Landindeks: Duitse biografieë

Landindeks: Duitse biografieë


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Biografieë

Anhalt, Christian I, Prins van
Ariovistus, fl.61-58 v.C.
Arnim, kolonel-generaal Hans-Jürgen von, 1889-1962
Baader, Andreas, (1943-1977)
Bach-Zelewski, Erich von dem, 1899-1972
Balck, Hermann, 1893-1982
Bayerlein, Fritz, 1899-1970
Hieronder, Fritz von, 1853-1918
Hieronder, generaal Otto von, 1857-1944
Beseler, generaal Hans Hartwig von, 1850-1921
Bittrich, Wilhelm, 1894-1979
Blücher, Gebhard Leberecht, Prince von, 1742-1819
Bothmer, Felix Graf von, 1852-1937
Brunswick, Frederick William, hertog van, 1771-1815, r.1806-7, 1813-15
Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, hertog van, 1735-1806, r.1780-1806
Bülow, Karl von, 1846-1921
Bülow von Dennewitz, generaal Freidrich Wilhelm Graf, 1755-1816
Karel VII, Heilige Romeinse keiser (1742-45) (Charles Albert, Prins van Beiere)
Charles Albert, prins van Beiere, keiser Karel VII (1742-1745)
Christian van Brunswick, administrateur van Halberstadt (1598-1626)
Clausewitz, generaal Karl Philipp Gottlieb von, 1780-1831
Cruewell, Ludwig, 1892-1958
Diebitsch, veldmaarschalk Hans Karl Friedrich Anton, graaf von, 1785-1831
Dietrich, Josef ‘Sepp’, 1892-1966
Dollman, Friedrich, 1876-1944
Eibl, Karl, 1891-1943
Eichhorn, Emil Gottfried Hermann von, 1848-1918
Einem von Rothmaler, Karl, 1853-1934
Emmich, Otto von, 1848-1915
Ensslin, Gudrun (1940-1977)
Falkenhausen, generaal Ludwig von, 1844-1936
Falkenhayn, Erich von, (1861-1922), Duitse generaal
Ferdinand van Brunswick († 1792)
Francis I (1708-65), hertog van Lorraine (1729-37), Heilige Romeinse keiser (1745-1765)
Frederik II (die Grote) (1712-1786), koning van Pruise (1740-1786)
Frederik Willem I, tweede koning van Pruise († 1740)
Frederik Willem II van Pruise, 1744-1797, r.1786-1797
Frederik Willem III van Pruise, 1770-1840, r.1797-1840
Frundsberg, Georg von, 1473-1528
Galland, Adolf, 1911-1994
Max von Gallwitz, Duitse generaal, 1852-1937
Gentz, Freidrich von, 1764-1832
George I, (1660-1727), keurvorst van Hanover (1698-1727), koning van Groot-Brittanje en Ierland (1714-1727)
Geyr von Schweppenburg, generaal Leo Freiherr, 1886-1974
Gneisenau, veldmaarskalk August Wilhelm Anton, Graf Neithardt von, 1760-1831
Groener, Wilhelm (1867-1939)
Hausen, Max Klemens von, 1846-1922
Hausser, Paul, 1880-1972
Max Hoffman, 1869-1927, Duitse generaal
Hoth, Hermann, 1885-1971
Hube, Generalleutnant Hans (1890-1944)
Hutier, Oskar von, 1857-1934
Jaenecke, generaal der Pioniere Erwin (1890-1960)
Jeschonnek, Hans, 1899-1943
Josef II, Heilige Romeinse keiser (1765-1790)
Kehl, beleg van, 28 Oktober 1796-10 Januarie 1797
Kleist von Nollendorf, Freidrich Graf (1762-1823)
Kluck, Alexander von, Duitse generaal, 1846-1934
Ridderkruis met eikeblare, swaarde en diamante, wenners van
Kraiss, generaal-majoor Dietrich, 1889-1944
Louis Ferdinand van Pruise, 1773-1808
Ludendorff, Erich von, 1865-1937, Duitse generaal
Luettwitz, Smilo, Freiherr von, 1895-1975
Lützow, generaal Adolf Wilhelm, Freiherr von, 1782-1834
Mackensen, August von, 1849-1945, Duitse veldmaarskalk
Manteuffel, Hasso Eccard von, 1897-1978
Marwitz, Georg von der, 1856-1929
Maximiliaan van Beiere, hertog toe keurvorst
Meinhof, Ulrike (1934-1976)
Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf Von (1800-91)
Nehring, Walther K., 1892-1983
Max von Prittwitz und Gaffron (1848-1918)
Ramcke, Hermann Bernhard, 1889-1968
Rommel, Erwin (1891-1944)
Rupert, Prins, graaf Palatyn van die Ryn, hertog van Beiere, hertog van Cumberland, graaf van Holderness (1619-1682)
Rupprecht, kroonprins van Beiere, 1869-1955
Sakse, Maurice, hertog en keurvorst van, 1521-53
Scharnhorst, generaal Gerhard Johann David von, 1755-1813
Spee, Maximilian Reichsgraf von, 1861-1914, Duitse admiraal
Sperrle, veldmaarskalk Hugo, 1885-1953
Schorner, Ferdinand (1892-1973)
Steiner, Felix, 1896-1966
Strachwitz, Hyazinth von, Graf, 1893-1968
Tauenzein, Freidrich, Graf von Wittenburg (1760-1824)
Tilly, Johan Tserclaes, telling van (1559-1632)
Tolsdorf, Theodor, 1909-1978
Udet, Ernst (1896-1941)
Wolf, Markus Mischa (1923-2006)
Woyrsch, Remus von, 1847-1920
Wrede, Karl Philipp Freiherr von, 1767-1838
Württemberg, Albrecht Maria Alexander Philipp Joseph, hertog van, 1865-1939
Yorck, veldmaarskalk Hans David Ludwig, Graf von Wartenburg, 1759-1830



Genealoger

Voor 1918 het die Duitse samelewing plaasarbeiders en bediendes onderaan die sosiale skaal gehad en die adel bo. Daar was feitlik geen opwaartse beweging tussen klasse nie, en slegs beperkte opwaartse mobiliteit binne elke klas. Die dorpshiërargie antwoord die heer van die land, wat sekulêr kan wees, soos 'n edelman, of godsdienstig, soos 'n biskop of 'n klooster. Die grondeienaar is op sy beurt na die volgende hoër klas, miskien 'n graaf of 'n hertog.

Leibeigenschaft was 'n middeleeuse vorm van diensbaarheid, gewoonlik deur die moeder oorgedra. Leibeigene -persone was aan die grond vasgemaak. In ruil vir die diens van die boere, het die verhuurder beskerming gebied in tye van oorlog. spesiale toestemming van die verhuurder was nodig om te trou, na 'n ander boerdery of dorp te verhuis of te emigreer. Spesiale belasting, beide in natura en geld, en onbetaalde arbeid op die here se boedel was nodig. Toe die hoof van die huishouding sterf, is die beste stuk beeste in die skuur (Besthaupt) aan die heer van die land betaal. In die geval van sy vrou se dood, was haar beste rok die vereiste betaling. In die 17de en 18de eeu is die meeste verpligtinge verbonde aan Leibeigenschaft omgeskakel na kontantbetalings.

Wapen

  • Bauer, Konrad F. Das Bürgerwappen: ein Buch von den Wappen und Eigenmarken der deutschen Bürger und Bauern. Frankfurt/Main: Verlag der Hauserpresse, 1935. (Kort geskiedenis van die Duitse heraldiek)
  • Großes Wappen-Bilder-Lexikon der bürgerlichen Geschlechter Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. München: E. Battenberg, 1985.
    (Voorbeelde van wapens by familiename)
  • Hussman, Heinrich. Über deutsche Wappenkunst.Wiesbaden: Guido Pressler Verlag, 1973. (Verduidelik elemente wat in Duitse wapens voorkom)
  • Indeks vir vanne wat in Algemene indeks zu den Siebmacher 'schen Wappenbüchern, 1605-1961. Graz - Oostenryk: Akademische Druck - U. Verlagsanstalt, 1964.
  • Lexikon Städte und Wappen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. 2. neubearb, und erweiterte Aufl. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie, 1984. (Wapen vir stede in die voormalige Oos -Duitsland)
  • Siebmacher, Johann. J. Siebmacher 's Grosses und Allgemeines Wappenbuch. 82 volumes. Nurnburg: Bauer und Paspe, 1856-1938. Indeks vir vanne wat in Algemene indeks zu den Siebmacherschen Wappenbüchern, 1605-1961. Graz, Oostenryk: Akademische Druck, U. Verlagsanstalt, 1964.
  • Steimel, Robert. Die Wappen der bundesdeutschen Landkreise. Köln: Steimel-Verlag, [1964]. (Wapen vir stede van voor-hereniging Wes-Duitsland)

Adel en aristokrasie

  • Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels. Glücksburg/Ostsee: C.A. Starke, 1951- (Aristokrasie)
  • Duitse adelindeks - 'n Webblad met 'n soekenjin na 'n databasis oor die huidige hoofde van Germaanse adellike gesinne (dit sluit in adellike gesinne buite die grense van die huidige Duitsland) met biografieë, foto's, wapens, ens.

Afstamming

  • Deutsches Geschlechterbuch. (German Lineage Books) Vol. 1-, 1889- tot op hede. Charlottenburg: F. Mahler (ens.), 1889-. (194+ volumes. Middelklas, Bürger-geslagsregisters) Versamelde geslagsregisters van algemeen gesproke Duitse gesinne. Elke van wat in elke bundel geïndekseer word. Kumulatiewe indeksering van gesinne wat onderwerp is aan artikels in volumes 1- 185 in Stammfolgen-Verzeichnisse: Genealogische Handbuch des Adels und Deutsches Geschlechterbuch. Elke genoteerde familie het 'n kort geskiedenis, 'n wapen indien van toepassing, plekke waar die gesin gewoon het en 'n volledige geslagsregister. Die werk bevat afstammelinge uit alle dele van Duitsland, insluitend die gebiede wat ná die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlore geraak het. Dit is slegs af en toe nuttig vir Duitse genealogiese navorsers. Duitse gebiede en getalle vir spesifieke volumes word hieronder gelys.
    • Baden: 81, 101, 120, 161, 189
    • Balties: 79
    • Berg (Bergische): 24, 35, 83, 168, 183
    • Brandenburg: 111, 150, 160
    • Darmstadt: 69, 96
    • Duits-Switsers: 42, 48, 56, 65, 77
    • Eifel: 93, 123
    • Hamburg: 18, 19, 21, 23, 27, 44, 51, 53, 127-128, 142, 171, 200
    • Harz: 106
    • Hessen: 32, 47, 52, 54, 64, 66, 69, 84, 96, 98, 107, 119, 121, 124, 138, 144, 157, 159, 175, 176
    • Kurpfalz (Pfalz): 58, 86, 149, 197
    • Lippe: 72
    • Magdeburg: 39
    • Mecklenburg: 57, 74, 88, 105
    • Nassau: 49
    • Neumark: 93
    • Niedersachsen: 46, 76, 89, 102, 113, 122, 129, 131, 141, 143, 151, 158, 166, 167, 180, 187
    • Obersachsen: 33
    • Ostfriesland: 26, 31, 59, 103, 134, 190
    • Ostpreußen: 61, 68, 117
    • Pommern: 40, 67, 90, 115, 136, 137, 145, 155, 174, 191
    • Gekies: 62, 78, 116, 140
    • Ravensberg: 82, 194
    • Reutlingen: 34, 41
    • Sauerland: 38, 53, 97
    • Schlesien: 73, 112, 153, 178
    • Sleeswyk-Holstein: 91, 162, 186
    • Schwaben: 34, 41, 42, 55, 71, 75, 110, 146, 170
    • Siegerland: 95, 139, 163, 164, 198, 199
    • Switsers (Duits): 42, 48, 56, 65, 77
    • Thüringen: 87, 114
    • Westfalen: 108, 152, 156, 172, 182, 184, 187, 193
    • Westpreußen: 126, 132, 133
    • Algemeen: 1-17, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 36, 37, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 92, 100, 104, 109, 118, 125, 130, 135, 147, 148, 154, 165, 169, 172, 177, 185, 188, 192, 195, 196, 201, 203

    Geskiedenis van feodalisme

    • Blum, Jerome. Die einde van die ou orde in die platteland van Europa. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1978. Historiese oorsig van die sosiale emansipasie van die landelike boere in Oostenryk-Hongarye, die Baltiese state, Denemarke, Frankryk, Duitsland, Pole, Roemenië, Rusland en Switserland gedurende die 18de en 19de eeu .


    Landindeks: Duitse biografieë - Geskiedenis

    Na baie jare diens aan ILGenWeb, het Celia Snyder afgetree weens gesondheidskwessies. Celia werk sedert die begin by ILGenWeb en Champaign County. Sy het ook jare lank ons ​​bekroonde Burgeroorlog -webwerf geskep en bestuur. As u belangstel om 'n koördineerder van Champaign County te word, kontak [email  protected]

    Champaign County is op 20 Februarie 1833 geskep deur 'n wet van die Illinois wetgewer. Voor die datum was die gebied deel van Vermilion County. Die wet van 1833 het ook bepaal dat die provinsiale setel 'Urbana' genoem sou word. 'Senator John W. Vance, vir sy pogings om die wet goedgekeur te kry, het die eer gekry om die nuwe land te benoem. Hy noem dit 'Kampanje' na sy voormalige tuisland in Ohio, waarvan die setel ook Urbana is.

    Daar word gehoop dat hierdie webwerf insiggewend en nuttig sal wees vir diegene wat op soek is na voorouers in Champaign County, Illinois. Dit is 'n deurlopende projek en daar sal gereeld opdaterings wees, en kom gereeld terug!

    As u dokumente het wat u wil deel van die begraafplaas -transkripsies (selfs al is dit slegs 'n paar name), sterfkennisse, testamente, biografieë, familiegeskiedenis, ens., Kontak asb. Champaign ILGW .


    Duitse geslagsregister

    Leer hoe u u Duitse voorouers kan ondersoek! Hierdie vakgids bevat 'n lys van noodsaaklike hulpbronne wat by NEHGS en ander bewaarplekke beskikbaar is, inligting oor die opspoor en gebruik van rekords en wenke.

    Hoe-om-gidse

    Beginnersgids vir Germaanse geslagsregister deur Lois Hemmeter Edwards
    NEHGS, 1st Floor Stacks CS614.E39 2005

    Woordeboek van Duitse name deur Hans Bahlow trans. deur Edda Gentry
    NEHGS, 7th Floor Reference CS2541.B34 1993

    Op soek na u Duitse wortels deur Angus Baxter
    NEHGS, 7th Floor Reference CS614.B39 2015

    Ontsiftering van handskrif in Duitse dokumente deur Roger P. Minert
    NEHGS, 7th Floor Reference Z115.G4 M56 2013

    'N Atlas van Duitse migrasie en Amerika deur Carrie Eldridge
    NEHGS, Atlas op die 5de verdieping G1912.21.E27 E5 2002

    Duits-Amerikaanse name deur George F. Jones
    NEHGS, 1st Floor Stacks CS2487.J66 2006

    Duits-Engels genealogiese woordeboek deur Ernest Thode
    NEHGS, 7th Floor Reference CS6.T46 1992

    Duitse eenwording en plekname

    As u Duitse geslagsregister doen, is dit belangrik om te onthou dat die huidige Duitsland anders is as die Duitse Ryk 1871-1918, wat verskil van die verskillende hertogdomme van voor 1871. Vir meer inligting raadpleeg:

    Daar kan ook meer as een plek met dieselfde naam wees. Dit kan ook nodig wees om burgerlike registrasiekantore te identifiseer. Raadpleeg:

    Burgerlike Registrasie

    Die meeste begin in 1876, die meeste siviele registrasie -rekords, insluitend geburts (geboortes), erfgenaam (huwelike) en sterbe of tas (sterftes), sal gevind word by die staande of 'n plaaslike burgerlike registrasiekantoor. Om uit te vind of FamilySearch die burgerlike registrasie gemikrofilm het, moet u die stad van belang ken, wat dan in die FamilySearch -katalogus gesoek kan word. Kom meer te wete by FamilySearch Wiki oor Duitse burgerregistrasie.

    As u nie 'n huweliksrekord kan vind nie, moet u moontlik na een van die rekords soek wat die bedoeling van 'n paartjie om te trou aantoon, wat die volgende insluit:

    • Afkondigings (Aufgebote of Eheverkündigungen) - soortgelyk aan huweliksverbod
    • Huweliksaanvullings (Heiratsbeilagen) - kan dokumente bevat van die geboorte van die paartjies, hul ouers se dood en/of die bruidegom se vrylating uit militêre diens
    • Kontrakte (Ehekontrakte) - 'n huwelikskontrak is vandag soortgelyk aan 'n huweliksvoorwaardekontrak
    • Huweliks toestemming vraestelle (Verehelichungsakten) —Dokumente wat gegenereer word dat 'n egpaar toestemming van die stadsraad of burgemeester gehad het om te trou, is nie oral nodig nie

    Sommige van die regsdokumente soos huwelikskontrakte en toestemmingspapiere kan by FamilySearch onder ander onderwerpopskrifte gekategoriseer word, behalwe 'burgerlike registrasie', insluitend 'hofrekords' en 'openbare rekords'. Vir groter stede kan daar meer as een siviele registrasiedistrikte wees. Die gebruik van stadsgidse kan help om die siviele registrasiedistrik waarin 'n voorouer gewoon het, te identifiseer.

    Kerkrekords

    Die grootste godsdienstige groepe in Duitsland is die Katolieke en die Evangeliese Lutherane. Om u gesin in kerkverslag te ondersoek, is dit nodig om die stad en in baie gevalle die gemeente (vir groter dorpe) te ken. Om die ligging van kerkrekords te vergemaklik, is daar twee portale wat navorsers wil ondersoek. Nie alles kan in Engels gesien word nie.

    Kaartgids vir Duitse parochieregisters deur Kevan M. Hansen
    NEHGS, 1st Floor Stacks CS614.H36 2004
    Let wel: Dit is 'n deurlopende projek, met nuwe volumes wat gereeld bygevoeg word.

    Twee nuttige databasisse op FamilySearch (met onttrekbare inskrywings uit rekords) om die identifikasie van die stad van herkoms te help, sluit in:

    Aanlyn hulpbronne

    FamilySearch
    FamilySearch bied tans die beelde van die kerk en burgerlike registrasie vir die registers wat in die Marburg Staatsargief, 1701–1875, gedeponeer is. Dit is nie deursoekbaar nie, maar maak tans deel uit van die beskikbaarheid van 'blaai deur prente'.

    Matricula-online.eu
    Bevat gedigitaliseerde rekords vir die Rooms-Katolieke bisdom Bistum Passau en die Evangelies-Lutherse rekords van Kurhessen-Waldeck en Rheinland.

    Mikrofilm

    FamilySearch bied baie mikrofilmde parochierekords vir Duitsland aan. Om die toepaslike mikrofilms op te spoor, gebruik die FamilySearch -aanlynkatalogus om te soek na die dorp waar die afkoms vandaan kom.

    Emigrasie

    Die meeste Duitsers emigreer tydens een van die volgende migrasiegolwe en om die volgende redes:

    • 1683–1820: Geëmigreer weens ekonomiese ontberings, godsdienstige vervolging, het die Dertigjarige Oorlog bygedra. Baie was protestante hoofsaaklik uit die streke van die Rheinland, Westfalen, Hessen, Baden, Württemberg en Elsaß-Lothringen.
    • 1820–1871: Geëmigreer weens ekonomiese ontberings (insluitend werkloosheid en oesmislukkings), die vermyding van militêre diens, die regering moedig sy armes aan om te emigreer.
    • 1871–1914: Groot toename in emigrasie as gevolg van bekostigbaarheid en voortgesette ekonomiese en politieke probleme in Duitsland. Groot getalle uit die oostelike provinsies Preußen. Emigrante het Pole en Jode begin insluit.
    • 1914–1945: Aantal Duitse immigrante het aansienlik verminder as gevolg van die Amerikaanse kwotastelsel wat in 1924 ingestel is. Emigrante sluit politieke andersdenkendes, Jode en diegene wat nie tevrede was met die ontwikkelinge na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in nie.

    Navorsingshulpmiddels

    Deutsches Auswandererhaus Bremerhaven
    Hierdie webwerf is gewy aan die museum en die emigrasie wat deur die hawe van Bremerhaven gegaan het.

    Auswanderung aus Südwestdeutschland
    Hierdie webwerf is toegewy aan diegene wat uit Baden, Württemberg en Hohenzollern geëmigreer het.

    Aanlyn hulpbronne

    Passasierslyste is dikwels die eerste stap in die identifisering van 'n Duitse immigrant, en dit kan aankomslyste in die VSA wees of uitganglyste uit hul aanboord. Hierdie lyste kan op 'n aantal aanlynwebwerwe gevind word, insluitend:

    AGGSH e.V.
    Arbeits-Gemeinschaft Genealogie Schleswig-Holstein e.V. (Genealogy Work Group Schleswig-Holstein) bied 'n plek om inligting oor u bekende emigrante uit hierdie gebied van Duitsland in te dien. U kan ook 'n navorsingsversoek indien. Daar is ander bronne op hierdie webwerf beskikbaar, insluitend 'n paar sensusrekords.

    Ancestry.com
    Hierdie webwerf bevat die passasierslyste vir die meeste Amerikaanse hawens van aankoms vanaf die begin van die Amerikaanse passasierslyste in 1820 tot die middel van die 1900's. Hulle beskik ook oor hulpbronne vir vroeë Duitse immigrante en 'n groot verskeidenheid emigrasie -rekords van dorpe en hawens in Duitsland (hierdie rekords is in Duits). Let wel: Vir diegene uit Württemburg, moet u die emigrasie -indeks van Württemberg, Duitsland, deursoek, wat 'n mikrofilmnommer van die familiegeskiedenisbiblioteek verskaf (geïdentifiseer as nommer en onder die bestemming op die persoon se besonderhede). Hierdie mikrofilmnommer kan gebruik word om die korrekte emigrasiemikrofilm aan te vra uit die Württemburg -versameling wat hieronder in die FamilySearch -mikrofilmbeskrywing genoem word.

    Auswanderungsanzeigen
    'N Opsomming per jaar, wat 10 929 name van emigrante uit die gebiede Pfalz en Württemberg bevat vir die jare 1816, 1819, 1833–36, 1841, 1842 en 1849–1857. 'N Jaar moet gekies word en dan word 'n alfabetiese lys van die name vertoon.

    Deutsche Auswanderer-Datenbank
    Die Duitse databank vir emigrante in die Historiches Museum Bremerhaven dek navorsing oor Europese emigrasie na die Verenigde State. Dit bevat inligting oor emigrante wat Europa tussen 1820 en 1939 verlaat het. Dit bevat tans inligting oor 5 miljoen emigrante.

    Die Maus Gesellschaft für Familienforschung e. V. Bremen
    Hierdie webwerf bevat 'n soekbare databasis van die Bremen -emigrasielyste, asook ander waardevolle aanlyn -inligting en hulpbronne oor families in Bremen (sommige gebiede kan lidmaatskap van die Genealogical Society of Bremen vereis).

    FamilySearch
    Hierdie webwerf bevat die passasierlyste vir die meeste Amerikaanse hawens van aankoms vanaf die begin van die Amerikaanse passasierslyste in 1820 tot die middel van die 1900's. Dit bevat ook die Amerikaanse Duitsers na Amerika -indeks, 1850–1897.

    Mikrofilm en boeke

    Baie emigrante moes toestemming vra om Duitsland te verlaat, veral die mans wat moontlik in die weermag moes dien. As 'n gesin egter probeer om militêre diens te vermy, het hulle moontlik sonder amptelike dokumente weggegaan. 'N Soektog na die aanlyn katalogus by FamilySearch moet gedoen word vir die streek, amt (onderverdeling land), en stad vir moontlike emigrasie dokumente. Let wel: Vir diegene wat uit Württemburg emigreer, sien die nota hierbo oor hoe om na 'n voorouer te soek. Gebruik die opsie film/fiche -nommers in die katalogus om die filmnommer op Ancestry.com op te soek.

    Duitsers na Amerika: lyste van passasiers wat by Amerikaanse hawens aankom deur Ira A. Glazier en P. William Filby
    NEHGS, 5de verdiepingstapels E184.G3.G38 1988

    Organisasies

    Webwerwe

    Hulp nodig?

    Wil u u navorsing maksimeer? Die kundiges by NEHGS kan u help! Ons bied 'n aantal dienste wat u kan help om baksteenmure af te breek en u navorsing uit te brei.

    Gesels regstreeks met ons kundiges!

    Het u 'n genealogie- of plaaslike geskiedenisvraag? Oorweeg ons gratis, aanlyn live chat diens! Die diens is beskikbaar vir almal, Maandag tot Saterdag van 09:00 tot 17:00 ET.

    Voorbeeldvrae:
    • Ek het onlangs gehoor dat die versameling van die Wales Family Association aan NEHGS geskenk is. Is hierdie vraestelle aanlyn beskikbaar?
    • Wat is die 19de eeuse definisie van 'n huisgenoot?
    • Hoe of waar kan ek volume 4 van die Newport, RI Probate Records Index opspoor?
    • Watter hulpbronne kan ek gebruik om meer te wete te kom oor die plaaslike Massachusetts -regimente uit die burgeroorlog?
    • Ek het ontdek dat my voorvader 45-50 myl ver van waar hy in Noorweë gebore is, gedoop is. Kan u sê waarom my voorouers so ver sou gereis het?

    Besoek AmericanAncestors.org/chat en tik u vraag in die venster in die regter onderste hoek.

    Ontmoet een-tot-een met ons genealoë

    Wil u praktiese navorsingsleiding van 'n professionele genealoog kry? Neem u ervaring na die volgende vlak met 'n uitgebreide navorsingsessie met ons persoonlike genealoog vir die dagdiens. Persoonlike en aanlyn sessies word aangebied as 'n halfdag (drie uur) of 'n volle dag (vyf uur) opsie.

    • Vind ontwykende voorouers- Of u nou in die 17de of 20ste eeu in die VSA of in die buiteland soek, ons genealoë het die kennis om u te help.
    • Soek en gebruik rekords—Vital rekords, militêre rekords, aktes, testament en meer - as u wonder waar u dit moet soek, hoe om dit te lees of watter data u daarin kan vind, kan ons u lei.
    • Haal meer uit tegnologie—Voel dit asof u u genealogiese sagteware beter kan benut? Nuuskierig oor webwerwe en databasisse wat relevant kan wees vir u navorsing? Laat ons help!

    Huur ons kundiges in navorsingsdienste aan

    Of jy nou eers met jou familie -navorsing begin het of al jare lank navorsing doen, NEHGS Research Services is hier om jou te help. Ons span kundiges kan:


    Karl Lagerfeld

    Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

    Karl Lagerfeld, oorspronklike naam Karl Otto Lagerfeld, (gebore 10 September 1933?, Hamburg, Duitsland - oorlede 19 Februarie 2019, Parys, Frankryk), Duitse modeontwerper en fotograaf, veral bekend as die kreatiewe krag agter die moderne herlewing van Chanel, die legendariese Franse modehuis gestig deur Coco Chanel in die vroeë 20ste eeu.

    Lagerfeld verhuis na Parys in 1952. In 1954 wen hy die eerste prys vir sy jasontwerp in die Franse Internasionale Wolsekretariaat (nou die Internasionale Woolmarkprys), en in 1955 word hy aangestel deur Pierre Balmain, wat sy ontwerp in produksie gestel het. Drie jaar later word hy artistieke direkteur van die modehuis van Jean Patou. Hy verlaat Parys in 1964 om kunsgeskiedenis in Italië te studeer. Maar binnekort ontwerp hy vryskut vir 'n reeks ondernemings, waaronder Chloé (wie se versamelings hy van 1964 tot 1983 en weer van 1992 tot 1997 ontwerp het), Krizia, Valentino en skoenmaker Charles Jourdan. In 1967 is hy aangestel as konsultantdirekteur by die luukse Italiaanse ontwerphuis Fendi om die pelslyn van die onderneming te moderniseer. Sy ontwerpe was baanbrekerswerk. Onder ander innovasies het hy die gebruik van velle soos mol, konyn en eekhoring bekendgestel-nog nooit tevore in modieuse ontwerpe gebruik nie. Hy het gedurende sy loopbaan by Fendi gebly. In 1983 vervaardig Lagerfeld sy eerste couture -versameling vir Chanel, en in 1984, na 'n jaar by Chanel, begin hy sy eie gelyknamige etiket. Maar dit was by Chanel dat Lagerfeld werklik bekend geword het. Hy slaag daar deur konsekwent daarin te slaag om die tydsgees saam te smelt met Chanel se oorspronklike strategie vir 'n 'totale voorkoms' - 'n konsep wat Chanel self geskep het - waarin individuele kledingstukke minder belangrik is as waarmee dit toegerus is en hoe dit is gedra. In die 1980's, toe die samelewing gefixeer was met geld en status, het Chanel baie gebruik gemaak van die Chanel -handtekening, dubbele C -voorletters. Deur die 1990's, namate mense meer mobiel geword het, het die Chanel -handelsmerk mode met toenemende funksionaliteit versmelt.

    Benewens sy werk vir 'n aantal mode- en ontwerphuise, het Lagerfeld talle professionele belangstellings gehad. Hy was 'n ywerige fotograaf. Vanaf 1987 het hy baie van Chanel se mode -advertensies afgeneem, en sy werk is gepubliseer in modetydskrifte soos British Vogue en Onderhoud. Boonop het hy illustrasies geskep vir 'n uitgawe van Hans Christian Andersen Die nuwe klere van die keiser (1992) en het kostuums geskep vir La Scala in Milaan, die operahuis in Florence en die Monte Carlo Ballet. Sy publikasies sluit in Die Karl Lagerfeld -dieet (2004 saam met sy dokter, Jean-Claude Houdret), 'n handleiding wat vertel van sy stryd met gewigsverlies. In 2004 werk hy ook saam met die afslaghandelaar H & ampM aan 'n onderneming om klerereëls in beperkte oplaag te vervaardig deur ontwerpers uit die modewêreld. In 2010 werk hy saam met Steidl uitgewery om die L.S.D. imprint (Lagerfeld. Steidl. Druckerei. Verlag), wat literatuur, biografieë en boeke oor mode, kuns en musiek gepubliseer het, waarvan die meeste uit Frans en Engels in Duits vertaal is. In 2015 het Lagerfeld die British Fashion Award for Outstanding Achievement gewen, en hy was die onderwerp van 'n retrospektiewe uitstalling, "Karl Lagerfeld: Modemethode", in die Bundeskunsthalle in Bonn, Duitsland.

    Die redakteurs van Encyclopaedia Britannica Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Amy Tikkanen, bestuurder van korreksies.


    Duitse Weerstandsherdenkingsentrum- Biografieë

    Adolf Reichwein, 'n opvoeder en naaste medewerker van die Pruisiese minister van onderwys en kultuursake, Carl Heinrich Becker, het hom uitgespreek ter ondersteuning van 'n program van gemeenskapskolleges, programme vir volwassenesopvoeding en voortgesette onderwys vir onderwysers na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. In 1930 word Reichwein professor in geskiedenis en politieke wetenskap aan die nuut geopende Akademie van Onderwys in Halle. Daar is hy om politieke redes ontslaan op 24 April 1933. Hy was getroud met Rosemarie Pallat, met wie hy drie dogters en 'n seun gehad het. Reichwein het die daaropvolgende jare as landskolier in Tiefensee naby Berlyn deurgebring, later as opvoeder by die Staatsmuseum vir Duitse folklore in Berlyn. Vanaf 1940 was hy in aanraking met die versetskringe rondom Wilhelm Leuschner en Julius Leber en was hy self lid van die Kreisau -kring. In die somer van 1944 ontmoet hy die kommunistiese leiers Anton Saefkow en Franz Jacob. Hierdie kontakte het gelei tot sy arrestasie vroeg in Julie 1944. Adolf Reichwein is op 20 Oktober 1944 deur die Volkshof ter dood veroordeel en dieselfde dag in Berlyn-Plötzensee vermoor.


    Nazi -geskiedenis: Hitler se wêreldbeskouings word weer in biografie ondersoek

    Met 'Hitler: A Global Biography' beklemtoon historikus Brendan Simms die obsessie van die diktator met Anglo-Amerikaanse kapitalisme as 'n motivering vir sy vernietigende heerskappy.

    Daar is sekerlik genoeg boeke oor Adolf Hitler in die wêreld. Baie biografieë oor Hitler is deur bekende historici gepubliseer.

    Onlangs het Brendan Simms, 'n professor in die geskiedenis van internasionale betrekkinge aan die Universiteit van Cambridge, ook die onderwerp ingegaan. Terwyl Hitler: 'n Globale biografie verlede herfs in Engels gepubliseer is, is die Duitse vertaling van byna 1 000 bladsye op 9 Maart vrygestel.

    Die publikasie van 'n nuwe, groot Hitler -biografie is altyd 'n gebeurtenis in Duitsland. Een week voor sy publikasie, Duitse weekblad Der Spiegel 'n onderhoud gepubliseer met die Ierse skrywer en historikus, waarin Brendan Simms sy belangrikste tesis saamvat: Hitler se dryfveer in binnelandse en buitelandse beleid is gebore uit 'n liefde-haat-verhouding met "Anglo-America." Dit was nie die vrees vir kommunisme en die Sowjetunie wat hom tot oorlog en vernietiging gelei het nie, maar eerder die stryd met Groot -Brittanje en die Verenigde State en die vrees vir internasionale kapitalisme.

    Skrywer en professor Brendan Simms

    Hitler se ervarings gedurende die jare 1914-1918 was in hierdie opsig vormend: "Bewondering en respek het ontstaan ​​uit sy ervarings in die oorlog. Hitler het herhaaldelik verwys na die taaiheid van die Britte, soos hy dit aan die front ervaar het," skryf Simms.

    Volgens Simms het selfs Hitler se antisemitisme nie hoofsaaklik ontstaan ​​uit 'n diepe haat van Jode nie, maar tweedens uit 'n kompetisie met 'wêreldkapitalisme' in die VSA, waar Jode in magsposisies gesit het.

    Die Duitse vertaling verskyn vandag, 9 Maart

    Baie Hitler -biografieë - baie verskillende aspekte

    Verskeie goed nagevorsde Hitler-biografieë het die afgelope jare verskillende perspektiewe gebied.

    Een werk bly 'n absolute standaard: die Britse skrywer Ian Kershaw se twee-volume Hitler-biografie wat in 1998 en 2000 gepubliseer is, waarin die historikus hoofsaaklik fokus op die interaksie tussen Hitler en die Duitse volk. Volgens Kershaw kon Hitler op hierdie manier optree omdat die Duitsers op eie inisiatief die grondslag gelê het vir die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese ideologie.

    Voor en na Ian Kershaw se publikasies het verskeie ander biograwe uit Duitsland en die buiteland gefokus op verskillende aspekte van hierdie hoofstuk van die geskiedenis.

    In 1973 het die Duitse joernalis Joachim Fest die onderwerp van Hitler aangespreek en 'n boek van meer as 1 000 bladsye geskryf wat 'n topverkoper geword het en lank as 'n standaardwerk beskou is. Later is aangetoon dat Fest ernstige foute in sy navorsing gemaak het, deels omdat hy sterk staatgemaak het op die uitsprake van Albert Speer, Hitler se hoofargitek en minister van bewapening en oorlogsproduksie. Die Holocaust is slegs marginaal deur Fest.

    Die joernalis en historikus Sven Felix Kellerhof het Fest se boek egter nog verlede jaar onder die 'sewe belangrikste Hitler -biografieë' gereken. 'Sommige nie-fiksieboeke kan klassiek word-dit is die geval wanneer dit, hoewel die inhoud daarvan verouderd is, steeds die moeite werd is om te lees,' het Kellerhof gesê. Baie kritici het Fest se boek as van groot literêre waarde beskou.

    Hoe Hitler en sy politiek geïnterpreteer moet word, is al lank die geskil tussen twee kampe historici. Die sogenaamde "internasionaliste" beskou Hitler as 'n beslissende, sterk leier wie se denke en ideologie 'n beslissende invloed gehad het op wat tussen 1933 en 1945 gebeur het. Aan die ander kant stel die sogenaamde 'strukturaliste' meer belang in die samewerking en opposisie van mededingende groepe binne die Nazi -stelsel as in die politieke gewig van Hitler.

    Die Engelse oorspronklike het verlede herfs verskyn

    Verskeie groepe historici debatteer steeds oor die beeld van Hitler

    Hoe nasionaal -sosialisme enigsins onder Hitler en sy medewerkers kon funksioneer, was die onderwerp van verdere, omstrede interpretasies. Byvoorbeeld, verskillende geleerdes het gekyk na Hitler se sielkundige stabiliteit.

    En toe kom die boek van Brendan Simms Hitler: 'N Globale biografie. Na die publikasie daarvan in Engels was die reaksies gemeng.

    Die voog kritiseer die te sterk fokus op die hooftesis dat Hitler slegs opgetree het weens sy obsessie met Groot -Brittanje en die VSA.

    Geskiedenis Nuus Netwerk kritiek op die aanname van die Ierse historikus dat Hitler "geestelik stabiel" was, en optree as 'n 'rasionele' persoon: 'Simms aanvaar hom as 'n persoon gedryf deur 'n ideologie met 'n duidelik omskrewe intellektuele bobou, en nie as 'n diep onseker, narsistiese sosiopaat nie.'

    Nasionale hersiening was 'n bietjie meer genadig en skryf dat Simms se fokus op Hitler se obsessie met die VSA 'n bietjie te ver gegaan het, maar dat die boek die moeite werd was om te lees ondanks al sy tekortkominge. Dit het bygevoeg dat dit meer 'n bydrae tot 'n debat was as 'n finale interpretasie van die figuur van Adolf Hitler. Dit is nie, soos Simms self erken, "die hele Hitler" nie.

    'N Moontlike herbeoordeling van die geskiedenis

    En inderdaad skryf Brendan Simms aan die begin van sy werk dat "die huidige boek (.) In baie opsigte nie by sy voorgangers pas nie." Dit is "duidelik nie die eerste belangrike werk oor die onderwerp nie, en dit sal ook nie die laaste wees nie." Dit klink beskeie. Only a little later, however, the author writes confidently that based on his assertions, "Hitler's biography, and perhaps the history of the Third Reich more generally, need to be fundamentally rethought."

    Hitler's chief adversaries — in Simms' view: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill

    Simms returns, again and again, almost religiously, to Hitler's fixation on Anglo-Saxon politics, society and culture, but there are also other striking aspects in his interpretation of history. In his view, France, but also the Soviet Union, play only a subordinate role in the historical developments of this time because Hitler did not regard these nations as competitors. According to the historian, for a long time, Hitler didn't even view the Soviet Union as a threat.

    A reinterpretation of Hitler's perception of Germans

    Simms pushes a further point home as well. He believes that Hitler had a very negative view of his own people, even after 1933: "He continued to not think much of the German people as whole. He was painfully aware of their poverty and ignorance," the historian writes. Even two years before the outbreak of the war, Hitler realized the competition with Anglo-America — with regard to the living standards of the nations — was lost. "In May 1937, Hitler basically admitted defeat," Simms writes.

    But Hitler's relationship to the Anglo-American realm was also highly contradictory. For example, Simms writes that in earlier years the German politician had expressed himself nearly enviously: "A main subject of his interest was the United States, which he began to regard, perhaps even more so than the British Empire, as a model state."

    This had to do primarily with Hitler's view of the Americans' alleged geographical advantages. And also because the country was a nation full of German expatriates. That's why, Simms writes, Hitler was pushing for new "living space" for Germans in the eastern part of the European continent.

    For a long time, Hitler had "only" aimed to establish Germany as a major power in Europe, but no more, Simms noted. He wanted to create a counterweight to the US as a world power. "Hitler's goal was not world domination, but survival of the nation."

    Simms concludes: "Hitler's entire strategy had ultimately consisted, right up to the end, in using the threat of Bolshevism to exert political influence on Germany, Europe and, above all, Anglo-America." That's a bold thesis. It is likely to be of interest for historians from now on, and not only in Germany.

    DW recommends


    Indeks

    Aardrykskunde

    Located in central Europe, Germany is made up of the North German Plain, the Central German Uplands (Mittelgebirge), and the Southern German Highlands. The Bavarian plateau in the southwest averages 1,600 ft (488 m) above sea level, but it reaches 9,721 ft (2,962 m) in the Zugspitze Mountains, the highest point in the country. Germany's major rivers are the Danube, the Elbe, the Oder, the Weser, and the Rhine. Germany is about the size of Montana.

    Regering
    Geskiedenis

    The Celts are believed to have been the first inhabitants of Germany. They were followed by German tribes at the end of the 2nd century B.C. German invasions destroyed the declining Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. One of the tribes, the Franks, attained supremacy in western Europe under Charlemagne, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800. By the Treaty of Verdun (843), Charlemagne's lands east of the Rhine were ceded to the German Prince Louis. Additional territory acquired by the Treaty of Mersen (870) gave Germany approximately the area it maintained throughout the Middle Ages. For several centuries after Otto the Great was crowned king in 936, German rulers were also usually heads of the Holy Roman Empire.

    By the 14th century, the Holy Roman Empire was little more than a loose federation of the German princes who elected the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1438, Albert of Hapsburg became emperor, and for the next several centuries the Hapsburg line ruled the Holy Roman Empire until its decline in 1806. Relations between state and church were changed by the Reformation, which began with Martin Luther's 95 theses, and came to a head in 1547, when Charles V scattered the forces of the Protestant League at Mhlberg. The Counter-Reformation followed. A dispute over the succession to the Bohemian throne brought on the Thirty Years' War (1618?1648), which devastated Germany and left the empire divided into hundreds of small principalities virtually independent of the emperor.

    The Rise of Bismarck and the Birth of the Second German Reich

    Meanwhile, Prussia was developing into a state of considerable strength. Frederick the Great (1740?1786) reorganized the Prussian army and defeated Maria Theresa of Austria in a struggle over Silesia. After the defeat of Napolon at Waterloo (1815), the struggle between Austria and Prussia for supremacy in Germany continued, reaching its climax in the defeat of Austria in the Seven Weeks' War (1866) and the formation of the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation (1867). The architect of this new German unity was Otto von Bismarck, a conservative, monarchist, and militaristic Prussian prime minister. He unified all of Germany in a series of three wars against Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870?1871). On Jan. 18, 1871, King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. The North German Confederation was abolished, and the Second German Reich, consisting of the North and South German states, was born. With a powerful army, an efficient bureaucracy, and a loyal bourgeoisie, Chancellor Bismarck consolidated a powerful centralized state.

    Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck in 1890 and embarked upon a ?New Course,? stressing an intensified colonialism and a powerful navy. His chaotic foreign policy culminated in the diplomatic isolation of Germany and the disastrous defeat in World War I (1914?1918). The Second German Empire collapsed following the defeat of the German armies in 1918, the naval mutiny at Kiel, and the flight of the kaiser to the Netherlands. The Social Democrats, led by Friedrich Ebert and Philipp Scheidemann, crushed the Communists and established a moderate state, known as the Weimar Republic, with Ebert as president. President Ebert died on Feb. 28, 1925, and on April 26, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg was elected president. The majority of Germans regarded the Weimar Republic as a child of defeat, imposed on a Germany whose legitimate aspirations to world leadership had been thwarted by a worldwide conspiracy. Added to this were a crippling currency debacle, a tremendous burden of reparations, and acute economic distress.

    Adolf Hitler and WWII

    Adolf Hitler, an Austrian war veteran and a fanatical nationalist, fanned discontent by promising a Greater Germany, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, restoration of Germany's lost colonies, and the destruction of the Jews, whom he scapegoated as the reason for Germany's downfall and depressed economy. When the Social Democrats and the Communists refused to combine against the Nazi threat, President von Hindenburg made Hitler the chancellor on Jan. 30, 1933. With the death of von Hindenburg on Aug. 2, 1934, Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles and began full-scale rearmament. In 1935, he withdrew Germany from the League of Nations, and the next year he reoccupied the Rhineland and signed the Anti-Comintern pact with Japan, at the same time strengthening relations with Italy. Austria was annexed in March 1938. By the Munich agreement in Sept. 1938, he gained the Czech Sudetenland, and in violation of this agreement he completed the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. His invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, precipitated World War II.

    Hitler established death camps to carry out ?the final solution to the Jewish question.? By the end of the war, Hitler's Holocaust had killed 6 million Jews, as well as Gypsies, homosexuals, Communists, the handicapped, and others not fitting the Aryan ideal. After some dazzling initial successes in 1939?1942, Germany surrendered unconditionally to Allied and Soviet military commanders on May 8, 1945. On June 5 the four-nation Allied Control Council became the de facto government of Germany.

    (For details of World War II and of the Holocaust, kyk Headline History, World War II .)

    Post-War Germany Is Disarmed, Demilitarized, and Divided

    At the Berlin (or Potsdam) Conference (July 17?Aug. 2, 1945) President Truman, Premier Stalin, and Prime Minister Clement Attlee of Britain set forth the guiding principles of the Allied Control Council: Germany's complete disarmament and demilitarization, destruction of its war potential, rigid control of industry, and decentralization of the political and economic structure. Pending final determination of territorial questions at a peace conference, the three victors agreed to the ultimate transfer of the city of Knigsberg (now Kaliningrad) and its adjacent area to the USSR and to the administration by Poland of former German territories lying generally east of the Oder-Neisse Line. For purposes of control, Germany was divided into four national occupation zones.

    The Western powers were unable to agree with the USSR on any fundamental issues. Work of the Allied Control Council was hamstrung by repeated Soviet vetoes and finally, on March 20, 1948, Russia walked out of the council. Meanwhile, the U.S. and Britain had taken steps to merge their zones economically (Bizone) on May 31, 1948, the U.S., Britain, France, and the Benelux countries agreed to set up a German state comprising the three Western zones. The USSR reacted by clamping a blockade on all ground communications between the Western zones and West Berlin, an enclave in the Soviet zone. The Western allies countered by organizing a gigantic airlift to fly supplies into the beleaguered city. The USSR was finally forced to lift the blockade on May 12, 1949.

    Federal Republic of Germany

    The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on May 23, 1949, with its capital at Bonn. In free elections, West German voters gave a majority in the constituent assembly to the Christian Democrats, with the Social Democrats largely making up the opposition. Konrad Adenauer became chancellor, and Theodor Heuss of the Free Democrats was elected the first president.

    Democratic Republic of Germany

    The East German states adopted a more centralized constitution for the Democratic Republic of Germany, put into effect on Oct. 7, 1949. The USSR thereupon dissolved its occupation zone but Soviet troops remained. The Western allies declared that the East German Republic was a Soviet creation undertaken without self-determination and refused to recognize it. Soviet forces created a state controlled by the secret police with a single party, the Socialist Unity (Communist) Party.

    Agreements in Paris in 1954 giving the Federal Republic full independence and complete sovereignty came into force on May 5, 1955. Under the agreement, West Germany and Italy became members of the Brussels treaty organization created in 1948 and renamed the Western European Union. West Germany also became a member of NATO. In 1955, the USSR recognized the Federal Republic. The Saar territory, under an agreement between France and West Germany, held a plebiscite, and despite economic links to France, elected to rejoin West Germany on Jan. 1, 1957.

    The division between West Germany and East Germany was intensified when the Communists erected the Berlin Wall in 1961. In 1968, the East German Communist leader, Walter Ulbricht, imposed restrictions on West German movements into West Berlin. The Soviet-bloc invasion of Czechoslovakia in Aug. 1968 added to the tension. West Germany signed a treaty with Poland in 1970, renouncing force and setting Poland's western border at the Oder-Neisse Line. It subsequently resumed formal relations with Czechoslovakia in a pact that ?voided? the Munich treaty that gave Nazi Germany the Sudetenland. By 1973, normal relations were established between East and West Germany and the two states entered the United Nations.

    West German chancellor Willy Brandt, winner of a Nobel Peace Prize for his foreign policies, was forced to resign in 1974 when an East German spy was discovered to be one of his top staff members. Succeeding him was a moderate Social Democrat, Helmut Schmidt. Schmidt staunchly backed U.S. military strategy in Europe, staking his political fate on placing U.S. nuclear missiles in Germany unless the Soviet Union reduced its arsenal of intermediate missiles. He also strongly opposed nuclear-freeze proposals.

    Berlin Wall Falls, Germany Reunifies

    Helmut Kohl of the Christian Democrat Party became chancellor in 1982. An economic upswing in 1986 led to Kohl's reelection. The fall of the Communist government in East Germany left only Soviet objections to German reunification to be dealt with. On the night of Nov. 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall was dismantled, making reunification all but inevitable. In July 1990, Kohl asked Soviet leader Gorbachev to drop his objections in exchange for financial aid from (West) Germany. Gorbachev agreed, and on Oct. 3, 1990, the German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic, and Germany became a united and sovereign state for the first time since 1945.

    A reunited Berlin serves as the official capital of unified Germany, although the government continued to have administrative functions in Bonn during the 12-year transition period. The issues of the cost of reunification and the modernization of the former East Germany were serious considerations facing the reunified nation.

    Centrist Gerhard Schroder Elected Chancellor

    In its most important election in decades, on Sept. 27, 1998, Germans chose Social Democrat Gerhard Schrder as chancellor over Christian Democrat incumbent Helmut Kohl, ending a 16-year-long rule that oversaw the reunification of Germany and symbolized the end of the cold war in Europe. A centrist, Schrder campaigned for ?the new middle? and promised to rectify Germany's high unemployment rate of 10.6%.

    Tension between the old-style left-wing and the more pro-business pragmatists within Schrder's government came to a head with the abrupt resignation of finance minister Oskar Lafontaine in March 1999, who was also chairman of the ruling Social Democratic Party. Lafontaine's plans to raise taxes?already nearly the highest in the world?on industry and on German wages went against the more centrist policies of Schrder. Hans Eichel was chosen to become the next finance minister.

    Germany joined the other NATO allies in the military conflict in Kosovo in 1999. Before the Kosovo crisis, Germans had not participated in an armed conflict since World War II. Germany agreed to take 40,000 Kosovar refugees, the most of any NATO country.

    In Dec. 1999, former chancellor Helmut Kohl and other high officials in the Christian Democrat Party (CDU) admitted accepting tens of millions of dollars in illegal donations during the 1980s and 1990s. The enormity of the scandal led to the virtual dismemberment of the CDU in early 2000, a party that had long been a stable conservative force in German politics.

    In July 2000, Schrder managed to pass significant tax reforms that would lower the top income-tax rate from 51% to 42% by 2005. He also eliminated the capital-gains tax on companies selling shares in other companies, a measure that was expected to spur mergers. In May 2001, the German Parliament authorized the payment of $4.4 billion in compensation to 1.2 million surviving Nazi-era slave laborers.

    Schrder was narrowly reelected in Sept. 2002, defeating conservative businessman Edmund Stoiber. Schrder's Social Democrats and coalition partner, the Greens, won a razor-thin majority in Parliament. Schrder's deft handling of Germany's catastrophic floods in August and his tough stance against U.S. plans for a preemptive attack on Iraq buoyed him in the weeks leading up to the election. Germany's continued reluctance to support the U.S. call for military action against Iraq severely strained its relations with Washington.

    Germany's Unemployment Rate Reaches 12%

    Germany's recession continued in 2003: for the previous three years, Europe's biggest economy had the lowest growth rate among EU countries. In Aug. 2003, Schrder unfurled an ambitious fiscal-reform package and called his proposal ?the most significant set of structural reforms in the social history of Germany.? Schrder's reforms, however, did little to rejuvenate the economy and angered many Germans, accustomed to their country's generous social welfare programs. His reforms reduced national health insurance and cut unemployment benefits at a time when unemployment had reached an alarming 12%.

    National elections in Sept. 2005 ended in a deadlock: the conservative CDU/CSU and its leader, Angela Merkel, received 35.2% and Gerhard Schrder's SPD garnered 34.3%. After weeks of wrangling to form a governing coalition, the first left-right ?grand coalition? in Germany in 36 years was cobbled together, and on Nov. 22, Merkel became Germany's first female chancellor. During her first year, Merkel showed strong leadership in international relations, but her domestic economic reform agenda has stalled. Her first major initiative, reforming the health care system, was widely viewed as ineffectual.

    Germany Takes Major Role in Managing Euro Debt Crisis

    Germany was hit hard by the global financial crisis in late 2008 and 2009. In October 2008, the government financed a $68 billion bailout of one of the country's largest banks, Hypo Real Estate, to prevent it from collapse. That was followed in February 2009 with a $63 billion stimulus package to help lift the battered economy out of recession.

    Merkel earned another four-year term as chancellor in September 2009 elections. Her party, the Christian Democrats, formed a governing coalition with the pro-business Free Democrats. President Kohler was reelected in 2009. He resigned in May 2010 after his statement that a country of Germany's size sometimes must justify troop deployment abroad to protect its economic interests sparked controversy and outrage. He was replaced by Christian Wulff.

    Germany learned during the debt crisis of 2010 and 2011 that responsibility comes with holding the mantle as Europe's largest economy. Indeed, Merkel faced criticism in early 2010 for her delay in seeking parliamentary approval of a bailout package for Greece, which was teetering on the brink of financial collapse. International observers remarked that she should have acted sooner she was criticized by voters for coming to the rescue of another country. Nevertheless, parliament approved a 22.4 billion euro bailout for Greece in May 2010. Voters expressed their displeasure with Germany's contribution at the polls?Merkel lost her majority in the upper house of parliament in May when her coalition lost regional elections in North-Rhine Westphalia. That defeat was followed by another in March 2011 in Baden-Wuerttemberg.

    Germany's parliament approved a plan to increase the euro-zone's bail-out fund in September 2011, and that was followed in late October with the agreement by the leaders of the euro zone of a wider package meant to bring Europe's debt crisis under control.

    Christian Wulff resigned as president in February 2012 to face a corruption inquiry. Despite objections by Merkel, Parliament approved Joachim Gauck, a Lutheran pastor from East Germany, as his successor. Gauck was the preferred candidate of the opposition and one of Merkel's coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party. His election was seen as a rebuke to the chancellor.

    New Island Emerges Off the Coast

    A new island has emerged from the North Sea, off the coast of Germany, located sixteen miles from the German state, Schleswig Holstein. The 34 acre island has been named Norderoogsand, but it is being referred to as Bird Island because many birds, including sea gulls, grey geese, ducks, and peregrine falcons have been found there nesting or feeding. Forty-nine plant species have also been found on the island.

    The island appeared slowly over a ten year period from 2003 through 2013. The land mass emerged due to tidal action, not global warming. The island?s appearance surprised scientists because that area of the North Sea has strong winds and shifting tides.

    Merkel Elected to a Third Term Spying Scandals Sour Relationship with U.S.


    Angela Merkel
    Source: Amel Emric for Associated Press

    Merkel was elected to a third four-year term in September 2013. Her performance at the polls exceeded expectations. Her center-right Christian Democrats and sister party Christian Social Union in Bavaria won 311 seats out of 630 in the lower house of parliament?the best showing since unification. The resounding victory confirmed Merkel's position as the strongest leader in Europe. Another coalition partner, the Free Democrats, however, was ousted from parliament, garnering less than 5% of the vote. After five weeks of talks, the chancellor's Christian Democrats formed a grand coalition with the center-left Social Democrats in November. Together they will hold 80% of the seats. As part of the negotiations, the Christian Democrats adopted policies to the left of the party's. For example, they agreed to lower the retirement age from 67 to 63 for some workers and implement the country's first national minimum wage of ?8.50 ($11.50). Germany had allowed unions and companies negotiate and set wages by industry.

    In October, NSA documents leaked to the media by Edward Snowden revealed that the agency had tapped Merkel's cellphone for about 10 years, beginning in 2002. Outraged, she called U.S. president Barack Obama, who apologized and promised that such activity would not continue. The incident soured the relationship between the normally close allies. Ties were further strained in July 2104, amid reports that the U.S. hired a clerk at Germany's intelligence agency to steal hundreds of documents. Days later, German officials announced they believe they had uncovered a second spy working for the U.S. In response, Germany expelled the CIA station chief from Berlin.

    The tables were turned in August 2014, when news reports said Germany has made a practice of spying on Turkey. Turkey demanded an explanation. Germany neither confirmed nor denied the allegation.


    Revisiting Hitler, in a New Authoritarian Age

    With nationalism and anti-Semitism on the rise around the world, two big new biographies look at the Nazi leader’s march to power.

    When not at work on a book about the roots of anti-Semitism in his country, the German historian and Holocaust expert Peter Longerich has been thinking about 1923.

    In that year, Longerich explained, Germany faced a severe crisis. The economy teetered, separatist movements accelerated in multiple states and, in November, the upstart politician Adolf Hitler attempted a putsch in Bavaria. Still, “the Weimar Republic managed to get through the crisis and stabilize itself.”

    A decade later, another crisis had a very different outcome: Hitler became Reich Chancellor, quickly eliminated institutional checks on his power, and launched a dictatorship.

    How was Hitler able to turn a democratic nation into an autocracy organized around race-based hatred? In recent years, as much of the Western world has seen a notable, sometimes violent turn toward nationalism and anti-Semitism, that question has become one of broad, anxious interest. This fall, two new books seek answers: Longerich’s “ Hitler : A Biography” and the Cambridge historian Brendan Simms’s “Hitler: A Global Biography.” Both were underway well before the tumult of current events, but both biographers recognize that recent political trends have made their subject especially charged.

    “The questions that Hitler was addressing — inequality, migration, the challenge of international capitalism — they’re as salient as they were when he set out to provide his peculiarly destructive and demented answers,” Simms said. “In a very alarming and upsetting way, Hitler is actually less strange today than he was 20 or 30 years ago.”

    For Longerich, only a few factors separate the events of 1923 and 1933. An alliance between conservative factions that lasted just long enough. A steady degradation of the country’s constitution to prime the path. Most important, a leader who, through acumen, willpower and charisma, united a movement given to immobilizing infighting.

    For decades, prevailing scholarly attitudes have de-emphasized the centrality of that leader, preferring instead to examine the structures that enabled the broad terror of the Third Reich. “The individual events that were happening, from Warsaw to Norway, from Italy to France, and deep into the Soviet Union, cannot be explained simply by central decision-making,” said Jürgen Matthäus , head of research at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    Beeld

    But Longerich and Simms are among several historians to reassess that attitude lately. (Another is Volker Ullrich, author of a recent two-volume biography of Hitler.) It’s not the case that “dangerous developments only stem from social movements or structural trends,” Longerich said. “It can also be, simply, that a person has the abilities to use a certain political situation to set a new agenda.”

    In a 2018 volume of the German Yearbook of Contemporary History devoted to new research on Hitler, the editors Elizabeth Harvey and Johannes Hürter identified a recent “Hitler boom,” an unexpected increase in German research into Hitler beginning around 2013. But they’re wary of ascribing that upswing to public concerns. Academics, Harvey said, are largely not responding to “the worrying upsurge today of right-wing extremism, anti-Semitism, racism, right-wing populism, extremist leader figures” by thinking, “Right, I’m going to go write a better biography of Hitler to cure that.”

    Indeed, professional historians are wary of drawing too many parallels between Hitler and authoritarian-minded present-day leaders. “History,” Matthäus said, “is probably more complex than these analogies would like to have it.”

    Simms shares that view. “I don’t think there are any simple partisan points you can make today drawing on the findings of these books,” he said. “If there’s a comparison or a lesson, it’s to take seriously and look closely at what people say and what they argue before they come to power, and not to assume they will be tamed by the structures.” In writing about Hitler’s furious obsession with German emigration to America, Simms (who is British) did include one reference to the contemporary landscape: “The president is mentioned in the book, but only in the context that his grandfather, Frederick Trump, was one of those Germans that left Germany,” he said.

    Simms is a political scientist and a professor of international relations this is his first biography and his first book to focus on World War II. A significant motivation was personal: “My mother is German, and I grew up for quite a lot of my childhood in Germany,” he said. “My grandfather served in the Second World War on the German side.”

    Longerich — whose previous books include biographies of the Nazi leaders Heinrich Himmler and Joseph Goebbels , as well as “Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews” — has personal reasons for his interest as well. “Of course, you ask yourself: Why are you doing this?” hy het gesê. “Why are you so obsessed with this period?”

    One reason, he said, is that he was born in Germany only a decade after the war ended. “My teachers actually served in the Wehrmacht. My history teacher was a former SS man. It’s difficult to see, the elderly people you know were actively involved in this system.” That difficulty, for him, turned to curiosity over “how rapidly the democratic Weimar Republic, center of modern culture, could turn into a dictatorship — and how quickly this dictatorship could be transformed, again, into a relatively normal democratic society.”

    Academic caution aside, that curiosity isn’t detached from action Longerich and Simms have both joined the growing ranks of historians speaking publicly about threats they see in contemporary society. Longerich helped lead a 2012 German parliamentary commission examining anti-Semitism in the country, and Simms is the president of a think tank, the Project for Democratic Union, that supports the constitutional creation of a single European state.

    “For historians working on the history of National Socialism,” Elizabeth Harvey said, there’s “a feeling of obligation to intervene in current debates.” The timing of history is delicate, and the life of Hitler remains one of the most incomprehensible examples of how quickly the touch of the wrong person, at the wrong time, can shatter an order that appeared stable. “It was unimaginable,” Longerich said, “how the world I grew up in, only 25 years before, could be so different.”


    Who's Who - Introduction

    No history of the First World War would be especially intelligible without a Who's Who gallery of its primary protagonists. This section of the website goes some way towards providing background information on the people who shaped events and perceptions.

    Each biography contained within this section is assigned to one of the following sub-categories:

    Kategorie Beskrywing
    Royalty Monarchs and their heirs
    Politicians Political figures who prosecuted or opposed the war
    Bevelvoerders Military leaders who oversaw battlefield strategy
    Air Aces & Commanders The new form of battle - war in the air
    Prose & Poetry Authors who wrote about the war as they saw it
    Diverse Miscellaneous biographical sketches
    Ook:
    />A-Z Listing Complete listing of all profiles
    />By Country Listing of profiles country by country

    In addition to the kind of entries you would expect to see - royalty and military commanders (a role often combined in Kaiser Wilhelm II's German army) - there are listings for national politicians - and for numerous scientific and literary figures.

    The folio of biographical entries listed by category in the side-bar to the right is by no means complete. Many of the chief figures are there, but it continues to grow.

    Saterdag, 22 Augustus, 2009 Michael Duffy

    A "creeping barrage" is an artillery bombardment in which a 'curtain' of artillery fire moves toward the enemy ahead of the advancing troops and at the same speed as the troops.

    - Het jy geweet?


    Kyk die video: New MJ Documentary: March, 2017 Man in the Mirror with Earnest Valentino