William H. Taft oor Landbou

William H. Taft oor Landbou


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In Hot Springs, Virginia, spreek president William Howard Taft op 5 Augustus 1908 die belangrikheid van 'n gesonde landbou toe vir die ekonomiese welstand van die land in sy toespraak Farmer en die Republikein.


Taft familie

Die eerste bekende voorouer van die Taft -familie is Richard Robert Taft, wat in 1700 in County Louth, Ierland, gesterf het, waar sy seun, Robert Taft Sr., omstreeks 1640 gebore is. Robert Taft Sr. sou die eerste Taft wees migreer na die huidige Verenigde State. Hy trou in 1668 in Braintree, Massachusetts, met sy vrou Sarah Simpson, wat in Januarie 1640 in Engeland gebore is. Robert Taft Sr. het 'n opstal begin in die huidige Uxbridge en dan Mendon, ongeveer 1680, en dit is waar hy en sy vrou in 1725 en 1726 onderskeidelik gesterf het. Sy seun, Robert Taft Jr., was in 1727 lid van die stigteraad van Selectmen vir die nuwe stad Uxbridge.

'N Tak van die Massachusetts Taft -familie stam af van Daniel Taft Sr., seun van Robert Taft Sr., gebore te Braintree, 1677–1761, oorlede te Mendon. Daniel, vrederegter in Mendon, het 'n seun Josiah Taft, later uit Uxbridge, [2] wat in 1756 gesterf het. Hierdie tak van die Taft -familie beweer Amerika se eerste vrouekieser, Lydia Taft, en vyf geslagte van Massachusetts -wetgewers en staatsamptenare wat begin met Lydia se man, Josiah Taft. [3]

Die Tafts was baie prominent verteenwoordig as soldate in die Revolusionêre Oorlog, meestal in die state van New England. Peter Rawson Taft I is in 1785 in Uxbridge gebore en het omstreeks 1800 na Townshend, Vermont, verhuis. Hy het 'n wetgewer in die staat van Vermont geword. Hy is dood in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio. Sy seun, Alphonso Taft, is gebore in Townshend, Vermont, en studeer aan die Yale Universiteit, waar hy die Skull and Bones -samelewing stig. Hy was later oorlogsekretaris en prokureur -generaal van die Verenigde State en die vader van president William Howard Taft. [4] Elmshade in Massachusetts was die tuiste van Taft -familiereünies, soos in 1874. [5]

Die Amerikaanse Taft -familie het begin met Robert Taft Sr., wat na 1685 in Braintree, Massachusetts, immigreer het. Daar was vroeë vestiging in Mendon, Massachusetts, omstreeks 1669 en weer in 1680 in wat later Uxbridge was, nadat die oorlog van King Philip's geëindig het. [6] Robert se opstal was in die westelike deel van Mendon, in wat later Uxbridge geword het, en sy seun was op die stigteraad van keurders. In 1734 begin Benjamin Taft 'n ystersmede in Uxbridge, waar 'n paar van die vroegste begin van die Amerikaanse industriële revolusie begin het. Die seun van Robert Sr., Daniel, 'n vrederegter in Mendon, het 'n seun Josiah Taft, later van Uxbridge, [6] wat in 1756 gesterf het. Josiah se weduwee het 'Amerika se eerste vrouekieser' geword, Lydia Chapin Taft, toe sy gestem in drie Uxbridge -stadsvergaderings. [3] President George Washington het Samuel Taft's Tavern in Uxbridge in 1789 besoek tydens sy 'eerste toer' deur New England. [7] President William Howard Taft se oupa, Peter Rawson Taft I, is in 1785 in Uxbridge gebore. [8] Die eerw. Bezaleel Taft Sr., die seun van Lydia, het 'n nalatenskap van vyf generasies of meer van openbare diens nagelaat, waaronder minstens drie generasies in die staatswetgewer van Tafts in Massachusetts. [9] [10] [11] [12] Ezra Taft Benson, Sr, 'n beroemde Mormoonse pionier, het tussen 1817–1835 hier gewoon en in 1832 met sy eerste vrou Pamela, van Northbridge, getrou. [13] Hierdie gesin het uiteindelik geword 'n Amerikaanse politieke dinastie.

  • Robert Taft Sr. (c. 1640–1725) Die beroemde Taft -familie in Amerika het sy wortels in Mendon en Uxbridge ontwikkel. Robert Taft, Sr, het van Braintree na Amerika gekom. Die oorspronklike Amerikaanse Taft -opstal was in die westelike deel van Mendon, wat later Uxbridge geword het, en is gebou deur Robert Taft Sr., die eerste immigrant, in 1681. [6] Robert Taft Sr. het in 1669 'n vroeëre huis gebou, maar dit is laat vaar as gevolg van King Philip's War. Die afstammelinge van Robert Taft Sr. is 'n groot polities aktiewe gesin met afstammelinge wat prominent in Ohio is, maar regdeur die VSA woon.
  • Robert Taft Jr. is in 1674 gebore aan Robert sr., en Sarah Taft in Braintree. Hy het grootgeword in die westelike deel van Mendon in wat later Uxbridge geword het. Hy word 'n stigterslid van die Uxbridge Board of Selectmen in 1727. [14] Robert Taft Jr. was moontlik die eerste Amerikaanse Taft wat 'n politieke amp beklee het. Sy afstammelinge was onder andere 'n goewerneur van Rhode Island, Royal Chapin Taft, 'n Amerikaanse senator van Ohio, Kingsley Arter Taft en 'n Amerikaanse minister van landbou, Ezra Taft Benson II.
  • Lydia Chapin Taft Opvallend onder die vroeë inwoners van Uxbridge was Lydia Chapin Taft, gebore in Mendon, wat in 1756 gestem het in drie amptelike stadsvergaderings in Uxbridge. [3] Sy was die weduwee van die kleinseun van Robert Taft, Josiah Taft, wat gedien in die koloniale wetgewer. Josia was die seun van Daniel Taft van Mendon. Taft was Amerika se eerste vrouekieser. [3] Dit word erken deur die wetgewer van Massachusetts. Haar eerste historiese stemming, 'n eerste in die stemreg vir vroue, was ten gunste van die bewilliging van fondse vir die regimente wat aan die Franse en Indiese oorlog deelgeneem het.
  • Hon. Bezaleel Taft Sr., Lydia se seun, beklee die rang van kaptein in die Amerikaanse Revolusie en beantwoord die Slag van Lexington en Concord Alarm [11] op 18 April 1775, terwyl Lydia kyk. Hy het daarna 'n prominente wetgewer in Massachusetts en senator geword. [9] Minstens 12 soldate met die van Taft het in die rewolusionêre oorlog uit die stad Uxbridge gedien. Baie meer Tafts uit die voormalige kolonies het ook in die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog gedien.
  • Hon. Bezaleel Taft Jr., die seun, het 'n wetgewende loopbaan in die Massachusetts -hof, die Senaat en die Uitvoerende Raad van die staat gevolg. [9] - Bezaleel Taft Jr. en vyf generasies van invloedryke Tafts het in 'n historiese huis, bekend as Elmshade, gewoon, wat 'n bymekaarkomplek was vir familieherenigings van Taft, en wat nou op die National Register of Historic Places is. Die jong William Howard Taft en sy pa, Alphonso Taft, oorlogsekretaris en stigter van Skull and Bones in Yale, het hierdie huis verskeie kere besoek.
  • George Spring Taft, die seun van Bezaleel Jr., was die landaanklaer en sekretaris van die Amerikaanse senator, George Hoar. [9] George Spring Taft het ook in Elmshade gewoon.
  • Die tradisie van staatsdiens het ten minste vyf generasies lank voortgegaan in hierdie Massachusetts -tak van die Taft -familie. Die "Life of Alphonso Taft deur Lewis Alexander Leonard", op Google Books, is 'n besonder ryk bron van die geskiedenis van die Taft -familie in Massachusetts. [4]
  • Ander plaaslike Tafts Ander plaaslike Tafts in politieke diens in die wetgewer van Massachusetts het Arthur M. Taft, Arthur Robert Taft en Zadok Arnold Taft ingesluit. Royal Chapin Taft, oorspronklik van Northbridge, het die goewerneur van Rhode Island geword. Die aantal Tafts in staatsdiens regoor Amerika was buitengewoon, waaronder New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Ohio, Michigan, Utah en ander state.
  • Eerste president se besoek Samuel Taft was 'n Amerikaanse soldaat van die Revolusionêre Oorlog, pa van 22, 'n boer en tavernewagter in Uxbridge. President George Washington het by die Samuel Taft Tavern in November 1789, tydens die inleidingsreis van die stigter deur New England. [7]

President William Howard Taft se oupa, Peter Rawson Taft I, is in 1785 in Uxbridge gebore en het daar grootgeword. Sy pa Aaron verhuis na Townshend, Vermont, as gevolg van die moeilike ekonomie, toe hy vyftien was. Die verhaal word vertel dat Peter Rawson 'n koei geloop het van Uxbridge na Townshend, 'n afstand van meer as 100 myl. Die "Aaron Taft -huis" is nou op die National Register of Historic Places. Peter Rawson Taft I het 'n wetgewer in Vermont geword en is uiteindelik dood in Hamilton County, Cincinnati, Ohio. [8] [15] Peter Rawson Taft se seun, Alphonso Taft, stig Skull and Bones in Yale, dien as Amerikaanse minister van oorlog, en sy seun William Howard word die Amerikaanse president. Die afkoms van Amerikaanse presidente spoor meer as een keer na Uxbridge en Mendon, insluitend albei presidente met die van Bush. [16] President Taft, 'n kampioen vir wêreldvrede en die enigste president wat ook as hoofregter van die Verenigde State gedien het, keer terug na Uxbridge vir gesinsherenigings. [4] [9] [17] Hy merk op toe hy op 3 April 1905 daar uit die trein stap, "Uxbridge. Ek dink ek het meer familielede hier as in enige stad in Amerika." [9] Jong William Howard Taft het in sy vroeëre jare ander reise na Uxbridge gemaak, en Bezaleel Taft, Jr., se huis, "Elmshade". Dit was by "Elmshade" dat die jong William Howard Taft waarskynlik gehoor het dat sy pa, Alphonso Taft, met trots 'n oratorium lewer oor die Taft -familiegeskiedenis en die wortels van die gesin in Uxbridge, en Mendon, omstreeks 1874. [4] [9] President Taft het gebly by die Samuel Taft -taverne toe hy Uxbridge besoek het, net soos George Washington 120 jaar tevore. [9] [17] Die New York Times President Taft se besoeke aan sy voorvaderhuise in Mendon en Uxbridge tydens sy presidentskap opgeteken. [17] William Howard Taft het as jong seun 'n aantal somers in die Blackstone Valley in Millbury, Massachusetts, deurgebring en selfs vir minstens 'n kwartaal in die nabygeleë stad skole bygewoon.

Ezra T. Benson (om hom te onderskei van sy beroemde agterkleinseun, Ezra Taft Benson), 'n inwoner van Mendon en Uxbridge, is bekend as 'n belangrike vroeë apostel van die Mormoonse godsdiens. Sy eie outobiografie verklaar dat hy tussen 1817-1835, of ongeveer 17 jaar, in Uxbridge gewoon het, nadat sy ma, Chloe Taft en pa, John Benson, na 'n plaas daar verhuis het. [18] Young Ezra trou op 1 Januarie 1832 in Uxbridge met Pamela Andrus, van Northbridge. Hy het in 1827 saam met sy gesin in 'n Uxbridge -sentrum ingetrek. Hy en Pamela het in die 1830's hier gewoon, kinders gehad en 'n kind wat gesterf het, wat in die Uxbridge Vital Records opgeteken is. [19] Hy het later die hotel in Uxbridge Center bestuur en besit voordat hy in 'n katoenmeul in Holland, Massachusetts, belê het. Hy verhuis na die Hollandse Mis in 1835. [18] Hy verhuis later na Illinois en word 'n Mormoonse apostel. Ezra het in 1840 by die LDS -kerk in Quincy, Illinois, aangesluit, in meervoudige huwelike getree en met Pamela nog sewe vroue getrou. Hy is in 1846 deur Brigham Young na die Kworum van die Twaalf Apostels geroep, 'n hoë pos in die LDS -kerk. Hy het agt vroue en 32 kinders gehad. [13] Hy was 'n sendeling van die Sandwich -eilande, ook bekend as Hawaii. Hy was 'n verteenwoordiger van die territoriale vergadering van Utah. Hy sterf in Ogden, Utah, in 1869.

Benjamin Taft het in 1734 met die eerste ystersmid in die Ironstone -gedeelte van Uxbridge begin [9] Hier was 'bog -ystererts' van goeie gehalte. Caleb Handy het 'n triphammer bygevoeg, en skelms en gewere is hier voor 1800 vervaardig. Daniel Day in 1810, en sy skoonseun, Luke Taft (1825) en Luke se seun, Moses Taft in (1852). [9] Hierdie wolmeulens, sommige van die eerstes wat kragweefsels en satynpunte gebruik het, het gedurende die burgeroorlog 24/7 hardloop vir die vervaardiging van lap vir Amerikaanse militêre uniforms. [9] Die Rivulet Mill -kompleks uit 1814 is in Noord -Uxbridge deur Chandler Taft gestig. In 1855 is 2,5 miljoen meter lap in die meulens van Uxbridge vervaardig. [20] Uxbridge is die middelpunt van die Blackstone Valley, die vroegste geïndustrialiseerde streek in die Verenigde State. Dit is deel van die John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor. Samuel Slater, wat sy meule in (1790) in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, aan die Blackstone -rivier gebou het, word deur president Andrew Jackson as die vader van die Amerikaanse industriële revolusie beskou.

In 1864 haal regter Henry Chapin, 'n drie-termyn burgemeester en hoofregter van Worcester, 'n bekende Uxbridge-verhaal soos volg aan: 'n Vreemdeling het na die stad gekom, 'n nuwe persoon ontmoet en gesê: "Hallo meneer Taft". Mnr. Taft sê: "Hoe het jy my naam geken?" Die vreemdeling antwoord: "Ek het aangeneem dat jy 'n Taft was, net soos die ander 12 Tafts wat ek pas ontmoet het!". [21] Hierdie verhaal is herhaal in 'n gedigvorm van burgemeester Chapin, tydens 'n beroemde Taft -familiereünie hier, [ waar? ] opgeneem in die Life of Alphonso Taft. [4]


William Taft / William Taft - Belangrike geleenthede

William Howard Taft neem die ampseed af en word die sewe-en-twintigste president van die Verenigde State. Taft is deur sy voorganger, Theodore Roosevelt, met die hand uitgesoek en vertrou dat hy die progressivisme van Theodore Roosevelt moet deurvoer. Dit is nie verbasend dat Taft in sy intreerede baie verwys na sy 'vooraanstaande voorganger' nie. Tog het 'n nuutgevoelde koue -rilling tussen die twee mans ontstaan, wat die koel temperatuur in die hoofstad die dag weerspieël.

'N Spesiale sitting van die Amerikaanse kongres vergader om die hersiening van die tarief te oorweeg. Op 16 Maart stuur Taft 'n spesiale boodskap aan die kongres waarin hy dringend aan die tarief moet hersien.

Robert E. Peary bereik die Noordpool.

Helen “Nellie” Taft kry ’n beroerte, wat haar spraak verswak laat. Haar herstel duur ongeveer een jaar.

Taft, wat 'n boodskap aan die kongres lewer, stel 'n belasting van twee persent voor op die netto inkomste van alle ondernemings behalwe banke, wat volgens hom die inkomste wat deur tariefverlagings verloor word, sal vergoed. Hy stel ook voor dat die kongres 'n grondwetlike wysiging aanvaar wat die invordering van persoonlike federale inkomstebelasting moontlik maak.

Die Senaat neem 'n resolusie aan waarin 'n sestiende wysiging van die Grondwet vereis word, waarin die Kongres gemagtig word om inkomstebelasting in te vorder.

Taft verbind die Chinese regent Prince Chun en versoek China om aan Amerikaanse beleggers 'n deel van 'n lening te gee wat in Europa gestig is vir die bou van 'n spoorweg in die suide van China. Die Chinese gee die Verenigde State beleggingsregte teësinnig.

Taft onderteken die Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, wat 'n tariefraad instel en die tarief verlaag.

President Taft begin 'n toer deur die suidelike en westelike state van die Verenigde State.

Terwyl hy op 'n toer deur die Verenigde State was, noem Taft die Payne-Aldrich-wet "die beste" tariefwetsontwerp wat ooit deur die Republikeinse Party aangeneem is, en laat beide Republikeinse progressiewe en partygereelde ontsteld staan.

Taft besoek die Mexikaanse diktator Porfirio DÌaz in El Paso, Texas, en in Juarez, Mexiko.

Taft keer terug van sy reis deur die Verenigde State, nadat hy 259 toesprake gehou het. 'N Waarnemer in Winona, MN, sê oor Taft:' Ek het geweet dat hy gemoedelik was, maar ek het nooit gedroom dat hy so vaal was nie. '

Louis Glavis, hoof van die veldafdeling van die departement van binnelandse sake, kla in Collier's Weekly tydskrif dat die minister van binnelandse sake, Richard Ballinger, saamgesweer het om die openbare domein in die steenkoolvelde in Alaska te bedrieg en dat die Taft -administrasie medepligtig was aan die oortreding van Ballinger.

Taft beveel twee Amerikaanse oorlogskepe na Nicaragua in reaksie op die dood van 500 revolusionêre, en twee van hul Amerikaanse adviseurs, in die hande van die Nicaragua -diktator José Santos Zelaya. Die verdere bedreiging van Amerikaanse mag oortuig Zelaya om op 16 Desember uit te tree.

Spesiale staatsaanklaer Frank Kellogg wen 'n appèlhof teen Standard Oil, wat as monopolie beskou word en in stryd is met die Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

Taft stel generaal Leonard Wood aan as stafhoof van die weermag. Hy verhef ook kringregter Horace H. Lurton na die hooggeregshof.

Taft vuur Gifford Pinchot, hoof van die Forest Services van die Verenigde State, af na die bekendmaking van 'n brief wat Pinchot namens twee van sy werknemers aan senator Dolliver van Iowa geskryf het Glavis saak. Pinchot was 'n toonaangewende natuurbewaarder en een van die mees herkenbare amptenare in die federale regering.

Minister van Buitelandse Sake, Philander Knox, toer na Sentraal- en Suid-Amerika op 'n goeie wil.

Verteenwoordiger George Norris, 'n progressiewe Republikein uit Nebraska, behaal 'n groot prosedurele oorwinning in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers wanneer die liggaam 'n plan goedkeur waardeur die lede van die Huisreëlskomitee deur die volle Huis verkies sal word, eerder as deur die Speaker van die huis. Dit was 'n groot nederlaag vir speaker "oom Joe" Cannon (R-IL), 'n leidende teenstander van die progressiewe.

President Taft stel goewerneur Charles E. Hughes van New York aan in die hooggeregshof.

Tydens 'n kongresondersoek na die Glavis-Ballinger-geskil onthul advokaat Louis Brandeis, wat Glavis verteenwoordig, skadelike inligting oor die Taft-administrasie. Die kongres maak Ballinger en die Taft -administrasie egter vry van enige oortreding.

Taft kry 'n bevel om te verhoed dat westelike spoorweë die vragpryse verhoog. Taft was 'n vurige antitrust-ondersteuner wie se onverbiddelike kruistog teen die trust selfs die van Teddy Roosevelt oortref het.

Taft besluit om nie Theodore Roosevelt te groet by laasgenoemde se terugkeer uit Afrika nie, 'n stap wat die breuk tussen die twee mans vergroot.

TR weier Taft se uitnodiging aan die Withuis, maar prys die vordering van die president op 'n aantal gebiede, waaronder spoorwegwetgewing, 'n posbesparingsrekening en natuurbewaring.

Die Kongres aanvaar die Mann -wet, ook bekend as die "wit slawe -verkeerswet", wat die tussenstate of internasionale vervoer van vroue verbied vir "immorele doeleindes".

Taft onderteken die Wet op die Spaarbank, waarmee een bank in elke staat onder federale toesig twee persent rente op rekeninge onder $ 500 kon gee.

TR keer terug en lewer die mees radikale toespraak van sy politieke loopbaan in Osawatomie, Kansas. In sy toespraak “Nuwe nasionalisme” gee Roosevelt 'n nuwe rol vir die regering in die hantering van sosiale kwessies. Sy program neem Amerikaanse progressivisme in 'n nuwe rigting, wat bewaring, beheer van trusts, arbeidsbeskerming en 'n gegradueerde inkomstebelasting onderskryf. Dit omvat ook die groeiende oortuiging dat die land die nood van kinders, vroue en minderbevoorregtes moet aanspreek.

Taft verwerp 'n voorgestelde ete wat deur die National Conservation Congress aangebied is, wat sowel homself as TR sou vereer.

Die Internasionale Arbitrasiehof in Den Haag besleg 'n geskil tussen Brittanje en die Verenigde State oor die Newfoundland -vissery.

Taft sê in 'n brief aan sy broer dat Roosevelt ''n program (' nuwe nasionalisme ') voorgestel het wat dit absoluut onmoontlik is om uit te voer, behalwe deur 'n hersiening van die federale grondwet. In die meeste van hierdie toesprake het hy my heeltemal geïgnoreer. Sy gesindheid teenoor my is iets wat ek moeilik vind om te verstaan ​​en te verduidelik. ”

By die New York State Republican Convention in Saratoga, New York, ondersteun Taft Roosevelt se keuse vir die goewerneur van New York, Henry Stimson.

Die National Urban League word in New York gestig. Sy missie is "om Afro-Amerikaners in staat te stel om ekonomiese selfstandigheid, gelykheid en mag en burgerregte te verseker."

Taft stel Willis Van Devanter aan in die hooggeregshof om regter William Moody te vervang.

Tydens kongresverkiesings wen die Demokrate vir die eerste keer sedert 1894 beheer oor die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en kry hulle 'n meerderheid van 228 tot 162 teenoor 1. In die senaat het die Republikeine 'n voordeel van 51 tot 41.

Taft stel mede -regter Edward White as hoofregter van die hooggeregshof in Januarie aan, Taft sou ook Joseph R. Lamar in die hooggeregshof aanstel.

Senator Robert LaFollette, Wisconsin, stig die National Progressive Republican League in Washington, DC

Die Verenigde State en Groot -Brittanje onderteken 'n verdrag wat die behoud en beskerming van pelagiese pelsrobbe in die waters van die Beringsee waarborg.

Taft stel 'n kommissie aan om die posgeld vir koerante en tydskrifte te ondersoek. Sy verslag help die Kongres om te oortuig dat 'n onlangse koersverhoging geregverdig is.

Taft beveel die mobilisering van 20 000 Amerikaanse soldate langs die Mexikaanse grens nadat die Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Mexiko Henry Lane Wilson berig het dat die veiligheid van Amerikaners wat in Mexiko woon, in gevaar kan wees.

Taft stel Walter Fisher, 'n bondgenoot van Gifford Pinchot, aan as minister van binnelandse sake om Richard Ballinger, wat bedank het, te vervang.

Taft stel Henry Stimson oorlogsekretaris aan om Jacob Dickinson te vervang.

The Triangle Shirtwaist Company bars in Manhattan aan die brand. Vroue wat in baie beknopte en onveilige omstandighede gewerk het, het gestamp na onvoldoende uitgange 146 vroue sou sterf, sommige spring selfs na die sypaadjie in die hoop om te oorleef. Die tragedie beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van sosiale geregtigheid vir immigrante -sweetwinkelwerkers, en die wetgewer in New York reageer deur regstellende wetgewing te onderneem om beter werksomstandighede te verseker en brandveiligheidsmaatreëls te tref.

Die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof beveel die ontbinding van die Standard Oil Company.

Standard Oil Company ontbind

Op 15 Mei 1911 het hoofregter Edward White die meerderheidsmening van die Hooggeregshof uitgereik waarin die ontbinding van die Standard Oil Company gehandhaaf word. White was dit eens dat die Standard Oil Company se sakepraktyke wel die Sherman Antitrust Act oortree omdat dit mededingend en beledigend was. Hy het egter die afbreekplan van die rondgaande hof vir die maatskappy gedemp, sodat Standard Oil ses maande lank sy filiale kon afskakel in plaas van die aanvanklike drie maande.

Nadat die rondgaande hof van St. Louis aanvanklik teen die Standard Oil Company beslis het, het die prokureurs van die maatskappy hul appèl by die Hooggeregshof voorberei. Met die ondersteuning van president William Taft het die prokureur -generaal George Wickersham en die aanklaer Frank Kellogg die saak van die regering in Januarie 1911 voorgelê. Hulle het die suksesvolle argumentasie van Kellogg voor die hof in St. Die trustmaatskappy en sy enorme omvang het interstatehandel beperk en 'n monopolie opgelewer soos verbied in die Sherman Antitrust Act. Standard Oil -prokureurs het teengestaan ​​dat die besluit van die rondgaande hof vir die ontbinding van die onderneming die klousule van die vyfde wysiging wat die kontrakvryheid en eiendomsreg verseker, oortree het. Die prokureurs van die maatskappy beweer ook dat die olietrust buite die grondwetlike bereik van die Sherman -wet val omdat die korporasie besig was met produksie, nie handel nie.

Die manier waarop hoofregter White die Sherman -wet geïnterpreteer het, het die vae sweep van die wetgewing verander. Die Sherman -wet was verwoord om elke kontrak of ooreenkoms wat 'n beperking van handel tot gevolg gehad het, te verbied. White het 'n rede van rede, 'n eeue oue beginsel van die gemenereg, by sy interpretasie van die wet bygevoeg. As die handelsbeperkings wat deur 'n trust geproduseer is redelik was, dit wil sê nie inbreuk maak op individuele regte of die openbare belang nie, hoef die regbank nie die trust te ontbind deur die willekeurigheid van die Sherman -wet nie. Slegs as 'n trust onredelik inmeng met die handel op 'n manier wat die Amerikaanse ekonomie skade berokken, kan dit ontbind word. White se vreemde interpretasie van die Standard Oil -saak beskou die moontlikheid van trusts as sosiaal voordelig. Dit het ook die regbank toegelaat om die uiteindelike arbiter te wees vir 'n 'redelike' inbreuk op die handel deur 'n korporasie, volgens 'n beginsel wat regter Harlan beweer het die bedoeling van die skrywers van die Sherman -wet oortree.

President Taft ondersteun die besluit en beweer dat dit nie 'n dramatiese afwyking van vorige sake was nie. Die president het min ideologies belê in die Standard Oil -saak en ondersteun eintlik industriële kombinasies. Die saak was die idee van die voormalige president Theodore Roosevelt en die middelpunt van sy gewilde vertrouensveldtog. Taft kon dit nie bekostig om met Roosevelt oor die saak te breek nie, en daarom ondersteun hy die vervolging van Standard Oil vir sy eie politieke gewin. Taft het die besluit geprys terwyl progressiewe en demokrate White se rede -toets aangeval het.

President Porfirio DÌaz van Mexiko bedank.

Die hooggeregshof bevind die American Tobacco Company in stryd met die Sherman Anti-trust Act en beveel dat dit ontbreek.

Die Verenigde State onderteken 'n verdrag met Nicaragua wat die land 'n Amerikaanse protektoraat sou gemaak het. Die Senaat verwerp later die verdrag.

Senator Robert LaFollette, 'n progressief uit Wisconsin, kondig sy kandidatuur aan vir die Republikeinse presidensiële benoeming.

Taft onderteken die Canadian Tariff Reciprocity Agreement.

Taft teken algemene arbitrasieverdragte met Frankryk en Engeland. Roosevelt het saam met sy vriend en bondgenoot senator Henry Cabot Lodge die veldtog gelei in teenstelling met die verdrae.

Taft stel 'n veto teen tariefverlagings op wol en wolprodukte en voer aan dat die tariefraad nie sy ondersoek voltooi het nie.

In die Kanadese parlementêre verkiesings word wederkerigheid met die Verenigde State verslaan, wat die verdrag wat die Verenigde State en Kanada vroeër onderteken het, doodmaak.

Taft toer deur die westelike Verenigde State om steun vir sy arbitrasieverdragte met Engeland en Frankryk op te knap. In Maart 1912 sal die Senaat die verdrae goedkeur, wat deur Brittanje en Frankryk verwerp word.

Taft lêers klag teen U.S. Steel weens die oortreding van die Sherman Act. In papiere wat vir die saak ingedien is, beweer Taft dat Roosevelt in 1907 per ongeluk US Steel die Tennessee Coal and Iron Company laat koop het. Hierdie aksie beskadig die Taft-TR-verhouding onherstelbaar.

Francisco Madero, 'n welgestelde grondeienaar, beklee die amp nadat hy tot president van Mexiko verkies is.

Andrew Carnegie stig die Carnegie Corporation met 'n aanvanklike skenking van $ 125,000,000.

New Mexico word toegelaat as die sewe en veertigste staat.

Taft doen 'n beroep op die goedkeuring van 'n jaarlikse federale begroting.

Amerikaanse troepe beset Tientsin, China, om Amerikaanse belange teen die Chinese rewolusie te beskerm.

Arizona word toegelaat as die agt-en-veertigste staat.

President Taft benoem Mahlon Pitney vir 'n setel in die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof. Pitney word deur die senaat bevestig en neem op 13 Maart sy eed af.

Theodore Roosevelt kondig aan dat sy 'hoed in die ring' is as kandidaat vir president. Taft en hardloopmaat James S. Sherman word saam weer benoem, die eerste keer dat Republikeine 'n sittende president en vise-president vir die partytjiekaartjie onderskryf.

Die departement van justisie begin verrigtinge om die samesmelting van die spoorweë in die suidelike Stille Oseaan en Union Pacific te stop.

Dr. Harvey Wiley, hoofchemikus by die Departement van Landbou, bedank weens verskille met die minister van landbou, James Wilson. Wiley was 'n hoofvoorstander van veilige voedsel- en dwelmwette.

Mevrou Taft plant die eerste van die kersiebome in Washington, DC, wat deur Japan aan die Verenigde State gegee is as 'n simbool van internasionale vriendskap, langs die Tidal Basin van Potomac Park.

Taft onderteken 'n wetsontwerp wat die oprigting van die Kinderburo in die Departement van Handel magtig. Die agentskap word aangekla van die monitering van kinderwelsyn.

Die Britse luukse voering Titanic sink aan die kus van Newfoundland. Taft se sleutelhulp, Archie Butt, vergaan in die tragedie.

President Taft stel Julia Lathrop aan as hoof van die nuutgeskepte Kinderburo. Sy is die vrou met die hoogste posisie in die Amerikaanse regering.

Amerikaanse mariniers land in Kuba om orde te verseker ingevolge die Platt -wysiging.

Taft wen die Republikeinse presidensiële nominasie oor Theodore Roosevelt. James Sherman word weer benoem vir vise-president. Die bitter primêre veldtog tussen TR en Taft bevat 'n deeglike bespreking binne die Republikeinse Party oor die kwessie van regeringsregulering.

Die kongres aanvaar 'n arbeidswet wat 'n werkdag van agt uur goedkeur vir alle werkers met federale kontrakte.

Die Demokratiese Party benoem goewerneur Woodrow Wilson van New Jersey as presidentskandidaat. Thomas Marshall van Indiana word aangewys as vise -president.

TR word deur die Progressive (Bull Moose) Party genomineer as president. Hiram Johnson van Kalifornië word genomineer vir vise -president op die kaartjie.

Amerikaanse slagskepe word na Nicaragua gestuur om Amerikaanse ekonomiese belange en spoorlyne te beskerm.

Taft onderteken die Panamakanaalwet, wat die Amerikaanse kusvaart vrystel van tolgeld by die Panama -kanaal. Baie Amerikaners, sowel as Britte, beskou dit as 'n skending van die Hay-Pauncefote-verdrag van 1901.

Amerikaanse mariniers word gestuur om die orde in Santo Domingo te herstel.

Vise -president John Sherman sterf, en Nicholas Butler, die president van die Columbia -universiteit, vervang hom op die Republikeinse presidensiële kaartjie.

Demokraat Woodrow Wilson verslaan Taft en TR in die presidensiële verkiesing van 1912. Wilson wen die kieskollege met 435 stemme teen TR's 88 en Taft se 8. In die algemene stemming verslaan Wilson TR met meer as 2 miljoen stemme, en Taft met byna 3 miljoen, maar TR versamel die beste derdepartyvertoning in die geskiedenis met 27 persent van die volksstem. By kongresverkiesings neem die demokrate 'n meerderheid in die senaat, 51-44-1. In die Huis geniet die Demokrate 'n voorsprong van 291-127-17.

Op 5 November 1912 is president William Taft deur die demokraat Woodrow Wilson verslaan tydens die presidentsverkiesing van 1912. Die drie-rigting-wedloop tussen Taft, Wilson en voormalige president Theodore Roosevelt illustreer die opkoms van progressivisme in die presidensiële politiek. Alhoewel Roosevelt's Progressive Party een van die sterkste optredes van derde partye in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis gehad het, het hy en Taft die stem van die Republikeinse Party verdeel, en Wilson het die verkiesing maklik gewen.

Voordat president Theodore Roosevelt sy amp in 1909 verlaat, het hy William Taft as sy opvolger met die hand gekies en gewerk om hom verkies te kry. Maar sodra Taft president geword het, het Roosevelt toenemend ontnugter geraak oor sy opvolger. Hy het gevoel dat Taft nie progressief genoeg was nie, maar omdraai sy rug op omgewingsbewaring en mik op sogenaamde goeie trusts. Woedend oor die ampstermyn van sy protégée, besluit Roosevelt om hom uit te daag vir die Republikeinse benoeming in 1912.

Die Republikeine het in Junie 1912 in Chicago vergader, hopeloos verdeeld tussen die Roosevelt -progressiewe en die ondersteuners van president Taft. Roosevelt het na die byeenkoms gekom nadat hy 'n reeks voorverkiesings gewen het wat hom voor die president gestel het in die wedloop om partydelegate. Taft het egter die kongresvloer beheer, en sy ondersteuners het die meeste Roosevelt -afgevaardigdes uitgesluit deur nie hul geloofsbriewe te erken nie. Hierdie taktiek het die voormalige president woedend gemaak, wat toe geweier het dat hy genomineer word, wat die weg gebaan het vir Taft om op die eerste stembrief te wen.

Roosevelt en sy ondersteuners het die Republikeinse Party vasgebyt en twee weke later weer in Chicago vergader om die Progressive Party te vorm. Roosevelt het die kandidaat van die Progressiewe Party vir president geword, en goewerneur Hiram Johnson van Kalifornië het as die hardloopmaat van Roosevelt by die kaartjie aangesluit. Roosevelt het die byeenkoms geëlektrifiseer met 'n dramatiese toespraak waarin hy aangekondig het dat hy 'by Armageddon sal staan ​​en vir die Here sal veg' en verklaar dat hy 'so sterk soos 'n Bull Moose' voel en sodoende die nuwe party sy gewilde naam gee.

By die Demokratiese Nasionale Konvensie in Baltimore einde Junie het die voorsitter van die huis, James "Champ" Clark, as die gunsteling aangewys om die party se benoeming te kry na 'n sterk vertoning in die voorverkiesing teen die goewerneur van New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson. Democrats engaged in an intense struggle over the nomination, however, prompted by William Jennings Bryan's criticism that Clark's machine base was too close to big business. Wilson secured the nomination on the forty-sixth ballot of the convention. His selection over the more moderate, less charismatic Clark ensured the Democrats a vibrant, progressive-minded candidate to challenge the vim of Roosevelt and overshadow Taft. Democrats nominated Thomas R. Marshall of Indiana for the vice presidency.

Unlike many proceeding campaigns, which boiled down to contests of personality or character, the election of 1912 remained essentially a campaign of ideas. Wilson and Roosevelt emphasized their progressive ideologies on the campaign trail. Wilson devised the “New Freedom” appellation for his campaign, emphasizing a return to individualism in industrial enterprise encouraged by the end of tariff protection, the breaking up of Wall Street's control of financial markets, and vigorous antitrust prosecution. Wilson believed federal power should be used to break up all concentrations of wealth and privilege, disagreeing with Roosevelt that monopolies could serve a common good through their efficiency.

Roosevelt built his “New Nationalism” campaign on the back of ideas he had been advocating since his return to public life in 1910, including strengthening federal regulatory control over interstate commerce, corporate conglomeration, and labor conditions. President Taft emphasized how his brand of conservatism offered practical solutions to tangible problems facing Americans. He chided the idealism of his opponents as dangerous to the constitutional system. Socialist Eugene V. Debs joined the triumvirate with his campaign more focused on socialist education for American voters than success. Debs urged the public ownership of transportation and communication networks, progressive income and corporate taxes, and a rigorous worker protection laws.

With the Republican Party badly split between its conservative and progressive wings, neither Taft nor Roosevelt rightfully expected victory in November. The election yielded the Democratic Party its greatest victory since before the Civil War as it gained both houses of Congress and the presidency. The popular vote was more an endorsement of progressivism than of Wilson as he and Roosevelt combined for nearly 70 percent of the ballots cast. Wilson failed to win a majority of the popular vote, earning 41 percent of the popular vote to Roosevelt's 27 percent. Taft finished with 23 percent of the vote, and Debs made a considerable showing with 6 percent. Taft won only two states in the Electoral College: Vermont and Utah. Roosevelt carried progressive strongholds California, South Dakota, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Michigan, but could not contend with Wilson's enormous success in his home region of the South and his wins in key Northern states such as New York and Wisconsin. Wilson carried 435 of 531 votes in the Electoral College to become the nation's twenty-eighth President.


How much power does the Constitution give the President to fire the heads of departments, and what does this imply about lower-level civil servants who staff those departments? The former question has been debated since the First Congress, of course and the latter question since the Pendleton Act. And both questions are once again in the front of our minds in the aftermath of Lucia v. SEC en Seila Law v. CFPB—and with Collins v. Mnuchin soon to follow.

As we grapple with these questions, we benefit from the work of scholars who carefully research the historical record with an eye to modern controversies. Aditya Bamzai exemplified such work this year in his study of “Tenure of Office and the Treasury,” and in his paper last year on “Taft, Frankfurter, and the First Presidential For-Cause Removal.”

And now Robert Post has published his own study of Taft and removal—not President Taft’s removal of officers, but Chief Justice Taft’s view of the removal power in Myers v. United States. For those of us looking forward to Post’s contribution to the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States (Volume X, on the Taft Court), this article is a nice preview of coming attractions. And for students of constitutional law and administration, this article, newly published in the Journal of Supreme Court History (and available in draft on SSRN), is a must-read.

In “Tension in the Unitary Executive: How Taft Constructed the Epochal Opinion of Myers v. United States,” Post explores Taft’s correspondence and other records to reconstruct the Court’s consideration of the Myers case, from its oral argument in December 1924 (not 1923, as erroneously marked by the United States Reports) and re-argument with the newly seated Justice Harlan Stone in April 1925, until its decision nearly two years later. He describes an extraordinary process in which the Chief Justice worked to produce a majority opinion initially on his own (beginning at his summer home in Murray Bay, Canada), before enlisting colleagues’ help in a belabored process of writing and re-writing.

“It would be accurate to say that the Myers opinion was constituted through a most unusual process,” Post concludes. “There appears to be nothing even remotely analogous during the entire Taft Court era,” in which the Chief “essentially constituted his majority of six into a committee that met twice at his home to discuss the holding, structure, and argument of Taft’s drafts.”

By the end, Taft is exasperated by the new Justice (m.a.w., future Chief Justice) Stone’s relentless barrage of suggestions. Months into drafting, Taft writes to his brother Horace that “youngest member Stone is intensely interested and is a little bit fussy,” and “betrays in some degree a little of the legal school master—a tendency which experience in the Court is likely to moderate.” A week later he wrote to Justice Van Devanter, “Stone continues to tinker, but I don’t think he helps much.”

Yet Justice Stone’s barrage of comments amplified the crucial issue of how far Chief Justice Taft’s logic of executive removal power would cut. And that is the crux of Post’s account: once Chief Justice Taft reached the conclusion that the Constitution empowered the President to remove officers such as Portland’s Postmaster Myers, he needed to explain how far the logic of presidential removal power would cut—to executive officers alone, or to members of independent regulatory commissions, or to members of the civil service?

Post parses Taft’s opinion, especially in light of Justices Brandeis’s and McReynolds’s dissents, and concludes that Taft fell short of the analytic task. “At root,” Post writes, “the weakness of Taft’s position lay in its failure to specify the precise circumstances that required unfettered executive control.”

Moreover, while Taft’s opinion for the Court is remembered for exalting executive power, Post emphasizes that its attempt to identify a limiting principle (in response to McReynolds’s pointed dissent) seemed to concede immense power to Congress. For while Taft’s majority opinion held in favor of unfettered presidential power to remove principal officers, it further explained that an inferior officer, for whom Congress had vested appointment power in the department head rather than the President, might not be removable by the President at will after all. In drawing that line, Post writes, “Taft thus constructed an argument effectively ceding to Congress constitutional authority to determine when discretionary removal power for inferior executive officers was and was not prerequisite for the president’s capacity to execute the laws.”

It is a fascinating account, and Post connects it to modern debates surrounding executive power and originalism. It will entertain its readers and challenge them—especially those of us who are inclined to disagree with the conclusions that he draws with respect to independent agencies specifically, or Originalism and the “unitary executive” more broadly.

Sidestepping doctrinal questions, I would add to Post’s narrative one more story that I think illuminates Taft’s thinking in Myers.

Post connects Chief Justice Taft’s analysis to President Taft’s experience, writing that the Chief Justice “did not approach the Myers case as a blank slate … He would bring to Myers the entire weight of his considerable presidential experience.” Surely this is true, and to Post’s account of Taft’s presidency I would add still one more important episode: the Gifford Pinchot affair.

Pinchot, the first chief of the U.S. Forest Service, was a founding father of modern conservation policy—and a major thorn in President Taft’s side. Appointed to the Forest Service in 1905 by President Theodore Roosevelt, he continued in office for the first year of Taft’s term. But once Taft replaced Secretary of the Interior James Garfield, who was also a TR appointee, all hell broke loose. Pinchot waged war against the new Secretary, James Ballinger, largely through leaks to the press denouncing Ballinger as an enemy of conservation and a tool of the trusts. By January 1910, Taft had finally had enough, and he fired Pinchot. And that event, making front-page headlines nationwide, marked the beginning of the end of Taft’s presidency, for it inflamed the “Insurgent” Republicans against Taft and spurred TR to undertake the “Bull Moose” presidential campaign that ultimately thwarted Taft’s bid for re-election.

Surely the Pinchot debacle was not far from Taft’s mind when he wrote Myers. Indeed, the majority opinion’s most memorable rhetoric loudly echoes Taft’s letter firing Pinchot. As Chief Justice, Taft would write:

Each head of a department is and must be the President’s alter ego in the matters of that department where the President is required by law to exercise authority … He must place in each member of his official family, and his chief executive subordinates, implicit faith. The moment that he loses confidence in the intelligence, ability, judgment or loyalty of any one of them, he must have the power to remove him without delay.

Fifteen years earlier, President Taft’s January 8, 1910 letter to Pinchot (republished in full by the Washington Post) ended on a similar note:

… When the people of the United States elected me President they placed me in an office of the highest dignity, and charged me with the duty of maintaining that dignity and the proper respect for the office on the part of my subordinates. Moreover, if I were to pass over this matter in silence it would be demoralizing to the discipline of the executive branch of the government.

By your conduct you have destroyed your usefulness as a helpful subordinate of the government, and it therefore now becomes my duty to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to remove you from your office as the forester. Very sincerely yours, William H. Taft.

The Taft-Pinchot-TR story is an entertaining story for anyone who is interested in the modern history of administration. Pinchot was a character every bit as colorful as the Bull Moose whom he adored. “Gifford Pinchot is a dear,” TR once wrote, “but he is a fanatic.”

But more important for present purposes, the Pinchot affair seems invaluable for fully understanding Taft’s own understanding of the constitutional presidency, as informed by his own experience in that office—in addition to everything already offered by Robert Post in his entertaining and enlightening new article.

Adam J. White is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, and director of George Mason University’s C. Boyden Gray Center for the Study of the Administrative State.


Items included in this collection with the permission of rights holders are listed below. For further use or reproduction of those items contact the rightsholders listed.

Interview of William W. Lehfeldt by William Burr, April 29, 1987, made available here with permission from The Foundation for Iranian Studies, 4343 Montgomery Avenue, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.

Interview of John S. Service by Rosemary Levinson, 1977, made available here with permission from The Regional Oral History Office, 486 The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-6000.

Oral history interviews conducted by Mrs. Ann Miller Morin (below), made available here with permission from Mrs. Ann Miller Morin, 3330 North Leisure World Blvd., Apt. 808, Silver Spring, MD 20906.

  • Interview of Anne Cox Chambers, October 23, 1985
  • Interview of Jane Abell Coon, November 4, 1986
  • Interview of Betty Crites Dillon, December 9, 1987
  • Interview of Ruth Lewis Farkas, October 24, 1985
  • Interview of Rosemary Lucas Ginn, October 28, 1997
  • Interview of Constance Ray Harvey, 1988
  • Interview of Mari-Luci Jaramillo, February 21, 1987
  • Interview of Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick, May 28, 1987
  • Interview of Caroline Clendening Laise, May 8, 1985
  • Interview of Claire Boothe Luce, September 19, 1986
  • Interview of Mary Seymour Olmsted, June 25, 1985
  • Interview of Nancy Ostrander, May 14, 1986
  • Interview of Rozanne L. Ridgway, March 18, 1987
  • Interview of Mabel Murphy Smythe, May 2, 1986
  • Interview of Margaret Joy Tibbetts, May 28, 1985
  • Interview of Melissa Foelsh Wells, March 27, 1984
  • Interview of Faith Ryan Whittlesey, December 7, 1988

These 17 interviews are part of the collection on deposit in the Sophia Smith Collection External .


Taft's Attitude

Taft had written in 1906 that the Jim Crow laws designed to codify segregation and to disenfranchise Southern black voters were not harmful because African Americans were not ready to use the vote well anyway. In Taft&rsquos words, "When a class of persons is so ignorant and so subject to oppression and misleading that they are merely political children, not having the mental stature of manhood, then it can hardly be said that that their voice in the government secures any benefit to them." In 1906, over forty years after emancipation, Taft still favored a "gradual acquisition of political power" for Southern blacks.

During the campaign, President Taft wanted to break the Democratic Party&rsquos stranglehold on the "Solid South," and so he appealed to Southern whites.

Just like the other party platforms, the Republican Party Platform never mentions race. After receiving a great deal of pressure from African Americans the Republicans did include a statement condemning lynchings.


William H. Taft on Agriculture - HISTORY

William Howard Taft is known as the only person to have served both as a Chief Justice and as a President of the United States. He was born on the 15th of September 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio.

His parents were both of British ancestry. His father, Alphonso Taft, came from Vermont to practice law in order to become a judge. Alphonso later became secretary of war and an attorney general of President Grant. William’s mother, Louise Torrey, came from Massachusetts.

Vroeë lewe

William studied at schools in Cincinnati and was found to be intelligent and a fast learner. He enrolled in Yale in the year 1874 and proved to become popular among various cliques. He graduated second in his batch in 1878 before returning to Cincinnati to attend law school. He was able to pass the bar exams in Ohio in 1880.

He was soon appointed as assistant prosecutor in the state’s Hamilton County a year later. Taft moved on to become the county’s collector of internal revenue, which proved short-lived as he soon moved on to become a private practitioner of law. Four years later he returned to Hamilton County to become an assistant on solicitors.

On the 19th of June 1886, Taft married his childhood sweetheart Helen “Nellie” Herron, a daughter of a high-profile lawyer. They had had three children, namely Robert Alphonso, Helen Herron, and Charles Phelps. Nellie was intelligent and determined to support her husband in his endeavors.

She played a significant role in Taft’s political career, especially when he was soon appointed by President Benjamin Harrison as the US solicitor general. This position did not last, however, when a year later he returned to Cincinnati to become a court judge for a span of eight years.

Chief Civil Administrator

In 1900, Taft was sent to the Philippines by President McKinley to serve as the chief civil administrator. Having displayed an understanding for the Filipinos, he made it a point to contribute to the country’s economy by building schools and roads. He even allowed the people’s participation in government matters.

Taft soon became the Philippines’ first civil governor. As a leader, it was his intention to spread the importance of quality education. At that time the Philippines was still suffering from the trauma brought by the colonialism of the Spaniards and the Roman Catholic friars. Taft saw to it that any hint of their rule was put to an end by achieving an independent country free from land ownership of foreigners. With the help of the Vatican, he was able to sell the land back to the Filipinos.

A few years later when McKinley was assassinated, the presidency was taken over by Theodore Roosevelt, who twice offered Taft a position on the US Supreme Court. Taft declined both offers, saying that his work in the Philippines was yet to come to its conclusion.

Joining Theodore Roosevelt’s Cabinet

Taft had little knowledge that Roosevelt had already set his eyes on him as his ideal successor. The then-current president had ascertained his need for Taft to become part of his Cabinet. Both of them soon arrived to an understanding that Taft would still be able to continue supervising his work in the Philippines, which allowed him to accept the position as Secretary of War.

Taft was known for his ability to multitask. He was able to serve the US administration both at home and in the Philippines. He was able to oversee the construction of the Panama Canal between the year 1904 and 1908. He became one of Roosevelt’s most favorite emissaries, and the president felt confident whenever Taft was by his side.

Taft was offered a position in the Supreme Court in the year 1906. It was at this point when Roosevelt had announced that he would not run after the 1904 elections. A huge number of the ex-president’s supporters saw Taft as one of the best candidates to succeed the presidential seat. Even Roosevelt himself felt confident that his reforms would be continued once his favorite was elected. Taft decided to run for president.

William Jennings Bryan proved to be an intimidating opponent, having served as president twice in the past. Taft’s campaign methods involve undercutting Bryan’s support on liberalism. Bryan, on the other hand, assigned an elitist image on his opponent. After a strong and vigorous campaign period, Taft won by a small margin. In 1908, he was elected president.

Life as President

It was his new set of policies that made his presidential term memorable to Americans. William introduced new controls over the budget as well as an 8-hour workday for all employees serving the government. He also made it a point to pass the campaign-spending disclosure bills, which punished a number of companies that bypassed the anti-trust laws.

He found himself at a serious disadvantage after realizing the amount of contributions Roosevelt had done while in office. People saw him more as a judicial leader rather than a political one. He was often pointed out as a poor public speaker and a procrastinator. Soon there existed a falling out of trust between the two parties, with Roosevelt labeling Taft a huge disappointment and an incompetent individual controlled by important businesses. Taft would later on admit that he found his job overly intimidating.

In 1912 Roosevelt announced that he wanted the Republicans to nominate him as president. Taft, on the other hand, was resolute that his former friend would not succeed. At a 1912 convention he successfully stopped the organizers from giving important seats to a number of Roosevelt delegates. He acquired the Republican nomination afterwards. Roosevelt, desperate not to allow Taft to gain the seat of presidency for the second time, entered the Progressive Party, known as Bull Moose. The act managed to split the Republican votes. Taft’s past administration, however, proved ineffective to the voting masses, allowing his Democratic opponent Woodrow Wilson to win by a large margin.

Supreme Court Chief Justice

After losing the presidency, Taft worked as a Professor of Law in Yale. He spent his time writing articles for newspapers and books, most of which specialized in legal philosophy. He was also seen as an active advocate for world peace via international arbitration, which promoted the idea of a League of Nations. Years later, President Harding would make him Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, a position which he found to be one of the most memorable he took in his entire life. In fact, he once wrote that he never even remembered becoming president. He held the position of Chief Justice until his death.

On the 3rd of February 1930 Taft retired from the position due to ill health. He died a few weeks later on March 8, 1930. He was the first president to be buried in Arlington National Cemetery and was the only Chief Justice to gain a state funeral.

Various tributes to Taft spread after that. Courthouses in Ohio were named after him. So did streets in Cincinnati, a school in California, and a major street in Manila, Philippines, where he worked his hardest as a politician. His family would soon enter politics. Robert Taft, Jr., his grandson, became a Senator in Ohio from 1971 to 1977. William Howard Taft III, meanwhile, became US ambassador to Ireland in 1953.


Inhoud

The Classical Revival bridge was built from 1897 to 1907. It was designed by engineer George S. Morison and architect Edward Pearce Casey. [2] [3] It is an arch bridge with unreinforced concrete arches and a reinforced concrete deck. The total length of the bridge is 274.5 meters (901 ft). It has been called an "engineering tour de force" and the largest unreinforced concrete structure in the world. [4] In 1931, the bridge was renamed in honor of U.S. President William Howard Taft, who frequently walked the bridge while Chief Justice of the United States. [5]

During early planning for the Washington Metro in the 1960s, the Red Line was slated to run across the bridge to connect Dupont Circle and Woodley Park. Instead, the metro was built underground. [6]

The bridge is "guarded" by four large male lions, two on each end of the bridge (each approx. 7 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in. x 13 ft.). Two of the lions rest on all fours with their heads tilted upwards and mouths slightly open while the other pair lie with their eyes closed, apparently sleeping. They were originally designed and sculpted by Roland Hinton Perry in 1906 out of cast concrete (the bridge as a whole is one of the first cast concrete bridges in the country) and were installed in 1907.

In 1964 the lions were restored and weatherproofed by Washington-based sculptor Renato Luccetti, although this restoration proved to be less than entirely successful. When a major rehabilitation of the bridge began in 1993, the lions, which were in very bad condition, were removed for further restoration. They are currently stored in the Air Rights Tunnel on southbound I-395. The sculptures were finally found to be beyond restoring. [7] [8]

The United States Commission of Fine Arts worked with the city in the late 1990s to oversee the production of the replacement lions that now sit on the bridge. The sculptor Reinaldo Lopez-Carrizo of Professional Restoration produced molds based on the existing sculptures and photographs, and used them to cast new concrete lion sculptures that were installed on the bridge in July and August 2000. [9] The same molds were used to cast bronze lions installed at the main pedestrian entrance to the National Zoo farther north on Connecticut Avenue in 2002. [10] The white lion in the lobby of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is a quarter-size replica from that effort. [11]

Twenty-four lampposts are equally spaced along both sides of the Taft Bridge. Created by sculptor Ernest Bairstow in 1906 ,the lampposts are composed of concrete bases (about 5 feet high, 8 inches deep and four feet wide) with painted iron lampposts (about 17 feet high and 4 wide) set in them. The pedestals are decorated with garland and a fluted column featuring acanthus leaves at the top and bottom. Above the leaves is a horizontal bracket with two globes hanging from each side of the column. Each lamppost is topped with a painted iron eagle with its wings spread. [12]

A replica of the Bairstow eagles is seen in a World War I monument in Middletown, Delaware. [13]


William H. Taft


Portrait of William Howard Taft from Cincinnati, Ohio. He was the twenty-seventh President, serving

William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on September 15, 1857. His father was Alphonso Taft, who had been President Ulysses S. Grant's secretary of war and then attorney general. His mother was Louisa Maria Torrey Taft. He attended Woodward High School, a local private school, before enrolling at Yale University in 1874. After graduation, Taft returned to Cincinnati, where he studied law at the University of Cincinnati Law School. Taft was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1880. Six years later, Taft married Helen “Nellie” Herron on June 19, 1886.

Taft first entered politics in 1881, when he became the assistant prosecutor of Hamilton County. He continued to practice law in Cincinnati until 1887, when he was appointed as a judge on the Cincinnati Superior Court. Three years later, Taft became solicitor general of the United States and moved to Washington, DC. In 1892, Taft was appointed as a judge on the Sixth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. Ohio was part of the Sixth Circuit. At the same time, he taught law and served as dean of the University of Cincinnati Law School.

Taft had gained the attention of the national Republican Party by this time. In 1900, President William McKinley appointed Taft to be the Governor General of the Philippines. The United States had gained control of the Philippines as a result of the Spanish-American War. It was Taft's role as Governor General to establish a new civilian government in the Philippines. It was a very difficult position, as some of the Filipinos were revolting against American control. The United States had gained a negative reputation in the region as a result of brutal attempts to put down the rebellion. Taft set out to create a peaceful environment for change on the islands, creating a constitution that was modeled after the United States Constitution and developing other aspects of civilian life.

President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Taft to be his secretary of war in 1904, a position that he held until the end of his term. He traveled around the world, overseeing United States foreign policy objectives during this era.

When Roosevelt decided not to run for reelection in 1908, he chose Taft as his most likely successor. Taft became the Republican Party's nominee and successfully won the presidency, running against Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Taft received 51.6 percent of the popular vote and 321 out of 483 electoral college votes.

Taft had promised to continue Roosevelt's Progressive reform policies if he won the presidency. During his administration, the United States ratified the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which allowed for the creation of a graduated income tax, and the Seventeenth Amendment, which established direct election of senators. He continued to pursue businesses with monopolistic tendencies, but Roosevelt believed that Taft did not have a strong commitment to other reforms. In the Election of 1912, Roosevelt challenged Taft for the Republican presidential nomination. Ultimately, Taft still won the nomination, but Roosevelt split the Republicans when he declared his own candidacy on the Progressive Party ticket. This split allowed Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Even Taft's home state of Ohio voted for Wilson in the election.

Taft's presidential administration had an important influence on the expansion of United States trade abroad during this era. Taft referred to his foreign policy as “dollar diplomacy.” The United States would seek to sell its products overseas, especially to Latin America and Asia. This policy led to military intervention to protect American economic interests and, at times, created anti-American sentiment abroad.

After completing his term as president, Taft took a position teaching at the Yale University Law School. President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1921, a position that he held until his death on March 8, 1930. Taft is the only person in American history to serve as head of both the executive and judicial branches of the national government.


The nation’s fattest president loved steaks for breakfast. Then he went on a diet.

One of the most entertaining White House memoirs in history was written not by a president but by a maid.

Her name was Elizabeth Jaffray.

From 1909 to 1926, Jaffray was the chief housekeeper for four presidents — William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge — and in a book titled “Secrets of the White House,” Jaffray chronicled their personal triumphs, foibles and domestic lives.

The meatiest of her stories were about her meatiest boss — Taft, a man so profoundly rotund that after sending a telegram to the secretary of war about a horseback ride, the secretary replied, “Referring to your telegram . . . how is the horse?”

As housekeeper, in addition to cleaning up after presidents, Jaffray was also responsible for their food — not just what they ate for themselves, but what they served to guests. Doing their grocery shopping gave Jaffray tremendous insight into presidential tastes and appetites.

At one end of the spectrum was Coolidge, her last boss.

Coolidge was a cheapskate who complained that the hams he was served were too large. He could eat just one slice. Also, according to the book “Real Life at the White House” by John and Claire Whitcomb, his breakfast consisted of a bit of wheat. How he survived on that caloric intake is one of history’s great mysteries.

At the other end: Taft, who occupied the White House from 1909 to 1913. The nation’s 27th president — who later became chief justice of the United States and an inspiration to a nation of yo-yo dieters — was Jaffray’s hungriest boss.

For him, Jaffray bought “butter by the tub, potatoes by the barrel, fruit and green vegetables by the crate,” she wrote.

Oh, and meat. A lot of meat.

Taft ate steak for breakfast.

“He wanted a thick, juicy twelve-ounce steak nearly every morning,” Jaffray wrote.

“President Taft liked every sort of food with the single exception of eggs,” Jaffray wrote. “He really had few preferences but just naturally liked food — and lots of it.”

The president scarfed down his steak breakfast every day at precisely 8:30 a.m. following a doctor prescribed workout in his bedroom with a personal trainer — a collision of routines that first lady Helen Taft found rather funny, according to Jaffray.

(For the record, the famous story of Taft getting stuck in a White House bathtub? That’s untrue.)

So let’s return to his eating habits. If you think Taft was just ahead of his time — going low-carb before the Atkins diet craze — you will be disappointed to learn that in addition to the steak, Jaffray reports Taft’s breakfasts included “several pieces of toast,” and his “vast quantity of coffee” were supplemented with large helpings of cream and sugar.

Under Jaffray’s watch, Taft got bigger and bigger.

In a diary entry from 1911, the housekeeper notes Taft’s weight — 332 pounds — and that he was going on a diet, apparently at the advice of his doctor. Taft told her, “Things are in a sad state of affairs when a man can’t even call his gizzard his own.”

Taft, who died in 1930 from heart disease, was deflated, but only metaphorically.

A year later, Jaffray wrote this in her diary: “The president looks as if he actually weighs 400 pounds."

Eventually, Taft ordered a reduction in steak sizes.

Instead of 12 ounces, he was served six.

“But somehow,” Jaffray wrote, “he really didn’t take off any great amount of weight while he was president.”