daar meer as 400 spookdorpe in New Mexico, en die meeste is niks meer as 'n paar fondamente en soms mynbou -toerusting nie.

Maar spore van talle hou aan, spookagtige bande met dae wat vroeër was. Hulle stort in die vergetelheid, hul skulpe van geboue soos spieëls teen die lug, hierdie dorpe wat 'n paar van die mees romantiese en gewildste geskiedenis van Amerika beleef het.

En as u luister, kan u die name van legendariese myne op die wind hoor fluister: Bruidskamer, vertroue, klein hel, Calamity Jane, Hardscrabble, Mystic Lode, North Homestake, Little Fanny, Spanish Bar. As u kyk, kan u die name lees van legendariese mense wat in die stof geskryf is: Johnny Ringo, Russian, Bill, Toppy Johnson, Roy Bean, Butch Cassidy, Madame Varnish, Black jack Ketchum, Mangas Coloradas, Billy the Kid, James Cooney.

Meer as 'n aantal van hierdie dorpe het genoeg lewe ten spyte van die verwoesting van vandale en die weer om interessant te wees vir die spesiale mensras wie se oë helder word by die vermelding daarvan. Respekteer asseblief hul privaatheid. Baie is op privaat eiendom.


Jemez Pueblo

Die Pueblo van J émez is die enigste oorblywende Towa-sprekende pueblo. Dit word omring deur kleurvolle rooi sandsteen -mesas en dien as poort na die Ca ñon de San Diego en die J émez Mountain Trail National Scenic Byway. Die pueblo self is 27 km noordwes van Bernalillo geleë.

In die 1830's het oorlewendes van Pecos (Cic úye) Pueblo, 'n eens magtige handelsentrum wat nou in puin lê, by J émez aangesluit. Baie Pecos Pueblo -krygers het eers 12 jaar na die Pueblo -opstand in 1680 die Spaanse magte onder Diego de Vargas weerstaan, en later het hulle 'n bondgenootskap met die veroweraars gehad.

Sowat 70% van die 1.890 J émez -Indiane het in die vroeë sewentigerjare op hul reservaatlande gebly. Alhoewel toenemend meer mense oorskakel na loonverdienende werk eerder as landbou, het die inwoners steeds chilipepers, mielies en koring grootgemaak, hul moedertaal gepraat en gebruiklike praktyke gehandhaaf.


Wild West Legends begrawe in New Mexico

Waarvoor is New Mexico bekend?

Die wilde weste in New Mexico is miskien een van die vele dinge waaroor die staat bekend is, of in hierdie geval. Terwyl die ou skietery en geritsel van die wilde weste lank verby is, is daar nuwe dinge waarvoor die Land of Enchantment bekend geword het. Die pragtige lugballonne wat oor die landskap dryf tydens die jaarlikse Warmlugballon Fiesta is een. Die staat se liefde vir Chili is 'n ander, wat nie verbasend is nie, aangesien mense glo dat die beste chili ter wêreld uit die staat kom. New Mexico het selfs bekend gestaan ​​as 'n UFO-waarnemende plek, met stede soos Roswell wat die moontlike uitheemse besoekers ten volle omhels.

Wat is die mees unieke feite oor New Mexico?

As u daarvan hou om nuwe trivia oor New Mexico te leer, is hier 'n paar meer interessante en unieke feite oor die staat wat u moontlik nooit kon raai nie. Die ikoniese Smokey the Bear, van slegs die voorkoming van bosbrande en die bekendheid van#8221, kom uit New Mexico. Die regte beer is in 1950 uit die bosbrande in New Mexico gered en het 'n simbool geword wat vandag nog bekend is. Die eerste atoombom wat ooit ontplof is, was in New Mexico, getoets in die woestyngebied naby White Sands National Monument. Die oudste kerk in die Verenigde State is in New Mexico geleë. Dit is geleë in Santa Fe en bekend as die San Miguel Mission, oorspronklik gebou in 1610.

Wat is die oudste stad in New Mexico?

Die geskiedenis van New Mexico is groot. Behalwe die baie dorpe wat in die dae van die wilde weste bestaan ​​het en nog steeds aanhang, is daar 'n paar werklik ou plekke hier. Die Taos Pueblo is die oudste, deurlopend bewoonde plek in die staat. Dit is duisend jaar lank beset en versigtig bewaar. Het u geweet dat New Mexico ook die oudste hoofstad in die land het? Santa Fe is in 1610 gestig en het meer as 150 jaar lank bestaan ​​uit die bestaan ​​van die Verenigde State. U kan nog steeds die pragtige historiese gebiede van Santa Fe besoek vir 'n paar pragtige argitektuur en fassinerende geskiedenis.


Inhoud

Voor die Europese kolonisering van die Amerikas was die gebied wat Santa Fe tussen 900 CE en die 1500's beset het, aan die Tewa -mense bekend as Oghá P'o'oge ("White Shell Water Place") en deur die Navajo -mense as Yootó ('Bead' 'Water Place'). [13] [14] In 1610 stig Juan de Oñate die gebied as Santa Fe de Nuevo México - 'n provinsie van Nieu -Spanje. [14] Formele Spaanse nedersettings is ontwikkel waardeur die koloniale goewerneur Pedro de Peralta die gebied hernoem het La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (die koninklike stad van die Heilige Geloof van Saint Francis van Assisi). [14] Die Spaanse frase "Santa Fe" word in Engels vertaal as "Holy Faith". Alhoewel dit meer algemeen bekend staan ​​as Santa Fe, bly die stad se volle, wettige naam tot vandag toe nog steeds La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. [14] Die volledige naam van die stad is in sowel die seël as in die vlag van die stad, hoewel Assisi in Spaans verkeerd gespel is, terwyl Aśis in plaas van Asís gelees word. [15]

Die standaard Spaanse uitspraak van die stad se naam is SAHN -tah- FAY , soos gekontekstualiseer binne die stad se volledige Spaanse naam La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís. [16] [17] As gevolg van die groot hoeveelhede toerisme en immigrasie na Santa Fe, 'n Engelse uitspraak van SAN -tuh- FAY word ook algemeen gebruik. [16]

Spanje en Mexiko Redigeer

Die gebied van Santa Fe was oorspronklik beset deur inheemse Tanoan -mense, wat in talle Pueblo -dorpe langs die Rio Grande gewoon het. Een van die vroegste nedersettings in die huidige sentrum van Santa Fe, kom eers na 900 nC. 'N Groep inheemse Tewa het 'n groep huise gebou wat rondom die terrein van die hedendaagse Plaza gesentreer was en 'n half kilometer na die suide en weste versprei het. Oghá P'o'oge in Tewa. [18] Die Tanoans en ander Pueblo -mense vestig hulle langs die Santa Fe -rivier vir sy water en vervoer.

Die rivier het die hele jaar deur gevloei tot in die 1700's. Teen die 20ste eeu was die Santa Fe -rivier 'n seisoenale waterweg. [19] Vanaf 2007 [update], is die rivier erken as die mees bedreigde rivier in die Verenigde State, volgens die bewaringsgroep American Rivers. [20]

Don Juan de Oñate het die eerste Spaanse poging gelei om die streek in 1598 te koloniseer, en Santa Fe de Nuevo México tot stand gebring as 'n provinsie van Nieu -Spanje. Onder Juan de Oñate en sy seun was die hoofstad van die provinsie die nedersetting San Juan de los Caballeros noord van Santa Fe naby die moderne Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. Juan de Oñate is deur die Spaanse verban en uit New Mexico verban, nadat sy bewind as wreed teenoor die inheemse bevolking beskou is. Die tweede Spaanse goewerneur van New Mexico, Don Pedro de Peralta, stig egter 'n nuwe stad aan die voet van die Sangre de Cristo -gebergte in 1607, wat hy genoem het La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, die koninklike stad van die Heilige Geloof van Saint Francis van Assisi. In 1610 noem hy dit as die hoofstad van die provinsie, wat dit byna voortdurend gebly het, [21], wat dit die oudste staatshoofstad in die Verenigde State maak.

Gebrek aan inheemse Amerikaanse verteenwoordiging in die vroeë regering van New Mexico het gelei tot die Pueblo -opstand in 1680, toe groepe verskillende inheemse Pueblo -mense daarin geslaag het om die Spanjaarde uit New Mexico na El Paso te verdryf, en die Pueblo het voortgegaan om New Mexico uit die paleis van die Goewerneurs in Santa Fe van 1680 tot 1692. Die gebied is in 1692 deur Don Diego de Vargas herower deur die oorlogsveldtog genaamd 'Bloodless Reconquest' wat selfs destyds as gewelddadig gekritiseer is; dit was eintlik die volgende goewerneur Francisco Cuervo y Valdez wat werklik vrede begin bemiddel het, soos die stigting van Albuquerque, om 'n beter verteenwoordiging en handelstoegang vir Pueblos in die regering van New Mexico te verseker. Ander goewerneurs van New Mexico, soos Tomás Vélez Cachupin, was steeds beter bekend vir hul meer vooruitdenkende werk met die inheemse bevolking van New Mexico. Santa Fe was die provinsiale setel van Spanje tydens die uitbreek van die Mexikaanse Onafhanklikheidsoorlog in 1810. Dit is as belangrik beskou vir bonthandelaars in die huidige Saint Louis, Missouri. Toe die gebied nog onder Spaanse bewind was, het die Chouteau -broers van Saint Louis 'n monopolie op die bonthandel verkry, voordat die Verenigde State Missouri onder die Louisiana -aankoop van 1803 verkry het. Die bonthandel het bygedra tot die rykdom van St. Die status van die stad as die hoofstad van die Mexikaanse gebied Santa Fe de Nuevo México is geformaliseer in die Grondwet van 1824 nadat Mexiko onafhanklikheid van Spanje verkry het.

Toe die Republiek van Texas in 1836 van Mexiko afskei, het dit probeer om Santa Fe en ander dele van Nuevo México op te eis as deel van die westelike deel van Texas langs die Río Grande. In 1841 vertrek 'n klein militêre en handelsekspedisie uit Austin, met die bedoeling om beheer oor die Santa Fe -roete te neem. Die mag, bekend as die Texaanse Santa Fe -ekspedisie, was swak voorbereid en is maklik deur die Nuwe Mexikaanse weermag gevange geneem.

Verenigde State Redigeer

In 1846 verklaar die Verenigde State oorlog teen Mexiko. Brigadier -generaal Stephen W. Kearny het die hoofliggaam van sy leër in die weste van ongeveer 1700 soldate na Santa Fe gelei om dit en die hele New Mexico -gebied vir die Verenigde State op te eis. Teen 1848 het die VSA New Mexico amptelik verkry deur die Verdrag van Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Kolonel Alexander William Doniphan, onder bevel van Kearny, het ammunisie van Santa Fe met die etiket "Spanje 1776" teruggekry wat toon dat die gebrek aan kommunikasie en die kwaliteit van militêre ondersteuning wat New Mexico onder Mexikaanse bewind gekry het. [22]

Sommige Amerikaanse besoekers het aanvanklik min belofte in die afgeleë stad gesien. Een reisiger in 1849 skryf:

Ek kan my amper nie voorstel hoe Santa Fe ondersteun word nie. Die land rondom dit is onvrugbaar. In die noorde staan ​​'n sneeubedekte berg, terwyl die vallei waarin die stad geleë is, vaal en sanderig is. Die strate is smal. 'N Mexikaan sal die hele dag deur die stad loop om 'n bondel gras ter waarde van ongeveer 'n sent te verkoop. Hulle is die armste mense wat ek nog ooit gesien het. Hulle bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik op skaapvleis, uie en rooipeper. [23]

In 1851 kom Jean Baptiste Lamy aan en word biskop van New Mexico, Arizona, Utah en Colorado in 1853. Tydens sy leiding reis hy na Frankryk, Rome, Tucson, Los Angeles, St. Louis, New Orleans en Mexico City. Hy bou die Santa Fe Saint Francis -katedraal en vorm die katolisisme in die streek tot sy dood in 1888. [24]

As deel van die New Mexico -veldtog van die burgeroorlog, het generaal Henry Sibley die stad beset en die Konfederale vlag vir 'n paar dae in Maart 1862 oor Santa Fe gewaai. Glorietapas. Die Santa Fe National Cemetery is na die oorlog in 1870 deur die federale regering geskep om die soldate van die Unie wat daar gesterf het, te onderbreek.

Op 21 Oktober 1887 gaan Anton Docher, "The Padre of Isleta", na New Mexico waar hy deur die biskop Jean-Baptiste Salpointe as priester in die St Francis-katedraal van Santa Fe georden is. Na 'n paar jaar in Santa Fe, [25] Bernalillo en Taos, [26] verhuis hy na Isleta op 28 Desember 1891. Hy skryf 'n etnologiese artikel wat in Die tydskrif Santa Fé in Junie 1913, waarin hy die vroeë 20ste eeu se lewe in die Pueblos beskryf. [27]

Namate spoorweë na die Weste uitgebrei is, was Santa Fe oorspronklik 'n belangrike stop op die Atchison-, Topeka- en Santa Fe -spoorweg. Maar toe die spore in New Mexico aangelê is, het die siviele ingenieurs besluit dat dit meer prakties is om deur Lamy, 'n stad in Santa Fe County, suid van Santa Fe, te gaan. 'N Taklyn is voltooi van Lamy na Santa Fe in 1880. [28] Die Denver en Rio Grande Western Railroad het die smalspoor Chili Line van die nabygeleë stad Española na Santa Fe in 1886 uitgebrei. [29]

Dit was ook nie voldoende om die negatiewe gevolge van die feit dat Santa Fe deur die hoofspoorweg omseil is, te vergoed nie. Dit het geleidelik in die vroeë 20ste eeu geleidelik agteruitgegaan. Aktiviste het 'n aantal hulpbronne vir die kunste en argeologie geskep, veral die School of American Research, wat in 1907 geskep is onder leiding van die prominente argeoloog Edgar Lee Hewett. In die vroeë 20ste eeu het Santa Fe 'n basis geword vir talle skrywers en kunstenaars. Die eerste vliegtuig wat oor Santa Fe gevlieg het, is bestuur deur Rose Dugan, met Vera von Blumenthal as passasier. Saam het die twee vroue begin met die ontwikkeling van die Pueblo Indiese aardewerkbedryf, wat inheemse vroue gehelp het om hul ware te bemark. Hulle het bygedra tot die stigting van die jaarlikse Santa Fe Indian Market.

In 1912 is New Mexico toegelaat as die 47ste staat van die Verenigde State, met Santa Fe as hoofstad.

20ste eeu Edit

1912 plan Redigeer

In 1912, toe die bevolking van die stad ongeveer 5 000 mense was, het die stadsleiers van die stad 'n gesofistikeerde stadsplan ontwerp en uitgevaardig wat elemente van die moderne City Beautiful -beweging, stadsbeplanning en historiese bewaring bevat. Laasgenoemde is veral beïnvloed deur soortgelyke bewegings in Duitsland. Die plan het beperkte toekomstige groei verwag, met inagneming van die skaarste aan water, en die toekomstige vooruitsigte van voorstedelike ontwikkeling aan die buitewyke erken. Die beplanners het voorsien dat die ontwikkeling daarvan in ooreenstemming met die karakter van die stad moet wees. [30]

Kunstenaars en toeriste Redigeer

Nadat die hooflyn van die spoorweg Santa Fe omseil het, het dit bevolking verloor. Kunstenaars en skrywers, sowel as afgetredenes, was egter aangetrokke tot die kulturele rykdom van die omgewing, die skoonheid van die landskappe en die droë klimaat. Plaaslike leiers het die stad begin bevorder as 'n toeriste -aantreklikheid. Die stad het argitektoniese herstelprojekte geborg en nuwe geboue opgerig volgens tradisionele tegnieke en style, en sodoende die Santa Fe -styl geskep.

Edgar L. Hewett, stigter en eerste direkteur van die School of American Research en die Museum van New Mexico in Santa Fe, was 'n toonaangewende promotor. Hy begin die Santa Fe Fiesta in 1919 en die Southwest Indian Fair in 1922 (nou bekend as die Indian Market). Toe Hewett 'n somerprogram vir vroue in Texas probeer lok, het baie kunstenaars in opstand gekom en gesê dat die stad nie kunsmatige toerisme moet bevorder ten koste van sy artistieke kultuur nie. Die skrywers en kunstenaars stig die Old Santa Fe Association en verslaan die plan. [31]

Japannese Amerikaanse interneringskamp Redigeer

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die federale regering beveel dat 'n Japannese Amerikaanse interneringskamp opgerig moet word. Vanaf Junie 1942 het die departement van justisie 826 Japannees-Amerikaanse mans gearresteer ná die aanval op Pearl Harbor, wat hulle naby Santa Fe gehou het, op 'n voormalige webwerf van die Civil Conservation Corps wat vir die doel bekom en uitgebrei is. Alhoewel daar 'n gebrek aan bewyse was en daar geen behoorlike proses was nie, is die mans aangehou omdat hulle verdink is van die vyfde kolomaktiwiteit. Veiligheid by Santa Fe was soortgelyk aan 'n militêre gevangenis, met doringdraadheinings van twaalf voet, wagtorings met soekligte en wagte wat gewere, sywapens en traangas dra. [32] Teen September is die geïnterneerdes na ander fasiliteite oorgeplaas - 523 na die konsentrasiekampe in die Weste van die Oorlogsverhuisingsowerheid, en 302 na die weermag se kampe.

Die Santa Fe -terrein is gebruik om Duitse en Italiaanse onderdane te huisves, wat na die uitbreek van die oorlog as vyandige vreemdelinge beskou is. [33] In Februarie 1943 is hierdie burgerlike gevangenes na DOJ se bewaring oorgeplaas.

Die kamp is destyds uitgebrei om 2100 mans op te neem wat geskei was van die algemene bevolking van Japannese Amerikaanse gevangenes. Dit was meestal Nisei en Kibei wat afstand gedoen het van hul Amerikaanse burgerskap toe hulle gevra is om 'n lojaliteitseed te onderteken wat 'n verwarrende taal het, en gesê dat die persoon ingestem het om 'lojaliteit aan die Japanse keiser op te gee'. Mans wat in Amerika gebore is en nooit met die keiser vereenselwig is nie, is beledig, veral omdat hulle gevra is om by die gewapende magte in te skryf terwyl hul in Japan gebore ouers in kampe was. en ander "moeilikheidmakers" van die Tule Lake Segregation Center. [32] In 1945 is vier geïnterneerdes ernstig beseer toe geweld tussen die geïnterneerdes en wagte uitgebreek het in 'n gebeurtenis bekend as die Santa Fe Riot. Die kamp bly oop aan die einde van die oorlog, die laaste aangehoudenes is middel 1946 vrygelaat. Die fasiliteit is gesluit en kort daarna as oorskot verkoop. [33] Die kamp was geleë in die huidige Casa Solana -woonbuurt. [34]

Volgens die United States Census Bureau het die stad 'n totale oppervlakte van 96,9 km2, waarvan 96,7 km2 grond is en 0,2 km2 (0,21%) bedek met water. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Santa Fe is 2,194 m bo seespieël geleë, wat die hoogste staatshoofstad in die Verenigde State is. [2]

Klimaatsverandering

Santa Fe se klimaat word gekenmerk deur koel, droë winters, warm somers en relatief lae neerslag. Volgens die Köppen -klimaatklassifikasie, het die stad óf 'n subtropiese hooglandklimaat, afhangende van watter variant van die stelsel gebruik word (Cwb) of 'n warm, somer, vogtige kontinentale klimaat (Dwb), ongewoon maar nie ongewoon by 35 ° N. Met 'n lae neerslag is dit egter meer soortgelyk aan die klimaat van Turkye wat in hierdie kategorie val. [35] [36] Die gemiddelde temperatuur van 24 uur in die stad wissel van -0,9 ° C (30,3 ° F) in Desember tot 21,1 ° C (70,1 ° F) in Julie. As gevolg van die relatiewe droogheid en hoogte, is die gemiddelde daaglikse temperatuurvariasie meer as 25 ° F (14 ° C) in elke maand en 30 ° F (17 ° C) 'n groot deel van die jaar. Die stad kry gewoonlik tussen November en April ses tot agt sneeuvalle per jaar. Die swaarste reënval kom in Julie en Augustus voor, met die koms van die Noord -Amerikaanse moesson.

Klimaatdata vir Santa Fe, New Mexico (1981–2010 normaal), hoogte 2194 m
Maand Jan Feb Mrt Apr Mei Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Des Jaar
Rekord hoë ° F (° C) 65
(18)
73
(23)
77
(25)
84
(29)
96
(36)
99
(37)
99
(37)
96
(36)
94
(34)
87
(31)
75
(24)
65
(18)
99
(37)
Gemiddelde maksimum ° F (° C) 55.7
(13.2)
61.8
(16.6)
69.6
(20.9)
77.4
(25.2)
85.0
(29.4)
94.0
(34.4)
94.2
(34.6)
91.4
(33.0)
87.2
(30.7)
79.1
(26.2)
67.2
(19.6)
56.2
(13.4)
95.4
(35.2)
Gemiddelde hoë ° F (° C) 43.5
(6.4)
48.2
(9.0)
55.9
(13.3)
64.7
(18.2)
74.2
(23.4)
83.5
(28.6)
85.9
(29.9)
83.4
(28.6)
77.7
(25.4)
66.5
(19.2)
53.1
(11.7)
43.2
(6.2)
65.0
(18.3)
Daaglikse gemiddelde ° F (° C) 30.5
(−0.8)
34.9
(1.6)
41.0
(5.0)
48.5
(9.2)
57.6
(14.2)
66.5
(19.2)
70.1
(21.2)
68.4
(20.2)
62.1
(16.7)
51.0
(10.6)
38.9
(3.8)
30.3
(−0.9)
50.0
(10.0)
Gemiddelde lae ° F (° C) 17.5
(−8.1)
21.5
(−5.8)
26.1
(−3.3)
32.3
(0.2)
41.0
(5.0)
49.4
(9.7)
54.4
(12.4)
53.3
(11.8)
46.5
(8.1)
35.5
(1.9)
24.6
(−4.1)
17.4
(−8.1)
35.0
(1.7)
Gemiddelde minimum ° F (° C) 2.2
(−16.6)
5.9
(−14.5)
12.5
(−10.8)
19.5
(−6.9)
28.1
(−2.2)
39.2
(4.0)
47.5
(8.6)
46.2
(7.9)
35.1
(1.7)
22.5
(−5.3)
9.4
(−12.6)
1.2
(−17.1)
−4.1
(−20.1)
Rekord lae ° F (° C) −14
(−26)
−24
(−31)
−6
(−21)
10
(−12)
19
(−7)
28
(−2)
37
(3)
36
(2)
26
(−3)
5
(−15)
−12
(−24)
−17
(−27)
−24
(−31)
Gemiddelde neerslag duim (mm) 0.60
(15)
0.53
(13)
0.94
(24)
0.77
(20)
0.94
(24)
1.29
(33)
2.33
(59)
2.23
(57)
1.54
(39)
1.33
(34)
0.85
(22)
0.83
(21)
14.18
(360)
Gemiddelde sneeuval duim (cm) 4.0
(10)
2.9
(7.4)
4.4
(11)
0.4
(1.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.0
(2.5)
2.3
(5.8)
8.0
(20)
23
(58)
Gemiddelde neerslagdae (≥ 0,01 in) 3.4 3.7 4.7 4.0 4.7 5.6 9.6 10.3 6.3 5.2 4.0 4.2 65.7
Gemiddelde sneeu dae (≥ 0,1 in) 1.9 1.5 1.3 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.8 2.2 8.4
Bron 1: NOAA [37] [38]
Bron 2: WRCC [39] (slegs gemiddelde maksimum en gemiddelde min data)

Die Spanjaarde het die stad ingelê volgens die "Laws of the Indies", stadsbeplanningsreëls en verordeninge wat in 1573 deur koning Philip II ingestel is. Die fundamentele beginsel was dat die stad rondom 'n sentrale plein aangelê word. Aan die noordekant was die paleis van die goewerneurs, terwyl in die ooste die kerk was wat later die katedraalbasiliek van die heilige Franciscus van Assisi geword het.

'N Belangrike styl wat by die beplanning van die stad geïmplementeer is, was die stralende rooster van strate in die sentrale Plaza. Baie was smal en het klein steegpaaie ingesluit, maar elkeen het geleidelik saamgesmelt in die meer toevallige paaie van die landbou-omtrekgebiede. Namate die stad gedurende die 19de eeu gegroei het, het die boustyle ook ontwikkel, sodat die eklektiese aard van die geboue in 1912 na 'Anywhere USA' laat lyk het. [40] Die stadsregering het besef dat die ekonomiese agteruitgang, wat meer as twintig jaar tevore begin het met die spoorweg weswaarts en die federale regering Fort Marcy gesluit het, omgedraai kan word deur die bevordering van toerisme.

Om hierdie doel te bereik, het die stad die idee geskep om 'n verenigde boustyl op te lê - die Spaanse Pueblo Revival -voorkoms, wat gebaseer was op werk wat gedoen is om die paleis van die goewerneurs te herstel. Die bronne vir hierdie styl kom uit die vele kenmerkende eienskappe van die plaaslike argitektuur: vigas (growwe, blootgestelde balke wat deur steunmure uitsteek en dus buite sowel as binne die gebou sigbaar is) en kanale (reënuitstortings in kort muurskermwande om plat dakke gesny), kenmerke wat geleen is by baie ou adobe-huise en kerke wat baie jare tevore gebou is en in die Pueblos gevind is, tesame met die aardgetinte voorkoms (weergegee in pleisterwerk) van die ou buitekant van Adobe.

Na 1912 word hierdie styl amptelik: alle geboue moet met hierdie elemente gebou word. Teen 1930 was daar 'n uitbreiding na die "territoriale", 'n styl van die voor-staatskaping, wat die toevoeging van portales (groot, bedekte stoepe) en witgeverfde venster- en deur-voorkant (en soms ook terrakotta-teëls op skuins dakke, maar met plat dakke wat steeds oorheers). Die stad het 'anders' geword. "In die gejaag na pueblofy" [41] Santa Fe het die stad egter 'n groot deel van sy argitektoniese geskiedenis en eklektisisme verloor. Onder die argitekte wat die naaste aan hierdie nuwe styl gekoppel is, is T. Charles Gaastra en John Gaw Meem.

By an ordinance passed in 1957, new and rebuilt buildings, especially those in designated historic districts, must exhibit a Spanish Territorial or Pueblo style of architecture, with flat roofs and other features suggestive of the area's traditional adobe construction. However, many contemporary houses in the city are built from lumber, concrete blocks, and other common building materials, but with stucco surfaces (sometimes referred to as "faux-dobe", pronounced as one word: "foe-dough-bee") reflecting the historic style.

In a September 2003 report by Angelou Economics, it was determined that Santa Fe should focus its economic development efforts in the following seven industries: Arts and Culture, Design, Hospitality, Conservation Technologies, Software Development, Publishing and New Media, and Outdoor Gear and Apparel. Three secondary targeted industries for Santa Fe to focus development in are health care, retiree services, and food & beverage. Angelou Economics recognized three economic signs that Santa Fe's economy was at risk of long-term deterioration. These signs were a lack of business diversity which tied the city too closely to fluctuations in tourism and the government sector the beginnings of urban sprawl, as a result of Santa Fe County growing faster than the city, meaning people will move farther outside the city to find land and lower costs for housing and an aging population coupled with a rapidly shrinking population of individuals under 45 years old, making Santa Fe less attractive to business recruits. The seven industries recommended by the report "represent a good mix for short-, mid-, and long-term economic cultivation." [42]

City of Santa Fe Executive Branch [43]
Burgemeester Alan Webber
Mayor Pro-Tem Peter Ives
City manager Brian Snyder
City attorney Kelley Brennan (interim) [44]
City clerk Yolanda Y. Vigil, CMC
Municipal Judge Ann Yalman
Chief of police Patrick Gallagher [45]
Fire chief Erik Litzenberg
City councilors Signe Lindel, Renee Villareal, Peter Ives, Joseph Maestas, Carmichael Domiguez, Christopher Rivera, Ronald S. Trujillo, Michael Harris

The city of Santa Fe is a charter city. [46] It is governed by a mayor-council system. The city is divided into four electoral districts, each represented by two councilors. Councilors are elected to staggered four-year terms and one councilor from each district is elected every two years. [46] : Article VI

The municipal judgeship is an elected position and a requirement of the holder is that they be a member of the state bar. The judge is elected to four-year terms. [46] : Article VII

The mayor is the chief executive officer of the city and is a member of the governing body. The mayor has numerous powers and duties, and while previously the mayor could only vote when there was a tie among the city council, the city charter was amended by referendum in 2014 to allow the mayor to vote on all matters in front of the council. Starting in 2018, the position of mayor will be a full-time professional paid position within city government. [46] : Article V Day-to-day operations of the municipality are undertaken by the city manager's office. [46] : Article VIII

Federal operations Edit

The Joseph M. Montoya Federal Building and Post Office serves as an office for U.S. federal government operations. It also contains the primary United States Postal Service post office in the city. [47] Other post offices in the Santa Fe city limits include Coronado, [48] De Vargas Mall, [49] and Santa Fe Place Mall. [50] The U.S. Courthouse building, constructed in 1889, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. [51]

The city is well known as a center for arts that reflect the multicultural character of the city it has been designated as a UNESCO Creative City in Design, Crafts and Folk Art. [52]

In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS MoneyWatch en U.S. News & World Report. [53] [54]

Visual arts Edit

Canyon Road, east of the Plaza, has the highest concentration of art galleries in the city, and is a major destination for international collectors, tourists and locals. The Canyon Road galleries showcase a wide array of contemporary, Southwestern, indigenous American, and experimental art, in addition to Russian, Taos Masters, and Native American pieces.

Since its opening in 1995, SITE Santa Fe has been committed to supporting new developments in contemporary art, encouraging artistic exploration, and expanding traditional museum experiences. Launched in 1995 to organize the only international biennial of contemporary art in the United States, SITE Santa Fe has drawn global attention. The biennials are on par with such renowned exhibitions as the Whitney Biennial and the Venice Biennale. [55]

Santa Fe contains a lively contemporary art scene, with Meow Wolf as its main art collective. Backed by author George R. R. Martin, [56] Meow Wolf opened an elaborate art installation space, called House of Eternal Return, in 2016. [57]

There are many outdoor sculptures, including many statues of Francis of Assisi, and several other holy figures, such as Kateri Tekakwitha. The styles run the whole spectrum from Baroque to Post-modern.

Literature Edit

Media Edit

Santa Fe's daily newspaper is the Santa Fe New Mexican and each Friday, it publishes Pasatiempo, its long-running calendar and commentary on arts and events. The Magazine has been the arts magazine of Santa Fe since its founding by Guy Cross in 1992. It publishes critical reviews and profiles New Mexico based artists monthly. Each Wednesday the alternative weekly newspaper, the Santa Fe Reporter, publishes information on the arts and culture of Santa Fe.

Videospeletjies Redigeer

The 2006 racing video game Need For Speed: Carbon has an unused part of its Palmont City setting called San Juan, which you briefly play in, in the tutorial for the game's career mode. The San Juan setting is very loosely based on Santa Fe. It has New Mexico flags all over the roads. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Music, dance, and opera Edit

Performance Santa Fe, formerly the Santa Fe Concert Association, is the oldest presenting organization in Santa Fe. Founded in 1937, Performance Santa Fe brings celebrated and legendary musicians as well as some of the world's greatest dancers and actors to the city year-round. [59] The Santa Fe Opera stages its productions between late June and late August each year. The city also hosts the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival which is held at about the same time, mostly in the St. Francis Auditorium and in the Lensic Theater. Also in July and August, the Santa Fe Desert Chorale holds its summer festival. Santa Fe has its own professional ballet company, Aspen Santa Fe Ballet, which performs in both cities and tours nationally and internationally. Santa Fe is also home to internationally acclaimed Flamenco dancer's María Benítez Institute for Spanish Arts which offers programs and performance in Flamenco, Spanish Guitar and similar arts year round. Other notable local figures include the National Dance Institute of New Mexico and German New Age musician Deuter.

Museums Redigeer

Santa Fe has many museums located near the downtown Plaza:

    – collections of modern and contemporary Southwestern art – contemporary Native American arts with political aspects – devoted to the work of O'Keeffe and others whom she influenced – located behind the Palace of the Governors – a contemporary art space

Several other museums are located in the area known as Museum Hill: [60]

    – folk art from around the world – Native American arts – Native American art and history
  • Museum of Spanish Colonial Art – Tradition arts from the Spanish-colonial era to contemporary times. [61]

Sport Redigeer

The New Mexico Style were an American Basketball Association franchise founded in 2005, but reformed in Texas for the 2007–8 season as the El Paso S'ol (which folded without playing an ABA game in their new city). The Santa Fe Roadrunners were a North American Hockey League team, but moved to Kansas to become the Topeka Roadrunners. Santa Fe's rodeo, the Rodeo De Santa Fe, is held annually the last week of June. [62] In May 2012 Santa Fe became the home of the Santa Fe Fuego of the Pecos League of Professional Baseball Clubs. They play their home games at Fort Marcy Park. Horse racing events were held at The Downs at Santa Fe from 1971 until 1997.

Santa Fe has had an association with science and technology since 1943 when the town served as the gateway to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a 45-minute drive from the city. In 1984, the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) was founded to research complex systems in the physical, biological, economic, and political sciences. It has hosted such Nobel laureates as Murray Gell-Mann (physics), Philip Warren Anderson (physics), and Kenneth Arrow (economics). The National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR) [63] was founded in 1994 to focus on research at the intersection among bioscience, computing, and mathematics. In the 1990s and 2000s several technology companies formed to commercialize technologies from LANL, SFI and NCGR.

Due to the presence of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories and the Santa Fe Institute, and because of its attractiveness for visitors and an established tourist industry, Santa Fe routinely serves as a host to a variety of scientific meetings, summer schools, and public lectures, such as International q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, Santa Fe Institute's Complex Systems Summer School, [64] and LANL's Center For Nonlinear Studies [65] Annual Conference.

Touch the country [of New Mexico] and you will never be the same again.

Tourism is a major element of the Santa Fe economy, with visitors attracted year-round by the climate and related outdoor activities (such as skiing in years of adequate snowfall hiking in other seasons) plus cultural activities of the city and the region. Tourism information is provided by the convention and visitor bureau [67] and the chamber of commerce. [68]

Most tourist activity takes place in the historic downtown, especially on and around the Plaza, a one-block square adjacent to the Palace of the Governors, the original seat of New Mexico's territorial government since the time of Spanish colonization. Other areas include "Museum Hill", the site of the major art museums of the city as well as the Santa Fe International Folk Art Market, which takes place each year during the second full weekend of July. The Canyon Road arts area with its galleries is also a major attraction for locals and visitors alike.

Some visitors find Santa Fe particularly attractive around the second week of September when the aspens in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains turn yellow and the skies are clear and blue. This is also the time of the annual Fiestas de Santa Fe, celebrating the "reconquering" of Santa Fe by Don Diego de Vargas, a highlight of which is the burning Zozobra ("Old Man Gloom"), a 50-foot (15 m) marionette.

Popular day trips in the Santa Fe area include locations such as the town of Taos, about 70 mi (113 km) north of Santa Fe. The historic Bandelier National Monument and the Valles Caldera can be found about 30 mi (48 km) away. Santa Fe's ski resort, Ski Santa Fe, is about 16 mi (26 km) northeast of the city. Chimayo is also nearby and many locals complete the annual pilgrimage to the Santuario de Chimayo.

Distrikte Redigeer

Historiese bevolking
Sensus Pop.
18504,846
18604,635 −4.4%
18704,756 2.6%
18806,635 39.5%
18906,185 −6.8%
19005,603 −9.4%
19105,073 −9.5%
19207,326 44.4%
193011,176 52.6%
194020,325 81.9%
195027,998 37.8%
196034,394 22.8%
197041,167 19.7%
198048,053 16.7%
199052,303 8.8%
200061,109 16.8%
201067,947 11.2%
2019 (est.)84,683 [4] 24.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [70]

As of the 2010 census, there were 67,947 people living in the city. The racial makeup of the city residents was 78.9% White, 2.1% Native American 1.4% Asian and 3.7% from two or more races. A total of 48.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 46.2% of the population. [71]

As of the census [72] of 2000, there were 62,203 people, 27,569 households, and 14,969 families living in the city. The population density was 1,666.1 people per square mile (643.4/km 2 ). There were 30,533 housing units at an average density of 817.8 per square mile (315.8/km 2 ). According to the Census Bureau's 2006 American Community Survey, the racial makeup of the city was 75% White, 2.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 16.9% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 44.5% of the population.

There were 27,569 households, out of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.7% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals living alone, and 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.90.

The age distribution was 20.3% under 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 89.0 men.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,392, and the median income for a family was $49,705. Men had a median income of $32,373 versus $27,431 for women. The per capita income for the city was $25,454. About 9.5% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

  • Bukhara, Uzbekistan (1988)
  • Hidalgo del Parral, Mexico (1984)
  • Holguín, Cuba (2001)
  • Icheon, South Korea (2013)
  • Livingstone, Zambia (2012)
  • San Miguel de Allende, Mexico (1992)
  • Santa Fe, Spain (1983)
  • Sorrento, Italy (1995)
  • Tsuyama, Japan (1992)
  • Zhangjiajie, China (2009)

Air Edit

Santa Fe is served by the Santa Fe Municipal Airport. Since June 2009, American Eagle has provided regional jet service to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. In November 2009, the airline expanded the Dallas service and added service to Phoenix. Since December 2012, Great Lakes Airlines has offered twice daily flight service between Santa Fe and Denver. [74] Passengers may also fly into the Albuquerque International Sunport and connect via ground transportation. [75] [76]

Road Edit

Santa Fe is located on I-25. In addition, U.S. Routes 84 and 285 pass through the city, along St. Francis Drive. NM-599 forms a limited-access road bypass around the northwestern part of the city.

In its earliest alignment (1926–1937), U.S. Route 66 ran through Santa Fe. [77]

Openbare vervoer Redigeer

Santa Fe Trails, run by the city, operates a number of bus routes within the city during business hours and also provides connections to regional transit.

The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter rail service operating in Valencia, Bernalillo (including Albuquerque), Sandoval, and Santa Fe Counties. In Santa Fe County, the service uses 18 miles (29 km) of new right-of-way connecting the BNSF Railway's old transcontinental mainline to existing right-of-way in Santa Fe used by the Santa Fe Southern Railway. Santa Fe is currently served by four stations, Santa Fe Depot, South Capitol, Zia Road, and Santa Fe County/NM 599.

New Mexico Park and Ride, a division of the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and the North Central Regional Transit District operate primarily weekday commuter coach/bus service to Santa Fe from Torrance, Rio Arriba, Taos, San Miguel and Los Alamos Counties in addition to shuttle services within Santa Fe connecting major government activity centers. [78] [79] Prior to the Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe, Park and Ride operated commuter coach service between Albuquerque and Santa Fe.

Rail Edit

Along with the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, a commuter rail line serving the metropolitan areas of Albuquerque and Santa Fe, the city or its environs are served by two other railroads. The Santa Fe Southern Railway, now mostly a tourist rail experience but also carrying freight, operates excursion services out of Santa Fe as far as Lamy, 15 miles (24 km) to the southeast. The Santa Fe Southern line is one of the United States' few rails with trails. Lamy is also served by Amtrak's daily Suidwes Hoof for train service to Chicago, Los Angeles, and intermediate points. Passengers transiting Lamy may use a special connecting coach/van service to reach Santa Fe.

Trails Edit

Multi-use bicycle, pedestrian, and equestrian trails are increasingly popular in Santa Fe, for both recreation and commuting. These include the Dale Ball Trails, a 24.4-mile (39.3 km) network starting within two miles (3.2 km) of the Santa Fe Plaza the long Santa Fe Rail Trail to Lamy the Atalaya Trail up Atalaya Mountain and the Santa Fe River Trail. Santa Fe is the terminus of three National Historic Trails: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail, the Old Spanish National Historic Trail, and the Santa Fe National Historic Trail.

Santa Fe has three public high schools:

Public schools in Santa Fe are operated by Santa Fe Public Schools, with the exception of the New Mexico School for the Arts, which is a public/private partnership comprising the NMSA-Art Institute, a nonprofit art educational institution, and NMSA-Charter School, an accredited New Mexico state charter high school.

The city's institutions of higher education include St. John's College, a liberal arts college the Institute of American Indian Arts, a tribal college for Native American arts Southwestern College, a graduate school for counseling and art therapy and Santa Fe Community College.

The city has six private college preparatory high schools: Santa Fe Waldorf School, [80] St. Michael's High School, Desert Academy, [81] New Mexico School For The Deaf, Santa Fe Secondary School, Santa Fe Preparatory School, and the Mandela International Magnet School. The Santa Fe Indian School is an off-reservation school for Native Americans. Santa Fe is also the location of the New Mexico School for the Arts, a public-private partnership, arts-focused high school. The city has many private elementary schools as well, including Little Earth School, [82] Santa Fe International Elementary School, [83] Rio Grande School, Desert Montessori School, [84] La Mariposa Montessori, The Tara School, Fayette Street Academy, The Santa Fe Girls' School, The Academy for the Love of Learning, and Santa Fe School for the Arts and Sciences.


New Mexico - HISTORY

The Albuquerque Historical Society (AHS) is a non-profit, membership organization of residents interested in promoting and preserving all matters relating to the history of Albuquerque, New Mexico and the surrounding communities. Founded in 1947 as the Old Town Historical Society, it originally focused on efforts to preserve the historic character of Old Town Albuquerque. Currently, AHS sponsors a series of monthly Programme and provides Educators with teacher resource guides. We also maintain a Speakers Bureau for primary and secondary schools, host a repository of Source Documents for education and research and honor individuals or group with Albuquerque History Accolades. To learn more about us visit our Ongeveer bladsy.

Downtown Albuquerque Walking Tours Suspended

The Albuquerque Historical Society Downtown Albuquerque Walking Tours have been suspended until further notice. Please check back for information on resumption of this service.

June AHS Program – Life of Mrs. Carnis Salisbury: Albuquerque Fair Housing and Civil Rights Pioneer

On June 20, 2021 at 2 pm, Brian Eagan, Attorney for the Albuquerque Housing Authority will present “Life of Mrs. Carnis Salisbury: Albuquerque Fair Housing and Civil Rights Pioneer.” Brian will be speaking about the remarkable life and lasting legacy of Mrs. Carnis Hightower Salisbury, an Albuquerque Fair Housing and Civil Rights Pioneer. We will learn about her upbringing, formal education and career in the federal government, her personal activism as a leader in the NAACP and work as a teacher. We will learn how she worked her whole life to help people overcome ignorance, racial discrimination and segregation, and to affirmatively further fair housing opportunities and equal employment opportunities for all people. We will learn how she helped lead the way forward to changing laws in our city and nation, then helped to educate local people, including local attorneys, on how to enforce those laws to ensure that equal justice under law would be a reality in our city.. The program will be live-streamed on the AHS Facebook bladsy. Lees Meer

June 2021 Online & In-Person New Mexico History & Culture Opportunities

Most State of New Mexico museums and historic sites are now open and metro Albuquerque museums are open on a limited basis. However, m any museums and history organizations are still providing free lectures & programs via Zoom, YouTube or the Facebook page of the organization. View the June 2021 Online & In-Person New Mexico History & Culture Opportunities web page compiled as a volunteer effort by Janet Saiers

Become a Member of the Albuquerque Historical Society

We welcome new members of all ages. It is not necessary to be a historian or have prior knowledge of Albuquerque or New Mexico history. Members receive advance notice via e-mail about forthcoming events sponsored by the AHS, and other societies interested in history, plus opportunities to participate in community and educational outreach activities. To become a member or to renew your current membership, visit our AHS Membership bladsy.

Past AHS Presentations Available for On-Line Viewing

The Albuquerque Historical Society provides videos of scheduled program presentations that are live-streamed to the Society’s Facebook Page. If viewed live, the Facebook live stream event allows those who are unable to attend the opportunity to participate in the question and answer session following the event. The video presentations are permanently available in the “Videos” section of the AHS Facebook page as well as embedded in the appropriate AHS Program pages.To see a list of AHS program videos, visit our AHS Program Videos bladsy.

A History Lover’s Guide to Albuquerque available for online purchase

Signed copies of AHS Board Member Roger Zimmerman’s book, A History Lover’s Guide to Albuquerque are available to purchase on the AHS Website. Shipping is free and payment is via PayPal, but a PayPal account is not required if you wish to use a credit card. Please allow about a week for shipping. Roger will also be selling copies at AHS and other functions (credit cards accepted). Roger is donating a portion of proceeds for AHS online and personal sales to the Albuquerque Historical Society.
This book goes beyond the traditional guidebook to offer a historical journal through an area rich with diverse cultures and their fascinating past. Major museums, libraries, ethnic centers, historical displays and special historical treasures will be discussed. It is intended that this guide will help the reader find satisfaction in either visiting or exploring topics of choice.

Albuquerque History Accolades

The Albuquerque Historical Society Accolades Program recognizes the contributions of individuals, businesses, groups, and public or private institutions whose efforts bring awareness to and/or contribute to our knowledge of the broad patterns of Albuquerque’s history with an emphasis on recently occurring commemorative events. The criteria for receiving an AHS Accolade is broad and includes, but not limited to, recognizing institutions or groups that sponsor events to celebrate or raise awareness of Albuquerque history and individuals who raise awareness of Albuquerque history through talks, lectures, or other actions. To find out how to suggest a History Accolade or to view those awarded, visit our Albuquerque History Accolades bladsy.

Journalist Elaine Briseño – Investigates Albuquerque History

Investigative Journalist Elaine D. Briseño has been recognized by the Albuquerque Historical Society for an Albuquerque History Accolade. She has objectively worked towards uncovering the hidden truths and facts about some of Albuquerque’s little known history. Elaine has demonstrated that she possesses the knowledge, patience and persistence to find the facts on a topic through interviews and research. Her widely disseminated articles have promoted and fostered a deeper understanding of Albuquerque and its history. Lees meer.

Vista Larga Historic District Booklet

The Vista Larga Mid-Century Modern Residential Historic District has recently created a booklet that provides a brief history of the neighborhood from its platting in 1947 to 1967, the year when most of the homes were completed. It describes how the subdivision exemplifies Albuquerque’s post-war housing development and its place in the city’s history. The booklet also describes the architectural movement known as “Mid-Century Modern” which includes house-styles that became extremely popular in the second half of the twentieth century, including Ranch House, Contemporary and International styles. A grant from the City of Albuquerque’s Urban Enhancement Trust Fund was used to produce the booklet. The Albuquerque Historical Society supported the Vista Larga Historic District application for the grant and serves as the fiscal agent for the grant. However, no AHS funds were used in its production. To view this excellent booklet, you can download it hier. You can also download the Vista Larga Walking Tour Map.

AHS Member Participation Opportunity

The Albuquerque Historical Society often receives questions from people about Albuquerque history in general or as it relates to their personal lives. AHS volunteers reply to these questions with answers or referrals to other individuals and organizations that may have answers. AHS is inviting its members to help reply to such questions if they choose. If you are a member of AHS and would like to volunteer to help respond to AHS website inquiries, see our Member Participation on AHS Website Inquiries bladsy.


Early History of Native Americans in New Mexico

The names of the New Mexico tribes included the Apache, Comanche, Jemez, Kiowa, Manso, Navaho, Pecos, Ute, Pueblo and Zuni.

The Clovis-Paleo Indians later discovered the eastern plains of New Mexico, the same expansive romping grounds of the dinosaurs around 10,000 BC The river valleys west of their hunting grounds later flooded with refugees from the declining Four Corners Anasazi cultures.

Sometime between AD 1130 and 1180, the Anasazi drifted from their high-walled towns to evolve into today's Pueblo Indians, so named by early Spanish explorers because they lived in land-based communities much like the villages, or pueblos, of home. Culturally similar American Indians, the Mogollon, lived in today's Gila National Forest.

The Anasazi occupied the region where present day Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado meet. They were among the most highly civilized of the Native American cultures. They raised corn and cotton, and tamed wild turkeys, using the meat for food and the feathers for clothing. In the winter, the Anasazi wore garments fashioned from turkey feathers.

The Anasazi were cliff dwellers and built many apartment houses out of closely fitted stones. One such building, the Pueblo Bonito, had nearly 800 rooms.

Around 1500 AD, the Navaho and Apache tribes came to the New Mexico region from the north. Utes and Comanches entered the area a few years later.