10 dinge wat u dalk nie van Lyndon B. Johnson weet nie

10 dinge wat u dalk nie van Lyndon B. Johnson weet nie


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1. Hy het sy loopbaan as onderwyser begin.

Johnson is in 1908 in Stonewall, Texas, gebore as die oudste van vyf kinders. Alhoewel sy pa in die staatswetgewer gedien het, het hy geld verloor deur spekulasie in katoen, en die gesin het dikwels gesukkel om bymekaar te kom. Die jong Johnson dryf 'n paar jaar na die hoërskool, maar skryf in 1927 aan by die Southwest Texas State Teachers College. Gedurende sy tyd het hy daar geleer in 'n grootliks Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse skool in die stad Cotulla in die suide van Texas, waar hy bekend was vir sy energie, toewyding en aanmoediging van sy minderbevoorregte studente. Alhoewel Johnson binnekort sy aandag op politiek sou vestig en in 1931 as 'n kongreshulp na Washington sou gaan, het sy ervaring as onderwyser 'n blywende indruk gelaat.

2. In die wedloop om die Amerikaanse senaat in 1948 wen Johnson die Demokratiese voorverkiesing in Texas met slegs 87 stemme, uit ongeveer 988 000 stemme wat uitgebring is.

Johnson het hard gewerk en vinnig opgestaan ​​en 'n spesiale verkiesing in die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers in 1937 gewen toe 'n kongreslid in sy distrik in sy amp sterf. In 1941 het hy in 'n ander spesiale verkiesing verkiesbaar geword vir die Amerikaanse senaat, maar verloor. Hy het in 1948 weer probeer en in die Demokratiese voorverkiesing teen die gewilde Texas -goewerneur, Coke Stevenson, afgestaan. (Destyds was daar so min Republikeine in Texas dat die wen van die primêre basies beteken om verkies te word.) In 'n wedloop wat volop was met kiesersbedrog aan beide kante, het Johnson met 'n vlym dun marge gewen en die spottende bynaam 'Landslide' gekry. Lyndon. ”

3. Johnson se loopbaan het in die senaat gestyg, maar hy is amper in die proses dood.

In 1943 word Johnson die minderheidsleier van die Senaat, en nadat die Demokrate twee jaar later weer beheer oor die senaat gekry het, het hy meerderheidsleier geword. Johnson het uitgeblink deur die senaat -demokrate in 'n verenigde blok te vorm, terwyl hy bekoorlike, vleiende en andersins oortuigende kollegas van beide kante van die gang af was. In die middel van 1955 kry die 49-jarige 'n ernstige hartaanval; hy beskryf dit later as "die ergste wat 'n man kan hê en nog kan lewe." Nadat hy herstel het, het hy opgehou rook, gewig verloor en geleer om 'n paar verantwoordelikhede te delegeer, maar hy het onverpoos voortgegaan met sy agendas, insluitend burgerregte en die Amerikaanse ruimteprogram.

4. Hy was 'n buitestaander in die Kennedy White House.

Nadat hy 'n bittere primêre geveg in 1960 verloor het, het Johnson byna almal geskok deur aan te meld as hardloopmaat van senator John F. Kennedy van Massachusetts. As 'n Protestantse Suidlander en die volmaakte insider in die kongres, het Johnson die kaartjie gebalanseer en Kennedy gehelp om Texas, Louisiana en die Carolinas te verower in sy noue nederlaag van Richard Nixon. Maar Johnson se invloed was beperk as vise -president, aangesien Kennedy se adviseurs (veral sy broer en prokureur -generaal Robert Kennedy) gesorg het dat hy op die kantlyn bly. Tydens die Kubaanse missielkrisis was Johnson byvoorbeeld 'n lid van die groep wat byeengekom het om die president te adviseer, maar is uitgesluit van die vergadering waarop die finale besluit oor die Amerikaanse reaksie geneem is.

5. Johnson se uitdaging - om die amp as president aan te neem en binne dieselfde jaar vir herverkiesing aansoek te doen - was sonder presedent in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

Alles verander op 22 November 1963, toe Kennedy in Dallas vermoor is. Alhoewel sewe Amerikaanse presidensiële oorgange weens dood eerder as verkiesing plaasgevind het, insluitend drie sluipmoorde, het geen president ooit so laat in sy termyn gesterf nie. Toe Air Force One die aand in Washington beland (Johnson is aan boord gesweer), het die nuwe president 'n kort toespraak gehou en gesê: "Ek sal my bes doen - dit is al wat ek kan doen." In die komende dae het Johnson gewerk om die nasionale histerie te kalmeer en het hy deeglik beheer oor die regering geneem, selfs al het hy Kennedy se kabinet en top -assistente gehou om kontinuïteit te bied.

6. Binne maande het hy daarin geslaag om 'n kongres -logjam deur te druk, begin met burgerregte.

Op 27 November 1963 het Lyndon B. Johnson 'n gesamentlike kongresgeleentheid toegespreek en 'n beroep op hulle gedoen om die geheue van die martelaar Kennedy te eer deur die groot wetsontwerp op burgerregte wat tans in kongreskomitees gestop is, te aanvaar. Tydens die voorbereiding van sy toespraak, het Johnson se medewerkers hom gewaarsku dat die wetsontwerp waarskynlik 'n verlore saak is, en dat die strewe daarna sy kans in die volgende verkiesing, minder as 'n jaar later, sou benadeel. Johnson se eenvoudige antwoord - "Wel, waarvoor is die presidentskap nou eintlik?" - sou een van die bekendste aanhalings uit sy loopbaan wees.

7. Johnson was 'n onwaarskynlike kampioen vir burgerregte - wat die mees ingrypende wet op burgerregte sedert heropbou onderteken het.

Skaars sewe maande nadat hy die kongres toegespreek het, sou Johnson die Civil Rights Act van 1964 onderteken, wat diskriminasie op grond van ras, kleur, godsdiens, geslag of nasionale oorsprong verbied, segregasie verbied en voorsiening maak vir die integrasie van skole en ander openbare geriewe. Dat Johnson die president was om so 'n historiese wetsontwerp te aanvaar, lyk ironies: As kongreslid het hy gestem teen elke wetsontwerp op burgerregte wat ooit tussen 1937 en 1956 op die vloer gekom het. Johnson het die rekord in 1957 met 'n knal omgekeer en deurgedruk die eerste wetsontwerp op burgerregte wat sedert 1875 deur die kongres aangeneem is. Hy het in 1960 nog 'n wetsontwerp goedgekeur, maar albei wetsontwerpe was relatief swak in vergelyking met die verreikende magte van die 1964-wet. Nog meer paradoksaal, as 'n Suid -man van sy tyd, het Johnson rassistiese taal gebruik - selfs al het hy Jim Crow -wette in die suide oortref.

8. In Januarie 1964 verklaar hy oorlog teen armoede.

In sy eerste toespraak oor die staatsrede verklaar Johnson 'n 'onvoorwaardelike oorlog' teen armoede in die Verenigde State en kondig aan dat 'ons doel nie net is om die simptome van armoede te verlig nie, maar om dit te genees en veral om dit te voorkom . ” Hy was aan die stuur van wetgewing wat Medicare en Medicaid tot stand bring, die uitbreiding van sosiale sekerheid, die voedselstempelsprogram permanent en die oprigting van Job Corps, die VISTA-program, die federale werkstudieprogram, die Head Start-program en titel I-subsidies vir arm skooldistrikte. Alhoewel die oorlog teen armoede nog lank nie gewen is nie, het die programme wat as deel van Johnson se "Great Society" ingestel is, wel daarin geslaag om ekonomiese ontberings vir miljoene Amerikaners te verminder, en baie bestaan ​​nog steeds.

9. Johnson se vrou, Lady Bird, was die sleutel tot sy sukses.

Claudia Alta Taylor, van kleins af bekend as Lady Bird, trou met Johnson kort nadat sy aan die Universiteit van Texas in Austin gestudeer het, waar sy geskiedenis en joernalistiek bestudeer het. Sy het 'n onmiskenbare aanwins vir sy stygende politieke loopbaan geword, veral nie vanweë haar aansienlike familie -fortuin nie. In 1960 het Lady Bird Johnson ongeveer 30 000 myl op die veldtog afgelê, en Bobby Kennedy sou haar erkenning gee aan die wen van Texas vir die Demokratiese kaartjie. Vier jaar later, nadat haar man die suidelike kiesers kwaad gemaak het deur die Wet op Burgerregte te onderteken, het sy baie van hulle terug gewen met 'n spesiale treintoer, genaamd "Lady Bird Special". (Johnson het uiteindelik sy Republikeinse mededinger, Barry Goldwater, met een van die grootste marges in die geskiedenis verslaan.) As eerste dame was Lady Bird 'n voorstander van die Head Start -opvoedingsprogram, sowel as 'n omgewingsinisiatief wat gemik was op die "verfraaiing" van snelweë, woonbuurte en parke.

10. Die oorlog in Viëtnam het Johnson in depressie gedryf en sy presidentskap tot 'n einde gekom.

Ondanks sy aansienlike prestasies in die binnelandse arena, is Johnson se presidentskap onteenseglik deur die Viëtnam -oorlog bederf. Ondanks veldtogbeloftes om die Amerikaanse betrokkenheid by die konflik, wat tydens president Dwight D. Eisenhower se administrasie begin het en nie onder Kennedy toegeneem het nie, te vergroot, het Johnson die aantal Amerikaanse troepe in Viëtnam aansienlik uitgebrei en hul missie uitgebrei. Teen 1967 het Johnson se gewildheid gedaal, terwyl die groot oorlogskoste sy programme van die Great Society bedreig en inflasie aangewakker het. Terwyl studente -betogers regoor die land dinge sing soos 'Hey, hey, LBJ, hoeveel kinders het jy vandag vermoor?' Johnson was getwyfel oor die oorlog en het na berig word in 'n langdurige depressie verval. In Maart 1968 kondig hy aan dat hy nie herverkiesing wil bekom nie. Nadat sy VP, Hubert Humphrey, 'n noue wedloop met Richard Nixon verloor het, het Johnson in 1969 teruggetrek na sy geliefde boerdery in Texas. Teen die tyd was daar ongeveer 30 000 Amerikaanse soldate in Viëtnam dood. Johnson sou nie die amptelike einde van die konflik sien nie: Hy sterf in Januarie 1973 nadat hy weer 'n hartaanval gekry het.

Kry toegang tot honderde ure historiese video, kommersieel gratis, met HISTORY Vault. Begin vandag met u gratis proeftydperk.


8 feite wat u miskien nie weet oor die Withuis, die tuiste van die president van die VSA nie

Hoeveel weet u van die geskiedenis van die Withuis in Washington DC, wat sedert John Adams in 1800 die tuiste van alle Amerikaanse presidente was (insluitend die huidige president, Donald Trump)? Skryf vir Geskiedenis Ekstra, Historikus van die Withuis, Lindsay M Chervinsky, deel agt verrassende feite oor die beroemde gebou - van hoe dit deur slawe gemaak is tot die jaar toe dit aan die brand geraak het ...

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 27 November 2019 om 15:39

Wanneer en hoe is die Withuis gebou? Hoeveel kamers bevat dit? En hoe word dit so wit gehou? Hier is alles wat u moet weet oor die huis van die Amerikaanse president ...

Verslaafde werkers het gehelp om die Withuis te bou

In 1792 begin die werk van die nuwe president se huis in Washington, DC (uiteindelik herdoop tot die Withuis), op 'n perseel wat deur die eerste Amerikaanse president, George Washington, gekies is. In die volgende agt jaar het 'n mengsel van gratis Afro-Amerikaanse en blanke loonarbeiders, slawe en bekwame vakmanne die Withuis gebou. Hulle het in verskillende posisies gewerk, waaronder basiese arbeiders, opsieners, saagmakers, skrynwerkers, klipwerkers en metselaars.

Sommige van die verslaafdes was in besit van die stadskommissarisse wat onder toesig was van die projek of James Hoban, die argitek. Die oorgrote meerderheid is egter by hul eienaars in Washington, DC, Virginia en Maryland gehuur, wat toe die slawe van die mense in die sak gesteek het. Die konstruksiespanne is gereeld heen en weer tussen die Withuis en die Capitol -boupersele vervoer, afhangende van watter ligging arbeid nodig was of op enige gegewe tydstip beskikbare materiaal gehad het.

Die Withuis is deur die Britse magte aan die brand gesteek

In Augustus 1814 marsjeer Britse magte Washington, DC en verbrand alle openbare geboue as vergelding vir die vernietiging van York [nou Toronto], Kanada, die jaar tevore. Nadat hulle 'n heerlike maaltyd geniet het deur die presidentsvrou Dolley Madison, het die Britse magte die Withuis aan die brand gesteek.

Stedelike legende dui daarop dat 'n reënstorm gekom het en die Withuis gered het. Die waarheid is egter dat die reën die skade eintlik erger gemaak het. Terwyl die nat weer die omliggende geboue verhinder het om aan die brand te raak, het dit byna die mure van die Withuis vernietig. Die klipmure was ongelooflik warm van die vuur en die koue reën het veroorsaak dat hulle vinnig krimp en kraak.

Die kongres het vinnig 'n kommissie aangestel om die skade te ondersoek en die Withuis te herbou. Die ondersoekers het ontdek dat byna alles binne -in vernietig is, behalwe 'n paar potte en panne in die kelderkombuise, maar hul verslag het die omvang van die skade verberg om die heropbou onmiddellik te begin.

Sommige amptenare wou die hoofstad na 'n meer ontwikkelde stad verhuis - soos Philadelphia, New York of Charleston - omdat verblyf, kos en vermaaklikheidsopsies nog steeds redelik beperk was in DC. Verder wou verteenwoordigers van state ver van DC, soos New Hampshire of Georgia, hul reistyd verkort. Hulle het die vernietiging van die Withuis as 'n geleentheid beskou om die hoofstad te verhuis. James Madison en James Monroe was gretig om 'n historiese band met die vorige presidente te handhaaf, en het hulle gehaas om die Withuis presies soos voorheen te herbou. Hulle het selfs dieselfde argitek, James Hoban, gehuur om die opknapping te voltooi.

Elke president het 'n portret in die Withuis

Die portretlokasies volg 'n rowwe patroon; dit is meestal chronologies gerangskik, met enkele uitsonderings. Die portrette van die mees onlangse presidente is in die ingangsportaal van die staatsvloer en strek chronologies met die trap na die woning.

Ander is versprei: George Washington en Theodore Roosevelt is in die East Room, Abraham Lincoln is in die State Dining Room en William Howard Taft in die Blue Room, want dit is waar sy portret geskilder is. Presidente Millard Fillmore en Chester A Arthur word in die East Wing gehang waar gaste binnekom omdat die skilderye so groot is dat dit nie op enige ander muur pas nie. Die meeste van die portrette in die Blue Room is van presidente van Virginia ... en John Adams, wat ek vermoed hom sou ontstel.

Maar die portret van president Lyndon B Johnson het die interessantste plasing. Elke president het 'n redelike groot invloed op die manier waarop hul gelykenis vasgelê word, en as 'n groter lewensgetal sou 'n mens verwag dat Johnson se portret ewe groot sou wees. In plaas daarvan is dit een van die kleinste. Hy het nie 'n verduideliking gelaat waarom hy so 'n beskeie portret aangevra het nie, maar die finale ligging daarvan bied 'n moontlike idee: Johnson se portret hang in die hoek van die ingangsportaal, langs die deur na die staatsete. Daar sou min ander portrette in hierdie ruimte pas, so miskien sou Johnson verseker dat hy altyd 'n prominente plek op die staatsvloer sou behou deur 'n klein portret te kies.

Dit is 'n voortdurende stryd om die mure van die Withuis wit te hou

Dit is geen maklike ding om die Withuis wit te hou nie! Wit wasgoed wat op kalk gebaseer is, is oorspronklik aangebring kort nadat die gebou gebou is om die poreuse sandstene te beskerm. Deur die administrasie van president Jimmy Carter (1977–81), was die verf so dik dat besoekers nie die snybesonderhede bo die vensters en deure, of enige van die pragtige gietstukke, kon sien nie. Die Withuis het 'n beduidende eksterne opknapping ondergaan om die baie verflae te verwyder, wat 20 jaar geneem het en eers voltooi is deur die administrasie van president William 'Bill' Clinton. Toe dit klaar was, is meer as 45 lae verf van die buitemure verwyder.

Baie diere het in die Withuis gewoon

Die meeste mense is bekend met die honde wat in die Withuis gewoon het - soos Bo en Sunny Obama, of president George W Bush en Scottish terriërs van presidentsvrou Laura Bush, Barney en mej Beazley. Maar daar was 'n menagerie van diere wat die terrein tuisgemaak het. President Woodrow Wilson het 'n trop skape by die South Lawn verwelkom en hulle het hul wol aan die Rooi Kruis geskenk om uniforms vir soldate tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog te skep. Een besonder avontuurlustige ram met die naam Hi het 'n bietjie probleme veroorsaak toe hy herhaaldelik by die Oval Office ingebreek het.

John F Kennedy se dogter, Caroline, het 'n troeteldierponie gehad met die naam Macaroni First Lady Grace Coolidge het 'n wasbeer met die naam Rebecca en president William H Taft het 'n koei, Pauline Wayne, wat voor die Ou Uitvoerende Kantoorgebou rondgedwaal het. Miskien die beste van alles, Alice Roosevelt (die dogter van Theodore Roosevelt) het 'n kousband met die naam Emily Spinach wat sy in haar beursie rondgedra het en as 'n gesprekstuk by partytjies uitgetrek het.

Die Withuis -kompleks is bedrieglik groot

Alhoewel die gebou twee verdiepings van die straat af lyk, is daar eintlik ses verdiepings. Daar is drie verdiepings bo die grond (die staatsvloer en twee verdiepings vir die woning) en drie verdiepings onder die grond. Alhoewel baie van die staatsvloer en koshuisuitleg dieselfde gebly het sedert die bou daarvan, het baie ander dele van die Withuis dramaties verander. As u vandag by die Withuis ingaan, sou u waarskynlik op die grondvloer of die eerste van die keldervloere ingaan. Tot 1901 was hierdie vloer hoofsaaklik 'n werkruimte. In plaas van die China -kamer, die Vermeil -kamer, die biblioteek en die diplomatieke ontvangskamer, sou daar 'n kombuis, 'n waskamer, 'n stoorplek vir kos en skottelgoed gewees het, en slaapplekke vir die slawe of gratis bediendes. Die kelder was berug klam en gereeld besmet met ongediertes en knaagdiere.

Daar is ook ander ruimtes wat vir die geskiedenis verlore gegaan het. Die Withuis het 'n reeks stalle gehad om die president se perde, waens, koetse en bruidegom te huisves. Die laaste en mees uitgebreide stal is in 1909 omskep in 'n motorhuis. Die solder het ook baie opknappings ondergaan. In die beginjare is dit gebruik vir opberging, slaapplek vir gratis of verslaafde bediendes en 'n skuilplek vir die presidente se kinders. In 1913 het First Lady Ellen Wilson kamers en 'n skilderateljee bygevoeg vir haar eie privaat gebruik. Tydens die Coolidge -administrasie het ingenieurs probleme met die dakstruktuur ontdek. Hulle het 'n sonkamer (nou die solarium), groter gaste- en dienskamers en 'n nuwe staal- en betondak aangebring.

Die Withuis se terrein was eens oop vir almal

Toe president John Adams op 1 November 1800 by die Withuis intrek, was daar geen heining of hek nie, en die terrein was oop vir voetgangers. President Thomas Jefferson het 'n heining bygevoeg wat die terrein toegemaak het, maar dit was oop vir algemeen gebruik. In 1873 begin president Ulysses S Grant die terrein met sonsondergang sluit vir ekstra veiligheid en in 1893 sluit president Grover Cleveland die South Grounds, tipies die eerste gesin se tuin, nadat vreemdelinge 'n foto van sy jong dogter, Esther, probeer neem het. Die Noord- en Suidterrein is op aanbeveling van die Amerikaanse geheime diens permanent tydens Calvin Coolidge se presidentskap gesluit.

Die president se kabinet het nie altyd 'n tuiste in die Withuis gehad nie

Elke president het 'n kabinet geraadpleeg sedert president George Washington die eerste volledige kabinetsvergadering op 26 November 1791 belê het. Terwyl president John Adams die eerste in die Withuis was, was president Thomas Jefferson die eerste wat met sy kabinet in die Withuis vergader het en het die afdelingsekretarisse bymekaargemaak in sy privaat studeerkamer op die eerste verdieping (nou die State Dining Room).

Teen die tyd van die burgeroorlog het die president se studie na die tweede verdieping verhuis en Abraham Lincoln het met die sekretarisse in sy kantoor in die suidoostelike hoek van die tweede verdieping (nou die Lincoln-slaapkamer) vergader. Theodore Roosevelt het die West Wing gebou om meer werkruimte vir sy personeel te bied en om sy groot gesin meer ruimte op die tweede verdieping van die oorspronklike gebou te gee. In 1909 brei president Taft die West Wing uit, voeg die ovaalkantoor en 'n amptelike kabinetsaal by. Die ovaalkantoor is tydens die presidentskap van president Franklin D Roosevelt na die huidige plek verskuif. Sedertdien het die meeste kabinette die kabinetsaal vir amptelike kabinetsvergaderings gebruik en verkies om individuele afdelingsekretarisse in die ovaalkantoor te ontmoet.

Lindsay M Chervinsky, PhD is 'n historikus van die Withuis aan die White House Historical Association, 'n nie-winsgewende organisasie wat hom toespits op die bewaring en deel van die geskiedenis van die Withuis. Sy behaal PhD in vroeë Amerikaanse geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Davis, en haar boek, Die kabinet: George Washington en die skepping van 'n Amerikaanse instelling, word in April 2020 deur Harvard University Press gepubliseer.


Lady Bird Johnson, Savvy First Lady

Robert Knudsen, perskantoor van die Withuis (WHPO) / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain

Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Taylor was hoogs intelligent en suksesvol. Sy behaal agtereenvolgens twee baccalaureusgrade aan die Universiteit van Texas in 1933 en 1934. Sy het 'n uitstekende sakeonderneming gehad en was die eienaar van 'n radio- en televisiestasie in Austin, Texas. Sy het gekies om Amerika te verfraai as haar First Lady -projek.


10 feite oor Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson, gebore in 'n plaashuis en bestem vir die Withuis, het die eed afgelê op Air Force One, enkele ure na die moord op president John F. Kennedy op 22 November 1963 in Dallas.

Sy presidentskap is gekenmerk deur suksesse in die burgerregtebeweging, die oorlog teen armoede, omgewings- en verbruikersbeskermingswette, geweerbeheer en die totstandkoming van Medicaid en Medicare. Maar dit is ook bederf deur 'n oorerflike Viëtnam -oorlog, wat hy uitgebrei het. Die diepgaande ongewildheid daarvan, wat op Johnson self oorgedra is, het daartoe gelei dat hy in 1968 geweier het vir herverkiesing, en 'n uitgebreide en monumentale politieke loopbaan beëindig het.

1. HY HET AS 'N ONDERWYSER BEGIN.

Om sy tyd by die Southwest Texas State Teachers College (wat nou Texas State University is) te betaal, het Johnson nege maande lank skoolgegee by 'n afgesonderde skool vir Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse kinders suid van San Antonio. Die ervaring, sowel as sy tydsonderrig in Pearsall, Texas en in Houston, het sy visie gevorm oor hoe die regering moet help om die land se jeug op te voed. Na die ondertekening van die Wet op Hoër Onderwys van 1965, wat federale fondse gebruik het om kolleges te help om finansiële hulp aan arm studente te bied, het hy opgemerk dat hy by die Welhausen Mexikaanse Skool was, en gesê: "Dit was toe dat ek besluit het dat hierdie nasie kon nooit rus terwyl die deur na kennis vir enige Amerikaner gesluit bly nie. ”

2. HY WAS OOK N JANITOR.

Johnson het nie net deelgeneem aan die ongelukkige tradisie onder onderwysers om sy eie salaris te gebruik om vir klaskamervoorrade te betaal nie, maar hy het ook verskeie hoede gedra tydens sy ampstermyn as opvoeder. Hy het vyfde, sesde en sewende grade gegee, 'n span van vyf onderwysers bestuur, toesig gehou oor die speelgrond, 'n seunsbalbalspan en die debatspan afgerig en vloere as die skoolmeester van die skool gedruk.

3. HY HET 'N KOP BEGIN IN DIE POLITIEK.

Keystone/Getty Images

Johnson se pa, Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr., was nege nie-opeenvolgende jare lid van die Texas State House of Representatives. Sy leiding en verbintenisse het Johnson gehelp om die politiek te betree, en op 23 -jarige ouderdom, net een jaar uit die universiteit, is Johnson deur die Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger Richard M. Kleberg aangestel as sy wetgewende sekretaris op advies van Johnson se pa en 'n ander senator van die staat wat Johnson gehad het hom beywer vir.

Johnson het 'n leier van die kongreshulp geword, 'n toegewyde ondersteuner van Franklin D. Roosevelt (wat president geword het 'n jaar nadat Johnson in die huis begin werk het) en die hoof van die tak van Texas by die National Youth Administration - 'n New Deal -agentskap bedoel om jong Amerikaners te help om werk en opleiding te vind.

4. HY IS GEDURENE AAN 'N SILWER STER GEDURENDE WO II.

Johnson het die verkiesing tot die Huis van Verteenwoordigers in 1937 gewen, wat 'n distrik verteenwoordig wat Austin en die omliggende heuwel omvat. Hy sou 12 jaar daar dien, maar hy sou ook dien as 'n luitenant -bevelvoerder in die vlootreservaat in die middel van sy ampstermyn as verteenwoordiger. Hy is drie dae na Pearl Harbor tot aktiewe diens geroep, uiteindelik by generaal Douglas MacArthur in Australië aangemeld, en op 9 Junie 1942, het hy as 'n waarnemer aan boord vir 'n lugaanval op die suidelike oewer van Nieu -Guinee as noodlottige gevolge opgedaag.

Miskien as gevolg van hewige brand of 'n meganiese mislukking, het die B-26-bomwerper Johnson teruggekeer na die basis, terwyl 'n ander (wat destyds Johnson se kamermaat gedra het) neergeskiet is sonder oorlewendes. MacArthur het Johnson 'n Silver Star toegeken vir sy betrokkenheid, hoewel sommige dit as 'n politieke handel beskou vir Johnson, wat president Roosevelt beywer vir meer hulpbronne in die Stille Oseaan.

5. SY INSKRYWING IN DIE SENAAT WAS 'N' GRONDGLIP '.

Johnson het in 'n helikopter na Texas getoer vir 'n primêre wedloop in die Senaat van 1948 wat hom teen die voormalige goewerneur Coke Stevenson en die staatsverteenwoordiger George Peddy getref het. Stevenson het die eerste stemronde gelei, maar sonder 'n meerderheid is 'n afloop genoem. Johnson het dit (en die benoeming) met slegs 87 stemme uit 988 295 (.008 persent) gewen te midde van beskuldigings van kiesersbedrog. Biograaf Robert Caro het opgemerk dat Johnson se veldtogbestuurder (en toekomstige goewerneur) John B. Connally verband hou met meer as 200 verdagte stembriewe van kiesers wat beweer dat hulle nie gestem het nie, met verkiesingsregter Luis Salas wat byna 30 jaar later beweer dat hy 202 gesertifiseer het valse stembriewe vir Johnson. Stevenson het Johnson se oorwinning in die hof uitgedaag, maar verloor, en Johnson het die Republikein Jack Porter in die algemene verkiesing geklop. Die beskuldigings van bedrog en die stywe kant van sy primêre oorwinning het hom die ironiese bynaam [PDF] “Landslide Lyndon” besorg.

6. HY STERF AMPER TERWYL IN DIE SENAAT DIEN.

Keystone/Hulton -argief/Getty Images

Johnson, 'n veeleisende baas, 'n werkslaaf en 'n kettingroker, het in die somer van 1955 'n hartaanval gekry tydens sy tyd as leier in die senaat. Binne 'n paar dae na die gesondheidsbedreiging het hy telefone en mimeograafmasjiene na sy hospitaalkamer gebring, sodat hy 'n baie lang werksdag kon hervat. Hy het opgehou rook, maar later sou hy sy hartaanval beskryf as "die ergste wat 'n man kan hê en nog kan lewe."

7. HY WAS EEN VAN VIER MENSE OM VIER VERSKILDE KANTORE TE BEHOU.

Onder die triviaalste trivia (onthou dit vir u pub -vasvra -aand) is Johnson se seldsame, vreemde onderskeid tussen die kombinasie van ampte. Na John Tyler en Andrew Johnson, en gevolg deur Richard Nixon, is Johnson een van slegs vier mense wat 'n verteenwoordiger van die Verenigde State, die leier van die meerderheid in die senaat, die vise -president en die president van die Verenigde State was. Op die ouderdom van 44 word Johnson ook die jongste persoon wat ooit as leier van die minderheid in die senaat gedien het. Moet nooit sê dat ons u nie gehelp het om kroeg -trivia te wen nie.

8. HY HET IN SY EERSTE 20 JAAR AS WETGEWER TOT ELKE BURGERREGTE STEMMING gestem.

Johnson se nalatenskap is direk gekoppel aan die Civil Rights Act van 1964, maar hy was 'n onvolmaakte instrument vir verandering. As verteenwoordiger en senator het hy elke voorstel vir burgerregte wat hom voorgelê is, gestem, in ooreenstemming met die post-heropbou suid, en president Truman se burgerregteprogram '' 'n klug en 'n skyn 'genoem-'n poging om 'n polisiestaat in die gedaante van vryheid. ” Johnson verander sy stem as senator in 1957 en dwing die kongres streng om die Burgerregtewet van 1964, die grootste uitbreiding van burgerregte sedert Heropbou, as president aan te neem.

9. JOHNSON SE STYL VAN AFDRAG HET 'DIE BEHANDELING' genoem.

Keystone/Getty Images

Op 6 voet, 4 duim, styg Johnson bo die meeste kollegas uit, en hy gebruik die liggaamlikheid tot sy voordeel. As hy 'n guns van iemand moes kry, sou hy eenvoudig met 'n sentimeter van sy gesig oor hulle staan ​​en hulle net vertel wat hy nodig het, in 'n stap wat 'The Johnson Treatment' genoem word. Behalwe om sy teenstanders en vriende op te rig, sou Johnson ook belowe om hulle te help, hulle te herinner aan tye wat hy hulle gehelp het, te lok, te vlei, te buig en voorspelling vir die wat nie aan sy kant was nie.

10. SY KEURING WAS 'N WARE GRONDGLIP.

Na die debakel met 87 stemme wat hom in die senaat geloods het, het Johnson 'n ware verkiesingsverskynsel beleef wat gepas was by iemand met die bynaam 'Grondverskuiwing'. In die veldtog van 1964 het Johnson nie net die Republikein Barry Goldwater gekonfronteer nie, maar ook twyfelagtige gewildheid. Hy was nog nooit in eie reg tot president verkies nie, en sy leierskap oor die Wet op Burgerregte het suidelike ondersteuners laat twyfel oor hul lojaliteit. Om laasgenoemde ontwikkeling teë te werk, het Johnson sy grootste politieke bondgenoot, sy vrou Claudia "Lady Bird" Johnson, ontplooi om in 'n trein deur die suide te gaan en haar resep vir pekanneut saam met veldtogknoppies uit te deel. Na die finale telling behou Johnson Texas en die helfte van die suide en wen 44 state en 61.05 persent van die uitgebrachte stemme-die grootste aandeel ooit in die gewilde stem.


10 dinge wat u moontlik nie geweet het oor die maak van 'Selma' nie

In haar eerste groot ateljeefilm, Ava DuVernary het deurgebreek met 'n kompromislose meesterstuk, Selma. Vrygestel as 'n kersgeskenk op 25 Desember 2014, Selma is 'n historiese drama wat gebaseer is op die gebeure wat gelei het tot die Selma na Montgomery -stemregte in 1965. Hierdie optogte het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die wet op stemreg van 1965.

Met 'n skerp oog vir detail, 'n diep gevoel van geskiedenis en 'n progressiewe perspektief, skets DuVernay die prentjie van Selma nie as 'n eenman-vertoning vir die prestasies van Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. nie, maar 'n versameling onbesonge helde, pragtige, swart susters en broers wat hul lewens op die spel geplaas het vir vryheid.

Bring Selma tot die lewe was 'n ongelooflike rolverdeling wat almal 'n interessante optrede gelewer het. David Oyelowo speel as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Carmen Ejogo as Coretta Scott King, Andre Holland as Andrew Young, Tessa Thompson as Diane Nash, Stephen James as John Lewis, Common as James Bevel, Lakeith Standfield as Jimmie Lee Jackson, Tom Wilkinson as president Lyndon B. Johnson, en Oprah Winfrey as Annie Lee Cooper.

Die film was 'n treffer en verdien meer as $ 40 miljoen dollar by die loket en verdien Selma vier Golden Globe -toekennings, waaronder die beste rolprent - drama.

Alhoewel dit ook genomineer is vir die beste prentjie deur die Academy of Motion Pictures, het die temalied "Glory" die gesogte Oscar vir beste oorspronklike liedjie huis toe geneem.

Terwyl ons MLK -dag vier, is hier die tien dinge wat u moontlik nie geweet het oor die maak van Selma nie.

Die idee om 'n film oor Selma te skep, dryf sedert die middel van die 2000's in Hollywood. Terwyl die moontlikheid van 'n Selma -film stof versamel het, is vyf verskillende regisseurs oorweeg om die film te regisseer voordat Ava gekies is. Lee Daniels sou die regie behartig, maar trek uit om te regisseer Die Butler. David Oyelowo het voortgegaan met lobby vir Duvernay om die projek te lei, alhoewel sy nog nooit 'n film met 'n groot ateljee geregisseer het nie.

'Hy het die vervaardigers oortuig om my te probeer nadat baie direkteure die projek verlaat het,' het sy op Twitter geskryf. 'Ek het 'n draaiboek geskryf vir die begroting wat hulle gehad het, wat dit groen verlig het. En ons het begin. ”

Met indiefilms soos 2010’s Ek sal volg (met 'n begroting van $ 50,000 uit persoonlike besparings), 2012's Middel van nerens (wat $ 200 000 gekos het en David Oyelowo gespeel het), en 'n episode van & quotScandal & quot op haar CV, het DuVernay aangemeld om te regisseer Selma met 'n begroting van $ 20 miljoen vir haar eerste film met 'n groot ateljee.


Grondwet Daagliks

27 Augustus 2020 deur NCC -personeel

Ter geleentheid van president Lyndon Johnson en rsquos se verjaardag, kyk die National Constitution Center na tien interessante feite oor een van die kleurrykste en omstrede figure in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

Selfs al sou Johnson nie president geword het ná die sluipmoord op John F. Kennedy in November 1963 nie, sou sy loopbaan in die kongres hom nog steeds 'n merkwaardige historiese figuur gemaak het.

Johnson & rsquos se ampstyd het gekom tydens 'n tydperk van groot maatskaplike verandering in die Amerikaanse samelewing, gekenmerk deur die burgerregte -revolusie en die Viëtnam -oorlog.

Johnson&rsquos legacy among historians and the public has also evolved since his death in 1973. Indeed, along with Richard Nixon, who followed him as President, Johnson is seen as a complex figure involved in many significant initiatives and events that have marked modern American history.

So how did someone born into poverty in Texas and who started out as a school teacher become one of the pivotal figures of the twentieth century?

Here are 10 fascinating milestones from Johnson&rsquos life and career:

1. Johnson was indeed from humble origins. He was born on August 27, 1908, in Stonewall, Texas. The Johnson family had been in the area for generations, but Johnson&rsquos father had financial problems, and the future President grew up under difficult circumstances. As Senator and President, Johnson had a chance to translate his sympathy for the less fortunate into real social policy laws.

2. Johnson&rsquos first career was as a teacher. As a student at Southwest Texas State Teachers College, Johnson was assigned to a tiny Hispanic school in a deeply impoverished area on the Mexican border. Johnson left his brief career as a teacher after four years to pursue politics during the Great Depression.

3. Johnson&rsquos political ambitions were clear early in his career. His father had served in the Texas state legislature, and Johnson became a congressional aide in 1931. In 1937, he won a special election to the U.S. House to replace a deceased Texas House member named James Buchanan

4. Johnson was the &ldquosurrogate son&rdquo of powerful House Speaker Sam Rayburn. The legendary Rayburn had served in the Texas legislature with Johnson&rsquos father, and Rayburn backed Johnson&rsquos fast rise as a leader within Congress.

5. Johnson was nearly killed in World War II. Johnson entered the Naval Reserves while still a Congressman, and on his only bombing run, he boarded a plane called the Wabash Cannonball for a mission in the South Pacific. A last-second trip off the plane to use a bathroom saved Johnson&rsquos life. On his return from the facilities, Johnson boarded another plane that survived the mission. The Wabash Cannonball crashed, with a total loss of life.

6. The Landslide Lyndon incident. Johnson won election to the U.S. Senate in 1948 after winning a Democratic primary by only 87 votes. Allegations of voter fraud are debated to this day.

7. Johnson quickly became the Senate&rsquos leader. In 1953, he was named Senate minority leader after opposing Republicans gained control of the Senate. Two years later, Johnson became Majority Leader when Democrats regained power.

8. The energetic Johnson reshaped the role of Senate Majority leader. Despite having a heart attack in 1955, Johnson worked tirelessly to promote himself and his agendas, including civil rights legislation and the American space program. His ability to persuade politicians of both parties was legendary.

9. Why did Johnson decide to become Vice President? After losing a bitter campaign against Kennedy in the 1960 Democratic primary, the Kennedys shocked observers by choosing Johnson as Kennedy&rsquos running mate. One theory is that Johnson saw the position of Vice President as expanding his power base in the Senate. But after the 1960 election, Johnson was rebuffed when he tried to chair the Democratic conference in the Senate his fellow Democrats saw the move as a violation of the separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches.

10. The Johnson presidency was incredibly active. In addition to pursuing the Vietnam War, President Johnson pressed on with an expansive slate of programs labeled as the &ldquoGreat Society&rdquo that included three landmark civil rights bills and Medicare. But Vietnam&rsquos impact damaged Johnson&rsquos political base severely, and he declined to run in the 1968 presidential election.

Podcast: The Latest Big Decisions from the Supreme Court

Supreme Court correspondents Jess Bravin and Marcia Coyle join host Jeffrey Rosen to recap recent key decisions from the 2020-21 term.


#5 His tax cut bill led to economic growth and reduced unemployment

In 1963, President Kennedy had proposed a significant tax reduction bill but he struggled to get it passed in the House of Representatives against strong conservative resistance. After Kennedy’s assassination, Johnson made passage of the tax cut bill a top priority. He worked closely with influential Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia to negotiate a reduction in the budget below $100 billion in exchange for Byrd dropping his opposition. The bill was passed leading to the Revenue Act of 1964, signed into law by Johnson on February 26, 1964. The Act cut income tax rates by approximately 20% reduced corporate tax rates and introduced a minimum standard deduction. The Tax Reduction Act achieved its goals of increasing personal incomes, consumption and capital investments. Unemployment fell from 5.2% in 1964 aan 4.5% in 1965 and fell to 3.8% in 1966. Inflation-adjusted G.D.P. toegeneem 5.8% in 1964 na a 4.4% rise in 1963. Growth improved to 6.5% in 1965 en 6.6% in 1966. Dit was die three best back-to-back years for economic growth in the postwar era and economists generally credit the tax cut for much of it.


10 Things You May Not Have Known About The Making Of ‘Selma’

In her first major studio film, Ava DuVernary broke through with an uncompromising masterpiece, Selma. Released as a Christmas gift on December 25, 2014, Selma is a historical drama based on the events that led to the 1965 Selma to Montgomery voting rights marches. Those marches were instrumental in the passage Voting Rights Act of 1965.

With a keen eye for detail, a deep sense of history, and a progressive perspective, DuVernay vividly paints the picture of Selma not as a one-man-show for the exploits of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. but a collection of unsung heroes, beautiful, Black sisters, and brothers who put their lives on the line for freedom.

Bringing Selma to life was an amazing cast who all gave riveting performances. David Oyelowo stars as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Carmen Ejogo as Coretta Scott King, Andre Holland as Andrew Young, Tessa Thompson as Diane Nash, Stephen James as John Lewis, Common as James Bevel, Lakeith Standfield as Jimmie Lee Jackson, Tom Wilkinson as President Lyndon B. Johnson, and Oprah Winfrey as Annie Lee Cooper.

The film was a hit, grossing over $40 million dollars at the box office and earned Selma four Golden Globe Award nominations, including Best Motion Picture – Drama.

While it was also nominated for Best Picture by the Academy of Motion Pictures, its theme song, “Glory” took home the coveted Oscar for Best Original Song.

As we celebrate MLK Day, here are the 10 Things You Might Not Have Known About the Making of Selma.

The idea of creating a film about Selma had been floating around Hollywood since the mid-2000s. While the possibility of a Selma movie collected dust, five different directors were considered to direct the film before Ava was chosen. Lee Daniels was set to direct, but pulled out to direct The Butler. David Oyelowo kept lobbying for Duvernay to lead the project even though she had never directed a film with a major studio.

“He convinced the producers to try me after many directors had left the project,” she wrote on Twitter. “I wrote a script for the budget they had, which got it greenlit. And we began.”

With indie films such as 2010’s I Will Follow (with a budget of $50,000 from personal savings), 2012’s Middle of Nowhere (which cost $200,000 and starred David Oyelowo), and an episode of "Scandal" on her resume, DuVernay signed up to direct Selma with a $20 million budget for her first film with a major studio.


The Johnson Treatment: Pushing And Persuading Like LBJ

For many Americans, the presidency of Lyndon Johnson is a distant memory marked by tragedy—the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Bobby Kennedy, the Vietnam War, the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. and social turmoil. But it was also one of history’s most legislatively active presidencies. President Johnson was essential to the passage of the Civil Rights Act, Medicare, the Voting Rights Act and even the Public Broadcasting Act. Whether one views all this legislation as positive or not, its very volume and scale highlight the influence of a man who rose from the poverty of West Texas to become a Congressman, the youngest Senate majority leader in history and ultimately, president.

Hoe het hy dit gedoen? There is a wonderful photo of Lyndon Johnson and Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas. Johnson is towering over Fortas, smiling and invading his space as the jurist uncomfortably leans back and clinches his arms to his chest. That photo has become emblematic of what became known as the Johnson Treatment—Lyndon Johnson’s persuasive tactics described by Mary McGrory as “an incredible, potent mixture of persuasion, badgering, flattery, threats, reminders of past favors and future advantages.” As a participant in the Presidential Leadership Scholars (PLS), a leadership development program sponsored by four presidential libraries or centers, I had the opportunity to spend a weekend learning about the Johnson presidency at the LBJ Ranch and the LBJ Library. And I learned a great deal more about the 36th president’s approach to persuasion. It’s not for everyone—leadership styles are different—but it often worked for LBJ and is worth understanding today.

So how did LBJ persuade? First, he’d establish a vision and a purpose. In Mark Updegrove’s Indomitable Will: LBJ in the Presidency, Jack Valenti recounts how, the evening of Kennedy’s assassination in Dallas, Johnson sat at home with his team and spent five hours mapping what would become the Great Society agenda. “He knew with stunning precision the mountaintop to which he was going to summon people,” Valenti recalled. That vision for his presidency became the purpose and focal point of his persuasion. Often in seeking to persuade people we lose sight of the end goal—where we’re headed with our persuasion. But Johnson knew that vision and purpose are foundational to persuasion.

With a vision in mind, Johnson would master the details. In Johnson’s case this applied both to the facts of the case and the process needed to drive change. During the PLS program in Austin, Bill Moyers noted that Johnson regularly told his team, “Your judgment is only as good as your facts.” And former Johnson aide Tom Johnson (no relation to the president) noted, “It’s impossible to overstate his consumption of information.” He’d immerse himself in the facts of a situation—reading hundreds of pages on a topic and speaking to everyone he could about it—so that he could make the most persuasive case possible. Then he’d obsess over the process of making the change. He knew the rules of government, the personalities and motivations of public officials, and the flow of the legislative process better than anyone. This mastery of detail was a hallmark of Johnson’s effectiveness.

He also knew to identify and mobilize the right people. Making the right arguments isn’t enough to persuade. You have to rally those who can effectively influence a decision. Johnson did this consistently, particularly in the run-up to passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He called the Washington Post’s Katharine Graham, and pushed her to publish reportage and editorials advocating for a vote on the act. Knowing the influence of the United Steelworkers, he persuaded Dave McDonald, their president, to have his team lobby for the act, even having Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. join this call with him in 1963. Realizing he needed Republicans, he partnered closely with Senate minority leader Everett Dirksen, appealing to him to honor the heritage of his home state of Illinois as the “land of Lincoln.” And he worked closely with Dr. King and other civil rights leaders. Johnson knew that persuasion takes the work of multiple constituencies and always thought carefully of whose influence to employ.

Perhaps the most defining element of President Johnson’s persuasion was the Johnson Treatment itself—he was willing to push people. For better or worse, he would harangue, threaten, flatter and bully. This was evident in Johnson’s dealings with his mentor, longtime Georgia Senator Dick Russell. In establishing the Warren Commission—which was responsible for investigating the Kennedy assassination—Johnson knew Russell didn’t want to serve, but announced Russell’s involvement before asking him then bullied him into it in a phone call. As recorded in Indomitable Will, he then pushed past Russell—a dedicated segregationist—to get Civil Rights Act passed, telling him, “Dick, I love you and I owe you. Maar. I’m going to run over you if you challenge me on this civil-rights bill.” He did just that—leading to Russell boycotting the Democratic convention in 1964. Similarly, after Bloody Sunday in Selma, Johnson summoned George Wallace to a meeting at the White House [DOC] in which he physically loomed over the man and badgered him for hours on subjects from voting rights to protecting demonstrators. He made people uneasy. He invaded their space. And he kept after them. This kind of persistence is uncomfortable for most of us but essential for LBJ.

Finally, he would make it personal. As recorded in Indomitable Will, Leon Jaworski wrote of Johnson, “This man makes the most persuasive talk to a small group of anyone I have ever known.” And at the LBJ Library in Austin, Tom Johnson, highlighted his interpersonal persuasiveness noting, “[H]is ability to talk one-on-one. It was miraculous to see what he could achieve in that context.” He loved the telephone—as evidenced by the remarkable archive of his telephone conversations—and at his “Texas White House” ranch outside of Austin, he had 72 phone lines installed for use. Johnson also took to understand each person he was dealing with—their pressures, values, personality traits and motivations—so that his message and technique were tailored to them. In the digital age, Johnson’s person-to-person approach may be even more powerful because it is so rare.

President Johnson’s legacy isn’t perfect. Whether in foreign or domestic policy, many of his actions were and remain controversial. His personality could be grating, crude and difficult. But he got things done. And while his style of persuasion may not be suited to every person or circumstance, it’s worth understanding.


Know why third Sunday of June is designated as Father's Day in most countries

In 1966, former US president Lyndon B Johnson announced the third Sunday of June as Father's Day. Almost 62 years later, it was declared as a national holiday in the US in 1972 after being officially recognized by Richard Nixon's administration

Father's Day, the celebration of the paternal bond, is observed on the third Sunday of June. This year the date is 20 June, 2021.

The aim of the day to express appreciation and acknowledge the role of the father figure in children's lives, and society as a whole. UNICEF, too, had harped on the critical role the fathers play in early childhood learning.

The celebration of this lovely, warm paternal bond is quite popular all over the world, though the dates of observance might differ in some countries.

India follows the American date which is the third Sunday of June.

Why Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June:

Father's Day originated in the United States. It was on 19 June, 1910, the first Father's Day celebration took place.

Sonora Dodd, the daughter of American Civil War veteran William Jackson Smart had requested the Spokane Ministerial Alliance observe 5 June which was her father's birthday, to honor fatherhood. Her father had raised six children, as a single parent. Her deep sense of gratitude, love propelled her to make this request.

She was also inspired by Anna Jarvis' endeavor to bring about Mother's Day, and proposed the Father's Day idea.

Finally, the Church agreed upon the third Sunday of June to commemorate. Following which, much later in 1966, President Lyndon B Johnson announced the third Sunday of June as Father's Day as he signed a presidential proclamation.

Almost 62 years later from 1910, Father's Day was declared as a national holiday by Richard Nixon who was the then President of the US (1972).

There is also information that states Father's Day was observed on 5 July, 1908, in West Virginia after a mining accident in Monongah, USA, to honour the fathers who lost their lives in the disaster.

Speaking of Father's Day history, it would be interesting to note the dates followed by other countries.

Catholic European countries like Portugal, Spain, Croatia, Italy celebrate Father's Day on 19 March which is St Joseph's Day.

Norway, Sweden and Finland observe the second Sunday in November. For Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, it's the first Sunday of September. Russia celebrates the day on 23 February.


Inspirational Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes

“A man can take a little bourbon without getting drunk, but if you hold his mouth open and pour in a quart, he’s going to get sick on it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“A man without a vote is man without protection.” – Lyndon B. Johnson

“A President’s hardest task is not to do what is right, but to know what is right.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On politics

“Being president is like being a jackass in a hailstorm. There’s nothing to do but to stand there and take it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Doing what’s right isn’t the problem. It is knowing what’s right.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Education is not a problem. Education is an opportunity.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Every man has a right to a Saturday night bath.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Every President wants to do right.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Freedom

“Freedom is not enough.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Greater love hath no man than to attend the Episcopal Church with his wife.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I am a freeman, an American, a United States Senator, and a Democrat, in that order.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Society

“I am concerned about the whole man. I am concerned about what the people, using their government as an instrument and a tool, can do toward building the whole man, which will mean a better society and a better world.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I am making a collection of the things my opponents have found me to be and, when this election is over, I am going to open a museum and put them on display.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Excellence

“I believe the destiny of your generation – and your nation – is a rendezvous with excellence.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I believe we can continue the Great Society while we fight in Vietnam.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I don’t believe I’ll ever get credit for anything I do in foreign affairs, no matter how successful it is, because I didn’t go to Harvard.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I feel like I just grabbed a big juicy worm with a right sharp hook in the middle of it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I have learned that only two things are necessary to keep one’s wife happy. First, let her think she’s having her own way. And second, let her have it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I once told Nixon that the Presidency is like being a jackass caught in a hail storm. You’ve got to just stand there and take it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Strength

“I report to you that our country is challenged at home and abroad: that it is our will that is being tried and not our strength our sense of purpose and not our ability to achieve a better America.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I seldom think of politics more than eighteen hours a day.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I want to make a policy statement. I am unabashedly in favor of women.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I will do my best. Dit is al wat ek kan doen. I ask for your help – and God’s.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Id rather give my life than be afraid to give it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Technology

“If future generations are to remember us more with gratitude than sorrow, we must achieve more than just the miracles of technology. We must also leave them a glimpse of the world as it was created, not just as it looked when we got through with it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“If one morning I walked on top of the water across the Potomac River, the headline that afternoon would read: ‘President Can’t Swim.'” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Love

“If the American people don’t love me, their descendants will.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“If two men agree on everything, you may be sure that one of them is doing the thinking.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I’m the only president you’ve got.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“I’m tired. I’m tired of feeling rejected by the American people. I’m tired of waking up in the middle of the night worrying about the war.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“In our home there was always prayer – aloud, proud and unapologetic.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On People

“It is always a strain when people are being killed. I don’t think anybody has held this job who hasn’t felt personally responsible for those being killed.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“It is important that the United States remain a two-party system. I’m a fellow who likes small parties and the Republican Party can’t be too small to suit me.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“It is the genius of our Constitution that under its shelter of enduring institutions and rooted principles there is ample room for the rich fertility of American political invention.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Humanity

“It may be, it just maybe, that life as we know it with its humanity is more unique than many have thought.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Jack was out kissing babies while I was out passing bills. Someone had to tend the store.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Jerry Ford is so dumb he can’t fart and chew gum at the same time.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“John F. Kennedy was the victim of the hate that was a part of our country. It is a disease that occupies the minds of the few but brings danger to the many.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On God

“Just like the Alamo, somebody damn well needed to go to their aid. Well, by God, I’m going to Viet Nam’s aid!” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“No member of our generation who wasn’t a Communist or a dropout in the thirties is worth a damn.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“One lesson you better learn if you want to be in politics is that you never go out on a golf course and beat the President.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Happy

“Only two things are necessary to keep one’s wife happy. One is to let her think she is having her own way, and the other is to let her have it.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Our most tragic error may have been our inability to establish a rapport and a confidence with the press and television with the communication media. I don’t think the press has understood me.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Numbers

“Our numbers have increased in Vietnam because the aggression of others has increased in Vietnam. There is not, and there will not be, a mindless escalation.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Our purpose in Vietnam is to prevent the success of aggression. It is not conquest, it is not empire, it is not foreign bases, it is not domination. It is, simply put, just to prevent the forceful conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Freedom

“Our society is illuminated by the spiritual insights of the Hebrew prophets. America and Israel have a common love of human freedom, and they have a common faith in a democratic way of life.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Peace is a journey of a thousand miles and it must be taken one step at a time.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Poverty must not be a bar to learning and learning must offer an escape from poverty.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Presidents

“Presidents quickly realize that while a single act might destroy the world they live in, no one single decision can make life suddenly better or can turn history around for the good.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“We are not about to send American boys 9 or 10 thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“We did not choose to be the guardians of the gate, but there is no one else.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Education

“We have entered an age in which education is not just a luxury permitting some men an advantage over others. It has become a necessity without which a person is defenseless in this complex, industrialized society. We have truly entered the century of the educated man.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“We have talked long enough in this country about equal rights. It is time now to write the next chapter – and to write it in the books of law.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Opportunity

“We have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“We live in a world that has narrowed into a neighborhood before it has broadened into a brotherhood.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“We must open the doors of opportunity. But we must also equip our people to walk through those doors.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Believe

“What convinces is a conviction. Believe in the argument you’re advancing. If you don’t you’re as good as dead. The other person will sense that something isn’t there, and no chain of reasoning, no matter how logical or elegant or brilliant, will win your case for you.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“What we won when all of our people united must not be lost in suspicion and distrust and selfishness and politics. Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as president.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Dinner

“When I was a boy we didn’t wake up with Vietnam and have Cyprus for lunch and the Congo for dinner.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“When I was young, poverty was so common that we didn’t know it had a name.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“When the burdens of the presidency seem unusually heavy, I always remind myself it could be worse. I could be a mayor.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“When things haven’t gone well for you, call in a secretary or a staff man and chew him out. You will sleep better and they will appreciate the attention.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Liberty

“Whether we are New Dealer, Old Dealer, Liberty Leaguer or Red, whether we agree or not, we still have the right to think and speak how we feel.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“While you’re saving your face, you’re losing your ass.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Whoever won’t fight when the President calls him, deserves to be kicked back in his hole and kept there.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“Yesterday is not ours to recover, but tomorrow is ours to win or lose.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“You aren’t learning anything when you’re talking.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson Quotes On Light

“You do not examine legislation in the light of the benefits it will convey if properly administered, but in the light of the wrongs it would do and the harms it would cause if improperly administered.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“You might say that Lyndon Johnson is a cross between a Baptist preacher and a cowboy.” -Lyndon B. Johnson

“You’ve got to work things out in the cloakroom, and when you’ve got them worked out, you can debate a little before you vote.” -Lyndon B. Johnson


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