15 Augustus 1943

15 Augustus 1943


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15 Augustus 1943

Oorlog in die lug

Agtste lugmag se swaar bomwerpermissie nr. 82: 327 vliegtuie gestuur om Luftwaffe -vliegvelde by Vlissingen (Flushing), Poix, Amiens, Vitry, Merville en Lille/ Vendeville aan te val. Twee vliegtuie het verlore gegaan.

Italië

Marshal Badoglio, die nuwe Italiaanse leier, stuur 'n vredesafsender na Madrid

Stille Oseaan

Amerikaanse en Kanadese troepe land by Kiska (Aleoese Eilande), om te sien dat die Japannese weg is

Japannese bomwerpers het Tsili Tsili (Nieu -Guinee) vir die eerste keer uitgevoer

Die hoofmag van Amerikaanse troepe land op Vella Lavella, aan die westelike punt van die New Georgia -eilande, wat die belangrikste Japannese basis by Kolombangara omseil.

Oosfront

Generaal van Infanterie, dr Lothar Rendulic, neem bevel oor die Tweede Panzer -leër

Boeke



Tweede Wêreldoorlog: Schweinfurt-Regensburg Raid

Die eerste aanval op Schweinfurt-Regensburg het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945) plaasgevind.

Amerikaanse vliegtuie het op 17 Augustus 1943 teikens in Schweinfurt en Regensburg getref.

Kragte en bevelvoerders:

Schweinfurt-Regensburg Opsomming:

In die somer van 1943 het die Amerikaanse bomwerpermagte in Engeland uitgebrei toe vliegtuie uit Noord -Afrika begin terugkeer en nuwe vliegtuie uit die Verenigde State aangekom het. Hierdie toename in sterkte het saamgeval met die aanvang van Operation Pointblank. Pointblank, wat ontwerp is deur lugmaarskalk Arthur "Bomber" Harris en generaal -majoor Carl Spaatz, was bedoel om die Luftwaffe en sy infrastruktuur te vernietig voor die inval in Europa. Dit sou bereik word deur 'n gekombineerde bomwerperaanval teen Duitse vliegtuigfabrieke, kogellagers, brandstofdepots en ander verwante teikens.

Vroeë Pointblank -missies is uitgevoer deur die USAAF se 1ste en 4de Bombardement Wings (1ste en 4de BW) in onderskeidelik die Midlands en East Anglia. Hierdie operasies was gemik op Focke-Wulf Fw 190 vegvliegtuie in Kassel, Bremen en Oschersleben. Terwyl Amerikaanse bomwerpermagte aansienlike slagoffers in hierdie aanvalle opgedoen het, is dit as doeltreffend genoeg geag om die bombardement van die Messerschmitt Bf 109 -aanlegte in Regensburg en Wiener Neustadt te regverdig. By die beoordeling van hierdie teikens is besluit om Regensburg aan die 8ste Lugmag in Engeland toe te wys, terwyl laasgenoemde deur die 9de Lugmag in Noord -Afrika getref sou word.

By die beplanning van die staking op Regensburg, het die 8ste Lugmag gekies om 'n tweede teiken, die kogellagers by Schweinfurt, by te voeg met die doel om Duitse lugverdediging te oorweldig. Die sendingplan het 'n beroep op die 4de BW gedoen om Regensburg te tref en dan suidwaarts na basisse in Noord -Afrika te gaan. Die 1ste BW sou 'n entjie agterlangs volg met die doel om Duitse vegters op die grond te hervul. Nadat hulle hul doelwitte bereik het, sou die 1ste BW terugkeer na Engeland. Soos met alle aanvalle diep in Duitsland, sou geallieerde vegters slegs 'n begeleiding tot by Eupen, België, kon bied weens hul beperkte omvang.

Ter ondersteuning van die Schweinfurt-Regensburg-poging is twee stelle afleidingsaanvalle teen Luftwaffe-vliegvelde en teikens langs die kus geskeduleer. Die aanval was oorspronklik beplan vir 7 Augustus weens swak weer. Die 9de Lugmag, wat Operasie Juggler genoem word, het die fabrieke in Wiener Neustadt op 13 Augustus getref, terwyl die 8ste Lugmag weens weerprobleme gegrond gebly het. Uiteindelik op 17 Augustus het die sending begin, alhoewel baie van Engeland onder mis was. Na 'n kort vertraging het die 4de BW omstreeks 08:00 die vliegtuig begin.

Alhoewel die missieplan vereis dat beide Regensburg en Schweinfurt vinnig opeenvolgend geraak word om minimale verliese te verseker, kon die 4de BW vertrek, alhoewel die 1ste BW steeds weens mis was. As gevolg hiervan het die 4de BW die Nederlandse kus oorgesteek teen die tyd dat die 1ste BW in die lug was, wat 'n groot gaping tussen die strydmagte oopgemaak het. Onder leiding van kolonel Curtis LeMay het die 4de BW uit 146 B-17's bestaan. Ongeveer tien minute nadat hulle geland het, het Duitse vegaanvalle begin. Alhoewel sommige vegvliegtuie teenwoordig was, was dit onvoldoende om die hele mag te dek.

Na negentig minute se luggeveg het die Duitsers losgebars om 15 B-17's af te brand. Toe hulle oor die teiken kom, het LeMay se bomwerpers min vlakke gekry en kon hulle ongeveer 300 ton bomme op die teiken plaas. Deur die suide te draai, is 'n paar vegters deur die Regensburg -mag ontmoet, maar dit het 'n groot probleemlose deur na Noord -Afrika gehad. Tog het 9 bykomende vliegtuie verlore gegaan toe 2 beskadigde B-17's in Switserland moes land en verskeie ander in die Middellandse See neergestort het weens 'n gebrek aan brandstof. Terwyl die 4de BW die gebied verlaat, was die Luftwaffe bereid om die naderende 1ste BW te hanteer.

Agter die skedule het die 230 B-17's van die 1ste BW die kus oorgesteek en 'n soortgelyke roete as die 4de BW gevolg. Persoonlik onder leiding van brigadier -generaal Robert B. Williams, is die Schweinfurt -mag onmiddellik deur Duitse vegters aangeval. Die 1ste BW het meer as 300 vegters tydens die vlug na Schweinfurt teëgekom en het groot ongevalle opgedoen en 22 B-17's verloor. Toe hulle die teiken nader, het die Duitsers afgebreek om brandstof te maak ter voorbereiding om die bomwerpers aan te val tydens die terugkeer van hul reis.

Omstreeks 15:00 het die teiken gekom, en die vliegtuie van Williams het 'n hewige skil oor die stad gekry. Toe hulle hul bomme hardloop, het nog 3 B-17's verlore gegaan. By die huis het die 4de BW weer Duitse vegters teëgekom. In 'n hardloopgeveg het die Luftwaffe nog 11 B-17's neergeslaan. By die bereiking van België is die bomwerpers tegemoet gekom deur 'n dekmag van geallieerde vegters wat hulle in staat gestel het om hul reis na Engeland relatief ongeskonde te voltooi.

Die gekombineerde Schweinfurt-Regensburg-aanval het die USAAF 60 B-17's en 55 vliegtuigbemanning gekos. Die bemanning het altesaam 552 mans verloor, waarvan die helfte krygsgevangenes geword het en twintig deur die Switsers geïnterneer is. Aan boord van vliegtuie wat veilig teruggekeer het na die basis, is 7 vliegtuigbemanne dood, met nog 21 gewondes. Benewens die bomwerperskrag, het die Geallieerdes 3 P-47 Thunderbolts en 2 Spitfires verloor. Terwyl geallieerde bemanning 318 Duitse vliegtuie geëis het, het die Luftwaffe berig dat slegs 27 vegters verlore gegaan het. Alhoewel die geallieerde verliese ernstig was, slaag dit daarin om groot skade aan beide die Messerschmitt -aanlegte en die kogellagersfabrieke aan te rig. Terwyl die Duitsers 'n onmiddellike afname in produksie van 34% aangemeld het, het ander fabrieke in Duitsland dit vinnig opgemaak. Die verliese tydens die aanval het daartoe gelei dat die geallieerde leiers herhaaldelik dink oor die haalbaarheid van 'n langtermyn-aanval op Duitsland sonder lang lewens. Hierdie tipe aanvalle sou tydelik opgeskort word nadat 'n tweede aanval op Schweinfurt op 14 Oktober 1943 20% ly.


Keiser Hirohito kondig Japan se oorgawe aan

Alhoewel Tokio 'n paar dae tevore reeds aan die Geallieerdes die aanvaarding van die oorgawe -voorwaardes van die Potsdam -konferensie aan die Geallieerdes meegedeel het, en 'n Japanse nuusdiens daaroor aangekondig is, het die Japannese mense nog steeds gewag om 'n gesaghebbende stem die onuitspreeklike te hoor spreek: dat Japan verslaan is.

Die stem was die keiser. Op 15 Augustus het daardie stem vir die eerste keer oor die radiogolwe gehoor en erken dat die vyand van Japan 'n wreedste bom begin gebruik het, waarvan die krag inderdaad onberekenbaar is. baie onskuldige lewens. ” Dit was die rede vir Japan se oorgawe. Hirohito se mondelinge herinneringe, gepubliseer en vertaal na die oorlog, bewys dat die keiser destyds bang is dat die Japannese ras vernietig sal word as die oorlog voortduur. ”

'N Knelpunt in die oorgawe van Japan was die status van Hirohito as keiser. Tokio wou die status van die keiser beskerm en die bondgenote wou geen voorwaardes hê nie. Daar was 'n kompromie. Die keiser behou sy titel genl. Douglas MacArthur het geglo dat sy ten minste seremoniële teenwoordigheid 'n stabiliserende invloed in die naoorlogse Japan sou wees. Maar Hirohito moes sy goddelike status ontken. Japan het meer as 'n oorlog verloor en dit het 'n god verloor.


Hampstead, NH – 19 Augustus 1943

Daar is nie veel inligting oor hierdie ongeluk nie.

Om 16:30. die middag van 19 Augustus 1943 word 'n Amerikaanse weermag C-49J, (#43-1971) gesien, omring die Island Pond in Hampstead, New Hampshire, op 'n hoogte van tussen 1,000 en 1,500 voet met sy wiele uitgestrek, toe dit skielik het 'n draai gemaak en in 'n beboste gebied vasgery.

Al vyf die mans aan boord is dood.

Die weer was destyds tot verspreid, 3-4000 voet, sigbaarheid onbeperk. ”

Volgens die Air Corps se ongeluksondersoekverslag word die vlieënier as een gelys R. T. Whidden, “ kommersiële vlieënier ”. Onder “pilot ’s missie ” in die verslag het dit gesê “Army ATTF Transition training. ”

Diensmanne aan boord het ingesluit:

2de Lt. Charles Appier. Hy is begrawe in die Star of Hope -begraafplaas in Huntington, Indiana.

2de Lt. Robert W. Barron. Hy is begrawe in die Holy Cross -begraafplaas in Escanaba, Michigan.

Pfc. Robert A. Bell. Hy is begrawe in die Union Cemetery in Flandreau, Suid -Dakota.


Nuttige skakels in masjienleesbare formate.

Argiefhulpbronsleutel (ARK)

Internasionale raamwerk vir beeldinteroperabiliteit (IIIF)

Metadata -formate

Beelde

Statistieke

Brownwood Bulletin (Brownwood, Tex.), Vol. 43, nr. 302, red. 1 Sondag 15 Augustus 1943, koerant, 15 Augustus 1943 (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth1094743/: besoek 21 Junie 2021), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas Geskiedenis, https://texashistory.unt.edu wat Brownwood Public Library erken.

Oor hierdie kwessie

Soek binne

Lees nou

Druk & amp Deel

Aanhalings, regte, hergebruik


The Sunday Record (Mineola, Tex.), Vol. 31, nr. 20, red. 1 Sondag 15 Augustus 1943

Weeklikse koerant uit Mineola, Texas, wat plaaslike, staats- en nasionale nuus insluit, asook advertensies.

Fisiese beskrywing

vier bladsye: ill. bladsy 21 x 15 duim. Gedigitaliseer vanaf 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Skeppingsinligting

Skepper: Onbekend. 15 Augustus 1943.

Konteks

Hierdie koerant is deel van die versameling getiteld: Texas Digital Newspaper Program en is verskaf deur die Mineola Memorial Library aan The Portal to Texas History, 'n digitale bewaarplek wat deur die UNT Libraries aangebied word. Dit is 39 keer bekyk. Meer inligting oor hierdie kwessie kan hieronder besigtig word.

Mense en organisasies wat verband hou met die skepping van hierdie koerant of die inhoud daarvan.

Skepper

Gehore

Kyk na ons webwerf vir hulpbronne vir opvoeders! Ons het dit geïdentifiseer koerant as 'n primêre bron binne ons versamelings. Navorsers, opvoeders en studente vind hierdie probleem nuttig in hul werk.

Verskaf deur

Mineola -gedenkbiblioteek

Die Mineola Memorial Library, wat in die stad Mineola in Oos -Texas geleë is, het in 1950 tot stand gekom en het sedertdien floreer met meer as 46 000 boeke, digitale koerante en vele ander materiaal. Die Tocker -stigting het finansiering verskaf vir die digitalisering van biblioteekmateriaal.


Nadraai

By die uitvoering van Operasie Dragoon het die Geallieerdes ongeveer 17,000 dood en gewond opgedoen terwyl hulle verliese opgedoen het met ongeveer 7,000 dood, 10,000 gewond en 130,000 gevang op die Duitsers. Kort nadat hulle gevang is, is begin met die herstel van die hawe in Toulon en Marseille. Albei was teen 20 September oop vir aflewering. Namate die spoorweë wat noordwaarts gerestoureer is, herstel is, het die twee hawens belangrike toevoerpunte vir die geallieerde magte in Frankryk geword. Alhoewel daar oor die waarde daarvan gedebatteer is, het Operation Dragoon Devers en Patch in die suide van Frankryk vinniger as verwag verwag, terwyl hulle Army Group G effektief uitgeroei het.


Die reis van die roepee sedert onafhanklikheid: wat was die wisselkoers van dollar na INR in 15 Augustus 1947?

Nieu -Delhi, 14 Aug. Die onafhanklikheidsdag van Indië word jaarliks ​​godsdienstig deur die hele land gevier. Indië vier sy 74ste onafhanklikheidsdag op 15 Augustus 2020. Die jaar 2020 is die 74ste onafhanklikheidsdag wat gevier word te midde van die voortslepende koronaviruspandemie in die land.

Sedert sy onafhanklikheid in 1947 het Indië egter voor twee groot finansiële krisisse en twee gevolglike devaluasies van die roepee te staan ​​gekom: In 1966 en 1991. Baie geopolitieke en ekonomiese ontwikkelings het sy beweging die afgelope 74 jaar beïnvloed.

Daar was verskeie berigte dat toe Indië op 15 Augustus 1947 vryheid gekry het, die waarde van die roepee gelyk was aan die Amerikaanse dollar, maar vandag moet ons 66 INR bestee om 'n dollar van 74,82 INR te koop. Daar is egter geen werklike datapunte om die geldigheid daarvan aan te dui nie.

Volgens berigte was die wisselkoers gekoppel aan Britse pond teen Rs. 13,33 of Rs. 4,75 per dollar in September 1949. Dit was onveranderd tot Junie 1966, toe die roepee met 36,5% tot Rs gedevalueer is. 21/pond of 1 $ = Rs. 7.10. Hierdie stelsel het voortgeduur tot in 1971, toe die Bretton -bosstelsel ineengestort het met die opskorting van die omskakelbaarheid van die dollar deur die VSA.

Hier sal 'n grafiek u die veranderende waarde van 1 USD tot INR wys:


Tunisië 1942 - 1943

Die Tunisiese veldtog is in historiese terme interessant as die eerste waar die Britse en Amerikaanse magte saam in 'n geveg ontplooi is. Dit was die eerste keer in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog dat Amerikaanse troepe aksie in die Europese of Mediterreense teaters sien. Baie van die probleme en spanning wat tydens hierdie veldtog ontstaan ​​het, sou voortgaan met die veldtogte in Sicilië, Italië en Noordwes -Europa, maar die Tunisiese veldtog het die grondslag gelê vir die uiteindelike sukses van die Geallieerdes met die verslaan van die as. Belangrike geallieerde bevelvoerders, waaronder EISENHOWER, BRADLEY, PATTON en CLARK, het almal hul eerste aktiewe diens in Tunisië gesien.

Die lande Marokko, Algerië en Tunisië was almal Franse kolonies in Noordwes -Afrika. Hulle het hulself by die Franse regering van Vichy aangesluit na die nederlaag van Frankryk in 1940. Beplanning het vroeg in 1942 begin vir 'n ekspedisiemag wat 'n amfibiese landing in Frans -Noord -Afrika kan kry. Die ervaring van die Dieppe -aanval in Augustus 1942 bewys die uitdagings om die verdedigde kuslyn aan te val. Met die toetrede van die Verenigde State tot die oorlog, was dit belangrik om die groot Amerikaanse magte in die geveg te begin ontplooi, dus was Frans Noord -Afrika die logiese keuse.

Landings is op 8 November 1942 op drie plekke uitgevoer. Die Western Task Force het bestaan ​​uit Amerikaanse formasies wat direk van die Verenigde State na Marokko gevaar het. Die Center Task Force het bestaan ​​uit Amerikaanse formasies wat by Oran geland het, en die Eastern Task Force bestaan ​​uit een Britse infanteriedivisie en een Amerikaanse infanteriedivisie wat by Algiers geland het.

Die Franse Vichy -magte het op 9 November ingestem tot 'n skietstilstand wat 'n vakuum in Tunisië verlaat het, terwyl die Franse goewerneur selfs in die hantering van die magte van die as en bondgenote ingegee het. Op dieselfde dag as die skietstilstand het Duitse magte in Tunisië begin land. HITLER het besluit om troepe na Tunisië te stuur om te voorkom dat die Afrika Korps omring word, om 'n mate van beheer oor die Middellandse See te behou en om Tunisië te hou om 'n inval in Italië te voorkom. Uiteindelik was dit vrugtelose toewyding van personeel en hulpbronne wat die asmagte betref. Vir die Duitsers het dit plaasgevind op dieselfde tyd as die groot geveg by Stalingrad, en was dit 'n groot verdeling van hulpbronne. Die vliegtuie wat gebruik is om mans en materiaal na Tunisië te bring, was byvoorbeeld nie beskikbaar om die Duitse 6de leër in Stalingrad te voorsien nie.

Die wedloop was om Tunis te beveilig, wat die Duitsers net gewen het. Geallieerde troepe bereik eintlik die buitewyke van Tunis, maar met onvoldoende krag om die grond vas te hou. Dit het gelei tot 'n harde en bitter veldtog wat tot 13 Mei 1943 geduur het. Uiteindelik is ongeveer 250 000 Duitse en Italiaanse troepe doodgemaak of gevange geneem, 'n nederlaag net die van die Duitsers in Stalingrad.

Aangesien dit die eerste ontplooiing van Amerikaanse magte in die Weste was, is 'n inleidende artikel oor die Amerikaanse weermag in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog hierby aangeheg.
https://www.britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/124/2020/09/The-United-States-Army-in-the-Second-World-War.pdf

Boeke oor die Tunisiese veldtog wat u moontlik kan gebruik, is:
ATKINSON, Rick 'N Army at Dawn – The War in North Africa 1942 – 1943 (New York, Henry Holt and Company, 2002) [ISBN 0-8050-6288-2]
BLAXLAND, Gregory The Plain Cook and the Great Showman – die eerste en agtste leërs in Noord -Afrika (Abingdon, William Kimber, 1977)
ROLF, David The Bloody Road to Tunis – Vernietiging van die asmagte in Noord -Afrika November 1942 – Mei 1943 (Londen, Greenhill Books, 2001) [ISBN 1-85367-445-1]


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Ek wil graag verder skryf oor die kinders van Horace G. Adams, Sr. en sy vrou Mabel G. (Warren) Adams, albei prominent in die geskiedenis van Maple Hill, Kansas.

Horace G. Adams, II, is gebore op 19 September 1897 by die plaashuis van sy ouers noordoos van Maple Hill, Kansas. Horace G. Adams, II (soms na verwys as Jr.) het vier ouer susters gehad, Bessie, Mabel Rae, Helen en Mary Adams.

Horace is grootgemaak op die boerdery in Maple Hill en het tot die sesde graad by die Maple Hill Grade School gegaan, waarna hy verskeie privaatskole in Topeka bygewoon het en sy hoërskoolopleiding aan die Country Day School in Kansas City, Missouri, voltooi het.

Ek kon nie baie van sy jeug leer nie, maar gelukkig het sy suster, Mary (Adams) Dugan, verskeie koerantberigte oor sy atletiese vaardighede gestoor terwyl hy by Country Day School was, waar hy in bofbal, baan, sokker en basketbal geskryf het. Sy primêre talent was in sokker. Gelukkig het sy suster, Mary (Adams) Dougan, drie koerantberigte gestoor wat met sy sokkervaardighede op Country Day gepraat het. Danksy Jill Dougan Dykes, kleindogter van mevrou Dougan en 'n prokureur in Topeka, Kansas, kon ek die koerantartikels kopieer en dit vergesel hierdie inligting.

Daar was baie vermeldings in "Maple Hill News Items" van H. G. Adams, senior, wat sy seun saamgeneem het om die XI Ranch in Plains, Kansas, te besoek en ook na verskillende veeverenigingsvergaderings regoor die land. Die gesin was baie bedrywig in die vertoning van beeste by die American Royal in Kansas City, Missouri.

Ek kon nie uitvind of Horace G. Adams, II 'n kollege of universiteit bygewoon het nie. Dit is seker dat hy verbonde was aan sy pa, Horace G. Adams, senior in die Adams Cattle -ondernemings, wat die boerdery se hoofkwartier in Maple Hill, Kansas en ook die XI Ranch in Meade County, Kansas en Beaver County, Oklahoma, ingesluit het. .

Horace G. Adams, II was getroud met Doris Evelyn Jamieson van Rossville, Kansas op 3 Julie 1919. Die troue het plaasgevind by die plaashuis van die ouers van die bruid, Arthur Bruce en Susan Salome “Loma” (Wilt) Jamieson, in die platteland Rossville, Kansas. In die koerantberig word gesê dat slegs die onmiddellike gesinne teenwoordig was. Bruce en Loma Jamieson was prominente lede van die boerdery en sakegemeenskap in Rossville, net soos hul kinders. Die Jamieson-gesin was 'n gevestigde en welvarende plaasfamilie in Ohio voordat hulle in die 1880's na die Rossville-gemeenskap verhuis het, waar hulle 'n groot plaas besit het en later verskeie kleinhandelondernemings in Rossville geopen het, insluitend voer, droë goedere, meubelwinkels en 'n onderneming. begrafnisonderneming.

Doris Evelyn Jamieson is gebore op haar ouer se plaas in Rossville, Shawnee County, Kansas op 14 Maart 1900. By die lees van koerantartikels het die skrywer geleer dat Doris Jamieson landelike skole in die Rossville -gemeenskap bywoon en aan Rossville High School, waar sy aktief in 'n aantal musiek- en dramaklubs. Ek kon nie uitvind of sy aan 'n universiteit was nie, maar sy het die provinsiale eksamen afgelê om 'n onderwyssertifikaat in landelike skole te kry. Ek het nie geleer as sy ooit geleer het nie. Ek het wel agtergekom dat haar pa, A. Bruce Jamieson, wel op die plaaslike skoolraad gedien het.

Die huweliksaankondiging het aangedui dat die egpaar 'n wittebrood in Colorado geniet het en 'n nuwe Buick -toermotor daarheen gery het, 'n huweliksgeskenk van mnr. En mev. HG Adams, senior. Na die wittebrood het hulle op die boerdery se hoofkwartier in Maple gewoon. Hill, en word getoon as deel van die HG Adams -huishouding tydens die Amerikaanse sensus van 1920.

Toe die Amerikaanse sensus van 1930 geneem is, woon Horace G. en Doris Adams by die XI Ranch -hoofkwartier in Meade County, Kansas, waar sy beroep as 'hoofman' gegee is. Teen daardie tyd het die Adams ouers geword van twee seuns, Horace G. Adams, III en Bruce E. Adams. Horace G. Adams, III, is op 14 Julie 1921 gebore by die boerdery se hoofkwartier in Maple Hill, Kansas.

Sy jonger broer Bruce E. Adams is ook daar gebore op 23 Julie 1929. Daar was 15 arbeiders wat as die XI -boerdery gelys is, maar geen ander lede van die Adams -familie dui aan dat Horace die boerdery bestuur het onder toesig van sy vader.

Tydens sy jong jare het hy bekend geword as 'Hooly' Adams. Die naam is deur sy lewe deur familie en vriende gebruik.

'N Derde kind, Marilyn Melee Adams, is gebore in 'n Topeka, Kansas -hospitaal op 24 Oktober 1933. Sy studeer met lof aan die Kansas State University waar sy betrokke was by baie aktiwiteite. Sy was op 24 November 1955 getroud met William Lee Larrabee nadat sy aan die KSU studeer het.
William “Bill” Larrabee is op 15 Februarie 1933 gebore aan Robert Lee en Rosemary (Kinney) Larrabee. Hy was 'n gegradueerde van die Liberal High School en die Universiteit van Kansas. Hy was die derde generasie van sy gesin wat die Star Lumber Company of Liberal, Kansas, besit en bestuur het.

Marilyn en Bill Larrabee was die ouers van Steven Lee Larrabee gebore in 1957 en Kevin Robert Larrabee gebore in 1964.

Marilyn M. (Adams) Larrabee is op 2 Februarie 2001 oorlede en William L. “Bill” Larrabee is op 16 Februarie 2017 oorlede. Hulle word begrawe in die Adams -erf in die Graceland Cemetery, Liberal, Kansas. Hul afstammelinge bedryf steeds die Star Lumber Company.

Soos in die geval van gesinne waar daar baie rykdom is, dui koerantberigte aan dat meningsverskille bestaan ​​oor die verdeling van boedelbates na die dood van Horace Adams, oudste op 5 Februarie 1933. Adams het gesterf sonder 'n testament wat die probleme. Sy weduwee, Mabel G. (Warren) Adams, het tot 23 November 1940 geleef en dit het gelyk asof sy die gesin tot 'n sekere mate bymekaar gehou het, tot haar afsterwe. Na haar dood was daar 'n aantal geskille, maar uiteindelik is die groot grond- en veebedryf van H. G. Adams, senior, verdeel deur die drie oorlewende Adams -seuns deur middel van aankope en ooreenkomste, met die regte van die Adams -susters wat deur private aankope gekoop is.

Horace Adams, II en Doris Adams en hul kinders verhuis na Wes -Kansas en woon op duisende hektare hoofsaaklik in Meade County, Kansas, 'n deel van die voormalige XI Ranch wat in besit was van Horace Adams, Sr. Later, olie en gas is op die XI Ranch ontdek, wat bydra tot die reeds belangrike Adams -familieondernemings.

Twee ander seuns van H. G. en Mabel Adams, Alexander en Raymond E. Adams, senior, sou ook gedeeltes van die XI Ranch besit en die gesinserfenis voortgaan, maar later meer van hul gesinne en bydraes.

Bruce E. Adams, seun van Horace en Doris Adams, is op 4 Augustus 1952 dood in 'n tragiese vliegtuigongeluk. Volgens 'n berig in 'n koerantberig het mnr. Hy is slegs ses weke vroeër in Julie 1952 met Shirley Ann Demmitt getroud. Daar was geen kinders nie.

Horace Greeley Adams, III, is gebore op 14 Julie 1921 in die Adams Ranch -hoofkwartier in Maple Hill, Kansas. Hy het sy vroeë lewe in Maple Hill en Meade County, Kansas, deurgebring. Gedurende sy jeug het hy die bynaam "Buck" gekry wat hy sy hele lewe lank gebruik het.

Hy was getroud met Wynona Gardine Keller op 23 November 1943 in Synder, Texas, waar haar ouers 'n groot meubelwinkel en eiendomsbesigheid besit het. Wynona is gebore op 31 Oktober 1921 in Snyder, Texas, vir John Marshall en Eula E. (Burt) Keller. Sy het skole in Synder bygewoon, aan die Hockaday High School in Dallas, Texas, gestudeer en 'n paar jaar by die Texas Tech University gestudeer.

Sy en Buck Adams het eers op die Adams Ranch -hoofkwartier in Maple Hill, Kansas, gewoon en daarna verhuis na die Adams Ranch in Meade County, Kansas, waar hulle die res van hul lewens deurgebring het. Ek kon baie inligting vind oor die Burt -familie en die genealogie daarvan, en hoewel ek dit nie hier sal verskaf nie, deel ek dit graag met familielede wat dalk sou belangstel.

Buck en Wynona Adams is die ouers van Horace Greeley Adams IV, bekend as "Kell" Adams en 'n dogter Karen Sue "Kiki" Adams. Soos ek vroeër gesê het, is dit nie my bedoeling om oor die huidige geslagte van die Adams -gesin te skryf nie uit kommer vir hul privaatheid.

H. G. "Buck" Adams is opgeneem in die Cattleman's Hall of Fame in 2004. Die volgende foto en artikel verskyn saam met die aankondiging van die inlywing:

Horace Greely "Buck" Adams - Rancher Cattleman

'My pa was 'n natuurbewaarder voordat iemand ooit gedink het wat dit beteken. - H.G. Adams IV beskryf die toewyding van sy vader om die land te bewaar.

Horace Greely "Buck" Adams, eienaar van die XI Ranch naby Plains, Kansas, is in 1921 in Topeka gebore en het as kind op die XI Ranch gewoon. Teen 1923 het Buck se oupa 75 000 hektaar op die plaas bymekaargemaak. Ongelukkig moes Buck se onmiddellike gesin in 1933 na hul plaas in die ooste van Kansas verhuis omdat sy jonger broer stofontsteking gehad het. Buck trou in 1943 met Wynona Keller.

Twee jaar later verhuis die egpaar na die XI Ranch, waar hulle hul gesin grootmaak. Toe hy grootgeword het tydens die Groot Depressie en Stofkom, het Buck geleer hoe moeilik die boerdery -leefstyl kan wees. Hy onthou 'n tyd toe sy gesin teen 1934 nog 5,000 verse op hul 75,000 hektaar gehardloop het, het hulle byna almal verkoop. Nadat hy teruggekeer het na die XI Ranch, het Buck die res van sy lewe aan boerdery gewy. Hy het baie van dieselfde probleme verduur wat sy oupa voor hom hanteer het. In die 1950's het 'n droogte veroorsaak dat Buck 150 beeste op 25 000 hektaar hardloop wat normaalweg 1000 koppe gehou het. Later, in die lente van 1957, het sneeustorm die droogte gebreek en sestig van hul 150 koppe is dood. Tog het Buck volhard.

Buck het geglo dat 'n handdruk 'n ooreenkoms beklink het. Buck se seun, H.G. Adams IV, kon nie 'n tyd onthou toe sy pa 'n kontrak gehad het om vee te verkoop nie. Hy het die reputasie gehad dat hy nooit 'n ooreenkoms gesteun het nie, selfs al het die prys van beesvleis gestyg nadat die ooreenkoms aangegaan is. Omdat hy 'n natuurbewaarder was, het hy hom in die landboubedryf gehou, selfs tydens die moeilikste tye. Hy het gepreek oor die noodsaaklikheid om die land te versorg. Buck wou tydens sy jeug by die rodeo -kring aansluit. Hy voel sy lengte van 6'1 "en 'n gewig van 200 pond. sou 'n voordeel gewees het in stuurkompetisies. Buck sou altyd terugkyk met 'n bietjie spyt dat hy nooit tyd of geld gehad het om sy rodeodrome te verwesenlik nie. Horace Greely "Buck" Adams is in 1995 oorlede en het die XI Ranch aan sy gesin oorgelaat en 'n leeftyd van boerderykennis aan almal waarmee hy in aanraking gekom het.
Ingesluit jaar: 2004 ”

H. G. “Buck” Adams is op 20 Mei 1995 oorlede en Wynona Gardine (Keller) Adams is op 2 November 2005 oorlede.

Die volgende is die doodsberig vir Wynona G. Adams: Wynona Gardine (Keller) Adams (84), Liberal, Kansas is op Dinsdag 2 November 2002 oorlede in die Southwest Medical Center, Liberal.
Sy is gebore op 31 Oktober 1921 in Snyder, Texas, die dogter van John en Eula (Burt) Keller.
Sy studeer aan die Hockaday High School, Dallas, Texas en volg 'n paar jaar Texas Tech. Sy trou op 23 November 1943 in Snyder, Texas, met Horace G. Adams, III. Hy is oorlede op 20 Mei 1995. Sy en Buck Adams het eers in Maple Hill, Kansas, op sy familieboerdery gewoon voordat hulle na die XI Ranch in Plains, Kansas in 1947 verhuis het. Hulle het in 1984 uit bedrywighede gegaan en na Liberal, Kansas, verhuis.
Sy was betrokke by baie gemeenskapsdienste, in olies geskilder en het lekker gelees. Sy was lief vir haar gesin. Sy was lid van die First Presbyterian Church, Liberal.
Sy word oorleef deur een seun, Horace Greeley & quot; Kell & quot; Adams, IV en sy vrou Wanda van Plains een dogter, Kiki Adams Dayton en haar man William & quotBill, & quot van Tyrone, OK twee kleinseuns, Horace G. Adams, V, en sy vrou Regan , Kanadese, Texas en Cooper Wade Adams of Plains. Sy is voorafgegaan deur haar ouers en een suster.
Privaat gedenkdienste en inning sal op die familieboerdery gehou word.
Die familie stel voor dat gedenktekens gestuur word aan die Wynona K. Adams Memorial Scholarship Fund, 1551 N. Western, Liberal, KS 67901.

Die Adam se dogter, Karen Sue “Kiki” Adams is gebore op 11 Januarie 1952 en woon saam met haar man, William Leroy Dayton, in Tyrone, Oklahoma.

H. G. "Kell" Adams, IV woon en werk op die familieboerdery naby Plains, Kansas en is 'n vennoot in H. G. Adams en Son Cattle Company. Hy was getroud met Wanda Joanne Cook in Oklahoma op 16 Desember 1971. Hy en Wanda Adams was aktief in bewaringspogings. Wanda Adams was 'n stigterslid van Concerned Citizens for Clean Air and Water in Meade County, Kansas, en was direkteur van die Kansas Rural Center.

H. G. en Wanda Adams is die ouers van Cooper Wade Adams en Horace G. Adams V. Die Adams -gesin bly voort en bedryf die Adams Ranch naby Plains, Kansas.
Dit is baie interessant dat hierdie afstammelinge van Horace Greeley en Mabel G. (Warren) Adams voortgaan om hul erfenis in die veebedryf suksesvol te eer al hierdie geslagte en meer as 110 jaar na sy oorspronklike aankoop van 'n belang in die XI Ranch in 1902.

Die volgende artikel handel oor Alexander Warren “Alec” Adams, die sesde kind van Horace G. en Mabel G. (Warren) Adams.

Foto 1 - A Christmas Eve Gathering of the Adams Family 1937 - begin in die linker sentrum, LR is Jessie (Stewart) Adams, Doris (Jamieson) Adams, Raymond E. Adams, Mary (Adams) Dougan, Horace Adams, II, Rae (Adams) Tod, Mabel (Warren) Adams, Alexander Adams, vriend van Antoinette Tod,
Antoinette Tod, Helen (Lewis) Adams en Frank Dougan. Dit is die enigste foto wat ek vir Horace en Doris Adams het.
Foto 2 - 'n Nuusberig uit 1917 oor die Adams -seuns by Country Day School, Kansas City, MO.
Foto 3 - 'n Nuusberig uit 1917 oor die Adams -seuns by Country Day School, Kansas City, MO.
Foto 4 - 'n Foto van Horace Greeley Adams, III, gebruik tydens sy inleiding tot die Cowboy Hall of Fame.
Foto 5 - Dit is 'n foto wat in Kalifornië geneem is van die uitgebreide Adams -gesin op vakansie in 1909. Horace Adams, II is die seuntjie wat derde van die regterkant staan, langs sy ouma aan moederskant, mev Benjamin Warren.

Maple Hill, Kansas: sy geskiedenis, mense, legendes en foto's

Maple Hill -treinwrakke - 1900 tot 1902

Ted Hammarlund het onlangs 'n paar gesinsfoto's ondergaan en op twee afgekom wat treinwrakke naby Maple Hill uitbeeld. Ek het maklik 'n koerantartikel gevind oor die treinongeluk van 12 November 1900, maar nadat ek deur die plaaslike koerante vir 1902 week vir week deurgegaan het, kon ek nie 'n artikel vind oor 'n wrak wat naby Maple Hill voorkom nie.

Ek beskou die soektog nie as 'n vermorsing van tyd nie, want dit laat my toe om 'n 'prentjie' te kry van wat in 1902 in Maple Hill gebeur het. Dit was baie interessant en sal ongetwyfeld die onderwerp wees van toekomstige artikels oor die Maple Hill. bladsy.

Dit was interessant om te lees oor die groot aantal treinwrakke in Amerika (en in die buiteland) wat op die bladsye van die Alma Enterprise en die Alma Signal berig is. Gedurende 1900 en 1902 was daar honderde trein -ontsporings wat honderde mense en duisende beeste, skape, perde en varke doodgemaak het. Dit was vir my duidelik dat die treinreis nie so veilig was as wat ek destyds gedink het nie. As one might expect, most of the accidents were caused by human error followed closely by mechanical and equipment failure. It was also easy to determine that riding in the engine and caboose were the two most dangerous places. Most of the deaths occurred in those two train locations.

The first photograph was taken following a wreck on November 2, 1900. Here is the article:

“Monday, November 2nd, at 8:15am while the local freight, eastbound, Train Number 32, pulled by engine 456, was switching, an eastbound extra pulled by engine 469, scheduled to run at 46 miles per hour, but running at the rate of ten miles per hour, ran into the caboose which with a flat ar and three boxcars was at a curve one-quarter mile west of Maple Hill. One of the crew of #32 had gone back the required distance and flagged the extra but the brakes of the latter would not work.

When within a short distance of #32, the engineer reversed his engine and then both he and the fireman jumped. Mrs. Lou Coleman of Maple Hill, and the conductor of #32 were the only occupants of the caboose and they escaped just in the nick of time.

When the crash came the coupling between the flat car and box cars was thrown out and the three boxcars shot down the track, while the caboose and flat car were completely demolished. The engine jumped the trace and was badly wrecked, one side of the tender remained on the ties, but after repeated efforts to set it back on the track, it had to be turned over into the ditch.

The work train from Topeka in charge of roadmaster Sullivan, arrived on the scene at noon and at 1:15pm the track was cleared and ready for traffic. At 9:00 pm the remains of the caboose and flat cars were burned by the railroad hands while the engine was hoisted onto flat cars by crane and hauled off the following day.

It is lucky indeed that no one was injured in the accident. The local freight #32 was in charge of engineer, Jack Slater, and conductor Frank Enerton, while the extra was in charge of engineer Buskirk and conductor Vanscoy.”

Ted said that on the back of the photograph was written: “West of Maple Hill toward the McClelland Farm. Joe Romick and Ed Chapman.”

The second photograph has the following written on the back:

“1902 – East of Maple Hill near Mill Creek Bridge.” From the photograph, it would appear that the wreck occurred during the summer because there are leaves on the trees. The wreck is near the bridge across Mill Creek, at or near the junction of the Maple Hill/Willard and Bouchey Roads. I wasn’t able to find any further information.

Thanks to Ted Hammarlund for providing the photos and captions.

Photo 1 - The 1900 Train Wreck

Photo 2 - The 1902 Train Wreck

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Remembering and Honoring Maple Hill’s Own Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund on Memorial Day 2021

This coming weekend will be the federal Memorial Day observance when all those who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States will be thanked and paid respect by millions of Americans. One of those who will be honored at the Old Stone Church was born at Maple Hill, Kansas, raised on a farm four miles west of town, educated at the Thayer School District #57 and Maple Hill High School, was a life-long nurse, and served in the United States Army most of her career. I am speaking of Lt. Col. (Retired) Mabel Hammarland.

Mabel was the daughter of Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund and was the sixth of eight children, born on November 2, 1910. Mabel’s siblings were Cecilia born 1901, Easter born 1902, Charles Arthur Nels born 1903, Ella Elna born in 1906, Milton Oscar born 1908, Robert Everett born 1913 and Henry Howard born 1919. Cecilia and Easter Hammarlund died as infants and are buried in the family plot at the Old Stone Church.
I will write a second article about the Hammarlund Family, but the intent of this post is to focus on Mabel and her distinguished career and life.

Mabel Hammarlund was born on November 2, 1910, on the Warren/Crouch Farm, three miles west of Maple Hill, Kansas. Her parents were Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund. At the time of her birth, the family lived in what was formerly the parsonage of the Eliot Congregational Church (Old Stone Church) which was located across the road north of the W. W. Cocks/Grant Romig stone house. The house burned in 1924, when the William Mitchell family lived there. Oscar farmed for the Warren and Crouch families and was also the road maintenance man for the Vera-Maple Hill Road. In 1921, Oscar and Lillie Hammarlund moved 1.5 miles west and rented the Albert and Ellen (Cheney) Thayer farm of 320-acres. The Hammarlund family would remain on that farm for more than four decades.

Mabel and her siblings were like other farm children, helping their parents with the chores and responsibilities that come with caring for a large farm. Her older sister Ella and Mabel helped their mother with household responsibilities, cooking, washing, ironing, cleaning, and other duties. Like her brothers and sisters, Mabel began school by walking down Vera road to the south and attending the Thayer School District #57, on the banks of Mill Creek. The school building still exists but has been extensively remodeled, enlarged, and is a part of the Imthurn Ranch. Oscar T. Hammarlund was a member of the District #57 school board from 1910 until 1925 and was chair of the board several of those years. Miss Annie Crouch, Superintendent of Wabaunsee County Schools often commended District #57 for maintaining their school building and providing a barn, two outhouses, and play equipment.
Mabel went to the town school, Maple Hill High School, where she graduated with honors in 1928. As with many rural students, Mabel boarded at the Clements Hotel on Maple Hill’s Main Street while she attended high school. According to a Maple Hill News Item in 1928, Mabel was working on Saturdays and evenings as a clerk in Frank Steven’s General Store.

I haven’t been able to learn what Mabel was doing between 1928 and 1930, but in September 1930, she enrolled in Christ’s Hospital School of Nursing in Topeka, Kansas where she took a three-year course and graduated, again with honors, as a Registered Nurse. According to her nephew, Dr. Marion Hammarlund (now 92 years old) she worked for several years in the Topeka Public Health Department after graduation. He said that the family always worried about her because she had to go out and visit families when there was illness and decide whether or not they should be quarantined. She later worked for the Genn Hospital in Wamego, Kansas. Dr. Hammarlund said that she would take him and his cousins to work with her as a special treat. He remembered that she would give them a bottle of pop in the car to keep them entertained. When they would cross a railroad track, Mabel would make them put their bottle of pop between their knees so they couldn’t chip their teeth. While Mabel worked at Genn, she paid for Dr. Hammarlund and his cousins to have their tonsils taken out. She believed that tonsils were the cause of much illness. Marion has many fond memories of his Aunt Mabel.

When WWII began, Mabel decided to enlist as a second lieutenant in the Army Nurse Corps. Anyone who had successfully completed a registered nursing course at an accredited institution was automatically enlisted as an officer. Mabel’s official record of service is over 20 pages long, but let it suffice to say that she was stationed in many locations during the war and after, serving as a nurse in various hospitals. In one article I read, it stated that when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, there were 5,300 nurses in the Corp and when the war concluded in 1945, there were 55,000. No nurse was ever drafted into service, but all volunteered. Later on, when Mabel was an administrator in the Army Nurse Corps, she was always interested in nurse recruitment, making sure that they were paid appropriately and that Congress passed acts ensuring that nurses could be promoted to ever higher ranks as was merited. There are several newspaper and magazine articles in that regard.

After the war ended, Mabel must have decided that she was going to make Army nursing a career, because she began to structure her tenure in such a way that she became a nursing administrator rather than a clinical nurse. Mabel was assigned to several posts over the next 10 years in which she handled administrative duties and advanced in rank from a second lieutenant to a lieutenant, then captain, major, and finally Lt. Coronel. She was made a Lt. Coronel in 1958 when she was serving as Army Nurse Corp Special Force Nurse at Ft. Hood in Texas. Her next promotion brought her to the apex of her career when she was appointed Army Nurse Corp, Fourth Army Head Nurse, with responsibility for most nursing in the southern half of the United States. Her final assignment took her to Europe where she was the Army Nurse Corp, European Theater Head Nurse, in charge of all army nurses in Europe. Congress had not yet made it possible for women to hold the rank of General in the Nursing Corp, so Mabel was among 8 women that held the rank of Lt. Colonel. Mabel retired on December 31, 1963 after serving 21 years.

On September 18, 1963, President John F. Kennedy ordered and Congress approved, the awarding of the Legion of Merit to Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund for the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States from August 1955 to December 1963, reflecting her service in World War II and Korea. The Legion of Merit was at that time the highest honor that could be bestowed upon a living female service member. There were nurses who were killed in action and received the Purple Heart and the Congressional Medal of Honor.

I know of no other service person from Maple Hill, Kansas that has received a Legion of Merit award.

After Mabel retired, she returned to Topeka, Kansas where she bought a home and moved her parents there to live with her. Mabel was not finished nursing, however. In 1964, she became a member of the Topeka Unified School District’s School Nursing Corp and served until retiring in 1974, rounding out a superb career of nearly 40 years in healthcare.

I would consider myself an acquaintance of Mabel’s, but those of us who knew her will remember her as a rather quiet, unassuming, often gregarious, attentive to family, gracious, lady. Her father, Oscar Hammarlund died in 1963 after he and wife Lillie had celebrated their 60th Wedding Anniversary in 1960. Lillie Hammarlund died in 1981 at the age of 101. Both are buried in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church. Mabel Hammarlund died a year before her mother, on August 8, 1980. All are buried in the Hammarland Plot at the Old Stone Church. Mabel has a plain marble military tombstone as she would have wanted.

Although Mabel has been deceased for more than 40 years, it is important on this Memorial Day that we pause to remember her contribution to nursing, to the Army Nurse Corp and to the United States of America. Thank you Mabel and Rest In Peace!!

1. The Hammarlund Family, this photo was taken on the occasion of Oscar and Lillie's 50th Wedding Anniversary in 1950. Oscar and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund are seated in front. Standing behind them L-R are Ella and Mabel Hammarlund. Standing in the third-row L-R are Oscar Milton, Charles Arthur, Robert Everett, and Howard Henry Hammarlund.

2. The Albert Thayer stone house, built-in 1874 four miles west of Maple Hill. The Hammarlunds lived in this house and rented the farm from 1921 until they moved to Topeka in 1963.

3. Christ's School of Nursing, Topeka, Kansas. This is where Mabel Hammarlund took nurses training and lived from 1930-1933.

4. Genn Hospital, Wamego, Kansas. Mabel Hammarlund worked as a registered nurse at Genn Hospital during the late 1930s.

5. - 11. These are all photographs of Mabel Hammarlund taken during her Army Nurse Corp career.

12. This photograph is of the Topeka Unified School District School Nurses. Mabel Hammarlund is in the top row, far left.

13. Mabel Hammerland, taken after retirement from the Army Nurse Corp, in her Topeka home on Saline Street.

14. Mabel Hammarlund's military headstone in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church.

Many thanks to Ted Hammarlund, nephew of Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund, for providing the photographs for this post.

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Nicholas Clark ‎You Know You're From Wabaunsee County When.

I always get very upset with myself when I don't attend Memorial Day Services at the Old Stone Church. What a wonderful collection of memories I have surrounding all the years I have been able to attend. I wrote a story about my experiences a few years ago and I'll share it with you now.

Decoration Day Fifty Years Ago
By: Nick Clark – May 24, 2003

As I awoke this morning to find bright sunlight streaming through my window, I couldn’t help thinking that had it been fifty years ago, my mother would have been tugging at my toe and urging me to, “Get up. We need to get the jars in the car, pick flowers and get going to the cemeteries.” The next day, Sunday, would be Decoration Day, and we weren’t the only ones hurrying around—nearly every household in Maple Hill and the surrounding countryside would be doing the same thing.

By the time breakfast was over, my grandmother, Mildred McCauley Corbin would be in our kitchen, as well as my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell and at different times, others of our family and neighbors. My paternal grandmother, “Central” Mable Clark, was always running the telephone switchboard located in her home so she would send jars the night before to take to the cemeteries where her relatives were buried.

It was an important day for the entire community. It was a day to remember and honor the lives of all ancestors, but especially those who had served in the Armed Forces. Decoration Day began on May 5, 1868 when the Grand Army of the Republic (an organization honoring those who served in the Union Army) held a ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery. Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, wife of the President, gave a stirring address lauding the deeds of brave soldiers who had “served in blue” during the war between the states. After the speech making had been completed, orphans of soldiers and sailors paraded into the cemetery with baskets of flowers, strewing them on the more than 20,000 newly occupied graves. As years passed the ceremony was echoed through the entire country and became a part of the fabric of our nation’s ceremonial history.

As America engaged in other wars over time, the occasion took on significance and also changed names. After World War I, the observance became known as Memorial Day and in 1971, Congress at the urging of President Lyndon Johnson, made Memorial Day an official holiday to honor those who served in America’s Armed Forces. Although I had certainly heard or read the term Memorial Day, I don’t remember my family calling it anything other than Decoration Day until I was grown.

Activity in the household would increase on those Saturday mornings, as we loaded jars into the trunk of my grandmother Corbin’s car (as I recall a 1953 Ford). We would take big gallon jars of water along and in later years, rolls of foil to wrap around the jars. Then we would proceed to the home gardens of various family members and pick fresh flowers to put in the jars placed on graves. My great grandmother, Jeanetta Reinhardt Jones, always had beautiful big boughs of spirea. The little white crowns of flowers were striking in bouquets. We would then proceed to my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell’s home and pick up the bucket or two of multi-colored iris that she had picked earlier. My Grandmother Clark would have supplied Iris of various colors from the Central Office garden. She also had big tall spikes of larkspur in pink, purple and blue. Grandmother Corbin had a beautiful climbing red rose, a “Mary Perkins,” which bloomed early and was beautiful to include as a highlight in bouquets. All these ladies furnished varieties of colored peonies. When finished, the car would look like one following a hearse to a funeral. We would then set off to the cemeteries where various relatives were buried.

We often went to the Uniontown/Greene Cemetery southeast of Willard, Kansas first. In that cemetery are buried my paternal great great grandfather Francis Marion Jones, and my great grandmother Virgia Miller Jones, and my great uncle Louis Jones. They were the grandfather, mother and brother of Mable Clark. The cemetery was small and was usually well kept by the Greene and Viergiver Families, who lived nearby. But as they aged, the cemetery fell into an unkempt condition and it was always tricky getting into the graves without the fear of SNAKES! Great great grandfather had served in the Civil War, had a Civil War headstone and also a GAR marker. It was important that we “decorate” his grave. Always mixed in with the placing of flowers was the telling of family stories and talk of their military service. It was a great time to be 10-years-old and hear those accumulated memories—a real treasure.

Then we would usually go back to Maple Hill via gravel road, trying our best not to upset the buckets of flowers or slosh water into the trunk and back seat—where I was crowded between giant sprays of iris, peonies and larkspur. Our destination was the Old Stone Church Cemetery west of Maple Hill.

There we drove up and down the avenues of eastern red cedar trees, stopping at the graves of the Clark, Corbin, Mitchell, Lemon, Jones, and McCauley Families as well as at the graves of others who might not have family members living nearby. It was always a courtesy of many families to decorate the graves of dear friends or long-gone families. The James Elmer Romick American Legion Post members would be visiting the graves of veterans and placing little metal American Legion plaques on the graves of soldiers. In each plaque was placed a tiny America Flag.

In the evening, we would usually go to Bethlehem Cemetery, south of Paxico, where we would place flowers on the graves of Clark relatives. Sometimes, not always, we would go to the Vera Community and stop at the graves of Albert and Martha Graham Phillips, who were buried in the pasture across the road from the home of Merle and Nora Lietz. They were the parents of my cousin, Mable Phillips Herron (Mrs. Jack). They were struck by lightening and killed in their carriage in the 1870s. The horses were not injured and carried their bodies home. The telling of that morbid but fascinating story would then occupy the return trip to Maple Hill.

In my high school years (1958-1962,) the Maple Hill Community Congregational Church had a very active youth group composed of junior and senior high
young folks. Although I don’t recall the exact numbers, I would estimate that there were 20 to 30 in regular attendance. During my memory, the Pilgrim Fellowship Group was led and supervised by Jack and Bill Warren—sons of William Warren, a charter member of MHCCC. The Warren brothers lived on a farm three miles west of Maple Hill and would usually bring their farm truck into town and meet PFG members at the newly constructed Parish Hall. We would load folding chairs, a huge upright piano, hymnals, the big original bible, lectern stands and sometimes we would take the old original chairs from the church alter. Warner Adams and other men were always on hand to help. This moving was necessary because most of the original Stone Church furnishings had been destroyed in a tragic fire on May 12, 1952.

Although only seven at the time, I remember the Stone Church fire because it was one of those major community events that is vividly recalled to the minds of most of those who witnessed it. Ivan Yount and Walter “Punt” Romick were trimming cedar trees at the cemetery and had piled a stack of sheared limbs at the north side of the cemetery property, a good 300 yards from the building. Limbs had been burned before in the same way and the distance was presumed to be safe. Nothing burns with more vigor than red cedar and when the pile was lighted there were only light winds from the south. Suddenly gusts of wind began, the direction changed to the north and the sparks were carried to the wooden shingles of the church before anything could be done to prevent it.

I was just completing the second grade at Maple Hill Grade School and was spending a pleasant spring day at my Grandmother Corbin’s farm home located one and one-half miles southwest of Maple Hill. We were planting beans in the garden. All of a sudden, we heard the old wall telephone in the kitchen begin to continuously ring in short bursts. That was a sign to immediately “pick up” on the eight-party line, because there was something of dire importance that needed the attention of the entire community. Grandmother hurried to the house where the voice on the phone was that of my other grandmother, Mable Clark at the Central Office. She was notifying the community that help was needed at the church fire. Punt Romick and Ivan Yount had driven one-quarter mile to the Romick home, and had phoned in the alarm.

Grandfather Corbin had taken the car at the time, and we had no way to go to the fire, but we could clearly see the cemetery from the farm and could also see the column of black smoke rising high into the sky. My grandmother just sat down on the back steps and buried her head in her big apron and wept. Pretty soon, we heard someone calling to us from the road and it was Mrs. Ella Yount, Ivan’s mother, who had walked the quarter mile to my grandmothers. They both sat on the steps and wept in each others arms while I looked on—stunned. The decades-old shingles were consumed within minutes and it was only through heroic efforts that the original pump organ, pulpit and a few other treasures were saved.

The Old Stone Church Cemetery Board had raised enough money immediately following the fire to replace the roof, floor, windows and front doors. Topeka architect, Charles Marshall, cousin of Mrs. Warner Adams, donated his time to plan the restoration. Services were held in the building’s shell until 1962, when some of Maple Hill’s older citizens joined forces with the Pilgrim Youth Group to raise funds for the restoration of the Old Stone Church interior. Emily Adams made long lists of local and distant people whose relatives had attended the Old Stone Church. From January through May, I went to the Adam’s home and typed letters on an old portable Royal typewriter. Miss Adams furnished the stationary, envelopes and stamps. The response was overwhelmingly favorable. My only regret, is that the letters that accompanied donor checks were not saved as they were a tribute to the love of the Old Stone Church, held so dearly by early church and community pioneers.

Although the outer structure of the church had been replaced, the interior plaster had never been removed from the walls and that would require tedious labor. At the urging of Jack and Bill Warren, the PFG decided to spend weekends taking the old plaster off the walls. Scaffolding was placed inside and we all brought our claw hammers and worked long hours removing plaster which had been applied directly to the stone walls. We would go home in the evening with hair stiff from plaster dust. Our mothers brought lunch to the church and we had grand times playing games and exploring the cemetery. I am going to be sorry that I ever tried to list names, and my apologies to those I have omitted because of memory loss, but I recall the following helping with plaster removal: Mary Sue Kitt, Janice Yount, Patty Holmes, Norris and Horace Hoobler, Art and Kathryn Adams, Rod and Cathy Say, Eugene and Karen Travis, Tracy and Larry Ables, Larry and Lana Schulte, Mike Turnbull, Bill, Art and Ruth Ann Raine, Linda and Terry Ungeheuer, Allen and Loren Lett, Trudi and Marcia Mee, Claudia and Kenny Arnold, Larry and Cheryl Oliver, Eula and Beulah Adams, Dean and Jean Adams, and Ronnie and Herb Crawshaw.

Ronnell Bennett, a Black plasterer from Alma, Kansas was employed to put on three good coats of plaster. Mr. Bennett had learned his trade from pioneer German plasterers and had an excellent reputation. The workmanship was superb and his work remains in good condition today. I don’t remember the exact cost of the total restoration, but I do remember that Miss Adams and I were delighted when the bank account approached $4,000.00. Special thanks is owned to Ann Gorbet Adams and her father, John Gorbet, who provided expertise in choosing colors of stain for the floor and paint for the wall. In addition, the Hammarlund Family donated a beautiful cross for the front of the sanctuary that was made from the historic timbers of the St. Marys Congregational Church, St. Marys, Kansas.

After the plastering was completed, there was about $300 or $400 left in the account. Miss Adams read in the Topeka Capital-Journal that the Jewish Synagogue was being remodeled and that they had oak pews for sale. The individual that was in charge of the remodeling was Shoal Pozez, who was just starting a brand new company we know today as, PayLess Shoes. I drove Emily Adams to Topeka where we met Mr. Pozez at the Synagogue. Emily told him the story of our efforts to restore the Old Stone Church and he said, “We want to help. These are $100 pews but we’ll let you have them at the bargin price of $20 each.” I don’t recall exactly how many we purchased but it seems there were 15 or 20. Warner Adams and Jack and Bill Warren made the trip to Topeka with their trucks where we loaded the pews and took them to Maple Hill. These were massive pews in good condition, which would today cost $500 each or more—if they could even be made. And so it is—that the Old Stone Church has pews that were in a Jewish Synagogue for the first 100 years of their existence!

One of the last events in the restoration was the placing of the bell in the tower. The original church bell had been destroyed in the church fire. As I recall, Don and Hattie McClelland had the old bell from the Maple Hill Grade School at their home and donated it to be used at the Old Stone Church. The bell was extremely heavy and it required many men and special pulleys to wrench it into place. There were smiles and cheers all around when the clear peals of that bell were once again heard across the Mill Creek Valley. Everyone took turns pulling on the long sisal rope. The tower roof was then completed and the church was ready for Decoration Day Services.

The interior of the Old Stone Church was usually decorated with flowers by Emma Jeanne and Wanda Adams, sisters-in-law. Emma Jeanne and Warner Adams had beautiful flower gardens at their home in north Maple Hill. Emma Jeanne brought large wicker baskets of peonies, iris and spirea while Wanda (Mrs. Arthur Adams) would usually go to the pastures and pick all manner of wildflowers. Each of the big windows would have containers of flowers while there were one or two baskets at the front.

Lois Hammarlund was the church pianist at the time and it was the bain of her existence to have to play the old piano that had been badly water damaged during the fire. The keys didn’t all work, some stuck together, but somehow, with God’s inspiration and her natural musical talent, she was able to make beautiful music. The choir would either go to the Old Stone Church and rehearse on Saturday or early Sunday before services.

My Grandfather, Robert Corbin, and my uncles were members of the American Legion and were a part of the Presentation of Colors Ceremony when the American flag, the American Legion Flag, and the Christian Flag where carried into the church. At my earliest memories, there were probably 25 or 30 men who wore their military uniforms and participated. Just prior to services, the Legion members would march in front of the west side of the church and fire a salute to fallen soldiers. Taps would be played and tears would be shed as memories of loved ones were recalled. Then the men would bring the flags inside the church, and the church services would begin. The church was always packed so full that many times people would either stand near the windows on the outside or would just walk through the graveyard, visiting with friends and relatives who had come from a distance to decorate family graves.

Warner Adams, who took his mother’s position on the cemetery board at her death in 1946, served in that capacity for four decades. It was always Warner’s job to walk among the families and to take an offering to help pay for cemetery upkeep. In those days, the Cemetery Association didn’t have much money and the Memorial Day contributions were important in being able to keep the cemetery mowed and the church in good repair. Warner always carried his hat and people put their contributions into his hat.

And so it is—that 50 years have passed since the days of my youth. In that half century, “times” have become quicker and less melancholy while long-held traditions have changed. My dear mother, Lucille Clark, now 82, and many of her generation still do their best to carry on but the grandeur of Decoration Day Weekend fifty years ago are now just cherished memories.

1. The Old Stone Church, Maple Hill, Kansas
2. The Avenue of Flags honoring veterans.
3. The view from the front steps of the church looking west towards Buffalo Mound.


Kyk die video: 1943. Серия 1 2013 @ Русские сериалы