Martin Baltimore beskadig oor Tunisië

Martin Baltimore beskadig oor Tunisië


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Martin Baltimore beskadig oor Tunisië

'N Martin Baltimore wat in die lente van 1943 oor Tunisië vlieg. Die vliegtuig kan enige van die latere weergawes van die Baltimore wees van die IIIA tot die V, wat almal dieselfde tweelinggeweer -rewolwer gedra het en baie ekstern gelyk het. Let op die skade aan die roer wat gely is tydens 'n aanval op 'n Duitse vliegveld.


Zerstörergeschwader 26

Zerstörergeschwader 26 (ZG 26) "Horst Wessel" was 'n Luftwaffe -swaar vegvleuel van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

ZG 26, wat op 1 Mei 1939 gestig is, was aanvanklik gewapen met die Messerschmitt Bf 109-enkelmotorige onderskepmasjien weens produksietekorte met die Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer-klas vliegtuie. Die vleuel het tydens die Phoney War -fase in 1939 en 1940 aan die sluimerende Westelike Front gedien. Gedurende hierdie fase was ZG 26 toegerus met die Bf 110. Dit vorm deel van Luftflotte 2 en veg in die Slag van Nederland, Slag van België en Slag van Frankryk in Mei en Junie 1940. Die vleuel het voortgegaan om in die Slag van Brittanje op te tree, al was dit baie minder as gevolg van verliese.

In 1941 dien ZG 26 weer met sukses in die Duitse inval in Joegoslavië en Slag van Griekeland en daarna Slag van Kreta in April en Mei. Vanaf Junie 1941 het die grootste deel van ZG 26 aan die Oosfront geveg vanaf Operasie Barbarossa wat die oorlog teen die Sowjetunie begin het. ZG 26 ondersteun Army Group Center en Army Group North. 'N Groep ZG 26 het van Januarie 1941 tot Mei 1943 in die Slag om die Middellandse See en Noord -Afrikaanse veldtog gevlieg en gedien.

Vanaf middel 1943 het ZG 26 met matige sukses gedien en geveg teen die Amerikaanse Agtste Lugmag en Vyftiende Lugmag in die Defense of the Reich-veldtog totdat Amerikaanse langafstandvegters verdere operasies te duur gemaak het. ZG 26 is in September 1944 ontbind en hernoem 'n Bf 109-eenheid, Jagdgeschwader 6.


Die eerste fort wat deur die Amerikaanse regering in opdrag is, is Fort McHenry tydens die oorlog van 1812 getoets toe die Britte probeer het om Baltimore oor te neem. Ondanks dae van bombardement deur Britse magte, het die jong fort die vyand se opmars verhinder. Amateurdigter Francis Scott Key het “ The Defense of Fort McHenry ” geskryf ter ere van die oorwinning. Die gedig is later getoonset en het ons volkslied geword.

Dompel u in die geskiedenis met heropnames, vlaggesprekke, veldwagterprogramme en die geleentheid om 'n replika van die oorspronklike Star-Spangled Banner op te stel.

Hier is nog 'n paar lekker feite oor Fort McHenry:

  • Elke keer as 'n nuwe vlag ontwerp is vir gebruik deur die Verenigde State, word dit eers oor Fort McHenry gewaai, oor dieselfde skanse waarna in ons volkslied verwys word.
  • Die vlag wat tydens die oorlog van 1812 oor die fort gewaai het, was die grootste garnisoenvlag wat ooit gewaai is, 30 voet hoog en 42 voet breed, sodat die Britte dit nie kon misloop nie. Wil u meer weet oor hoe die vlag gemaak is? Besoek die Star-Spangled Banner Flag House.

Fort McHenry vlieg 'n replika van dieselfde vlag uit die oorlog van 1812 met 15 sterre en 15 strepe.


Historiese gebeure op 28 April

    (7 Mei) Engelse parlement eis toesig oor koninklike uitgawes Engels & quotGood Parliament & quot begin vergader in Londen, sit tot 10 Julie, dan is die langste Engelse parlementstryd by Cerignalo: Spaanse leër onder Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba verslaan 'n Franse mag onder leiding van Louis d'Armagnac, Hertog van Nemours Verdrag van Wurms: Keiser Charles noem sy broer Ferdinand Aartshertog van Nederland-Oostenryk Bevoegdhede van Nederlandse inkwisisie brei tot stand van die Pouslike en Koninklike Universiteit van Santo Tomas, Die Katolieke Universiteit van die Filippyne, die oudste bestaande universiteit in Asië en die grootste Katolieke universiteit in die wêreld, goewerneur van Virginia, John Harvey, beskuldig van verraad en uit die amp verwyder is, het die Engelse generaal-op-see Robert Blake (hy was nooit 'n titel nie Admiraal) die Noord-Afrikaanse seerowervloot geslaan

Histories Ontdekking

1770 Britse kaptein James Cook, aan boord van die Endeavour, land by Botany Bay in Australië

Grondwet van die Verenigde State

1788 word Maryland sewende staat om die Amerikaanse grondwet te bekragtig


4 VA -leenmites is verby: Wat u moet weet voordat u vertrek

Geplaas op 29 April 2020 16:08:01

As iemand my sou vra wat die beste raad is vir iemand wat 'n huis koop, sal ek moet sê dat ek uself moet opvoed. Ek besef dat dit vaag klink, maar daar is BAIE inligting, nog belangriker, verkeerde inligting. daar en elke gesinsituasie is uniek. Ek probeer hard om te sê wat die belangrikste is, maar die eerste is om die struikelblokke te breek. Ongelukkig sien ek daagliks baie mites herhaal, soms van mede -verbandpersoneel! Ek sal voortgaan om verteerbare inligting te deel, maar eers moet ek hierdie algemene mites uit die weg ruim, sodat geen militêre familie daarvan weerhou word om te begin nie:

Daar is geen maksimum skuld-tot-inkomste-verhouding nie.

Die VA se beslissende faktor oor die vraag of u 'n lening kan bekostig of nie, is gebaseer op die residuele inkomste ” (p.57), wat beteken hoeveel geld elke maand oorbly nadat u skuldverpligtinge nagekom is. Dit is 'n formule wat gebaseer is op die leningsbedrag, geografiese ligging en gesinsgrootte, en dit is nie altyd 'n antwoord wat pas by almal nie. Sommige kredietverskaffers het ook oorleggings en bykomende vereistes wat verder strek as wat die VA self vereis, en daarom dryf die DTI -mite steeds rond. Die groot wegneemetes hier is dat as u deur een lener meegedeel word dat u DTI te hoog is, hulle moontlik ekstra vereistes het bo wat die VA sê, en u moet RONDOM WINKEL! Nie alle leners word gelyk geskep nie.

Verblyfvereistes.

Die VA het een verblyfvereiste (pp.12-13), dat u bedoel om die huis u primêre woning te maak en binne 'n redelike tydperk te woon ” – gewoonlik beskou as 60 dae. 'N Gade of 'n afhanklike kind kan aan hierdie verblyfvereiste voldoen, maar geen ander familielid nie. Ek sien voortdurend die mite van 'n jaar, en#8221 versprei, maar dit is eenvoudig 'n mite. Daar gebeur bewegings en bestellings op die laaste oomblik, die VA weet dat en volgens hul riglyne, is u nie verplig om gedurende 'n tydperk in 'n huis te bly wat nie vir u gesin werk nie.

Landleninggrense geld steeds vir veelvoude.

Die Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Act Art.6 (a) (1) (C) (ii) wat in Januarie 2020 in werking getree het, het die VA -leningslimiet verhoog vir hoeveel geld u kan afneem, maar dit is slegs as jy het volle reg beskikbaar. 'N Lener kan veelvuldige VA -lenings tegelyk hê, maar as enige reg tans gebruik word, geld die grense vir landlenings wel vir bonusregte. U kan onderhewig wees aan 'n vereiste vir afbetaling as u die beskikbare reg oorskry.

Werkgeskiedenis – wat tel?

Ek sien herhaaldelik plasings in sosiale media oor 'n dienslid wat oorgaan, 'n nuwe werk (of werkaanbod) ontvang, en hulle dink nie hulle kan kwalifiseer vir 'n lening tot twee jaar in die pos nie. Dit is heeltemal onwaar! Militêre aktiewe plig tel in die werkgeskiedenis. Die VA laat toe dat toekomstige werkinkomste getel word as die lener 'n nie-voorwaardelike werkaanbod, insluitend aanvangsdatum en salaris, kan verifieer. Gedokumenteerde aftrede en ongeskiktheidsvergoeding tel ook in vir kwalifiserende inkomste, maar voordele van die GI -rekening geld nie.

Sosiale media kan onmiddellik toegang tot ander mense se ervarings gee, maar sommige van die antwoorde op u VA -leningvrae kan slegs by 'n gelisensieerde professionele persoon gevind word. Maak seker dat u met 'n lener praat wat passievol is oor die opvoeding van u en u gesin, sodat u slim finansiële besluite kan neem. Nie alle finansiële instellings leen deur die boek nie, dus vra meer as een lener as iets nie reg voel nie, of as u nie tevrede is met die antwoord nie. In hierdie geval is 'n greintjie voorkoming beslis meer as 'n kilogram genesing werd!

Meer oor We are the Mighty

Meer skakels waarvan ons hou

MAGTIGE GESKIEDENIS

Historiese gebeure op 3 Mei

    Ferdinand I word amptelik as die Keiser van die Heilige Romein aangestel nadat sy broer Charles in 1556 van die Verdrag van Loudun afstand gedoen het van die Franse burgeroorlog

Gebeurtenis van Rente

    Spaanse silwer vloot vaar na Panama Franse Hugenote -leier Duke De Rohan onderteken ooreenkoms met Spanje Engels Bohuis aanvaar die Wet van Attainder Bridge by Rowley, Massachusetts begin tolgeld hef vir diere Swede, Pole, Brandenburg en Oostenryk teken Vrede van Oliva Johannes Hevelius neem 3de transito van Mercurius word ooit gesien Koninklike handves verleen aan Connecticut

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1715 neem Edmond Halley die totale verduisteringsverskynsel waar "Daily's Beads"

    Pierre de Marivaux se "La Double Inconstance" première in Parys Willem IV aangestel as onderkoning van Holland/Utrecht 1ste Noord-Amerikaanse mediese kollege open in Philadelphia-grondwet van 3 Mei, word verkondig deur die Great Sejm (Parlement) van die Pools-Litause Gemenebest, en word die 1ste moderne grondwet in Europa Washington, DC word as 'n stad ingelyf

Die derde Mei 1808

1808 Dag uitgebeeld deur die Spaanse skilder Goya in sy "The Third of May", geskilder in 1814

    Finse Oorlog: Swede verloor die vesting van Sveaborg aan die Russiese Skiereilandoorlog: Die Madrid -rebelle wat op 2 Mei opgestaan ​​het, word op die Príncipe Pío -heuwel afgevuur

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1810 Engelse digter Lord Byron swem deur die Hellespont (hedendaagse Dardanelles)

    Slag by Tolentino: Oostenryk klop koning Joachim van Napels Society for the Propagation of the Faith gestig in Lyon, Frankryk Eerste gereelde stoomtrein -passasiersdiens begin. Macon B Allen, toegelaat tot die kroeg in Massachusetts Fire, het 1 600 in gewilde teater in Canton doodgemaak, die Mexikaanse weermag begin met die beleg van Fort Texas naby Brownsville, Texas, tydens die Mexikaans -Amerikaanse oorlog. Die Mei -opstand in Dresden begin - die laaste van die Duitse revolusies van 1848

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1915 skryf John McCrae die gedig & quotIn Flanders Fields & quot

    Ierse nasionaliste Patrick Pearse, Thomas MacDonagh en Thomas Clarke word tereggestel deur 'n vuurpeloton ná hul betrokkenheid by die Paasopkoms

Vrywilligers help om algemene staking te verslaan

1926 Die vakbondkongres in Brittanje roep die land se eerste algemene staking op, begin om 1 minuut tot middernag ter ondersteuning van stakende steenkoolmyners, duur 9 dae

    Pulitzer -prys toegeken aan Sinclair Lewis (Arrowsmith) Amerikaanse mariniers land in Nicaragua (9 maande na vertrek), bly tot 1933 Japannese gruweldade in Jinan, China. Pruise verbied anti-fasciste 24 toeriste begin met die eerste lugvaart-vakansie (Londen-Basel, Switserland) Nellie T Ross, die eerste vroulike direkteur van die Amerikaanse munt, neem sy amp in. French People's Front wen verkiesings

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1936 NY Yankee Joe DiMaggio maak sy debuut in die hoofliga, kry 3 treffers

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1937 wen Margaret Mitchell Pulitzer -prys vir & quotGone With the Wind & quot

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1938 erken Vatikaan Frans-Spanje

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1941 67ste Kentucky Derby: Eddie Arcaro aan boord van Whirlaway, eerste been van suksesvolle Triple Crown

    Japannese troepe aanval Tulagi, Gavutu en Tanambogo, Salomonseilande tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bom Duitse Luftwaffe weer op Exeter, en vernietig die Nazi's in die middestad en voer 72 OD'ers uit in weerwraak in Sachsenhausen, Nederland Nazi's vereis dat Nederlandse Jode 'n Joodse ster dra

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1943 Pulitzer -prys toegeken aan Upton Sinclair (Dragon's Teeth)

    Staking teen verpligte arbeidskampe eindig nadat 200 vermoorde Amerikaanse 1ste pantserdivisie Mateur Tunisië Vleisrantsoenering in die VSA beëindig

Film Premier

1944 "Going My Way", geregisseer deur Leo McCarey en met Bing Crosby in première in New York (Oscar vir beste rolprent, 1945)

    1ste Poolse pantserdivisie van die Poolse gewapende magte in die Weste beset Wilhelmshafen in Duitsland Geallieerdes arresteer die Duitse fisikus Werner Heisenberg Britse troep neem deel aan die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Rangoon: Duitse skip & quotCap Arcona & quot belaai met gevangenes wat deur Royal Air Force in Oossee gesink is, 5.800 vermoor - een van die grootste maritieme lewensverliese Internasionale militêre tribunaal in Tokio begin 73ste Kentucky Derby: Eric Guerin aan boord van Jet Pilot wen in 2: 06.8

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1947 Japan se naoorlogse grondwet tree in werking, gee algemene stemreg, keiser Hirohito ontneem van alles behalwe simboliese mag en verbied Japan se reg om oorlog te voer

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1948 Pulitzer -prys toegeken aan James Michener en Tennessee Williams

    1ste uitsending van & quotCBS Evening News & quot; die langste nuusnuusprogram in die VSA. Die eerste afvuur van 'n Amerikaanse Viking -vuurpyl bereik 80 km Gil McDougald se hoofreeksrekord met 6 RBI's in 1 beurt NY Yankee Gil McDougald is 5de om 6 RBI's in 'n beurt te kry (9de) Royal Festival Hall open in Londen The Festival of Britain open & quotCall Me Madam & quot sluit in Imperial Theatre NYC na 644 vertonings 1ste landing deur 'n vliegtuig op geografiese Noordpool 78ste Kentucky Derby: Eddie Arcaro aan boord van Hill Gail wen sy rekord vyfde Derby WTVO TV kanaal 17 in Rockford, IL (NBC) begin met die uitsaai van Westchester-konferensie van die Amerikaanse biblioteekvereniging, "Freedom to Read" en KTEN TV-kanaal 10 in Ada-Ardmore, OK (ABC) begin uitsaai

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1954 Pulitzer -prys toegeken aan Charles A Lindbergh en John Patrick

    WHA TV -kanaal 21 in Madison, WI (PBS) begin met die uitsending van Frank Loesser se musiekblyspel & quot; Most Happy Fella & quot; open by Imperial Theatre NYC vir 678 optredes wen in 2:05 WINS skort Alan Freed op omdat hy 'n oproer in Boston veroorsaak het, bedank hy

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1960 Die Anne Frank -huis word in Amsterdam, Nederland, geopen

    Warren Spahn gooi 'n 2 hitter nadat hy 'n no -hitter Express -trein gestamp het in die wrak van 'n pendeltrein en 'n vrag, 163 dood en 400 beseer is in Tokio, Japan Leslie Narum is slegs Baltimore Oriole om op sy eerste slag te slaan by Birmingham se amptenare word hoog drukslange en honde op kruistog vir kinders protesteer teen segregasie wat wydverspreide veroordeling tot gevolg het Eerste gebruik van satelliet -TV, Today Show on Early Bird Satellite Kambodja verlaat diplomatieke betrekkinge met die VSA Don Steele, begin 'n 40+ jaar lange radioloopbaan by KRTH (Los Angeles, Kalifornië) KTCI TV-kanaal 17 in St. Paul-Minneapolis, MN (PBS) 1ste uitsending Pulitzer-prys toegeken aan Irwin Unger (Greenback Era) WDHO (nou WNWO) TV-kanaal 24 in Toledo, OH (ABC) begin uitsaai Afro-Amerikaanse studente neem beslag op finansies by Noordwes -Universiteit Holland Pirate Radio Station VRON word Radio Veronica Intl & quotTrumpets of the Lord & quot sluit by Brooks Atkinson NYC na 7 optredes 95ste Kentucky Derby: Bill Ha terugslag op Majestic Prince wen in 2: 01.8 24ste NBA-kampioenskap: NY Knicks klop LA Lakers, 4 wedstryde teen 3 Trans-Arabiese pypleiding-aflewering van Saoedi-Arabië na die Middellandse See onderbreek in Sirië, wat olie-tenkwa-tariewe tot alle hoogtepunte laat ry & quot op 112 nasionale openbare radiostasies

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1976 Pulitzer -prys toegeken aan Saul Bellow (Humboldt's Gift)

    1977 NFL -konsep: Ricky Bell van die USC se eerste keuse deur Tampa Bay Buccaneers & quotSun Day & quot - sonkragbyeenkomste word gehou in die laaste kriekettoetswedstryd van Bobby Simpson in Kingston WI, wat krieket toets teen Aust by Kingston sal verloor totdat die onluste eindig Die eerste ongevraagde kommersiële e-pos (& quotspam & quot) word deur 'n bemarkingsverteenwoordiger van Digital Equipment Corporation gestuur na elke ARPANET-adres aan die Amerikaanse weskus, MLB Cleveland Indian Bobby Bonds, wat sy 300ste HR bereik (2de met 300 HR's en 300 gesteelde basisse) Martin Sherman's & quotBent & quot het première in Londen 1979 NFL Draft: Tom Cousineau van Ohio State se eerste keuse deur Buffalo Bills 106ste Kentucky Derby: Jacinto Vasquez oor Genuine Risk wen in 2:02

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1980, die eerste baseman van Giants, Willie McCovey, bereik sy 521ste en eindstryd


Martin Baltimore beskadig oor Tunisië - Geskiedenis

Dankie vir u vriendelike woorde, maar ek vrees dat my kennis nie so diep in die 82ste FG is as wat u dink nie! U gedetailleerde plasing oor die stryd van 5 Mei 1943 was vir my nuut en baie welkom, aangesien dit onthul het wie die teenstanders aan die 'ander kant' van die ernstige betrokkenheid was.

In hierdie geval is ek soos gewoonlik afhanklik van 'ADORIMINI - A History of the 82nd Fighter Group in WW2' deur Steve Blake en John Stanaway. Ook Frank Olynyk se 'USAAF (MTO) KREDIETE vir die vernietiging van vyandelike vliegtuie in Air-to-Air Combat WW2'.

Die 95ste vegvliegtuig van die 82ste FG het met 'n begeleiding na ses B-25's van die 321ste BG (M) begelei tydens 'n staking teen skeepvaart. Die sewentien P-38's is gereël in vier vlugte onder leiding van kapt Osher. By die aanskoue van die vyandelike formasie (& quotsix Italian SM 82 transports and some escort fighters & quot) Osher het twee P-38 vlugte na die aanval gelei. Die volgende eise het tot gevolg gehad

Kapt. Ernest K. Osher One SM 82 en een MC 200 vernietig.
2/lt. Richard F. Kenney Twee SM 82's en een Bf 109 vernietig.
2/lt. Guido F. Lucini Een SM 82 en een Bf 109 vernietig.
1/Lt. Charles R. Langdon Een SM 82 vernietig en een Bf 109 beskadig.
1/Lt. Julius F. Schoenberg One SM 82 vernietig.

Die 95ste FS het twee vlieëniers en hul P-38's verloor. Albei mans was taamlik onervare. Hulle was

2/lt. Allen E. Ellerbee
2/lt. Edgar L. Weddle

Geen kwotasies nie, behalwe dat die missie om 07.45 uur, Amerikaanse tyd (F. Olynyk) begin het.

Ek sal Steve Blake, DIE 82ste FG -kenner, vra of hy nog iets oor hierdie stryd het. Terloops, was die SM 82 van tien. Setti beskadig deur die vegters voordat hy gedwing is om te land?

Ek dink nie sy dekking is so bevooroordeeld nie, maar in sommige gevalle het die skrywer moontlik aannames gemaak oor die oorsaak van verlies. Byvoorbeeld, op 4 April 1942 beweer die JG 26 (15) dat Spitfires naby die Franse kus neergeskiet het.

Die bekende RAF -verliese was:
- Spitfire BM191 (64 vierkante meter) ongeluk in die lug bots op sirkus 119.
- Spitfire BL721 (72 vierkante meter) is met sirkel op Circus 119 neergeskiet.
- Spitfire BL935 (72 vierkante meter) wat uit sirkus 119 ontbreek, veroorsaak onsekerheid.
- Spitfire AB258 (72 vierkante meter) wat uit sirkus 119 ontbreek, veroorsaak onsekerheid.
-Spitfire ----- (72 vierkante meter) ASR-missie, neergeskiet deur Duitse vegter.

BM191 se stert is afgesny deur 'n ongeïdentifiseerde Spitfire, moontlik BL935?

die bespreking oor die verhouding tussen eise en werklike verliese is altyd fassinerend en kompleks. Hier verkies ek om die konfrontasie tussen Luftwaffe en ander eise oor lugvaart oor te slaan en tussen hakies te ag, vind ek Luftwaffe -eise gemiddeld meer akkuraat

As u na vegvlieëniers verwys, dan twyfel ek daaraan, behalwe in 1941. Anders ontbreek die bewys. U het die Duitse lugafweer-eenhede wat vir baie geallieerde vliegtuie verantwoordelik was, geïgnoreer. As-beheerde hawens, kusdorpe, toevoergebiede en vliegvelde was propvol flakgewere en geallieerde vegters moes ook die terugkeer van Duitse skeepsvaart teëkom.

'N Groot deel van die geallieerde verliese was as gevolg van onbepaalde oorsake, en ongelukkig wil sommige gewetenlose skrywers alle verliese aan die Duitse vegters toeskryf. Om watter rede ook al, hulle weier om statistieke oor ongelukke te erken, en al die morsige flak -sake bly grootliks onontgin.

Baie vals bewerings van lugoorwinnings? Dit was niks nuuts in sy eenheid nie.

In 1942 was JG 2 een van die ergste oortreders aan die Westelike Front. Daar is geen logiese rede waarom dit in 1943 sou verander nie. Almal moes verwag het dat dit in Noord -Afrika sou toeneem, en dit het gedoen, soos u boek suggereer. Die vlieëniers was verder van die huis af en die ondersoek van hul meerderes. Nie een van die twee partye het 'n groot en betroubare besettingsmag/polisiemag/beskermingsmag gehad om te help om ongelukke te verifieer nie.

Waar is die bewys dat B ü hulle almal vernietig het?

Ek het hierdie bespreking met groot belangstelling gelees. As mede-outeur van Die Focke-Wulf 190 in Noord-Afrika, geskryf met Morten Jessen, het ek gedink ek kan my mening bydra, en die belangrikste, 'n paar feite.

Ek moet begin met 'n paar definisies.

Oormaak, die toevallige aanspraak op te veel oorwinnings ('ywerige entoesiasme' soos Jim P. dit stel), kom in die meeste gevegte voor. Vlieëniers glo dat hulle 'n vyandelike vliegtuig neergeskiet het, maar eintlik is dit slegs beskadig of is dit nie getref nie. Dit is onvermydelik in die verwarring van die stryd.

Vervalsing, om oorwinnings op te eis wanneer gevegte nie werklik plaasgevind het nie (of 'opsetlike bedrog', soos Jim P. dit stel), het beslis plaasgevind, maar dit was baie skaarser. Daar is 'n paar bekende gevalle, veral die J.G. 27 vlieëniers in die somer 1942.

Sommige data
Die oorspronklike vraag vra oor Bhhligen om P-38's af te skiet wanneer daar geen verliese aangemeld is nie. In Tunisië het Bhhligen 12 P-38's geëis, so duidelik verwys die vraag na die tydperk. Hier is 'n paar data:

26 Desember 1942
Lt. B hligen van 4./J.G. 2 eis twee P-38's, Lt. Marx van 4./J.G. 2 eis 'n P-38, en Oblt. Ton van 3./J.G. 53 het nog 'n P-38 neergeskiet. Daar is beweer dat een P-38 beskadig is.

Die 1ste FG het die 97ste BG na Bizerta begelei, en die P-38-eenheid het twee vliegtuie verloor.

Die Duitse aansprake in hierdie geveg was dus redelik akkuraat.

8 Januarie 1943
Dit was een van die eerste II./J.G. 2 gevegte vanaf die vliegveld van Kairouan. Lt. B hligen het drie P-38’s geëis. Die res van II./J.G. 2 beweer dat sewe P-38's vernietig is.

Die 14de FG het drie P-38's verloor, saam met nog twee beskadigdes. Martin Gleeson merk op dat die 82ste FG vier P-38's verloor het. Alhoewel die tye van die 82ste missies van FG nie bekend is nie, was hulle almal in die Kairouan -gebied, en II./J.G. 2 was die enigste Duitse gevegseenheid in die streek, so ons kan aanvaar dat die 82ste FG op een of meer van hierdie missies II./J.G ontmoet het. 2.

Weereens, die Duitse aansprake in hierdie geveg is redelik akkuraat.

Dankie aan Martin Gleeson vir inligting oor hierdie datum. Dit vul 'n leemte in Morten en my boek.

Dit is interessant om op te let dat 8 Januarie 1943 die laaste dag was waarop Adolf Dickfeld gevlieg het Gruppenkommandeur van II./J.G. 2. Dit het moontlik 'n invloed gehad op die daaropvolgende gebeure in Kairouan.

14 Januarie 1943
Lt. B hligen beweer dat 'n P-38F neergeskiet is, en ander II./J.G. Twee vlieëniers beweer dat twee B-17's beskadig is. 'N Italiaanse vlieënier het ook 'n P-38 geëis.

Die opposisie in hierdie geveg was die 71ste FS/1st FG, wat die 301ste BG na Sousse en Sfax begelei het. Twee P-38's kon nie terugkeer nie.

Weereens, II./J.G. 2 eise was redelik akkuraat.

28 Januarie 1943
Oblt. B hligen van 4./J.G. 2 het 'n P-38 50 km suid-wes van Kairouan geëis. Twee ander is beweer dat hulle beskadig is. Daar is ook Italiaanse eise vir twee P-38's vernietig.

Die 71ste FS/1st FG verloor een vlieënier wat neergeskiet is, en nog 'n P-38 is beskadig.

Weereens, II./J.G. 2 eise was redelik akkuraat.

15 Februarie 1943
Oblt. B hligen beweer dat drie P-38's neergeskiet is. In totaal het II./J.G. 2 beweer dat tien P-38's neergeskiet het, drie Spitfires neergeskiet en een onbekende vegter neergeskiet het, asook 'n B-25 wat beskadig is.

B-25's en B-26's het 'n sending na Kairouan gevlieg, begelei deur die 94ste FS/1st FG en die 82ste FG, en hulle is onderskep deur FW 190's en Bf 109s kort nadat hulle die teikengebied verlaat het (die 12de BG berig 15/20 vyandelike vegters, terwyl die 82ste FG 6/9 vyandelike vegters opgemerk het). Om 17:35 het die USAAF slegs een verlies gerapporteer in ruil vir eise van 3-3-5. Ek is nie bewus van meer Amerikaanse verliese nie, alhoewel ek graag wil hoor van iemand wat besonderhede oor Amerikaanse P-38-verliese op hierdie dag het.

Dit is een van die meer verdagte II./J.G. 2 gevegte.

12 Maart 1943
Oblt. B hligen beweer dat drie P-38's neergeskiet is, en Hptm. Rudorffer beweer dat een B-17 neergeskiet is.

38 B-17's is met 30 1st FG P-38's begelei na Sousse en Enfidaville. Daar is geen Amerikaanse verliese bekend nie, hetsy B-17 of P-38, in hierdie geveg.


Die enigste datums waarop B hligen beweer het dat P-38's neergeskiet het toe daar geen verliese was nie, was 15 Februarie en 12 Maart 1943. Op hierdie twee dae het hy ses P-38's geëis.


II./J.G. 2 en Overclaiming/Falsification
Die meeste van die verdagte II./J.G. 2 eise in Tunisië het plaasgevind terwyl hulle in Januarie en die eerste helfte van Februarie 1943 op die vliegveld van Kairouan in Sentraal -Tunisië gevestig was. II./J.G. 2 vlieëniers gebaseer in Kairouan gedurende die tydperk van oormatige aanspraak, sluit in: B hligen, Rudorffer, Werner, Karch, Sch lze, Goltzsche, Engelbrecht, von Farnholz, Belbacher, Sonntag, G bler, Wei gruber, Jacobs en Marx .

II./J.G. 2 was gewoonlik die enigste eenheid in Kairouan, en dit was beslis die enigste vegeenheid daar (behalwe vir die Steek J.G. 53 tydens die Kasserine -operasie). Hulle was 150 tot 200 km van die belangrikste Duitse hoofkwartier in die noorde en suide van Tunisië, en het aan die Fliegerf hrer Tunis een keer per dag, in die aand. Die II./J.G. 2 afdelings was gewoonlik hoogstens vyftien vlieëniers (byvoorbeeld, op 5 Februarie 1943 was daar 13 vlieëniers in die Kairouan -afdeling en tien FW 190's).

Dit was dus die perfekte omgewing as die II./J.G. 2 vlieëniers wou eise eis. Rudorffer was die hoogste offisier, en hy was omring deur vlieëniers wat saam in die Gruppe vir 'n rukkie.

Let wel, ek sê nie dat vervalsing van oorwinnings deur II./J.G. 2 wel gebeur het, stel ek net voor dat 'n Duitse gevegseenheid selde in so 'n goeie posisie sou wees om vals oorwinningseise in te dien. Die kans op ontdekking was baie skraal, solank u die vertroue van u medevlieëniers gehad het.

Leemtes in die Amerikaanse rekords
Dit is 'n gerieflike verskoning vir die II./J.G. 2 vlieëniers, maar dit is eenvoudig nie waar nie. Die 1st Fighter Group het volledige rekords van sy bedrywighede in die periode II./J.G. 2 oor eis. Ek het die 14de FG -mikrofilms, en hoewel hul rekords nie so gedetailleerd is as die van die 1ste FG nie, is daar genoeg inligting om eise en verliese te kan ooreenstem. Ongelukkig het ek nie die 82ste FG -rekords gesien nie, dus vertrou ek oor die algemeen op Shores, Ring & amp; Hess vir hul operasies in Tunesië (dit is een van die redes waarom ek en Morten nie te beslis was oor II./JG 2 in ons boek nie). .

Martin Gleeson noem die 3de PRG met P-38's in Tunisië. Dit is 'n geldige punt, maar oor die algemeen II./J.G. 2 beweer veelvuldige P-38-kills, en die PRG-eenhede het alleen gevlieg, wat dit in die meeste gevalle moontlik gemaak het.

Rudorffer aan die Oosfront
Wat Rudorffer aan die Oosfront betref, ek is geen kenner nie, maar ek weet dat hy en sy vleuelman in ten minste een geveg baie optimisties was met hul bewerings. Ek moet daarop let dat ek hom nie van iets wil beskuldig nie (ek glo dat hy nog lewe). Ek en Morten het in 2001 aan hom geskryf of hy inligting vir ons boek wou verskaf, maar hy het geweier. Ons wens ons kon sy kant van die verhaal gehad het.


Justin Michael Wolfe

18 Oktober 2010 | Geplaas deur Timothy Watson
  • DOC -nommer: 1139246. ((“Offender Locator. ” Virginia Departement van Korreksies 11 Oktober 2010. & lthttp: //www.vadoc.state.va.us/offenders/locator/index.cfm>.))
  • Gevangene nommer: 309126. ((“Offender Locator. ” Virginia Departement van Korreksies 11 Oktober 2010. & lthttp: //www.vadoc.state.va.us/offenders/locator/index.cfm>.))
  • Plek: Prince William County. ((Wolfe v. Statebond, 265 Va. 193, 576 S.E.2d 471 (2003).))
  • Slagoffer: Daniel Robert Petrole, Jr. ((Wolfe v. Statebond, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))
  • Misdade:
    • Kapitaalmoord (moord te huur). ((Wolfe v. Statebond, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))
    • Gebruik van 'n vuurwapen by die pleeg van 'n misdryf. ((Wolfe v. Statebond, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))
    • Sameswering om dagga te versprei. ((Wolfe v. Statebond, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))

    Van Wolfe v. Statebond [beklemtoon my deurgaans]:

    Die verweerder [Justin Michael Wolfe] was 'n groot dwelmhandelaar in Noord -Virginia. Hy verkoop gereeld hoëgraadse dagga, na verwys as “kind bud ” of “chronic, ” vir 'n prys tussen $ 4,200 en $ 5,000 per pond. Sy daggaverskaffer was Daniel Robert Petrole Jr., wat in November 2000, dag sewe maande voordat hy vermoor is, dagga aan die beskuldigde begin verskaf het.

    Petrole, 'n groot dwelmverskaffer van hoëgraadse dagga in Noord-Virginia, het gereeld ongeveer 100 pond dagga per maand gekoop teen 'n prys van $ 360,000. Petrole het die beskuldigde gewoonlik elke twee weke tussen agt en 18 pond dagga verkoop. Die verweerder beskryf Petrole as sy “ chroniese man. ”

    Ter bevordering van hul dwelmaktiwiteite het die verweerder en Petrole gebruik gemaak van 'n informele kredietstelsel wat beskryf word as “fronting. ” Toe Petrole die beskuldigde dagga verkoop, het die verweerder Petrole 'n hoeveelheid kontant as afbetaling gegee, en die verweerder het die saldo betaal toe hy die opbrengs van die verkoop van dagga aan ander ontvang het. Petrole het 'n rekord gehou van die verkoop van dagga aan handelaars, soos die verweerder, en betalings deur die handelaars op dokumente wat algemeen bekend staan ​​as “owe sheets. ” Die “owe sheets ” bevat die bedrae van die skuld handelaars aan Petrole verskuldig is. Soms het die verweerder Petroleus soveel as $ 100,000 geskuld. 'N Bedekking wat op Petrole se lyk gevind is die aand toe hy vermoor is, het aangedui dat die verweerder Petrole meer as $ 60 000 skuld.

    Die verweerder en sy vriende, T. Jason Coleman en Chad E. Hough, het gesprekke gevoer oor die beroof van dwelmhandelaars. By een geleentheid was die verweerder, Hough en Coleman van plan om 'n dwelmhandelaar op 'n plek in Washington, DC te beroof, maar nadat hulle die beplande plek van die rooftog nagegaan het, het hulle tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die uitgebreide vlak van veiligheid op die plek hul beplan te riskant.

    Janelle E. Johnson, Coleman se vrou, getuig dat die verweerder en Coleman in die winter van 2000 bespreek het om 'n inbraak te pleeg of geld te steel van 'n ander dwelmhandelaar wat dagga in Noord -Virginia verkoop het. Ter bevordering van hierdie plan het die verweerder en Coleman ski -maskers en kleeflint gekoop.

    Hough het getuig dat hy en die verweerder die meeste van die tyd gepraat het oor roof. Byna elke keer as ons bymekaar gekom het, was dit gewoonlik 'n soort roof wat met dwelms verband hou. ” In Januarie of Februarie 2001 het die verweerder vir Hough gevra of hy wou geld verdien en [die verweerder] genoem. . . wat [Hough] kon. . . verdien geld deur aan 'n rooftog deel te neem. . . . ” Die verweerder wou hê dat Hough 'n dwelmhandelaar moet beroof toe die verweerder 'n koop sou doen. ” Die verweerder wou hê dat Hough die dwelmhandelaar moes volg en hom sou beroof. Die verweerder het nie die naam van die dwelmhandelaar genoem nie, maar Hough het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die verweerder wou hê dat Hough die verweerder se dwelmverskaffer moes beroof.

    Owen M. Barber, IV, en die verweerder was ses of sewe jaar goeie vriende. Barber, wat ook 'n dwelmhandelaar was, het dagga van 'n lae gehalte gekoop, na verwys as “shwag. ” Soms verkoop hy pond dagga aan die verweerder. Die verweerder het Barber gevra of hy [die verweerder se] chroniese man wil kry. ” Die verweerder het verklaar dat Barber nie net sy “ chroniese man moet beroof nie, maar dat Barber hom moet skiet omdat Petrole te veel mense ken. Barber getuig as volg:

    “V: Het u op 'n tydstip gekom toe u 'n bespreking gehad het oor [die verweerder se verskaffer van chroniese of soortige knop [dagga]?

    “A: Ja. Dit was eendag toe ons by ['n restaurant] net drink en [die beskuldigde] my vra of ek sy chroniese man wil kry.

    “Q: Kry u die chroniese man?

    “A: Ja. And I was like, yeah, you know, we’ll just rob him or whatever. And I was like, all right, you know and then he said, no, no you can’t rob him. He was like, we got to shoot him because he knows too many people.

    “Q: He knows too many people?

    “A: Yeah.

    “Q: At that point in time, did he tell you who his chronic man was?

    “A: Yeah.

    “Q: Who was it?

    “A: He said Danny Petrole.

    “Q: Had you known Danny Petrole prior to that time?

    “A: No. I knew the name. I didn’t know him like personally.”

    This conversation occurred in late February or early March, 2001.

    The “next couple of days” after the defendant and Barber had the conversation about robbing and killing Petrole, the defendant and Barber planned how they “could do it and how [they would] have to find him or . . . follow him or catch him alone.” On one occasion, the defendant and Barber went to Petrole’s apartment in Washington, D.C. to determine if it was feasible to kill him at that location. The owner of the apartment building employed a doorman, and the defendant and Barber concluded that they should not kill Petrole at that location.

    Subsequently, the defendant and Barber made another attempt to locate and kill Petrole. The defendant made a telephone call to Petrole one night, and Petrole informed the defendant that Petrole intended to attend a class at the Northern Virginia Community College campus in Arlington or Annandale, Virginia. Barber was not sure of the specific campus where Petrole attended community college. The defendant and Barber got in Barber’s car and traveled to the campus. They “drove around the parking lot” looking for Petrole’s car, but they were unable to find it.

    On another occasion, the defendant spoke with Petrole, who informed the defendant that he (Petrole) planned to eat dinner at a restaurant in Washington, D.C. The defendant and Barber traveled to the restaurant in search of Petrole. Barber testified that they “went and looked for him at the restaurant . . . and we didn’t see him. Then we went back and we waited in the parking lot . . . behind his building.” Barber and the defendant did not find Petrole that evening. Barber and the defendant concluded that they were going to kill Petrole if he returned to his apartment that night. If he did not return to his apartment, they were going to wait until they had another opportunity to kill him.

    During the next several days, Barber and the defendant continued to discuss their plan to kill Petrole. On March 15, 2001, the defendant placed a telephone call to Barber, who was with a friend, Robert H. Martin, Jr. The defendant directed Barber to meet the defendant at a restaurant in Fairfax County. Barber and Martin went to the restaurant, and Barber and the defendant spoke alone in a parking lot. The defendant informed Barber that the defendant had spoken to Petrole, and the defendant planned to meet him that night. Petrole had agreed to bring a large quantity of high-grade marijuana to an apartment that the defendant shared with his girlfriend, Regina A. Zuener.

    The defendant and Barber agreed that Barber would follow Petrole once he left Zuener’s apartment. Barber returned to the car where Martin had waited, and they went to Barber’s apartment. About an hour later, the defendant, using his cellular telephone, called Barber to inform him that Petrole was “on his way” to Zuener’s apartment. Barber called the defendant and inquired whether Petrole had arrived, and the defendant informed Barber that Petrole had not.

    Barber asked Martin if he wanted to accompany Barber “on this thing [Barber] had to do,” but Martin refused. Barber testified as follows: “I think I told [Martin], you know, I’ve got to go do this thing and he was like – he said he was [willing] to beat him up or to rob him or whatever. And I was like, no, you know, it’s more than that. He’s like, no, no, I’m not going to do it. I’ll let you have my car, but I’m not going to do it.” Barber wanted to use Martin’s car to travel to Zuener’s house so that he could rob and kill Petrole because Barber’s car was too distinctive. Barber’s car was equipped with racing tires and a large noisy engine.

    Barber, armed with a Smith & Wesson nine millimeter pistol that he had purchased from Coleman, got into Martin’s car and drove to a cul-de-sac at the end of a street near Zuener’s apartment. Petrole arrived at Zuener’s apartment in Centreville. The defendant, Jennifer E. Pascquierllo, Nicholas Soto, and Coleman were present. Petrole knocked on the door, and Zuener let him in. Petrole was carrying a large black duffel bag filled with high-grade marijuana. Petrole and the defendant went upstairs to a bedroom. Later, Zuener went to the bedroom where she observed a large drug transaction occur between Petrole and the defendant. She saw between 10 and 15 pounds of high-grade marijuana on her bed. Petrole had a large amount of money. The marijuana was packaged in separate bags, weighing approximately one pound each. When the drug transaction was completed, the defendant and his friends went to a nightclub, and Petrole left the apartment and got in his car.

    As Petrole began to drive his car, unbeknownst to him, Barber followed Petrole as he drove through Fairfax County. Petrole parked his car in front of a house in Fairfax County and went inside. Barber, using his cellular telephone, called the defendant and informed him that Petrole “went into some house in Fairfax City.” Later, Petrole got back in his car and drove off as Barber continued to follow him. While following him, Barber temporarily lost sight of Petrole’s car, but managed to locate it and continued to follow him. Petrole drove his car to a neighborhood where he had recently purchased a townhouse and parked his car. Barber stopped the car he was driving and “jumped out.” Barber stated, “I shot him across through the passenger side window and then jumped back in the car and turned around and then left out with . . . my lights off.” Barber shot Petrole 10 times, and he was five or six feet from the victim when he discharged the pistol. Barber damaged Martin’s car during the murder. As Barber sped away, he tossed the pistol and gloves he used out of the car window.

    Issa Hassan, Walter P. Gunning, Jr., and Jeanette Lorentzen were in Petrole’s townhouse when they heard noises and ran to the window. They observed a red Ford Escort as it “sped off real fast and turned its lights as it turned around the corner.” Issa Hassan went outside, and he saw Petrole seated in the driver’s seat of the car. Hassan opened the door and shook Petrole. Petrole’s neck was “flimsy,” and he did not have a pulse. The car’s windows were shattered, and there was “glass everywhere in the car.”

    Police officers responded to the scene of the murder and found $ 965 on the victim’s body. The police officers found $ 17,460 in United States currency in the victim’s duffel bag located in the trunk of his vehicle. The police officers searched the victim’s house and found approximately $ 120,000 cash, 46 pounds of high-grade marijuana, which was “vacuum packed” in plastic bags, 4,000 tablets of metholanedioxine, an amphetamine, also known as Ecstasy, and an “owe sheet.”

    Gunning, Petrole’s roommate, testified that Petrole was angry with the defendant because he owed Petrole over $ 66,000 and that the defendant had taken “a little longer than what he expected to pay him back.”

    Dr. Frances P. Field, an assistant medical examiner, conducted an autopsy upon Petrole’s body. She gave the following testimony. The victim had nine gunshot wounds in his body. One bullet penetrated the victim’s spinal column and severed the spinal cord. Bullets damaged the victim’s ribs, abdomen, liver, kidney, large intestines, small intestines, aorta, lung, and chest. Dr. Field opined that the defendant’s death was caused by multiple gunshot wounds, and that any of the wounds which injured the internal organs such as the lung, liver, kidney, or spinal canal could have proven fatal because of bleeding from those sites.

    After he had committed the murder, Barber returned to his apartment and told Martin that he had killed Petrole. Barber used his cellular telephone to talk with the defendant, who was at the nightclub.

    Barber changed clothes, and he and Martin went to the nightclub to meet the defendant. Once Barber and Martin entered the nightclub, Barber and the defendant spoke outside of Martin’s presence. Barber told the defendant that he (Barber) “did it and it was done.” The defendant responded, “all right.” Then the defendant gave Barber “like a pound and a half hug.” The defendant “ordered a round of drinks” for himself, Barber, and Martin. The defendant commented that “we got to have a made cake now – or like a rack of cake,” a slang expression that means “we made a lot of money.” The purpose of the toast was to celebrate their “rack of money.”

    In return for his act of killing Petrole, the defendant told Barber that he did not have to pay for four pounds of marijuana that the defendant had previously sold him. Additionally, the defendant gave Barber a half pound of “chronic” marijuana, forgave Barber’s $ 3,000 debt for past drug transactions, and promised to pay Barber $ 10,000 in cash.

    Martin testified at trial, and his testimony corroborated Barber’s version of the events on the night of the murder. Martin and Barber had dinner with Martin’s parents on the evening of March 15 before the murder. After dinner, Barber and Martin went to Barber’s apartment that he shared with Coleman. They drank beer and smoked marijuana. Martin observed Barber when he had the conversation with the defendant in the parking lot of the restaurant. After the conversation, when the men were at Barber’s apartment, Barber told Martin that Barber intended to “put one in each kneecap.” Barber told Martin that Barber intended to leave the apartment with his pistol after he received a telephone call from the defendant. After Barber received the telephone call, he left the apartment, followed Petrole, and killed him.

    Martin testified that after the murder, he and Barber went to the nightclub and when they met the defendant, Barber told Martin “to go away” so that the defendant and Barber could have a private conversation. After the defendant and Barber had concluded their private conversation, Martin approached them. The defendant and Barber gave Martin an alcoholic beverage, and the defendant “told [Martin] right there you can’t say nothing about this and I’m about to make a lot of money.” Immediately, the defendant, Barber, and Martin made a toast.

    After the murder, Martin approached the defendant and asked for a discount for the purchase of marijuana. Martin told the defendant, “I know what happened.” The defendant gave Martin a discount on the purchase and forgave him of a past drug debt.

    The day after the murder, the defendant and several friends, including Barber, went shopping to purchase clothes to wear to a birthday party in honor of the defendant on March 17, 2001. The defendant and his friends purchased several bottles of expensive champagne for his birthday party that cost in excess of $ 200 per bottle.

    After his birthday party, the defendant decided that things were getting “too hot” with the police, and he fled to Florida. Police officers searched Barber’s apartment and interrogated him, but he denied any involvement in Petrole’s murder. Barber left Virginia, went to Florida, and then fled to San Diego, California. Barber contacted his former girlfriend, Jennifer Pascquierllo, and asked her to obtain money from the defendant and bring the money to Barber. The defendant gave her $ 1,000. She drove her car to meet Barber in San Diego, where he was eventually arrested by United States Marshals.

    Three days after the murder, Barber gave Martin $ 540 and directed him to repair the damage to his car and to replace the tires. Barber was afraid that the car’s tires may have created identifiable skid marks at the scene of the murder. Barber instructed Martin to take the car to Virginia Beach, Virginia, and get it repaired there. Martin told Barber that Martin was not “going to help him out.” Martin tried to return the money, but Barber would not accept it. That night, Martin contacted police officers and reported the crime.

    Pascquierllo testified that Barber relayed to her the facts relating to the murder of Petrole. Her testimony concerning these facts was consistent with Barber’s trial testimony. She also testified: “I asked [Barber] what the sum of money was, what kind of sum of money it could have been, and he told me that it was $ 10,000 and he got some weed, but that he had to flush it, and then he told me that it was also the $ 3,000 debt that involved me.” Pascquierllo testified that Barber tried unsuccessfully to obtain from the defendant the $ 10,000 that he had promised to pay Barber to kill Petrole.

    The defendant made numerous admissions during his testimony. The defendant admitted that he had been a drug dealer for four or five years before Petrole’s death. He admitted that he was guilty of the charge of conspiracy to distribute more than five pounds of marijuana. He had distributed more than 100 pounds of marijuana throughout Northern Virginia since he began selling drugs. He admitted that he had spoken to his friends about robbing a drug dealer. He admitted that he had discussed with Coleman the possibility of committing robberies. The defendant admitted that he was the last person Barber called before Barber killed Petrole and the first person Barber called after Petrole’s death. He admitted that he sold marijuana to Martin after the murder and that Martin stated, “I know what happened.” After Martin made this statement, the defendant admitted he decreased the price of the marijuana he sold to Martin.

    The defendant testified that one of his highest priorities was the “high life” that money could obtain for him. The defendant regularly spent between $ 2,000 and $ 3,000 on weekends for entertainment purposes. The defendant admitted that he owed Petrole more than $ 80,000 at the time of Petrole’s death.

    The defendant claimed that Barber testified untruthfully about him because the defendant purportedly had had sexual relations with Barber’s former girlfriend, Pascquierllo. However, the defendant admits that when asked by the police detectives, “did Owen have anything against you?,” the defendant responded, “no.” Additionally, Pascquierllo denied that she ever had a sexual relationship with the defendant. ((Wolfe v. Commonwealth, 265 Va. 193, 199-206, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474-479 (2003).))

    Categories: | 20 Comments


    Kristallnacht

    Interviewee: Lowe, Margaret (לאו, מרגרט)
    Page: 12
    Year: 1993
    Taal: Engels
    Length: 0:35:14

    כל הזכויות לראיונות באתר זה שמורות למדור לתיעוד בע”פ במכון אברה הרמן
    ליהדות זמננו באוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים. השימוש בראיונות מיוע למטרות
    מחקר בלבד. נאסר שימוש שאינו מורשה. כל פרסום חייב לכלול הפניה מפורשת למקו.

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    By giving us your email, you are opting in to the Navy Times Daily News Roundup.

    />A plane captain catches a few winks with a chock for his pillow during "stand by" to flight quarters beneath a Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat during operation "Torch." (Nasionale Argief)

    Vichy French forces in Morocco were unaware of the massive invasion force steaming toward them until dawn on Nov. 8, when landing craft began hitting the beaches, along with covering fire from the Allied flotilla.

    By 0630 the French had sounded alert sirens at scattered barracks and airfields. After shore batteries near Casablanca belatedly responded, the Vichy government’s forces were called to defend its installations — and French honor.

    “Fighting Nine”(VF-9) was launched from Ranger at 0610, with commanding officer Lt. Cmdr. Jack Raby leading nine Wildcats off the deck.

    Sweeping unopposed over Cazes airfield, southwest of Casablanca, they made three line-abreast passes, destroying many French aircraft on the ground.

    Eight more VF-9 Wildcats concentrated on the Sale airfield, strafing multi-engine bombers being readied for takeoff.

    The first French Hawks to make it into the air over Casablanca, six fighters of GC II/5 led by Lt. Pierre Villacèque, encountered Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher and Curtiss SOC-1 floatplanes that were spotting fleet gunfire.

    After one Kingfisher was shot down, the rest of the spotters retreated.

    As a second squadron from Ranger, VF-41, entered the action over Cazes and the beachhead, its F4Fs clashed with French Hawks and Dewoitine D.520s.

    />On the flight deck of the aircraft carrier Ranger while sailing to North Africa, Aviation Machinist’s Mate 1st Class R.M. Price offered Aviation Radioman 3rd Class M.S. Waterson, left, $2,340 for the latter’s rear seat in a dive bomber but was turned down. (Nasionale Argief)

    Lt. j.g. Charles “Windy” Shields encountered two red-and-yellow-striped French fighters. The enemy planes came so close, he recalled,“You could see their insignia.”

    Then one of Shields’ squadron mates exclaimed over the radio: “Look at that — the bastards! That used to be an American squadron,” a reference to the Indian head insignia clearly visible on the Vichy plane.

    The sky was full of wheeling Dewoitines, Hawks and Wildcats. Shields went after one of the defenders and, in his eagerness, overshot his target. He recalled:

    As I went past I saw he was coming round on my tail. I pulled up and came back over in a quick turn that brought me with my nose toward him. I was too far away and too anxious but still gave him a burst from long range. Those .50-calibers got him. I could see him standing still in the air as if something had jerked him up by the tail. He looked as though he was going to stall to take evasive action, and he fell over to starboard, his wing fluttering. I followed him down, too excited to think of doing anything else.

    He hit the ground, bounced, and with his motor still running, ricocheted across the field until he came to stop in a water hole.

    I circled but there was no sign of the pilot.

    Then I remembered about keeping together, knowing I was crazy to be down there all alone. Presently I saw a Wildcat [Lt. j.g. Charles August’s] coming in across the airfield very fast and very low with two P-36s on his tail.

    The French pilots were scissoring round behind him and shooting alternate bursts. Chuck shouted over the radio, “Windy! Windy! Get those bastards off my tail quick!”

    I went down with my throttle wide open and one of the French planes saw me and broke away. I got on his tail but he managed to slip away. Those P-36s are extremely maneuverable.

    Out of the corner of my eye I saw August going up in a steep chandelle and getting his Hawk with a beautiful shot. I got my man in the sights, lost him, got him again, gave him a burst and then another. He went up into a climbing turn, a darn silly thing to do, and I only had to pull up my nose and take a simple shot at him. He staggered and rolled over, then righted himself.

    A streak of orange flame came from his starboard side, and he went down spinning and burning.

    />Fighter pilots gather in a ready room on board the aircraft carrier Ranger (CV-4) before dawn of the first day of attacks on North Africa, Nov. 8, 1942. Pilots scheduled to take off before dawn wear dark goggles to accustom their eyes to darkness. (Nasionale Argief)

    Eventually the Hawks ganged up on Shields, sending bullets into his fuel lines and more that tore open the top of his wing. His cockpit filled with smoke.

    “The fumes were getting thick now, but the machine was still flying,” he remembered. “Then an incendiary bullet started a fire. A great lick of flame came up at my face and I knew it was the end. I pushed back on the hood and tried to turn the Wildcat on her back, but she wouldn’t have it. The trim tabs and aileron surfaces were not working.

    "I decided to stall her, and at that moment when she lost flying speed I braced my knees and jumped for it. The parachute opened, and as I floated down feeling angry and frustrated, a French plane came at me. I thought he was going to shoot me but he just flew past, wagging his wings, waving his hands and laughing like hell.”

    Chuck August was also battling for his life against the Lafayette Escadrille Hawks.

    After his F4F took anti-aircraft hits that caused the right landing gear to droop, the Vichy fighters were chasing him over Cazes airfield when more Wildcats came to his rescue. Somehow he managed to shake off his tormentors and get his sights on a Hawk.

    He recounted what happened next:

    My position was just right and I made a high beam attack and gave him a long burst. The .50-caliber bullets hitting at about 60 per second seemed to rip him open like a can opener. He stopped in his line of flight, turned turtle and went down in flames.

    I saw another pair of enemy planes, a P-36 and a Dewoitine 520. The pilots seemed to be talking to each other. I got close in and fired.

    The P-36 shuddered. The weight of metal you put into them with the 50-calibers seems to jar them off their line of flight. I got to within 50 yards, feeling strangely elated. I was sure of hitting him now and as I gave him a burst with all guns and pulled up over him, he was hanging in the air and rolling about with a convulsive movement, rather like an animal in pain.

    Then the red-and-yellow-nosed plane turned over in a slow roll with its engine running and began to fly on its back.

    It was like watching a beginner crash in a training flight. It went down quite slowly and a plume of dark smoke spurted from the ground where it hit.

    Still at low altitude, with friends and foes dodging in and out of view, August could see fires burning all over Cazes.

    />Testing machine guns of Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters on board the aircraft carrier Ranger (CV-4), while sailing to North Africa in November of 1942. (National Archives)

    I climbed for better altitude and checked over the targets on the airfield. I made one run over some parked bombers.

    One of them subsided gently to the ground as if a giant had suddenly sat on it. A gun crew fired at me, and a man with a Tommy gun took a pot shot at me then shook his fist pathetically. Then suddenly, as I pulled the nose up, I found that I was losing speed.

    I cussed and stuck the nose down and checked the instruments. I had about 60 gallons of fuel but oil pressure was zero. Underneath was what looked like the world’s worst terrain for a forced landing — hills, rocks and gullies. I was at about 1,100 feet when my motor let out a noise that was like a cracked bell sounding over a radio at full blast. Then came a terrible vibration, the entire machine getting the jitters.

    It was so violent that it almost shook the stick out of my hand. Then it stopped.

    August tried but failed to turn his Wildcat over before bailing out. As a result, one of his legs hit the stabilizer when he went over the side.

    His chute opened just before he hit the ground, though he recalled: “Hit is hardly the term. I crashed very hard and painfully because I was swinging like a pendulum. When I caught my breath I found myself on my back being dragged along by the parachute.”

    />A destroyer passes astern of the aircraft carrier RANGER at sunset on Nov. 8, 1942, the first day of landings on North Africa. Note F4F Wildcat fighters on the Ranger's deck. (Nasionale Argief)

    The French had taken off in ones and twos, often under fire, until they outnumbered the attackers. Lt. G.H. Carter expressed grudging respect for the enemy airmen:

    I got separated from the gang and three Vichy pilots came from nowhere on my tail. I did everything I knew to get them off, but they kept on coming.

    I got a shot at one and turned him away with smoke coming from his engine. Then another one got me at close range and hit my plane behind somewhere, and the controls became difficult.

    The best thing seemed to be to head back out to sea and try to make the carrier, but that Frenchman on my tail was smart and exceedingly aggressive. His second burst shot away my oil cooler lines.

    I began to lose altitude and was heading for the drink when a bunch of bullets hit the back of my armor plate. I couldn’t do anything so I stuck her nose down and prepared to ditch.

    The French pilot who had just shot me down showed up on my right waving and grinning. He was still overhead when I made a crash landing.

    Quite a chivalrous guy.

    />The escort carrier Santee with Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless scout-bombers and Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters on the flight deck during Operation Torch. (Nasionale Argief)

    The GC II/5 journal described the air battle with the Wildcats in melancholy terms:

    The Grummans are very tenacious, provided with invincible weapons, they are three times as numerous as us and soon gain superiority over our unfortunate Curtiss planes.

    Our pilots, in spite of their lack of training and decrepitude of their planes, fight a fierce battle and clearly defend their lives, downing numerous enemies.

    [Maj. Georges] Tricaud is killed after having downed a Grumman above the runway. Capt. [Robert] Huvet, one of our most brilliant pilots, with six confirmed victories [over Germans], is killed at his post.

    Adjutants [François] LaChaux and [Paul] deMontgolfier and Sgt. [Lucien] Heme, all superior pilots, also fall on the Field of Honor.

    Several other pilots are defeated and wounded, some seriously: Capt. [Elie] Reyné received a bullet in the right thigh Lt. [Georges] Ruchoux, after overcoming one enemy plane is wounded in one leg, burned and parachutes Lt. Fabre is seriously wounded by three bullets in his left arm Lt. Villacèque, heavily engaged against several enemy planes, defeats one of them, after which he is wounded in the face by plexiglass splinters and landed roughly.

    While these battles are going on, other Martlet [export version of the Wildcat] formations are machine gunning the field, burning one after the other, nearly all of the Douglas twin-engine craft [11 out of 13] of GB [Groupe de Bombardement] I/32.

    VF-41 claimed 13 aerial victories and one probable, plus six planes destroyed and eight damaged on the ground.

    In reality, six pilots from GC II/5 were shot down and died, two were wounded, one was forced to bail out, another was killed in a takeoff accident and several aircraft returned so badly damaged as to be inoperable.

    VF-41’s losses were also heavy. French pilots claimed the destruction of seven Wildcats and three more probables.

    In fact, six F4Fs and their pilots failed to return to Ranger. Two of the missing pilots (Shields and August) became POWs.

    It had been a battle of near equals. Both the Wildcats and the Hawks had a top speed of just over 300 mph both were highly maneuverable and armed with six machine guns (though the French guns were 7.5mm, closer to .30-caliber as compared to the Wildcat’s .50-calibers).

    />Pilots of Fighting Squadron 41 (VF-41) singing in their ready room on board the aircraft carrier Ranger, before zero hour of the first day of the invasion of Morocco, Nov. 8, 1942. Lt. Malcolm T. Wordell, Squadron Executive Officer, (at right) is leading the songs. Lt. Jacob W. Onstott is standing in the left center. Wordell would be shot down near Casablanca. (Nasionale Argief)

    The dogfights had ended by the time a second patrol of 16 Wildcats (half from VF-9 and half from VF-41) led by Lt. Mac Wordell arrived over the beachhead.

    At the same time, five French destroyers came boiling out of Casablanca Harbor, headed toward the transports and landing craft.

    Wordell alerted his comrades, then led the unit in a strafing run.

    “I started firing at about 4,000 feet as my sights began to travel down the center line of the last ship in column,” he later reported. “I could see the tracers squirting on the decks and bouncing off, and it almost felt like I was running into my own ricochets.

    "Actually I was seeing the red pencils of their tracer fire coming up at me.”

    The Wildcats’ attack and a volley of shells from the offshore fleet stopped the foray by the French destroyers, but not before Wordell’s F4F was damaged by anti-aircraft fire.

    He recalled: “It wasn’t until I was over the leading ship that I almost subconsciously heard a noise — the same kind of noise you hear when you jam a screwdriver into a can of milk.”

    With oil streaming from his engine and the cockpit filling with smoke, he crash-landed.

    By noon the French destroyers were damaged or beached, and Wordell was riding into Casablanca behind a native Spahi cavalryman.

    Jean Bart and other French ships in Casablanca Harbor were pounded by SBD dive bombers from Ranger en Suwanee and shelled by the battleship Massachusetts.

    Meanwhile, Task Force 34 aircraft strafed columns of French troops bound for the beachhead and also struck remote Vichy airfields.

    />Ordnancemen mount a 1000-pound bomb beneath the belly of a Douglas SBD-3 "Dauntless" on board the aircraft carrier Ranger during operation "Torch" in November of 1942. (National Archives)

    U.S. Navy air units suffered several more casualties due to flak or mechanical failure.

    Santee, which bore the brunt of the trouble, lost three aircraft in landing crashes.

    Then Lt. Cmdr. John Blackburn was forced to ditch after he experienced landing gear problems (he was rescued the following day). Lt. j.g. George Trumpeter declared an emergency over land, and was never seen again.

    Four other pilots from Santee couldn’t locate the fleet due to radio interference and landed at Safi airfield, where they were temporarily imprisoned by the French.

    Dawn of Nov. 9 found Patton’s army firmly established in Morocco. Despite heavy losses on the 8th, the French army and air force units again mounted a defense against the invaders.

    The Lafayette Escadrille pilots were airborne early on the 9th, although they had just five operational Hawk 75s.

    Ranger dispatched nine VF-41 Wildcats for low-level assignments eight VF-9 aircraft stayed close behind them, serving as top cover.

    Controllers on Ranger reported that Allied troops in the Fedhala lodgment were being strafed when a greater menace appeared: fresh enemy troops and tanks from Casablanca.

    While Lt. Cmdr. Tom Booth led VF-41 in repeated strafing runs against the French column, Fighting Nine — patrolling at 10,000 feet — spotted 15 French bombers approaching the landing craft at the beach head.

    They were escorted by 16 Hawks from GC I/5, the “Champagne” squadron. Lt. -kmdt. Raby led eight F4Fs against this new threat.

    The French bombers managed to escape while the escorting fighters engaged the Wildcats.

    />A Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighter taking off from the aircraft carrier Ranger to attack targets ashore during the invasion of Morocco in 1942. (National Archives)

    After one Hawk dodged an overeager attack by Ensign Marvin Franger, the Navy pilot made a tight turn and stayed with him.

    “I was able to slide in on his tail and that was the end,” Franger said. “He started smoking and I saw fire as he went down. I didn’t see him go in but our section leader, Al Martin, saw the crash.”

    The French fought courageously, but their Hawks’ 7.5mm guns were unable to inflict significant damage on the armor plated F4Fs.

    The Wildcats’ .50-calibers, on the other hand, took a devastating toll on the Vichy fighters, destroying four planes of the Champagne squadron and killing two of its pilots.

    Two other French fliers survived crash landings, while four more Hawks were damaged.

    Adjutant Georges Tesseraud was gravely wounded, and Lt. Camille Plubeau made a belly landing at Rabat, emerging unhurt.

    VF-9 lost two of its aircraft to battle damage. The only GC I/5 success, by Sgt. Jérémy Bressieux, compelled Ensign C.W. Gerhardt to ditch his F4F at sea, while Ensign Louis Menard crashed into the barrier when he landed on Ranger.

    Neither American was injured.

    />Aviation Machinist's Mate 3rd Class W. T. Chamberlain relaxes on the wing of a Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat, 9-F-12 (assigned to VF-9) during operation "Torch," in November 1942, on board the aircraft carrier Ranger (CV-4). Note how the "9" of the fuselage coding overlaps the yellow surround to the fuselage star. (Nasionale Argief)

    By noon Fighting Nine was airborne again, scouting for enemy planes.

    Leading 13 Wildcats at 10,000 feet, Raby spotted many aircraft on the ground at Mediouna airfield.

    Diving by sections in echelon formation, the F4Fs swept down on the targets, concentrating on rows of fighters and half a dozen DB-7 bombers.

    After five strafing passes, all the bombers and most of the fighters were burning.

    During one low strafing run a Douglas bomber exploded just as Lt. Ed Micka passed over it — sending his Wildcat crashing into the ground.

    A French officer later described the aftermath in a letter: “We buried him on the spot with full military honors. Over the grave we put a white cross, to which we affixed the identification tag of the brave flier.”

    />Mrs. Evelyn Vandenberg Micka, widow of the Lt. Edward Micka, who was killed in action on Nov. 9, 1942. The sponsor of the ship, she holds her 10-month old daughter Barbara Lynn Micka, during launching ceremonies for the destroyer escort Micka at Port Newark, New Jersey, on Aug. 23, 1943. (U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command)

    Micka was not the only casualty.

    French gunners scored hits on several F4Fs, including Lt. j.g. Mayo A. Hadden’s, which was hit 12 times. Despite heavy damage to his plane and a shrapnel wound in one leg, Hadden managed to get his Wildcat back to Ranger.

    For the balance of the day the French air force was nowhere to be seen. Task Force 34 pilots spent the rest of their time scouring the roads ahead of advancing U.S. forces.

    In fact, the French defenders’ air strength had been so depleted in the first two days that no fighters appeared in the sky on Nov. 10.

    Task Force 34 fighters and bombers devoted the 10th to close ground support missions and attacks on Jean Bart, which continued to lob shells at targets miles away.

    Later that day, Gen. Auguste Lahoulle, the French air commander in Morocco, met with survivors of GC II/5 to give them a pep talk.

    A heated discussion ensued, with senior officers of the Lafayette Escadrille imploring the general to “understand the futility of this fratricidal struggle.”

    It must have been a relief to all concerned when, at 2200, they received a message from Casablanca ordering them to end the hostilities.

    Honor having been served, the Vichy French negotiated a truce and quickly transitioned to become the Free French.

    Reequipped with American aircraft, the air units fought valiantly against Axis forces for the balance of the war.

    Many of the U.S. Navy fliers who fought in Morocco went on to serve in the Pacific. Fighting Nine, for example, would see two tours of combat against the Japanese. And several former Task Force 34 pilots — including Blackburn, Wordell, Franger and Menard — became aces before the war’s end.

    />Photographer's Mate Second Class D. Mokos gestures as pilot Lt. C.V. Johnson prepares to take off on a photo-recon "hop" from the aircraft carrier Ranger during operation "Torch." The plane is a Douglas SBD-3 "Dauntless" form VS-41. (Nasionale Argief)

    John W. “Jack” Lambert is the author of numerous books and articles about air combat during World War II. For additional reading, he recommends his own Wildcats Over Casablanca monograph. This article originally was published in the May 2011 issue of Aviation History, one of Navy Times’ sister publications. To subscribe, click hier.


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