Gasmaskers

Gasmaskers


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Die Britse regering het geglo dat 'n vorm van gifgas tydens die oorlog op die burgerlike bevolking gebruik sou word. Die regering het op 3 September 1939 'n waarskuwing uitgereik dat mense na hul naaste lugaanval skuiling moet gaan tydens bomaanvalle: "As gifgas gebruik is, word u gewaarsku deur middel van handrampe. As u hoor dat handrampe nie verlaat u skuiling totdat die gifgas uit die weg geruim is. Handklokke sal u vertel wanneer daar geen gevaar meer is deur gifgas nie. " (1)

Daarom is besluit om gasmaskers uit te reik vir almal wat in Brittanje woon. Meer as 38 miljoen gasmaskers is na streeksentrums versprei. Gasmaskers bevat krisotiel (wit asbes) of krokidoliet (blou asbes) in hul filters. Alhoewel die maskers effektief was om giftige gasse soos mosterdgas, fosgeen of chloorgas uit te filter, was die filters in werklikheid baie gevaarlik vir mense, aangesien dit later ontdek is dat blootstelling aan asbes asbestose, pleuritis en long kan veroorsaak kanker, asook 'n aantal ander dodelike en ongeneeslike siektes. (2)

Die gasmaskers is vervaardig deur 'n onderneming in Blackburn, en na die oorlog het fabriekswerkers wat die maskers gemaak het, abnormaal baie sterftes as gevolg van kanker begin toon. Toetse het getoon dat asbesvesels ook ingeasem kan word deur die maskers te dra. Laat in Mei 2014 het die uitvoerende gesag 'n waarskuwing aan skole uitgereik dat hulle nie kinders moet toelaat om gasmaskers aan te raak nie, aangesien hulle asbes bevat. (3)

Volwasse gasmaskers was swart, terwyl kinders 'Micky Mouse' -maskers gehad het met rooi rubberstukke en helder oogstukvelde. Daar was ook gashelms vir babas waarin moeders met 'n blaasbalk lug moes pomp. Mense het hul gasmaskers vir baie maande in kartondose gedra. (4) Neville Chamberlain het na die radio gegaan om die maatreëls wat die regering tref, te verduidelik: 'Hoe aaklig, fantasties, ongelooflik, is dit dat ons loopgrawe hier moet grawe en gasmaskers probeer as gevolg van 'n rusie in 'n ver land tussen mense van wie ons niks weet nie. ” (5)

Joyce Storey het in Bristol gewoon: 'Elsie het opgemerk dat sy met die heer Fry, die plaaslike raadslid en haar buurman, gepraat het, en hy het haar vertroulik gesê dat die eerste besending gasmaskers wat die volgende week afgelewer sou word, wees ver van voldoende en dit was 'n kwessie van verspreiding. Wie die eerste keer daar sou wees, het geluk. Elsie was reg oor die gasmaskers, en 'n paar weke later was daar 'n groot paniek oor hierdie vreesaanjaende dinge in die plaaslike skoolkamers, waar dit was Mense reageer op die mees onbeskaafde manier omdat hulle so seker was dat die Duitsers gifgas sou gebruik en dat daar nie genoeg gasmaskers op die eerste aflewering uitgereik is nie. "(6)

Mense word aangemoedig om 15 minute per dag gasmaskers te dra om aan die ervaring gewoond te raak. Die regering dreig om mense te straf omdat hulle nie gasmaskers dra nie. Wetgewing is egter nooit uitgevaardig om dit onwettig te maak nie. Die regering het plakkate gepubliseer waarin gesê word: 'Hitler sal geen waarskuwing stuur nie - dra altyd u gasmasker'. Regeringsadvertensies verskyn in koerante en smeek mense om hul gasmaskers te alle tye saam te dra. Onderwysers het die opdrag gekry om kinders terug te stuur huis toe om hul maskers te gaan haal as hulle dit vergeet het. Af en toe is toegang tot restaurante of onthaalplekke geweier vir besoekers wat sonder hul oorlewingspakket was. John Lewis, die afdelingswinkel, het die personeel daaraan herinner dat 'diegene wat sonder hul gasmasker kom, nie verbaas moet wees as hulle in oorlogstyd as ongeskik afgemaak word nie'. (7)

Gasmaskers was nie maklik of gemaklik om te dra nie. Die gasagtige reuk van rubber en ontsmettingsmiddel het baie mense siek laat voel. Een kind het geskryf: "Alhoewel ek daarin kon asemhaal. Ek het gevoel asof ek nie kon nie. Dit lyk nie asof daar genoeg lug deur die filter kom nie. Die bedekking oor my gesig, die troebel Perspex voor my oë. en die oorweldigende reuk van rubber het my effens paniekerig laat voel, alhoewel ek steeds gelag het elke keer as ek uitasem, en die rande van die masker blaas 'n sagte framboos teen my wange. ons ma's is aangesê om seep aan die binnekant van die venster te vryf om dit te voorkom. Dit het dit moeiliker gemaak om te sien as ooit, en u het seep in u oë gekry. en het jou getref, elke keer as jy ingeasem het ... Die onderkant van die masker was gou vol spoeg, en jou gesig het so warm en sweet geword dat jy kon skree. " (8)

H. G. Wells, die beroemde romanskrywer, en Kingsley Martin, die redakteur van Die New Statesman, het albei artikels geskryf waarin hulle beweer dat hulle nie bereid was om gasmaskers te dra nie. Philip Ziegler, die skrywer van Londen in oorlog (1995), het daarop gewys dat die owerhede in Londen 'n gereelde ondersoek gedoen het van diegene wat gasmaskers op die Westminster-brug in 1939 dra: "Op 6 September op Westminster Bridge het 71 persent van die mans en 76 persent van die vroue maskers gedra ; teen 30 Oktober was die syfers 58 en 59; teen 9 November slegs 24 en 39. " (9)

'N Studie aan die begin van die oorlog suggereer dat slegs ongeveer 75 persent van die mense in Londen die regering se instruksies rakende gasmaskers gehoorsaam. Aan die begin van 1940 het byna niemand die moeite gedoen om hul gasmasker saam te dra nie. Die regering het nou aangekondig dat Air Raid Wardens maandelikse inspeksies van gasmaskers sal uitvoer. As daar gevind word dat 'n persoon die gasmasker verloor het, moes hy betaal vir die vervanging daarvan. Muriel Green was in Gloucester toe daar 'n gaslek uit 'n gebou was: 'Baie min maskers was sigbaar behalwe soldate en 'n vreemde kind.' (10)

Jessica Mitford skryf oor die stemming wat die regering skep: "Die regering het allerhande noodmaatreëls getref om die mense op oorlog voor te berei. Duisende staan ​​tou geduldig om gemeet te word vir gasmaskers, net om uit te vind dat dit inderhaas waarmee die maskers vervaardig is, is die onderdele wat gas moes onderskep, per ongeluk weggelaat.Grawe is in Hyde Park gegrawe, wat groot ontevredenheid veroorsaak het by die oppassers, wat gekla het dat hul klein ladings altyd binnedring. die bitter grappe wat deur hierdie ongeskikte reëlings veroorsaak is, was in die geheel 'n somber kalmte, 'n apatiese buiging voor die onvermydelike. " (11)

Duitsland het tydens die oorlog nie chemiese wapens gebruik nie, maar 'n paar jaar later het die owerhede bekommerd geraak oor die Britse gasmaskers wat deur Baxters van Blackburn vervaardig is. Plaaslike huisartse het opgemerk dat fabriekswerkers wat by die vervaardiging van maskers werk, abnormaal baie sterftes as gevolg van kanker toon. Daar is daarop gewys dat gasmaskers chrysotiel (wit asbes) of krokidoliet (blou asbes) in hul filters bevat. Een verslag dui daarop dat die werk in gasmaskerfabrieke tot die dood van 10% van die arbeidsmag lei as gevolg van pleurale en peritoneale mesothelioom. Hierdie koers was drie keer die normale voorkoms van long- of respiratoriese kankers. "(12)

Soos Jay Hemmings daarop gewys het: 'Soms blyk die vinnig ontwikkelde tegnologie uiters doeltreffend te wees, maar ander kere kan dit 'n terugslag gee en die gebruiker soveel of meer gevaar inhou as die gevaar waarteen dit hulle moet beskerm. so 'n voorbeeld van 'n vermeende vooruitgang wat eintlik gevaarlik vir die gebruiker was, was die Britse burgerlike gasmasker van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog .... Terwyl die maskers effektief was om giftige gasse soos mosterdgas uit te filter, fosgeen of chloorgas bevat die filters daarin 'n chemikalie wat ons nou weet uiters skadelik is vir die mens: asbes ... Asbes, wat wyd gebruik word as 'n hittebestande isolator ... voordat dit ontdek is hoe skadelik langdurige blootstelling is Dit veroorsaak asbestose, pleuritis en longkanker, asook 'n aantal ander dodelike en ongeneeslike siektes. " (13)

In 1965 bevestig wetenskaplikes uiteindelik die verband tussen asbestinaseming en kanker, wat nou mesothelioom genoem word. Dit is goed gedokumenteer as 'n tipe 1-karsinogeen, maar baie werkgewers het hul werkers deur die sewentigerjare aan asbes blootgestel. "Hoewel asbest amptelik in 1999 amptelik uit die Verenigde Koninkryk verbied is, bied baie werknemers vandag nog steeds nie 'n veilige werkomgewing met asbestmateriaal nie. Trouens, tussen 2002 en 2010 sterf 128 Britse skoolonderwysers aan mesothelioom. Vyf-en-sewentig persent van die skole in die Verenigde Koninkryk bevat asbes, en as gevolg van onlangse besnoeiings in die onderwysbegroting, is dit waarskynlik dat geboue wat behoorlike asbesonderhoud benodig, ontbreek. " (14)

Die regering het egter besluit om nie die Britse publiek te vertel van die moontlike gevare van gasmasker tydens die oorlog nie, uit vrees dat daar ongetwyfeld 'n groot aantal vergoedingseise is. Dit was 'n verhaal wat in verskyn het Die Lancashire Telegraph in Augustus 2013, wat daarop dui dat gasmaskers 'n ernstige gesondheidsgevaar inhou. Doris Timbrell is in November 2008 dood aan slukdermkanker. Haar dogter, Patricia Nicholas, beweer dat dit verband hou met haar werk tussen 1941 en 1943 by Baxters of Blackburn, waar sy gasmaskers bymekaarmaak en filters aanpas. 'N Vergoedingseis is ingestel teen die Ministerie van Verdediging en uiteindelik het sy byna £ 48 000 skadevergoeding gewen. (15)

Die daaropvolgende jaar sê die Gesondheid en Veiligheidshoof (HSE) dat dit 'n aantal vintage gasmaskers ontleed het op versoek van die Departement van Onderwys (DfE). Volgens die BBC word skole nou gewaarsku oor die gebruik van gasmaskers in die klaskamer: 'Die ontleding het getoon dat die meerderheid maskers wel asbes bevat, dikwels die gevaarliker krokidoliet, of blou asbes .... Skole met hierdie items in hul versamelings word aangeraai om dit uit die gebruik te verwyder, dit in 'n dubbelsak te plaas en vir gelisensieerde beskikking te stuur of om deur 'n gelisensieerde kontrakteur veilig te word, of om dit in 'n verseëlde kas te laat vertoon. " (16)

Die regering het allerhande noodmaatreëls getref om die mense op oorlog voor te berei. Afgesien van die bitter grappies wat deur hierdie ongeskikte reëlings veroorsaak is, was die atmosfeer in die geheel 'n sombere kalmte, 'n apatiese buiging voor die onvermydelike.

As gifgas gebruik is, word u gewaarsku deur middel van rammelaars. Hou van die strate af totdat die gifgas verwyder is. Handklokke word gelui as daar geen gevaar meer is nie. As u die gerammel hoor as u buite is, trek u gasmasker onmiddellik aan en gaan binnekort binne.

Elsie het opgemerk dat sy met meneer gepraat het. Wie ook al daar gekom het, sou gelukkig wees.

Elsie was reg oor die gasmaskers, en 'n paar weke later was daar paniekerige paniek oor hierdie vreesaanjaende dinge in die plaaslike skoolkamers, waar dit versprei word. Ons het hulle oral saam met ons gedra. Trouens, dit het 'n soort ritueel geword om elke keer as ons dit waag, te sê: 'Moenie vergeet nie, gasmasker, identiteitskaart en fakkel'.

Die identiteitskaarte moes altyd in beursies en handsakke gedra word. My identiteitsnommer was TKBR/82/10. Daar is vinnig handel gedryf met identiteitsarmbande en halssnoere. Ons het spesiale geliefdes vir geliefdes en vriende gekoop. Skuilings is in agtertuine opgerig. Ons het al die klein vuilplekke opgeneem, met die opening tot by die rand van die pad. Elke straat het 'n Air Raid Warden gehad. My pa was die bewaarder van ons straat. Hy het nou geen blomme gehad om na te kyk nie, maar het ure lank in die lug gekyk.

Ek is nog lank nie tevrede met die toestand van ons voorbereidings op offensiewe chemiese oorlogvoering nie, sou dit ons opdwing deur die vyand se optrede.

Ek het 'n verslag hieroor voorgelê deur die Inter-Service Committee on Chemical Warfare, tesame met 'n kommentaar daarop deur die Ministerie van Voorsiening. Uit hierdie twee dokumente kom die volgende spesiale punte na vore:

(1) Die tekort aan gasdop is steeds ernstig. Alhoewel die produksie van 6-duim- en 5.5-duim-gasdop in Februarie sou begin, is nog niks vervaardig nie. Ek verstaan ​​dat die tekort aan 25-pond gasgevulde dop te wyte is aan die gebrek aan leë doppies.

(2) Die produksie van 30 lb. L.C. bom, Mark I, sal nie tred hou met die vervaardiging van die 5-inch U.P. wapen, die nuwe mobiele projektor vir gebruik saam met die weermag. Voorrade sal inderdaad onvoldoende wees, selfs vir opleidingsdoeleindes.

(3) Die produksie van fosgeengas is onvoldoende. Die opbrengs van die aanleg is nou ongeveer 65 persent van die kapasiteit, voorheen slegs 50 persent oor 'n tydperk van 'n paar maande. Ek stel voor om die hele standpunt tydens 'n vroeë vergadering van die verdedigingskomitee (aanbod) te ondersoek.

Om hierdie ondersoek so volledig moontlik te maak, sal ek met graagte van die Minister van Vliegtuigproduksie en die Minister van Voorsiening, kort voor die vergadering, kort, uitgebreide verklarings van die standpunt vir elkeen ontvang. wat ten opsigte van elk van die belangrikste gaswapens en komponente (insluitend gasse) toon:

(1) Totale vereistes aan hulle in kennis gestel, met datums.

(2) Voorrade van komponente wat elk op 1 April in bewaring gehou word.

(3) Voorrade afgelewer teen April aan R.A.F. of weermagowerhede.

(4) Geskatte uitset gedurende elk van die volgende ses maande.

Ek sal bly wees as hierdie verklarings binne 'n week ingedien kan word. Hulle moet aan sir Edward Bridges gerig word.

Die versuim om gasmaskers te dra, was nooit 'n strafbare oortreding nie, maar in baie gevalle was fabrieks- en kantoorwerkers verplig om dit deur die bestuur aan die werk te bring, en skielike skynaanvalle is van tyd tot tyd in stampvol strate opgevoer. Selfs in die eerste week van die oorlog het nie meer as driekwart van die Londenaars wat in die strate gesien is, gasmaskers gedra nie. Teen November was dit 'n minderheidsgewoonte, swakker onder mans as onder vroue. Teen die daaropvolgende lente het amper niemand gepla nie. Intussen het die regering 'n maandelikse inspeksie van maskers deur die lugaanvalle ingestel; die burger sou aangekla word vir die vervanging of herstel van 'n masker wat hy toegelaat het om te versleg, of wat hy laat le. (Die verlore eiendomskantore van die spoorweë was hoog opgehou met opgeëiste houers.)

(1) Die Daily Telegraph (3 September 1939)

(2) Jay Hemmings, Die Britse burgerlike gasmasker: vol chemikalieë so gevaarlik soos die gas waarmee u u beskerm het (20 Januarie, 2019)

(3) BBC -nuusberig (13 Mei 2014)

(4) A. J. P. Taylor, Engelse geskiedenis: 1914-1945 (1965) bladsy 555

(5) Neville Chamberlain, toespraak oor die radio (27 September 1939)

(6) Joyce Storey, Joyce's War (1992) bladsy 5

(7) Juliet Gardiner, Oorlogstyd: Brittanje 1939-1945 (2004) bladsye 66-67

(8) Stuart Hylton, Die donkerste uur: die verborge geskiedenis van die tuisfront (2001) bladsy 93

(9) Philip Ziegler, Londen in oorlog (1995) bladsye 73-74

(10) Muriel Green, massa -waarnemingsargief (11 April 1942)

(11) Jessica Mitford, Hons en Rebels (1960) bladsy 174

(12) Kommunikasie Werkersunie, Asbesgevaar as gevolg van gasmaskers uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (13 Desember 2013)

(13) Jay Hemmings, Die Britse burgerlike gasmasker: vol chemikalieë so gevaarlik soos die gas waarteen dit u beskerm het (20 Januarie, 2019)

(14) Bainbridge E-Learning, Die menslike prys van asbes in die Verenigde Koninkryk (11 Julie 2017)

(15) Die Lancashire Telegraph (1 Augustus 2013)

(16) BBC -nuusberig (13 Mei 2014)


WWI gasmasker

Gasmaskers is in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog ontwikkel om soldate te beskerm teen die gevolge van chloriedgas. Hierdie gasmasker is gedra deur die 21 -jarige Levi Nathan Cox uit Clarendon, Texas.

Chemiese oorlogvoering met behulp van chloriedgas is op 22 April 1915 vir die eerste keer deur Duitse troepe vrygestel, waarby 1 100 geallieerde soldate dood is en 'n onbekende aantal ander beseer is. 'N Ooggetuieverslag beskryf die impak as 'n kwota-brandende sensasie in die kop, rooiwarm naalde in die longe, die keel wat deur 'n wurgman gegryp word. chemiese absorbeermiddels wat die impak van chloriedgas beperk.

Levi Cox (1896 en ndash1964) het op 5 Junie 1917 by WWI aangesluit. Hy dien as privaat in Kompanie B, 7de Infanterie voordat hy na 'n sersant in Kompanie H, 142ste Infanterie, 36de Afdeling, 'n gekonsolideerde eenheid infanterie uit Oklahoma en Texas, opklim. Na opleiding by Camp Bowie, is Cox na Europa ontplooi waar hy een van 70 552 Amerikaners was wat tydens die oorlog aan gas blootgestel was. Cox het blykbaar geen korttermyn -effekte gehad as gevolg van die gasvorming nie, en op 16 Junie 1919 het eerbare ontslag berig dat hy 'n persentasie ongeskik was.


Gasmaskers in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog

Gasmaskers wat in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebruik is, is gemaak as gevolg van gifgasaanvalle wat die Geallieerdes in die loopgrawe aan die Wesfront verras het. Vroeë gasmaskers was ru soos verwag sou word, aangesien niemand gedink het dat gifgas ooit in oorlogvoering gebruik sou word nie, aangesien die blote gedagte te skokkend lyk.

Een van die eerste Britse gasmaskers was die Britse Hypo -helm hieronder.

Hierdie ruwe masker het 'n mate van beskerming gebied, maar sy oogstuk was baie swak en maklik om te breek-waardeur die beskermingswaarde van die hypo-helm nietig is. Die masker bied beskerming deur in antigas-chemikalieë gedoop te word. Dit was:

Alhoewel dit onbeskof was, was die hypo -helm 'n teken vir die Britse troepe in die loopgrawe dat iets gedoen word om hulle te help tydens 'n gasaanval en dat hulle nie vir slagting uitgelaat word nie. Namate die maande verloop en die gebruik van gifgas meer gereeld plaasvind, is meer gesofistikeerde maskers ontwikkel en bekendgestel.

Die Britse klein boks -asemhalingsmasjien is in April 1916 die eerste keer aan Britse soldate bekendgestel - 'n paar maande voor die Slag van die Somme. Teen Januarie 1917 was dit die standaard gasmasker vir alle Britse soldate. Teen hierdie tyd het die masker verskyn op wat ons sou dink dat 'n gasmasker sou hê, en die waarde daarvan kan gesien word in die aantal sterftes wat die Britte gely het as gevolg van gifgas - 8,100 - baie minder as die totale Britse sterftes van die eerste dag van die Somme.


Amerikaanse militêre gasmaskers: Tweede Wêreldoorlog en later


Personeel van die Amerikaanse weermag het gasmaskerbrille voor D-Day, 1944, aangebring.

Hierdie afdeling van Olive-Drab.com hersien Amerikaanse militêre gasmaskers uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur die implementering van die Joint Service General Purpose Mask (JSGPM) in 2006. Alhoewel die Amerikaanse weermaskers die meeste gebruik word (deur die weermag en ander dienste), is daar ook 'n aantal belangrike maskers ontwikkel vir die Amerikaanse vloot, mariene korps en lugmag.

Hier is 'n lys met die belangrikste van die Amerikaanse militêre gasmaske (of maskers wat deur die Amerikaanse regering vir burgerlike gebruik aangeskaf is) met skakels na Olive-Drab.com-bladsye met foto's en verdere inligting oor die individuele modelle en hul variante:

  • M24 vliegtuig gasmasker (1962)
  • M28 Riot Control Agent Gas Mask (1968)
  • M43 vliegtuig gasmasker (1986)
  • M42 Combat Vehicle Gas Mask (1987)
  • M45 Chemies-Biologiese Gasmasker (1996)
  • M48 Apache Aviator Gasmasker (1996)
  • Navy/USMC AR-5 NBC Aviators beskermende gasmasker
  • USAF Aircrew Eye and Respiratory Protection (AERP) gasmasker.
  • Gesamentlike diens lugmasjien gasmasker. (JSAM) (om die AR-5 te vervang)

Hierdie versameling foto's toon 'n ontstellende daaglikse lewe in gasmaskers tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Die gebruik van gasmasker dateer uit die antieke Griekeland. Hulle het sponse gebruik. Sedertdien is verskillende tegnieke en tegnologieë gebruik as inhalasie -filtrasiestelsels.

Die eerste gebruik van gifgas aan die Westelike Front was deur die Duitsers in Ieper op 22 April 1915. Die aanvanklike reaksie was om die troepe katoenbekke te gee om hul asemhaling te beskerm. Die primitiewe maskers het verskeie ontwikkelingsfases ondergaan voordat dit in 1916 deur die gasmasker vervang is. Die masker is verbind met die blik wat absorberende materiale bevat.

Teen 1944 het die US Army Chemical Warfare Service 'n masker van plastiek en rubber ontwikkel wat die gewig en grootte van die maskers aansienlik verminder het.

Die meeste burgerlikes het deur die departement van burgerlike verdediging geleer hoe om gasmaskers te gebruik, maar kinders het die meeste gasmaskeronderrig ontvang tydens skooloefeninge. Skole het ten alle tye die verpligte vervoer van gasmaskers afgedwing.

'N Britse paartjie met gasmaskers in hul huis in 1941. Wikipedia 'N Ma hou haar pasgebore baba in die bed, kort nadat sy in 1941 geboorte geskenk het. Die ma dra haar burgerlike asemhalingsmasjien, terwyl die baba in 'n gashelm vasgemaak is, wat om die baba se rsquos -bodem vasgesluit word. Die ma demonstreer hoe die blaasbalk op haar baba en rsquos -gasmasker gepomp word om die baba lug te voorsien. Pinterest 'N Bewaarder gee aanwysings aan 'n ma en haar twee kinders tydens 'n gasboor in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Southend op 29 Maart 1941. Eric Harlow Keystone Getty Images 'N Jong danser in die musieksaal dra 'n gasmasker en 'n helm in Februarie 1940. Keystone-Frankryk. Gamma-Keystone. Getty Images. Kinders in Londen dra hul gasmaskers terwyl hulle in die park spring by hul tydelike huise aan die suidkus van Engeland, omstreeks 1940. General Photographic Agency. Getty Images. 'N Bakker wat vars gebak met 'n gasmasker aflewer. Keystone Press Agency INC. NY. Met vergunning- Daniel Blau München Londen 'N Paartjie wat vir 'n troufoto in hul gasmaskers poseer. Pinterest 'N Skare wat voorberei om 'n besige straat oor te steek met gasmaskers. Keystone Press Agency INC. NY. Met vergunning- Daniel Blau München Londen 'N Gesin leun met hul gasmaskers by die venster van hul woonstel uit. Pinterest 'N Gesin gebruik asemhalingsmasjiene by die Empire Pool, Wembley, Londen op 21 Augustus 1938. Fox Photos. Getty Images 'N Gesin wat hul gasmaskers na die winkels gedra het tydens 'n gasboor in Richmond, Surrey, 31 Mei 1941. Die boor behels 'n houer traangas om 'n gasaanval na te boots. Sleutelsteen. Hulton -argief. Getty Images 'N Gasoefening vir burgerlikes wat traangas gebruik, is in 1941 in Kingston-On-Thames gehou. Keystone. Getty Images 'N Perd wat gewoond raak aan die dra van 'n gasmasker. Pinterest Die Britse kunstenaar Albert Perry werk saam met 'n paar van sy leerlinge tydens hul daaglikse gasmaskeroefening van een uur, 19 Augustus 1941. Fox Photos. Getty Images Kinders wat met hul gasmaskers op die skoolterrein speel. 27 Junie 1941. Keystone Press Agency Skoolseuns loop deur 'n wolk traangas as deel van 'n roetine gasboor, 3 Maart 1941. Keystone Press Agency INC. NY. Met vergunning- Daniel Blau München. Londen Jong kinders dra hul gasmaskers by die skool. Pinterest Die Blitz versterk seksuele begeerte. 'N Hele twee dekades voor die sogenaamde permissiewe samelewing van die Sestigerjare, het daar reeds 'n dramatiese, as onderskat, seksuele rewolusie plaasgevind, en dit sou 'n voorloper wees van die sedes waarmee die Britte leef vandag. Daaglikse pos Ondergrondse skuilings vir lugaanvalle bied ongekende geleenthede vir seksuele skakeling. Daaglikse pos Verpleegsters wat babas in gasmaskers hou. geskiedenisleerwebwerf


Hou almal veilig

Almal moes hul gasmasker te alle tye dra, in 'n kartondoos met 'n lang touband oor jou skouer. U kan 'n boete kry as u sonder u gasmasker gevang word, en 'n nuwe een moet betaal as u dit verloor! Plakkate is opgesit om die publiek te herinner om hul masker te dra en hoe om dit aan te trek in geval van 'n aanval. Die regering het almal aangeraai om elke dag 15 minute hul gasmasker aan te trek sodat hulle daaraan gewoond geraak het.

As u sonder u masker by die skool opdaag, stuur die onderwyser u huis toe om dit te gaan haal, en selfs sommige winkels weier toegang tot klante wat sonder hul gasmaskers gevang is. Skole het gereeld gasaanvalle gehou, 'n bietjie soos 'n brandoefening.

Air Wardens, wat seker gemaak het dat almal in die lugaanvalle sou kom in geval van bomaanvalle en verseker het dat mense se huise nie snags ligte wys nie (wat vyandelike bomwerpers kan help om dorpe in die donker te identifiseer), het 'n spesiale ratel om te waarsku van 'n gasaanval. Dit het soos 'n outydse houtvoetbal-ratel gelyk.

Die gasmaskers het egter uiteindelik meer mense doodgemaak as wat hulle gered het! Die filter van 'n gasmasker is gemaak van asbes, en ongelukkig het plaaslike huisdokters rondom Blackburn abnormaal groot getalle kankersterftes van werkers uit die gasmaskerfabrieke aangeteken.


Gasmasker

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Gasmasker, asemhalingsapparaat wat ontwerp is om die draer te beskerm teen skadelike stowwe in die lug. Die tipiese gasmasker bestaan ​​uit 'n styfpassende gesigstuk wat filters, 'n uitasemklep en deursigtige oogstukke bevat. Dit word met bande aan die gesig vasgehou en kan saam met 'n beskermende kap gedra word. Die filterelemente in die wange van die masker verwyder kontaminante uit die lug wat deur die inasem van die draer deur die masker trek. Die filters wat vervang kan word, maak die lug skoon, maar voeg nie suurstof daaraan toe nie (sommige maskers word met 'n slang verbind aan 'n aparte tenk suurstof). Die mees algemene filters gebruik veselskerms (om fyn verdeelde vaste deeltjies uit te filter) en chemiese verbindings soos houtskool (om giftige gasse in die lug op te vang of chemies te verander). Houtskool absorbeer en hou 'n redelik groot hoeveelheid giftige gasse in.

Gasmaskers word wyd gebruik deur die wêreld se weermag. Alhoewel dit moontlik is om filterapparate te ontwerp wat bykans enige spesifieke giftige stof in die lug kan neutraliseer, is dit onmoontlik om in een masker beskerming teen alle giftige stowwe te kombineer. Militêre gasmaskers word dienooreenkomstig ontwerp om chemikalieë wat na verwagting in oorlogstyd gebruik word, teë te werk. Gasmaskers is slegs effektief teen chemiese oorlogsmiddels wat as ware gasse versprei word en skadelik is as dit ingeasem word. Agente soos mosterdgas wat in vloeibare vorm versprei word en die liggaam deur die veloppervlak aanval, vereis dat spesiale beskermende klere benewens gasmaskers gebruik word.


Inhoud

1914: Traangas Edit

Die chemikalieë wat die meeste tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebruik is, was traanverwekkende irritasie eerder as dodelike of uitskakelende gifstowwe. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was die Franse weermag die eerste wat traangas gebruik het met behulp van 26 mm granate gevul met etielbromosetaat in Augustus 1914. Die klein hoeveelhede gas wat gelewer is, ongeveer 19 cm³ per patroon, is nie eers deur die Duitsers opgespoor nie. Die voorraad is vinnig verbruik en teen November is 'n nuwe bestelling deur die Franse weermag geplaas. Omdat broom skaars was by die Entente -bondgenote, is die aktiewe bestanddeel verander na chloorasetoon. [7]

In Oktober 1914 het Duitse troepe fragmenteringsdoppe gevuur met 'n chemiese irritasie teen Britse posisies in Neuve Chapelle afgevuur, die konsentrasie was so klein dat dit ook skaars opgemerk is. [8] Nie een van die vegters was van mening dat die gebruik van traangas in stryd was met die Haagse verdrag van 1899 nie, wat spesifiek die lanseer van projektiele met versmorende of giftige gas verbied het. [9]

1915: Grootskaalse gebruik en dodelike gasse Redigeer

Die eerste geval van grootskaalse gebruik van gas as 'n wapen was op 31 Januarie 1915, toe Duitsland tydens die Slag van Bolimov 18.000 artilleriedoppe met vloeibare xylylbromied traangas op Russiese posisies afgevuur het. In plaas daarvan om te verdamp, het die chemikalie gevries en kon dit nie die gewenste effek hê nie. [8]

Die eerste moordmiddel was chloor, wat deur die Duitse weermag gebruik is. [10] Chloor is 'n kragtige irritasie wat skade aan die oë, neus, keel en longe kan veroorsaak. By hoë konsentrasies en langdurige blootstelling kan dit die dood veroorsaak deur versmoring. [11] Duitse chemiese ondernemings BASF, Hoechst en Bayer (wat in 1925 die IG Farben-konglomeraat gevorm het) het chloor gemaak as 'n byproduk van hul kleurstofvervaardiging. [12] In samewerking met Fritz Haber van die Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlyn het hulle metodes begin ontwikkel om chloorgas teen vyandelike loopgrawe af te laat. [13] [14]

Dit kan blyk uit 'n veldbriefbrief van majoor Karl von Zingler dat die eerste chloorgasaanval deur Duitse magte voor 2 Januarie 1915 plaasgevind het: 'In ander oorlogsteaters gaan dit nie beter nie en daar is gesê dat ons chloor baie effektief is. 140 Engelse offisiere is dood. Dit is 'n aaklige wapen. ". [15] Hierdie brief moet egter verdiskonteer word as bewys vir vroeë Duitse gebruik van chloor, want die datum "2 Januarie 1915" is moontlik haastig gekrabbel in plaas van die beoogde "2 Januarie 1916", die soort algemene typografiese fout wat word dikwels aan die begin van 'n nuwe jaar gemaak. Die dood van soveel Engelse offisiere op hierdie tydstip aan gas sou beslis met verontwaardiging ondervind gewees het, maar 'n onlangse, uitgebreide studie van Britse reaksies op chemiese oorlogvoering sê niks van hierdie vermeende aanval nie. [16] Miskien verwys hierdie brief na die chloor-fosgeenaanval op Britse troepe by Wieltje naby Ieper, op 19 Desember 1915 (sien hieronder).

Teen 22 April 1915 het die Duitse leër 168 ton chloor in 5 730 silinders van Langemark-Poelkapelle, noord van Ieper, ontplooi. Om 17:30 word die vloeibare chloor in 'n ligte oostelike bries uit die tenks gesif, wat gas produseer wat 'n grysgroen wolk vorm wat oor posisies van Franse koloniale troepe uit Martinique, sowel as die 1ste Tirailleurs en die 2de Zouaves uit Algerië. [17] Gekonfronteer met 'n onbekende bedreiging, breek hierdie troepe geledere, verlaat hul loopgrawe en skep 'n gaping van 8000 meter (7 km) in die geallieerde lyn. Die Duitse infanterie was ook versigtig vir die gas en het, sonder versterkings, nie daarin geslaag om die onderbreking voor die 1ste Kanadese Afdeling te benut nie en verskeie Franse troepe hervorm die lyn in verspreide, haastig voorbereide posisies wat 910-2.740 m (910-2.740 m) uitmekaar was. [8] Die Entente -regerings beweer dat die aanval 'n flagrante oortreding van die internasionale reg was, maar Duitsland het aangevoer dat die Haag -verdrag slegs chemiese doppe verbied het, eerder as die gebruik van gasprojektors. [18]

In die Tweede Slag van Ieper het die Duitsers op 24 April nog drie keer gas gebruik teen die 1ste Kanadese Afdeling, [19] op 2 Mei naby Mouse Trap Farm en op 5 Mei teen die Britte op Hill 60. [20] Die Britse amptelike geskiedenis verklaar dat op Hill 60, "90 mans gesterf het aan gasvergiftiging in die loopgrawe of voordat hulle by 'n aantrekstasie van die 207 na die naaste aantrekstasies gebring kon word, sterf 46 byna onmiddellik en 12 na lang lyding. " [21]

Op 6 Augustus gebruik Duitse troepe chloorgas teen Russiese troepe wat die Osowiec -vesting verdedig. Oorlewende verdedigers het die aanval teruggedryf en die vesting behou. Die geleentheid sou later die aanval van die dooie mans genoem word.

Duitsland het chemiese wapens aan die oostelike front gebruik in 'n aanval op Rawka, suid van Warskou. Die Russiese weermag het 9 000 slagoffers gehad, met meer as 1 000 sterftes. In reaksie hierop het die artillerietak van die Russiese weermag 'n kommissie gereël om die aflewering van gifgas in doppe te bestudeer. [22]

Doeltreffendheid en teenmaatreëls Redigeer

Dit het vinnig duidelik geword dat die manne wat op hul plekke gebly het minder gely het as diegene wat weggehardloop het, aangesien enige beweging die gevolge van die gas vererger het en dat diegene wat op die vuurstap opgestaan ​​het, minder gely het - hulle het inderdaad dikwels aan ernstige gevolge ontsnap. —Dan diegene wat gaan lê het of onder in 'n sloot gaan sit het. Mans wat op die parapet gestaan ​​het, het die minste gely, aangesien die gas digter naby die grond was. Die ergste lyers was die gewondes wat op die grond lê, of op brakke, en die mans wat met die wolk terugbeweeg het. [23] Chlorine was less effective as a weapon than the Germans had hoped, particularly as soon as simple countermeasures were introduced. The gas produced a visible greenish cloud and strong odour, making it easy to detect. It was water-soluble, so the simple expedient of covering the mouth and nose with a damp cloth was effective at reducing the effect of the gas. It was thought to be even more effective to use urine rather than water, as it was known at the time that chlorine reacted with urea (present in urine) to form dichloro urea. [24]

Chlorine required a concentration of 1,000 parts per million to be fatal, destroying tissue in the lungs, likely through the formation of hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids when dissolved in the water in the lungs. [25] Despite its limitations, chlorine was an effective psychological weapon—the sight of an oncoming cloud of the gas was a continual source of dread for the infantry. [26]

Countermeasures were quickly introduced in response to the use of chlorine. The Germans issued their troops with small gauze pads filled with cotton waste, and bottles of a bicarbonate solution with which to dampen the pads. Immediately following the use of chlorine gas by the Germans, instructions were sent to British and French troops to hold wet handkerchiefs or cloths over their mouths. Simple pad respirators similar to those issued to German troops were soon proposed by Lieutenant-Colonel N. C. Ferguson, the Assistant Director Medical Services of the 28th Division. These pads were intended to be used damp, preferably dipped into a solution of bicarbonate kept in buckets for that purpose other liquids were also used. Because such pads could not be expected to arrive at the front for several days, army divisions set about making them for themselves. Locally available muslin, flannel and gauze were used, officers were sent to Paris to buy more and local French women were employed making up rudimentary pads with string ties. Other units used lint bandages manufactured in the convent at Poperinge. Pad respirators were sent up with rations to British troops in the line as early as the evening of 24 April. [27]

In Britain the Daaglikse pos newspaper encouraged women to manufacture cotton pads, and within one month a variety of pad respirators were available to British and French troops, along with motoring goggles to protect the eyes. The response was enormous and a million gas masks were produced in a day. Die Pos ' s design was useless when dry and caused suffocation when wet—the respirator was responsible for the deaths of scores of men. By 6 July 1915, the entire British army was equipped with the more effective "smoke helmet" designed by Major Cluny MacPherson, Newfoundland Regiment, which was a flannel bag with a celluloid window, which entirely covered the head. The race was then on between the introduction of new and more effective poison gases and the production of effective countermeasures, which marked gas warfare until the armistice in November 1918. [27]

British gas attacks Edit

The British expressed outrage at Germany's use of poison gas at Ypres and responded by developing their own gas warfare capability. The commander of II Corps, Lieutenant General Sir Charles Ferguson, said of gas:

It is a cowardly form of warfare which does not commend itself to me or other English soldiers . We cannot win this war unless we kill or incapacitate more of our enemies than they do of us, and if this can only be done by our copying the enemy in his choice of weapons, we must not refuse to do so. [28]

The first use of gas by the British was at the Battle of Loos, 25 September 1915, but the attempt was a disaster. Chlorine, codenamed Red Star, was the agent to be used (140 tons arrayed in 5,100 cylinders), and the attack was dependent on a favourable wind. On this occasion the wind proved fickle, and the gas either lingered in no man's land or, in places, blew back on the British trenches. [8] This was compounded when the gas could not be released from all the British canisters because the wrong turning keys were sent with them. Subsequent retaliatory German shelling hit some of those unused full cylinders, releasing gas among the British troops. [29] Exacerbating the situation were the primitive flannel gas masks distributed to the British. The masks got hot, and the small eye-pieces misted over, reducing visibility. Some of the troops lifted the masks to get fresh air, causing them to be gassed. [30]

1915: More deadly gases Edit

The deficiencies of chlorine were overcome with the introduction of phosgene, which was prepared by a group of French chemists led by Victor Grignard and first used by France in 1915. [31] Colourless and having an odour likened to "mouldy hay," phosgene was difficult to detect, making it a more effective weapon. Phosgene was sometimes used on its own, but was more often used mixed with an equal volume of chlorine, with the chlorine helping to spread the denser phosgene. [32] The Allies called this combination White Star after the marking painted on shells containing the mixture. [33]

Phosgene was a potent killing agent, deadlier than chlorine. It had a potential drawback in that some of the symptoms of exposure took 24 hours or more to manifest. This meant that the victims were initially still capable of putting up a fight this could also mean that apparently fit troops would be incapacitated by the effects of the gas on the following day. [34]

In the first combined chlorine–phosgene attack by Germany, against British troops at Wieltje near Ypres, Belgium on 19 December 1915, 88 tons of the gas were released from cylinders causing 1069 casualties and 69 deaths. [32] The British P gas helmet, issued at the time, was impregnated with sodium phenolate and partially effective against phosgene. The modified PH Gas Helmet, which was impregnated with phenate hexamine and hexamethylene tetramine (urotropine) to improve the protection against phosgene, was issued in January 1916. [32] [35] [36]

Around 36,600 tons of phosgene were manufactured during the war, out of a total of 190,000 tons for all chemical weapons, making it second only to chlorine (93,800 tons) in the quantity manufactured: [37]

  • Germany 18,100 tons
  • France 15,700 tons
  • United Kingdom 1,400 tons (also used French stocks)
  • United States 1,400 tons (also used French stocks)

Phosgene was never as notorious in public consciousness as mustard gas, but it killed far more people: about 85% of the 90,000 deaths caused by chemical weapons during World War I.

1916: Austrian use Edit

On 29 June 1916, Austrian forces attacked the Italian lines on Monte San Michele with a mix of phosgene and chlorine gas. [38] Thousands of Italian soldiers died in this first chemical weapons attack on the Italian Front.

1917: Mustard gas Edit

The most widely reported chemical agent of the First World War was mustard gas. It is a volatile oily liquid. It was introduced as a vesicant by Germany in July 1917 prior to the Third Battle of Ypres. [8] The Germans marked their shells yellow for mustard gas and green for chlorine and phosgene hence they called the new gas Yellow Cross. It was known to the British as HS (Hun Stuff), and the French called it Yperite (named after Ypres). [39]

Mustard gas is not an effective killing agent (though in high enough doses it is fatal) but can be used to harass and disable the enemy and pollute the battlefield. Delivered in artillery shells, mustard gas was heavier than air, and it settled to the ground as an oily liquid. Once in the soil, mustard gas remained active for several days, weeks, or even months, depending on the weather conditions. [40]

The skin of victims of mustard gas blistered, their eyes became very sore and they began to vomit. Mustard gas caused internal and external bleeding and attacked the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane. This was extremely painful. Fatally injured victims sometimes took four or five weeks to die of mustard gas exposure. [41]

One nurse, Vera Brittain, wrote: "I wish those people who talk about going on with this war whatever it costs could see the soldiers suffering from mustard gas poisoning. Great mustard-coloured blisters, blind eyes, all sticky and stuck together, always fighting for breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that their throats are closing and they know they will choke." [42]

The polluting nature of mustard gas meant that it was not always suitable for supporting an attack as the assaulting infantry would be exposed to the gas when they advanced. When Germany launched Operation Michael on 21 March 1918, they saturated the Flesquières salient with mustard gas instead of attacking it directly, believing that the harassing effect of the gas, coupled with threats to the salient's flanks, would make the British position untenable. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Gas never reproduced the dramatic success of 22 April 1915 it became a standard weapon which, combined with conventional artillery, was used to support most attacks in the later stages of the war. Gas was employed primarily on the Western Front—the static, confined trench system was ideal for achieving an effective concentration. Germany also used gas against Russia on the Eastern Front, where the lack of effective countermeasures resulted in deaths of over 56,000 Russians, [43] while Britain experimented with gas in Palestine during the Second Battle of Gaza. [44] Russia began manufacturing chlorine gas in 1916, with phosgene being produced later in the year. Most of the manufactured gas was never used. [22]

The British Army first used mustard gas in November 1917 at Cambrai, after their armies had captured a stockpile of German mustard gas shells. It took the British more than a year to develop their own mustard gas weapon, with production of the chemicals centred on Avonmouth Docks. [45] [46] (The only option available to the British was the Despretz–Niemann–Guthrie process.) This was used first in September 1918 during the breaking of the Hindenburg Line with the Hundred Days' Offensive.

The Allies mounted more gas attacks than the Germans in 1917 and 1918 because of a marked increase in production of gas from the Allied nations. Germany was unable to keep up with this pace despite creating various new gases for use in battle, mostly as a result of very costly methods of production. Entry into the war by the United States allowed the Allies to increase mustard gas production far more than Germany. [47] [48] Also the prevailing wind on the Western Front was blowing from west to east, [49] which meant the Allies more frequently had favourable conditions for a gas release than did the Germans.

When the United States entered the war, it was already mobilizing resources from academic, industry and military sectors for research and development into poison gas. A Subcommittee on Noxious Gases was created by the National Research Committee, a major research centre was established at Camp American University, and the 1st Gas Regiment was recruited. [48] The 1st Gas Regiment eventually served in France, where it used phosgene gas in several attacks. [50] [48] The Artillery used mustard gas with significant effect during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive on at least three occasions. [51] The United States began large-scale production of an improved vesicant gas known as Lewisite, for use in an offensive planned for early 1919. By the time of the armistice on 11 November, a plant near Willoughby, Ohio was producing 10 tons per day of the substance, for a total of about 150 tons. It is uncertain what effect this new chemical would have had on the battlefield, as it degrades in moist conditions. [52] [53]

Post-war Edit

By the end of the war, chemical weapons had lost much of their effectiveness against well trained and equipped troops. At that time, chemical weapon agents inflicted an estimated 1.3 million casualties. [54]

Nevertheless, in the following years, chemical weapons were used in several, mainly colonial, wars where one side had an advantage in equipment over the other. The British used poison gas, possibly adamsite, against Russian revolutionary troops beginning on 27 August 1919 [55] and contemplated using chemical weapons against Iraqi insurgents in the 1920s Bolshevik troops used poison gas to suppress the Tambov Rebellion in 1920, Spain used chemical weapons in Morocco against Rif tribesmen throughout the 1920s [56] and Italy used mustard gas in Libya in 1930 and again during its invasion of Ethiopia in 1936. [57] In 1925, a Chinese warlord, Zhang Zuolin, contracted a German company to build him a mustard gas plant in Shenyang, [56] which was completed in 1927.

Public opinion had by then turned against the use of such weapons which led to the Geneva Protocol, an updated and extensive prohibition of poison weapons. The Protocol, which was signed by most First World War combatants in 1925, bans the use (but not the stockpiling) of lethal gas and bacteriological weapons. Most countries that signed ratified it within around five years a few took much longer—Brazil, Japan, Uruguay, and the United States did not do so until the 1970s, and Nicaragua ratified it in 1990. [58] The signatory nations agreed not to use poison gas in the future, stating "the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices, has been justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilized world." [59]

Chemical weapons have been used in at least a dozen wars since the end of the First World War [57] they were not used in combat on a large scale until Iraq used mustard gas and the more deadly nerve agents in the Halabja chemical attack near the end of the 8-year Iran–Iraq War. The full conflict's use of such weaponry killed around 20,000 Iranian troops (and injured another 80,000), around a quarter of the number of deaths caused by chemical weapons during the First World War. [60]

Effect on World War II Edit

All major combatants stockpiled chemical weapons during the Second World War, but the only reports of its use in the conflict were the Japanese use of relatively small amounts of mustard gas and lewisite in China, [61] [62] Italy's use of gas in Ethiopia (in what is more often considered to be the Second Italo-Ethiopian War), and very rare occurrences in Europe (for example some mustard gas bombs were dropped on Warsaw on 3 September 1939, which Germany acknowledged in 1942 but indicated had been accidental). [56] Mustard gas was the agent of choice, with the British stockpiling 40,719 tons, the Soviets 77,400 tons, the Americans over 87,000 tons and the Germans 27,597 tons. [56] The destruction of an American cargo ship containing mustard gas led to many casualties in Bari, Italy, in December 1943.

In both Axis and Allied nations, children in school were taught to wear gas masks in case of gas attack. Germany developed the poison gases tabun, sarin, and soman during the war, and used Zyklon B in their extermination camps. Neither Germany nor the Allied nations used any of their war gases in combat, despite maintaining large stockpiles and occasional calls for their use. [nb 1] Poison gas played an important role in the Holocaust.

Britain made plans to use mustard gas on the landing beaches in the event of an invasion of the United Kingdom in 1940. [63] [64] The United States considered using gas to support their planned invasion of Japan. [65]

The contribution of gas weapons to the total casualty figures was relatively minor. British figures, which were accurately maintained from 1916, recorded that 3% of gas casualties were fatal, 2% were permanently invalid and 70% were fit for duty again within six weeks. [66]

It was remarked as a joke that if someone yelled 'Gas', everyone in France would put on a mask. . Gas shock was as frequent as shell shock.

Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! — An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling,
And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime .
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.
In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

Death by gas was often slow and painful. According to Denis Winter (Death's Men, 1978), a fatal dose of phosgene eventually led to "shallow breathing and retching, pulse up to 120, an ashen face and the discharge of four pints (2 litres) of yellow liquid from the lungs each hour for the 48 of the drowning spasms."

A common fate of those exposed to gas was blindness, chlorine gas or mustard gas being the main causes. One of the most famous First World War paintings, Gassed by John Singer Sargent, captures such a scene of mustard gas casualties which he witnessed at a dressing station at Le Bac-du-Sud near Arras in July 1918. (The gases used during that battle (tear gas) caused temporary blindness and/or a painful stinging in the eyes. These bandages were normally water-soaked to provide a rudimentary form of pain relief to the eyes of casualties before they reached more organized medical help.)

The proportion of mustard gas fatalities to total casualties was low 2% of mustard gas casualties died and many of these succumbed to secondary infections rather than the gas itself. Once it was introduced at the third battle of Ypres, mustard gas produced 90% of all British gas casualties and 14% of battle casualties of any type.

Estimated gas casualties [43]
Nasie Fatal Totaal
(Fatal & non-fatal)
Rusland 56,000 419,340
Duitsland 9,000 200,000
Frankryk 8,000 190,000
British Empire
(includes Canada)
8,109 188,706
Austria-Hungary 3,000 100,000
Verenigde State 1,462 72,807
Italië 4,627 60,000
Totaal 90,198 1,230,853

Mustard gas was a source of extreme dread. In The Anatomy of Courage (1945), Lord Moran, who had been a medical officer during the war, wrote:

After July 1917 gas partly usurped the role of high explosive in bringing to head a natural unfitness for war. The gassed men were an expression of trench fatigue, a menace when the manhood of the nation had been picked over. [67]

Mustard gas did not need to be inhaled to be effective—any contact with skin was sufficient. Exposure to 0.1 ppm was enough to cause massive blisters. Higher concentrations could burn flesh to the bone. It was particularly effective against the soft skin of the eyes, nose, armpits and groin, since it dissolved in the natural moisture of those areas. Typical exposure would result in swelling of the conjunctiva and eyelids, forcing them closed and rendering the victim temporarily blind. Where it contacted the skin, moist red patches would immediately appear which after 24 hours would have formed into blisters. Other symptoms included severe headache, elevated pulse and temperature (fever), and pneumonia (from blistering in the lungs).

Many of those who survived a gas attack were scarred for life. Respiratory disease and failing eyesight were common post-war afflictions. Of the Canadians who, without any effective protection, had withstood the first chlorine attacks during Second Ypres, 60% of the casualties had to be repatriated and half of these were still unfit by the end of the war, over three years later.

Many of those who were fairly soon recorded as fit for service were left with scar tissue in their lungs. This tissue was susceptible to tuberculosis attack. It was from this that many of the 1918 casualties died, around the time of the Second World War, shortly before sulfa drugs became widely available for its treatment.

British casualties Edit

British forces gas casualties on the Western Front [ aanhaling nodig ]
Datum Agent Casualties (official)
Fatal Non-fatal
April –
May 1915
Chlorine 350 7,000
May 1915 –
June 1916
Lachrymants 0 0
December 1915 –
August 1916
Chlorine 1,013 4,207
July 1916 –
July 1917
Verskeie 532 8,806
July 1917 –
November 1918
Mustard gas 4,086 160,526
April 1915 –
November 1918
Totaal 5,981 180,539

A British nurse treating mustard gas cases recorded:

They cannot be bandaged or touched. We cover them with a tent of propped-up sheets. Gas burns must be agonizing because usually the other cases do not complain even with the worst wounds but gas cases are invariably beyond endurance and they cannot help crying out. [68]

A postmortem account from the British official medical history records one of the British casualties:

Case four. Aged 39 years. Gassed 29 July 1917. Admitted to casualty clearing station the same day. Died about ten days later. Brownish pigmentation present over large surfaces of the body. A white ring of skin where the wrist watch was. Marked superficial burning of the face and scrotum. The larynx much congested. The whole of the trachea was covered by a yellow membrane. The bronchi contained abundant gas. The lungs fairly voluminous. The right lung showing extensive collapse at the base. Liver congested and fatty. Stomach showed numerous submucous haemorrhages. The brain substance was unduly wet and very congested. [69]

Civilian casualties Edit

The distribution of gas cloud casualties was not limited to the front. Nearby towns were at risk from winds blowing the poison gases through. Civilians rarely had a warning system to alert their neighbours of the danger and often did not have access to effective gas masks. When the gas came to the towns it could easily get into houses through open windows and doors. An estimated 100,000–260,000 civilian casualties were caused by chemical weapons during the conflict and tens of thousands (along with military personnel) died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, and cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended. Many commanders on both sides knew that such weapons would cause major harm to civilians as wind would blow poison gases into nearby civilian towns but nonetheless continued to use them throughout the war. British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig wrote in his diary: "My officers and I were aware that such weapon would cause harm to women and children living in nearby towns, as strong winds were common on the battlefront. However, because the weapon was to be directed against the enemy, none of us were overly concerned at all." [70] [71] [72] [73]

None of the First World War's combatants were prepared for the introduction of poison gas as a weapon. Once gas was introduced, development of gas protection began and the process continued for much of the war producing a series of increasingly effective gas masks. [48]

Even at Second Ypres, Germany, still unsure of the weapon's effectiveness, only issued breathing masks to the engineers handling the gas. At Ypres a Canadian medical officer, who was also a chemist, quickly identified the gas as chlorine and recommended that the troops urinate on a cloth and hold it over their mouth and nose. The first official equipment issued was similarly crude a pad of material, usually impregnated with a chemical, tied over the lower face. To protect the eyes from tear gas, soldiers were issued with gas goggles.

The next advance was the introduction of the gas helmet—basically a bag placed over the head. The fabric of the bag was impregnated with a chemical to neutralize the gas—the chemical would wash out into the soldier's eyes whenever it rained. Eye-pieces, which were prone to fog up, were initially made from talc. When going into combat, gas helmets were typically worn rolled up on top of the head, to be pulled down and secured about the neck when the gas alarm was given. The first British version was the Hypo helmet, the fabric of which was soaked in sodium hyposulfite (commonly known as "hypo"). The British P gas helmet, partially effective against phosgene and with which all infantry were equipped with at Loos, was impregnated with sodium phenolate. A mouthpiece was added through which the wearer would breathe out to prevent carbon dioxide build-up. The adjutant of the 1/23rd Battalion, The London Regiment, recalled his experience of the P helmet at Loos:

The goggles rapidly dimmed over, and the air came through in such suffocatingly small quantities as to demand a continuous exercise of will-power on the part of the wearers. [74]

A modified version of the P Helmet, called the PH Helmet, was issued in January 1916, and was impregnated with hexamethylenetetramine to improve the protection against phosgene. [32]

Self-contained box respirators represented the culmination of gas mask development during the First World War. Box respirators used a two-piece design a mouthpiece connected via a hose to a box filter. The box filter contained granules of chemicals that neutralised the gas, delivering clean air to the wearer. Separating the filter from the mask enabled a bulky but efficient filter to be supplied. Nevertheless, the first version, known as the Large Box Respirator (LBR) or "Harrison's Tower", was deemed too bulky—the box canister needed to be carried on the back. The LBR had no mask, just a mouthpiece and nose clip separate gas goggles had to be worn. It continued to be issued to the artillery gun crews but the infantry were supplied with the "Small Box Respirator" (SBR).

The Small Box Respirator featured a single-piece, close-fitting rubberized mask with eye-pieces. The box filter was compact and could be worn around the neck. The SBR could be readily upgraded as more effective filter technology was developed. The British-designed SBR was also adopted for use by the American Expeditionary Force. The SBR was the prized possession of the ordinary infantryman when the British were forced to retreat during the German spring offensive of 1918, it was found that while some troops had discarded their rifles, hardly any had left behind their respirators.

Horses and mules were important methods of transport that could be endangered if they came into close contact with gas. This was not so much of a problem until it became common to launch gas great distances. This caused researchers to develop masks that could be used on animals such as dogs, horses, mules, and even carrier pigeons. [75]

For mustard gas, which could cause severe damage by simply making contact with skin, no effective countermeasure was found during the war. The kilt-wearing Scottish regiments were especially vulnerable to mustard gas injuries due to their bare legs. At Nieuwpoort in Flanders some Scottish battalions took to wearing women's tights beneath the kilt as a form of protection.

Gas alert procedure became a routine for the front-line soldier. To warn of a gas attack, a bell would be rung, often made from a spent artillery shell. At the noisy batteries of the siege guns, a compressed air strombus horn was used, which could be heard nine miles (14 km) away. Notices would be posted on all approaches to an affected area, warning people to take precautions.

Other British attempts at countermeasures were not so effective. An early plan was to use 100,000 fans to disperse the gas. Burning coal or carborundum dust was tried. A proposal was made to equip front-line sentries with diving helmets, air being pumped to them through a 100 ft (30 m) hose.

The effectiveness of all countermeasures is apparent. In 1915, when poison gas was relatively new, less than 3% of British gas casualties died. In 1916, the proportion of fatalities jumped to 17%. By 1918, the figure was back below 3%, though the total number of British gas casualties was now nine times the 1915 levels.


Gas Masks - History

By September 1939 some 38 million gas masks had been given out, house to house, to families. They were never to be needed.

Why were people given gas masks during the war?

Why did people wer gas masks?

Everyone in Britain was given a gas mask in a cardboard box, to protect them from gas bombs, which could be dropped during air raids.


Instructions written on the inside lid of each gas mask box

Why did people fear that chemical weapons might be used in World War Two?

Gas had been used a great deal in the First World War and many soldiers had died or been injured in gas attacks. Mustard gas was the most deadly of all the poisonous chemicals used during World War I. It was almost odourless (could not be smelt easily) and took 12 hours to take effect. It was so powerful that only small amounts needed to be added to weapons like high explosive shells to have devastating effects.

There was a fear that it would be used against ordinary people at home in Britain (civilians).

Posters reminded people to carry their gas mask at all times. People were fined if they were caught without their gas masks.


A poster remindng people to lways cary their gas masks

What were the gas masks like?

The masks were made of black rubber, which was very hot and smelly. It was difficult to breathe when wearing a gas mask. When you breathed in the air was sucked through the filter to take out the gas. When you breathed out the whole mask was pushed away from your face to let the air out.


Woman wearing a gas mask

The smell of the rubber and disinfectant made some people feel sick.


Army Gas Mask


Army Gas Mask

There was a special gas mask for children .


Mickey Mouse childs gas mask

Posters instructed people how to put their gas masks on

How were people warned about a gas attack?

To warn people that there was a gas about, the air raid wardens would sound the gas rattle (pictured below).

To tell people that it was all clear they would ring a bell.

Was there ever a gas attack?

No, gas was never used against the British, so the effectiveness of the preparations was never tested.

Children had to take regular gas drills at school. They found these drills hard to take seriously, especially when they discovered blowing out through the rubber made 'rude' noises!

& kopiereg Kopiereg - lees asb
Al die materiaal op hierdie bladsye is gratis vir huiswerk en klaskamer. U mag nie die inhoud van hierdie bladsy herversprei, verkoop of plaas nie enige ander webwerf of blog sonder skriftelike toestemming van die skrywer Mandy Barrow.

History and Development [ edit | wysig bron]

Entering into the First World War, the United States had no domestically-made gas mask to issue to their soldiers. Despite the fact that the US Army issued masks such as the French M2, British PH Helmet, British Small Box Respirator, and the French Appareil Respiratoire Tissot, the government wanted something designed at home. This led to the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Mines and B.F. Goodrich to design a standard gas mask for the US Army.

Of course, there was not much time for the Bureau of Mines to work on such a thing. On May 16, 1917, Acting Chief of Staff Tasker H. Bliss commanded the surgeon general to immediately begin producing protective masks for the Army. With soldiers already on their way to France, work had to begin rapidly. The Bureau of Mines used the British Small Box Respirator as the basis for their experimental design – the mask that would be referred to as the Bureau of Mines Mask or the American Small Box Respirator (ASBR) – and produced just over 20,000 in under a month with the other 5,000 produced soon afterwards. Companies that worked on the production of parts for the mask include B.F. Goodrich (manufacturing faceblanks with lenses, hoses, and inlet valves), the Day Chemical Co.(did the first burning of the charcoal), the American Can Co. (assembly of masks and manufacture of canisters), the Ward Baking Co.(activated the charcoal by baking it in their ovens for free), the General Chemical Co. (sourced soda-lime granules), the Doehler Die Casting Co. (manufactured angletubes), the Simmons Hardware Co. (manufactured the carriers), the Seaver Howland Press (printed instruction cards), the Beetle & MacLean Manufacturing Co. (printed the record-keeping tags), the Improved Mailing Case Co. (produced tins for the anti-dimming solution), and the National Carbon Co. (designed the charcoal). Note that some hoses were sourced from Britain.

These masks were sent to the British for testing and were found to be useless. Not only did the facepiece fail to resist the chemical weapon chloropicrin, but the soda-lime granules in the Type A canister would block inhalation by clumping up. The US, learning from this failure, revised the design by reinforcing the facepiece, adding a larger angletube, adding an exhale valve guard, the addition of an internal metal support to the mouthpiece, and switching from the Type A filter to a series of lighter canisters that were more compact and functioned better. The result of this revision was the Box Respirator, Type C.E. (commonly known as the CEM).

Because of the mask’s failure, the ASBR was repurposed for training. With the original 25,000, this repurposing would consist of adding a stamp to the facepiece saying “FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY. DO NOT USE IN GAS.” Production of the ASBR did continue despite its failure as a protective mask. These later production examples would only be used as training masks and have some differences from the original 25,000 and will be referred to as the American Training Gas Mask. See the list below for examples of differences.

  • The head harness is changed to a fully-elastic 5-point instead of having a cloth forehead strap.
  • Lenses are the type used on the Corrected English as opposed to being a single sheet of celluloid plastic with the frame being attached to the facepiece with twine.
  • Some use the MI chest carrier.
  • Some Type A canisters are marked with red paint.
  • Some use later canisters, but specifically which ones is uncertain.

Because the angletube remains unchanged, the best way to differentiate an ASBR or ATGM from a Corrected English is by looking at the angletube.