17 Augustus 1944

17 Augustus 1944


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

17 Augustus 1944

Oosfront

Sowjet -troepe bereik die Oos -Pruisiese grens

Wesfront

Model vervang Kluge as bevelvoerder van die Duitse magte in die weste

Amerikaanse troepe bevry St Malo, Chartres en Orleans

Suid -Frankryk

7de weermagbrugkoppe is gekoppel, wat 'n front van 50 myl skep

Diplomasie

Keitel besoek Finland in 'n poging om Duitsland se wankelrige bondgenoot aan te moedig



17 Augustus 1944 - Geskiedenis

Gedeklassifiseerde aksieverslag

17 Augustus tot 28 Augustus 1944

Operasie "Anvil"

Die aanranding en vermindering van die vesting van Saint Mandrier

In die beplanning vir Operasie Dragoon was die hawe van Toulon 'n belangrike doelwit. Met 'n groot en goed beskermde hawe, was dit eeue lank die middelpunt van die Franse vlootoperasies in die Middellandse See. Die vlootbasis was die grootste in Wes -Europa, wat honderde hektaar beslaan en onderhoudsfasiliteite vir die grootste oorlogskepe gehad het. As sodanig, en as 'n toevoerbron vir die inval slegs in die groter burgerlike hawe van Marseille, was die opvang daarvan noodsaaklik vir die sukses van Dragoon.

Die Duitsers was deeglik bewus van die belangrikheid van die stad en het van die Toulon -gebied 'n vesting gemaak. Die verdediging teen 'n direkte aanval uit die see het batterye van groot vlootgewere by Mauvannes, op die skiereiland Saint-Mandrier en op verskeie ander plekke langs die kus ingesluit.

Die epiloog van hierdie geveg kom op 28 Augustus, toe die 1800 mariniers van die Saint-Mandrier-garnisoen om 0800 hul oorgawe bied en 'n kolom vorm om terug te keer na die Les Sablettes-distrik, die eerste fase van hul gevangenskap.

Die oorgawe van hierdie groot Franse militêre hawe aan die Middellandse See is agt dae voor skedule voltooi.

In die loop van nege dae se geveg was die betaalde prys ongeveer 2 700 Franse slagoffers, van wie 100 offisiere was, asook baie tenks wat vernietig is. Aan die Duitse kant het duisende lyke die bitterheid van die gevegte bevestig. Die buit van die Franse leër het bestaan ​​uit 17 000 gevangenes, 'n groot hoeveelheid oorlogsmateriaal en honderd artilleriestukke, wat gebruik is om die oorlogspoging te versterk.

Uiteindelik is die grootste vlootbasis in Wes -Europa verower en vir die Geallieerde magte oopgemaak om die grondslag te lê vir verdere oorwinnings.

Aanhalings uit die afdeling Navy se afdeling Naval History, Ships 'Histories Section:

Van 6 Junie tot 13 Augustus maak die MACKENZIE kort konvooi in die middel van die Middellandse See sonder voorval. Op die 13de seil sy om saam met 879 ander skepe van Toulon, Frankryk, haar plek in te neem ter voorbereiding van 'Operation Anvil' - 'n geallieerde aanval op die kus van Suid -Frankryk.

Hierdie operasie, wat bedoel was om die inval in Normandië op te volg, sou nie net Suid -Frankryk bevry en druk op die suidelike flank van generaal Eisenhower se leërs verlig nie, maar dit sou die geallieerde leërs op die Riviera -flank van die Italiaanse leër plaas. Boonop sou dit die bedreiging van die U-boot-Luftwaffe in die westelike Middellandse See feitlik uitskakel.

Die MACKENZIE is toegewys aan die Gunfire Support wat die landing van die 36ste Infanteriedivisie dek. Die aanvanklike landings op 15 Augustus het min weerstand gebied, en binne drie dae het die geallieerde magte meer as tienduisend gevangenes gevange geneem.

Terwyl sy op 17 Augustus aangehou het om die opkomende troepe te dek, het kusbatterye op die MACKENZIE oopgegaan en haar met 11 byna misgeloop. Die naaste het 200 meter te kort gekom, maar skade is aangerig.

Op die 27ste roei 16 Duitsers uit hul fort wat onder skoot was, en gee hulle oor aan die MACKENZIE. Op 15 September is sy van haar stasie onthef en teruggekeer na Boston vir herstelwerk en opknapping.

Klik op die onderstaande skakel vir die aksieverslag van die USS MacKenzie in verband met Operasie "Anvil", die aanranding en vermindering van die vesting van Saint Mandrier.

29 Augustus 1944 - Operation Anvil (17 tot 28 Augustus 1944)

Hierdie verslae word as PDF -lêers geplaas. Klik op die logo hierbo as u 'n gratis PDF -leser nodig het.


'N Verpletterde stad – ‘ Festung St Malo ’ – gee oor

Namate die Duitse situasie in beide die Ooste en die Weste ernstiger geword het, moes Hitler steeds meer desperate eise aan sy magte stel. Hy was nog altyd huiwerig om terugtogte toe te laat. Nou sou hy daarop aandring dat sekere plekke omskep sou word in “ vestings ”, verdedigende burgemeesters waar van sy troepe verwag sou word om tot die laaste man te veg, en die algemene opmars van die Geallieerdes so lank as moontlik op te hou. Daar was nog baie fanatiese Nazi's wat bereid was om sulke bevele te volg.

Terwyl die Amerikaanse magte deur Bretagne deurvloei, sou hulle 'n reeks sulke vestings teëkom wat in die hawens gevestig is, wat die Geallieerdes kan help om manne en ammunisie reguit na die Europese vasteland te bring. Cherbourg het nie so lank uitgehou as wat Hitler gehoop het nie, alhoewel die hawe -infrastruktuur so erg beskadig is dat dit vir die Geallieerdes van beperkte nut was. Elders het die Duitsers nog langer aangehou en die pogings van die Amerikaanse Derde Weermag om hulle uit te knip, het hierdie ou dorpe groot skade aangerig. Nie alle verdedigers was egter so fanaties soos Hitler gehoop het nie.

‘Festung St Malo ’ het op 17 Augustus oorgegee na twee weke se bomme, artillerie en mortiere. Oral lê verwoesting en slegs 182 geboue uit 865 het nog gestaan. Joernalis Montague Lacey was teenwoordig en het gebeure vir die Daily Express behandel:

'N Paar minute voor vieruur vanmiddag het die Duitse bevelvoerder van die Citadel, kolonel von Auloch, die mal kolonel met 'n monokel en 'n wankelende stap, 605 man uit die dieptes van sy vesting gelei en sy belofte aan Hitler verbreek dat hy sou nooit toegee aan die Amerikaners nie. Die kolonel het met gans opgestaan ​​om oor te gee, met 'n kolfman wat sy groot swart tas dra, en 'n ander een wat hom bygewoon het, stof uit sy uniform gegooi het, en terwyl hulle verbystap, roep 'n Amerikaanse soldaat: 'Wat 'n korneyvertoning!' #8221

Kolonel von Auloch is die man wat aan die Amerikaanse bevelvoerder wat die Citadel aanval, geskryf het om te sê dat 'n Duitse offisier nooit oorgee nie, en 15 dae lank het hy styf 60 voet onder die grond in die veiligheid van sy ondergrondse skuiling gesit. Teen vanaand sou die Amerikaners bo -op sy vesting sit, wat 'n massagraf sou word vir al die mans daarin. Deur uit te hou, het kolonel von Auloch nie die verloop van die oorlog beïnvloed nie. Wat hy gedoen het, is om die byna volledige vernietiging van die ou stad St. Malo te veroorsaak en verdere saad van haat in die Franse se harte te saai.

Selfs terwyl ek skryf, skreeu die inwoners van die stad hierbo en skud hulle vuiste na die Duitsers vanuit die Citadel. Terwyl die Duitsers in vragmotors stapel om weggeneem te word, lyk die ouer manne op een of ander manier skaam en dom, maar die jong Duitsers glimlag nog steeds en is arrogant. Die Citadel het dramaties geval net 'n uur voordat Amerikaanse infanteriste gereed was om die vesting vir die derde keer aan te val, en net toe 'n eskader van weerligbomwerpers ingevuur het om brandbomme op die plek te stort.

Gisteraand en vanoggend het swaar gewere die Citadel gestamp, 'n hoofblokhuis omring deur ongeveer 'n dosyn ingange uit die mynagtige grotte hieronder. Die Amerikaners het hul middagete in die verwoeste strate geëet voordat hulle vir die aanval gevorm het. Om 14.30 uur. 'n Groot wit vlag verskyn op een van die bokse. Niemand het veel kennis geneem nie, want om drie-uur sou 'n vegbomaanval aangeval word. Kort na 15:00 het die eerste weerlig binnegedring. Dit kom op 'n hoogte van 50 meter en plant 'n paar brandstasies op die Citadel. Daar word toe nog wit vlae opgeraap - daar vlieg nou vyf in die wind.

Die vlieënier van die tweede bomwerper het hulle gesien en geduik sonder om sy bomme te laat val. Maar hy maak sy gewere oop as 'n soort waarskuwing terwyl hy rondvlieg, gevolg deur die res van die eskader. Die vlieëniers het lank genoeg gewag om 'n klompie Duitsers uit die Citadel te sien kom en 'n klomp Amerikaners stap teen die heuwel op na die voorkant met 'n gekleurde identiteitsvlag.

Nou was daar 'n dolle gejaag na die Citadel. Gou het die boodskap gekom dat die Duitsers oorgegee het. Almal jaag teen die heuwel af om die gesig te sien. Eerste uit was kolonel von Auloch wat nog steeds bevele aan sy offisiere en mans blaf wat byna oor hulself tuimel om te gehoorsaam. Twee senior offisiere was saam met hom, een van hulle 'n vlootbevelvoerder. Hulle het almal probeer om 'n indrukwekkende vertoning voor die Amerikaners te maak.

Toe gebeur daar iets nuuts. 'N Bejaarde Duitser, 'n vlootkok, het geledere geslaan en gehardloop en 'n jong Amerikaanse soldaat omhels. Die Duitser was gelukkig om nie geskiet te word nie en die wagte het net betyds hul gewere laat sak. Maar niemand het ingemeng toe die Amerikaanse soldaat sy arms om die Duitser sit nie. Hulle was pa en seun. Die Duitser het goeie Amerikaanse slang gepraat en is toegelaat om uit die geledere te bly en as tolk op te tree. Hy was 14 jaar in Amerika, het hy gesê, en het net voor die uitbreek van die oorlog na Duitsland teruggekeer.

Kolonel von Auloch het al sy mans getel toe hulle hul besittings by hulle ingedien het. Daar was Pole onder die party, sommige Russe en ongeveer 'n dosyn Italianers. Von Auloch het steeds bevele geskree en in 'n jeep gesit en weggery na die hoofkwartier van die afdeling. Hy het geweier om te praat oor sy oorgawe en so ook sy soldate.


Oberst Andreas von Aulock van 79. Infanteriedivisie (staan ​​in die jeep) gevange geneem deur Amerikaanse soldate, St. Malo, Frankryk. © Lawrence Riordan 1944

Onder in die labirint van tonnels van die Citadel was die gewone vernietiging en tekens van paniek. Klere en toerusting was oral versprei. Daar was nog baie kos, water en ammunisie - en die gewone hope leë bottels.

Die kamer van kolonel von Auloch was in die laagste en veiligste deel van die fort. Dit was ongeveer tien voet by tien voet en slegs ingerig met twee leunstoele en 'n bed. Dit was blykbaar die enigste kamer met 'n wasbak en lopende water.

Op die lessenaar staan ​​'n elektriese lamp en 'n telefoon daar naby was 'n skinkbord met koffie en twee poskaarte wat die kolonel op die punt was om te skryf. Ek het nou een van hierdie kaarte. Dit toon 'n prentjie van Goering en Hitler wat glimlag terwyl hulle deur 'n juigende skare ry. Op die agterkant is die stempel waarop die kolonel pas geplak het - 'n pragtige prentstempel van 'n vestingkasteel.

Die groot gewere van die fort is verwoes, en al wat die Duitsers oorgebly het, was masjiengewere en ander handwapens. By die gevangenes wat uit die Citadel gekom het, was 'n klein groepie Amerikaanse soldate wat verlede Vrydag gevange geneem is. Hulle het snags met plofstof na die vesting gekruip in 'n poging om die ventilasiestelsel te verniel.

Toe alle oorgegee garnisoen verdryf of opgeruk is, het 'n paar honderd Franse byeengekom om mekaar aan die hand te skud en hul volkslied te sing en te sing. En eendag, miskien, binnekort, is die Citadel waar die mal kolonel oorgegee het, een van die toerisme -aantreklikhede wat die mense van St. Malo sal wys op besoekers wat weer van Engeland af kom vir hul vakansie.

Die Institute for Historical Review het 'n na -oorlogse ontleding van die geveg en die redes vir die vernietiging, maar sien kommentaar hieronder. Franse webwerf wat die rekonstruksie 1944-1966 dokumenteer.

Amerikaanse argiefmateriaal van die stryd om St Malo, toon die artillerie -aanval, infanterie wat die stad binnegaan en sluipskutters hanteer, uiteindelik die bevryde Franse en hul houding teenoor die Duitsers.

'N Na -oorlogse lugfoto van die ou hawe van St Malo, waar die meeste ou granietgeboue vernietig is.


Hieronder is 'n paar van die belangrikste historiese gebeure wat op 17 Augustus 1944 gebeur het.

1590 & ndash Goewerneur van die kolonie Roanoke Island, John White, keer terug uit Engeland om geen spoor te vind van die koloniste wat hy 3 jaar tevore daar gelaat het nie [of 18 Augustus 1591].

1903 & ndash Joe Pulitzer skenk $ 1 miljoen aan die Columbia Universiteit en begin die Pulitzer -pryse in Amerika.

1945 & ndash Korea is verdeel in Noord- en Suid -Korea langs die 38ste parallel.


17 Augustus 1944: Wellington -ongeluk in Noord -Devon

My pa was Flying Officer W Broadley No 178054 'n Wellington Bomber Pilot met 172 Squadron Coastal Command, gebaseer by RAF Chivenor in North Devon.

Die nag van 17 Augustus 1944 het die vliegtuig soos gewoonlik vertrek vir die nag se werk. Hulle taak was om vyandelike duikbote te jag.

Die aand het hulle net die vliegveld verlaat toe 'n fout met die vliegtuig opgespoor is. Die bemanning het besluit om uit te gaan na Barnstaplebaai en die dieptelastings wat hulle dra, te verwyder. Toe hulle terugkeer, keer hulle terug na die lugbasis. Dit het ongelukkig sleg gegaan. 'N Enjin raak los van die vliegtuig en beland op die spoorlyn tussen Barnstaple en Ilfracombe. Die volgende dag is al die treine op daardie lyn gestop. Hulle het daarin geslaag om terug te keer na Chivenor. Die aand is daar 'n dans gehou in die gimnasium en pa en die bemanning was bang dat die vliegtuig die gebou sou tref. Die vliegtuig het die gimnasium misgeloop en neergestort op die sportveld aan die agterkant van die gebou. As gevolg van die ongeluk is twee bemanningslede dood van 'n jong man uit Manchester en 'n Kanadese lugman 'Butch' Butchart. Die vlieënier, 'n voormalige snelryer, het 'n been gebreek, ander het ligte fisiese beserings opgedoen, maar diep emosionele beserings. My pa, die medevlieënier, is uit die vliegtuig geblaas en dit het daartoe gelei dat hy sy regterarm verloor het. Die krag van die ontploffing het hom ook uit sy vlieënde stewels geblaas.

Die geluid van 'n vliegtuig in die moeilikheid en die gevolglike ongeluk het al die personeel op die vliegstasie uitgebring. 'N Jong WAAF het haar lewe in gevaar gestel om my pa van die vliegtuig af te trek voordat dit verder ontplof. Hy weet nooit haar naam nie.

My pa is na die hospitaal in Barntaple geneem vir onmiddellike lewensredding. Toe hy gesond was, is hy na die RAF -hospitaal in Halton geneem vir verdere behandeling, wat nog verskeie amputasies aan sy beskadigde ledemaat ingesluit het.

Ten tyde van die ongeluk was my pa 22 jaar oud, hy was net minder as 'n jaar getroud, en my ma, toe 20 jaar oud, was swanger met hul eerste kind. Ek. Ek is twee maande later gebore en het grootgeword met hierdie verhaal.

My pa se ambisie was om 'n kommersiële vlieënier te word, maar dit was ongelukkig nie so nie.

My ouers het nog twee kinders grootgemaak en 'n baie suksesvolle onderneming opgebou.

Ongelukkig is my pa tien jaar gelede oorlede, hy was 'n baie dapper man wat, ondanks aanhoudende pyn en lyding, nie sy gestremdheid in die pad kon steek nie. Hy was baie geliefd en 'n voorbeeld vir ons almal.

© Die outeursreg op inhoud wat tot hierdie argief bygedra het, berus by die outeur. Lees hoe u dit kan gebruik.

Hierdie verhaal is in die volgende kategorieë geplaas.

Die meeste inhoud op hierdie webwerf word geskep deur ons gebruikers, wat lede van die publiek is. Die menings word uitgespreek en is nie die van BBC nie, tensy dit spesifiek vermeld word. Die BBC is nie verantwoordelik vir die inhoud van enige eksterne webwerwe waarna verwys word nie. As u van mening is dat iets op hierdie bladsy die huisreëls van die webwerf oortree, klik dan hier. Kontak ons ​​vir enige ander kommentaar.


Oorblyfsels van B-17 Gunner geïdentifiseer

In Augustus 1944 het personeel van die weermaglugmagte, sers. Willard R. Best was 'n 24-jarige skutter op 'n B-17 wat toegewys was aan die 407ste Bombardement Squadron (Heavy), 40ste Combat Bombardment Wing, 1ste Lugafdeling, 8ste Lugmag.

Die boorling van Staunton, Illinois, was deel van 'n nege man se bemanning in 'n B-17 Flying Fortress tydens 'n bomaanval op Merseburg, Duitsland, op 24 Augustus. Die vliegtuig is deur 'n lugweerbrand betrap en neergestort. Vier bemanningslede het oorleef en is deur die Duitsers gevange geneem. Die res, insluitend Best, is dood in die ongeluk.

Na bewering is die oorskot van Best begrawe in die Leipzig-Lindenthal-begraafplaas. Toe die oorlog verby was, het die American Graves Registration Command drie stelle oorskot van die begraafplaas afgetrek. Twee van die drie kon destyds nie geïdentifiseer word nie.

B-17 middellyfskutters

Hulle is onidentifiseerbaar verklaar en het die benamings Unknown X-1047 en X-183 gekry. X-1047 was vasbeslote om die oorblyfsels van twee afsonderlike individue te wees en X-1047A en X-1047B na skeiding herontwerp. Die drie stelle oorskot is in 2017 op die begraafplase van die American Battle Monuments Commission begrawe.

Vrywilligers het die DPAA in kennis gestel van die begrafnisse van onbekende dienslede wat verband hou met die B-17-ongeluk. 'N Historikus van die DPAA het die bewering ondersoek en verklaar dat die ongeïdentifiseerde oorskot heel moontlik van die ongeluk kan kom.

In April 2019 het die departement van verdediging en die ABMC drie stelle oorskot uitmekaar gesit en dit na die DPAA -laboratorium gestuur vir identifikasie. Wetenskaplikes wat vir die DPAA en die Armed Forces Medical Examiner System gewerk het, het antropologiese bewyse en mitochondriale DNA gebruik om een ​​van die stelle oorblyfsels positief te identifiseer as van Best op 3 September 2019. Die ontdekking is op 24 Oktober 2019 deur die DPAA aangekondig. .

B-17 beskadig in botsing met Fw190 in kop-aan-kop aanval

Best se naam is ingeskryf op die Tablets of the Missing by die Henri-Chapelle Amerikaanse begraafplaas in België. 'N Rozet sal langs sy naam geplaas word om te erken dat hy nou geïdentifiseer is.

Best is gebore aan Otto en Lena Best uit Staunton, Illinois. Hy was die broer van Leland Elmer Best, Joyce Best en Harold C. Best. Hy was getroud met Alma L. Best van Decatur, Illinois, toe hy oorlede is. Sy oorskot word in die lente van 2020 in sy tuisdorp begrawe.

Sestien miljoen Amerikaners het in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien. Meer as 400 000 van hulle is in die oorlog dood. Daar is nog steeds 72,650 dienslede wat nie in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verantwoord is nie. 30 000 daarvan word gelys as moontlik verhaalbaar.

Inskieters in B-17-bomwerpers was verantwoordelik vir die afweer van vyandelike vegvliegtuie met masjiengewere wat óf met die hand gemik was óf met elektriese krag. Die helfte van 'n bomwerperspersoneel was tipies kanonniers wat die boonste rewolwer, baltoring, middellyfgewere en die sterttoring gewerk het.

Top -rewolwerskutskutters was gewoonlik die vlugingenieur vir die bemanning. Benewens die beskerming van die vliegtuig teen aanvalle van bo, word van hom verwag om al die stelsels op die vliegtuig te ken en die enjins en brandstof tydens die vlug by te hou.


Opstand in Warskou 1 Augustus 1944

So mnr. Kuznetsov kan nie as rusofob beskryf word nie, maar ek kan dit wees as ek sy terme gebruik. Dit is 'n baie interessante en buigsame idee van azato. Ek neem aan dat dit beter is om dit te ignoreer.

In die besorgende oggend van 7 November 1941, terwyl die vyand Moskou al op 'n afstand van net 15 myl genader het, het Stalin nietemin onverskrokke 'n militêre parade op die Rooi Plein geneem om die 24ste herdenking van die Groot Revolusie te vier. Nadat hy geleer het van Stalin se toespraak wat tydens die parade uitgesaai is, was Hitler woedend oor Rusland se stewige verset. Die Führer en sy hangers het blykbaar nie besef dat niks op aarde die Russe kan afskrik nie. & Quot

Azato2000

So mnr. Kuznetsov kan nie as rusofob beskryf word nie, maar ek kan dit wees as ek sy terme gebruik. Dit is 'n baie interessante en buigsame idee van azato. Ek neem aan dat dit beter is om dit te ignoreer.

In die besorgde oggend van 7 November 1941, toe die vyand Moskou al op 'n afstand van net 15 myl genader het, het Stalin egter onverskrokke 'n militêre parade op die Rooi Plein geneem om die 24ste herdenking van die Groot Revolusie te vier. Nadat hy geleer het van Stalin se toespraak wat tydens die parade uitgesaai is, was Hitler woedend oor Rusland se stewige verset. Die Führer en sy hangers het blykbaar nie besef dat niks op aarde die Russe kan afskrik nie. & Quot

Moenie paniekerig raak nie, maat. Niks op aarde kan Spreuke ontstel nie. Eks klaar met jou.

My persoonlike verskoning aan antonina vir hierdie definiërende terme rusie.

Azato2000

BlackViper

Antonina

Is dit nie? Dankie vir die lees.

Akcja pod Arsenałem (26 Maart 1943) gewapende aanval op 'n Gestapo -bussie wat gevangenes van die Gestapo -hoofkwartier na die Pawiak -gevangenis in Warskou vervoer het, is uitgevoer deur Grupy Szturmowe "Szarych Szeregów" (die "Grey Ranks" Storm Groups) Die operasie is gekodeer as & quotMeksyk II & quot ("Mexico II") en het plaasgevind naby die gebou van die Warskou -arsenaal. Die doel daarvan was om Jan Bytnar "Rudy" te bevry (25 ander politieke gevangenes is ook bevry). Die AK verloor drie mans, twee is ernstig gewond, en sterf later, een word gevang en uitgevoer. Vier Duitsers is dood en nege gewond.

Die operasie het deeglike voorbereiding en perfekte sinchronisasie vereis. Ek heg 'n volledige lys van deelnemers aan

In beheer van die operasie: Stanislaw Broniewski & quotOrsza & quot, bevelvoerder van die "Grey Ranks"

  • & quotZośka & quot Tadeusz Zawadzki, groepleier
  • & quotAnoda & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Rodowicz"] Jan Rodowicz [/ame], afdelingleier
  • & quotBolec & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Chojko"] Tadeusz Chojko [/ame],
  • "Heniek" Henryk Kupis,
  • "Stasiek" Stanisław Pomykalski,
  • & quotMaciek & quot Sławomir Bittner, seksieleier
  • & quotKołczan & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugeniusz_Koecher"] Eugeniusz Koecher [/ame],
  • "Sem" Wiesław Krajewski,
  • & quotSłoń & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Gawin"] Jerzy Gawin [/ame], afdelingleier
  • "Busdygan" Tadeusz Krzyżewicz, ernstig gewond, sterf later
  • & quotCielak & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Szajnoch"] Tadeusz Szajnoch [/ame],
  • & quotAlek & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maciej_Aleksy_Dawidowski"] Aleksy Dawidowski [/ame], seksieleier, ernstig gewond, sterf later
  • Hubert Lenk [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Lenk"] Hubert Lenk [/ame], gevang en tereggestel op 7 Mei 1943 in die ruïnes van die ghetto
  • & quotMirski & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Zapadko"] Jerzy Zapadko [/ame]
  • "Giewont" Władysław Cieplak, groepleier
  • "Kuba" [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Okolski"] Konrad Okolski [/ame], afdelingleier
  • "Kadłubek" Witold Bartnicki,
  • & quotJur & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrzej_Wolski"] Andrzej Wolski [/ame],
  • "Katoda" Józef Saski, afdelingsleier
  • "Kopeć" Stanisław Jastrzębski,
  • "Rawicz" Żelisław Olech,
  • & quotTytus & quot Tytus Trzciński, seksieleier
  • & quotFelek & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feliks_Pendelski"] Feliks Pendelski [/ame],
  • "Ziutek" Józef Pleszczyński,
  • "Pająk" Jerzy Tabor,
  • "Kapsiut" Kazimierz Łodziński,
  • & quotJeremi & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Zborowski"] Jerzy Zborowski [/ame], bestuurder
  • "Jurek TK" Jerzy Pepłowski,

Om te visualiseer hoe Deur Arsenal hier is 'n video (die werklike stilhou van die bakkie vind êrens in die middel plaas). Die film is redelik oud, maar dit rekonstrueer die gebeure baie akkuraat. Kan u aan die begin sien, het die AK 'n inligter in die Gestapo -hoofkwartier gehad? Dit was hy wat 'n oproep gemaak het en die operasionele leier meegedeel het dat die bakkie met 'Rudy' na die Pawiak -gevangenis vertrek.

[ame = & quothttp: //www.youtube.com/watch? v = lzQGKGIDwe8 & ampfeature = related & quot] Akcja pod Arsenałem 8/10 - YouTube [/ame]

Antonina

Ek het 'n privaatboodskap van een van die Historumites ontvang, met kommer oor die onlangse plasings op hierdie draad. Daar word voorgestel dat die beskrywe aktiwiteite van die ondergrondse verkennerformasies ("Grey Ranks", insluitend die "klein sabotasie" en die operasie "Akcja pod Arsena & amp#322em" 'n negatiewe uitwerking op tienerkykers kan hê. Die gepastheid om foto's van kindersoldate te plaas, is ook bevraagteken.

Eerlik, ek was meer verbaas as wat ek kan sê: die boek & quotKamienie na Szaniec & quot (beskryf & quotAkcja pod Arsena & amp#322em & quot) is op die amptelike leeslys van die skool hier en elke kind in Pole weet dit, op die herdenking van die aanval op alle Warschau -verkennerspanne organiseer rolspeletjies ter herdenking van die operasie. As kinders het ons grootgeword op verhale van gewapende aanvalle van die AK -ondergrondse en 'klein sabotasie' -aktiwiteite. Ek dink nie dit het iemand 'n moorddadige man of 'n jeugmisdadiger gemaak nie.

Toe besef ek dat daar 'n kultuurbotsing kan wees - met die oog op die probleem met skoolskietery in die VSA, verstaan ​​ek dat die boodskap veroorsaak is deur opregte kommer. Ek moes egter glo dat die materiaal wat ek geplaas het 'n negatiewe uitwerking op enigiemand kan hê. Harris en Kleebold was gefassineer deur Hitler, die Nazi's en gevegsuitrusting (as dit iets is, is dit die Waffen SS-draad, wat ouens kan aantrek wat gefassineer is deur sulke fone macho-dinge) Ek glo nie 'n verhaal soos & quotAkcja pod Arsena & amp#322em & quot sou aantrek nie hulle, daar was te veel Good betrokke.

Wat die kindersoldate betref, is hulle nie deur die vegtende AK -eenhede gekwoteer nie, soos die "kindersoldate" in Afrika vandag. Hulle was almal vrywilligers, verkenners van die seuns, wat tussen die jare gedien het of papierboys wat AK-pers versprei het. Ja, hul grootste droom was om 'n geweer te kry en te skiet, die gewondes en sterwendes het daarop aangedring dat & quotAK -soldaat & quot op hul graf geskryf moet word (selfs die 13 -jariges). Daar is 'n standbeeld van 'n 'Klein Insurgent' in die Ou Stad van Warschau, gewy aan hul nagedagtenis. As u daaraan dink, dit was vreeslik, maar ons het hiermee grootgeword.


Inhoud

Larry Ellison is gebore in New York, aan 'n ongetroude Joodse moeder. [5] [6] [7] [8] Sy biologiese pa was 'n Italiaans-Amerikaanse Amerikaanse lugmagkorps. Nadat Ellison op die ouderdom van nege maande longontsteking opgedoen het, het sy ma hom vir haar tante en oom vir aanneming gegee. [8] Hy het sy biologiese ma eers weer ontmoet toe hy 48 was. [9]

Ellison verhuis na die South Shore van Chicago, toe 'n middelklasbuurt. Hy onthou sy aanneemmoeder as warm en liefdevol, in teenstelling met sy sober, nie -ondersteunende en dikwels verre aanneemvader, wat die naam Ellison gekies het om sy intrede in die Verenigde State, Ellis Island, te vereer. Louis Ellison was 'n staatsamptenaar wat 'n klein fortuin in Chicago se eiendom verdien het, maar dit tydens die Groot Depressie verloor het. [8]

Hoewel Ellison in 'n gereformeerde Joodse huis grootgemaak is deur sy aanneemouers, wat gereeld die sinagoge bygewoon het, was hy steeds 'n godsdienstige skeptikus. Ellison sê: "Alhoewel ek in 'n sekere sin dink dat ek godsdienstig is, is die spesifieke dogmas van Judaïsme nie dogmas waarop ek my onderskryf nie. Ek glo nie dat dit werklik is nie. Dit is interessante verhale. Hulle is interessante mitologie, en ek respekteer beslis mense wat glo dat dit letterlik waar is, maar ek doen dit nie. Ek sien geen bewyse hiervoor nie. " Op dertienjarige ouderdom het Ellison geweier om 'n bar mitzvah -viering te hou. [10] Ellison sê dat sy liefde vir Israel nie verband hou met godsdienstige sentimente nie, maar eerder as gevolg van die innoverende gees van Israeli's in die tegnologiesektor. [11]

Ellison het die South Shore High School in Chicago [12] bygewoon en is later toegelaat aan die Universiteit van Illinois in Urbana - Champaign en is ingeskryf as 'n voorstudent. [12] In Illinois is hy aangewys as wetenskapstudent van die jaar [13] [14], maar het hom ná sy tweede jaar teruggetrek sonder om eindeksamen af ​​te lê, omdat sy aanneemmoeder pas oorlede is. Nadat hy die somer van 1966 in Kalifornië deurgebring het, het hy daarna 'n termyn aan die Universiteit van Chicago gegaan en fisika en wiskunde bestudeer. [12] Hy het geen eksamens afgelê nie en in Chicago het hy eers rekenaarontwerp teëgekom. In 1966, 22 jaar oud, verhuis hy na Berkeley, Kalifornië.

Terwyl hy in die vroeë sewentigerjare by Ampex gewerk het, word hy beïnvloed deur Edgar F. Codd se navorsing oor relasionele databasisontwerp vir IBM, wat in 1977 gelei het tot die vorming van wat Oracle geword het. Oracle het 'n suksesvolle databasisverskaffer vir middel- en laestrekstelsels geword, wat later meeding met Sybase (gestig 1984) en Microsoft SQL Server ('n poort van Sybase wat in 1989 geskep is), wat daartoe gelei het dat Ellison deur Forbes as een van die rykste mense ter wêreld.

1977–1994 Redigeer

Gedurende die sewentigerjare, na 'n kort tydjie by Amdahl Corporation, het Ellison by Ampex Corporation begin werk. Sy projekte bevat 'n databasis vir die CIA, wat hy 'Oracle' genoem het. Ellison is geïnspireer deur 'n referaat geskryf deur Edgar F. Codd oor verhoudingsdatabasisstelsels genaamd "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks". [15] In 1977 stig hy Software Development Laboratories (SDL) met twee vennote en 'n belegging van $ 2,000 $ 1,200 van die geld was syne.

In 1979 het die onderneming homself vernoem na Relational Software Inc., en in 1983 word dit amptelik Oracle Systems Corporation na sy vlagskipproduk, die Oracle Database. Ellison het gehoor van die IBM System R -databasis, ook gebaseer op die teorieë van Codd, en wou hê dat Oracle daarmee verenigbaar sou wees, maar IBM het dit onmoontlik gemaak deur te weier om System R se kode te deel. Die aanvanklike vrystelling van Oracle in 1979 heet Oracle 2, daar was geen Oracle 1. [ aanhaling nodig ] In 1990 het Oracle 10% van sy arbeidsmag (ongeveer 400 mense) ontslaan omdat dit geld verloor het. [16] Hierdie krisis, wat amper die bankrotskap van die onderneming tot gevolg gehad het, het ontstaan ​​as gevolg van Oracle se "vooraf" bemarkingstrategie, waarin verkoopspersoneel potensiële kliënte aangespoor het om die grootste hoeveelheid sagteware tegelyk te koop. Die verkoopspersone het toe die waarde van toekomstige lisensieverkope in die huidige kwartaal bespreek en sodoende hul bonusse verhoog. Dit het 'n probleem geword toe die toekomstige verkope later nie gerealiseer het nie. Oracle moes uiteindelik sy verdienste twee keer heraangeskryf en klasgedinge moes afhandel wat ontstaan ​​as gevolg van sy oorskatting van sy verdienste. Ellison sou later sê dat Oracle ''n ongelooflike sakefout' begaan het. [17]

Alhoewel IBM die hoofraamverhoudingsdatabasismark met sy DB2- en SQL/DS -databasisprodukte oorheers het, het dit die mark vertraag vir 'n verhoudingsdatabasis oor Unix- en Windows -bedryfstelsels. Dit het die deur oopgemaak vir Sybase, Oracle, Informix en uiteindelik Microsoft om die middelafstandstelsels en mikrorekenaars te oorheers. Omtrent hierdie tyd val Oracle agter Sybase. Van 1990 tot 1993 was Sybase die databasisonderneming wat die vinnigste gegroei het en die liefste verkoper van die databasisbedryf, maar dit het gou die slagoffer geword van samesmeltingsmanie. Sybase se samesmelting met Powersoft in 1996 het daartoe gelei dat die fokus op die basiese databasistegnologie verloor is. In 1993 verkoop Sybase die regte op sy databasisprogrammatuur onder die Windows -bedryfstelsel aan Microsoft Corporation, wat dit nou onder die naam "SQL Server" bemark.

In sy vroeë jare by Oracle is Larry Ellison aangewys as 'n toekenningsontvanger in die kategorie hoë tegnologie vir die EY -entrepreneur van die jaar -program. [18]

1994–2010 Wysig

In 1994 haal Informix Sybase in en word Oracle se belangrikste mededinger. Die intense oorlog tussen Informix se uitvoerende hoof, Phil White en Ellison, was drie jaar lank Silicon Valley-nuus op die voorblad. In April 1997 kondig Informix 'n groot tekort aan inkomste en aanpassings aan verdienste aan. Phil White beland uiteindelik in die tronk, en IBM het Informix in 2001 opgeneem. Ook in 1997 word Ellison aangestel as direkteur van Apple Computer nadat Steve Jobs na die onderneming teruggekeer het. Ellison bedank in 2002. Met die nederlaag van Informix en Sybase, geniet Oracle jare lange oorheersing in die bedryf tot die opkoms van Microsoft SQL Server aan die einde van die negentigerjare en IBM se verkryging van Informix Software in 2001 om hul DB2 -databasis aan te vul. As of 2013 [update] Oracle's main competition for new database licenses on UNIX, Linux, and Windows operating systems comes from IBM's DB2 and from Microsoft SQL Server. IBM's DB2 still dominates the mainframe database market.

In 2005, Oracle Corporation paid Ellison a $975,000 salary, a $6,500,000 bonus, and other compensation of $955,100. [19] In 2007, Ellison earned a total compensation of $61,180,524, which included a base salary of $1,000,000, a cash bonus of $8,369,000, and options granted of $50,087,100. [20] In 2008, he earned a total compensation of $84,598,700, which included a base salary of $1,000,000, a cash bonus of $10,779,000, no stock grants, and options granted of $71,372,700. [21] In the year ending May 31, 2009, he made $56.8 million. [22] In 2006, Forbes ranked him as the richest Californian. [23] In April 2009, after a tug-of-war with IBM and Hewlett-Packard, Oracle announced its intent to buy Sun Microsystems. [24] On July 2, 2009, for the fourth year in a row, Oracle's board awarded Ellison another 7 million stock options. [25] On August 22, 2009, it was reported that Ellison would be paid only $1 for his base salary for the fiscal year of 2010, down from the $1,000,000 he was paid in fiscal 2009. [22] [26]

2010–present Edit

The European Union approved Oracle's acquisition of Sun Microsystems on January 21, 2010, and agreed that Oracle's acquisition of Sun "has the potential to revitalize important assets and create new and innovative products". [27] The Sun acquisition also gave Oracle control of the popular MySQL open source database, which Sun had acquired in 2008. [28] On August 9, 2010, Ellison denounced Hewlett-Packard's board for firing CEO Mark Hurd, writing that "the HP board just made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago." (Ellison and Hurd were close personal friends.) [29] Then on September 6, Oracle hired Mark Hurd as co-president alongside Safra Catz. Ellison remained in his current role at Oracle. [30]

In March 2010, the Forbes list of billionaires ranked Ellison as the sixth-richest person in the world and as the third-richest American, with an estimated net worth of US$28 billion. [23] On July 27, 2010, Die Wall Street Journal reported that Ellison was the best-paid executive in the last decade, collecting a total compensation of US$1.84 billion. [31] In September 2011, Ellison was listed on the Forbes list of billionaires as the fifth richest man in the world and was still the third richest American, with a net worth of about $36.5 billion. In September 2012, Ellison was again listed on the Forbes list of billionaires as the third richest American citizen, behind Bill Gates and Warren Buffett, with a net worth of $44 billion. In October 2012, he was listed just behind David Hamilton Koch as the eighth richest person in the world, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index. [32] Ellison owns stakes in Salesforce.com, NetSuite, Quark Biotechnology Inc. and Astex Pharmaceuticals. [33] [34] In June 2012, Ellison agreed to buy 98 percent of the Hawaiian island of Lana'i from David Murdock's company, Castle & Cooke. The price was reported to be between $500 million and $600 million. [35] In 2005, Ellison agreed to settle a four-year-old insider-trading lawsuit by offering to pay $100 million to charity in Oracle's name. [36]

In 2013, according to the Wall Street Journal, Ellison earned $94.6 million. [37] On September 18, 2014, Ellison appointed Mark Hurd to CEO of Oracle from his former position as President Safra Catz was also made CEO, moving from her former role as CFO. Ellison assumed the positions of chief technology officer and executive chairman. [38] [39]

In November 2016, Oracle bought NetSuite for $9.3 billion. Ellison owned 35% of NetSuite at the time of the purchase making him $3.5 billion personally. [40]

In 2017, Forbes estimated that Ellison was the 4th richest person in tech. [41]

In June 2018, Ellison's net worth was about $54.5 billion, according to Forbes. [42]

In December 2018, Ellison became a director on the board of Tesla, Inc., after purchasing 3 million shares earlier that year. [43] [3]

As of December 31, 2019, Ellison owns 36.2% of the shares of Oracle Corporation, [44] and 1.7% of the shares of Tesla.

In April 2020, he launched a wellness company Hawaiian Island Lanai called Sensei. [45]

As of June 2020, Ellison is said to be the seventh wealthiest person in the world, with a net worth of $66.8 billion. [46]

In December 2020, his net worth increased by $2.5 billion in a single week as Oracle's stock jumped by 4% between November 27 and December 4. [47]

Ellison has been married and divorced four times: [48]

  • Adda Quinn from 1967 to 1974.
  • Nancy Wheeler Jenkins from 1977 to 1978. They married six months before Ellison founded Software Development Laboratories. In 1978, the couple divorced. Wheeler gave up any claim on her husband's company for $500.
  • Barbara Boothe from 1983 to 1986. Boothe was a former receptionist at Relational Software Inc. (RSI). [aanhaling nodig] They had two children, David and Megan, who are film producers at Skydance Media and Annapurna Pictures, respectively. [49]
  • Melanie Craft, a romance novelist, from 2003 to 2010. They married on December 18, 2003, at his Woodside estate. Ellison's friend Steve Jobs, former CEO and co-founder of Apple Inc., was the official wedding photographer, [50] and Representative Tom Lantos officiated. They divorced in 2010. [51]

Ellison made a brief cameo appearance in the 2010 movie Iron Man 2. [52] In 2010, Ellison purchased a 50% share of the BNP Paribas Open tennis tournament. [53] Ellison owns many exotic cars, including an Audi R8 and a McLaren F1. His favorite is the Acura NSX, which he was known to give as gifts each year during its production. [34] Ellison is also reportedly the owner of a Lexus LFA. [54]

Controversies Edit

Ellison has courted controversy in the past with not always good natured statements about rival businessmen & firms [55]

His habit of hiring private detectives against rival firms & allegedly ex-partners has also made news. [56]

Yachts Edit

With the economic downturn of 2010, Ellison sold his share of Rising Sun, the 12th largest yacht in the world, making David Geffen the sole owner. [57] The vessel is 453 feet (138 metres) long, [58] and reportedly cost over $200 million to build. He downsized to Musashi, a 288-foot (88-metre) yacht built by Feadship. [59]

Yacht racing Edit

Ellison competes in yachting through Oracle Team USA. [60] Following success racing Maxi yachts, Ellison founded BMW Oracle Racing to compete for the 2003 Louis Vuitton Cup.

In 2002, Ellison's Oracle's team introduced kite yachting into the America's Cup environment. Kite sail flying lasting about 30 minutes was achieved during testing in New Zealand. [61]

BMW Oracle Racing was the "Challenger of Record" on behalf of the Golden Gate Yacht Club of San Francisco for the 2007 America's Cup in Valencia, Spain, until eliminated from the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup challenger-selection series in the semi-finals. On February 14, 2010, Ellison's yacht USA 17 won the second race (in the best of three "deed of gift" series) of the 33rd America's Cup, after winning the first race two days earlier. Securing a historic victory, Ellison and his BMW Oracle team became the first challengers to win a "deed of gift" match. The Cup returned to American shores for the first time since 1995. Ellison served as a crew member in the second race. [62] Previously, Ellison had filed several legal challenges, through the Golden Gate Yacht Club, against the way that Ernesto Bertarelli (also one of the world's richest men) proposed to organize the 33rd America's Cup following the 2007 victory of Bertarelli's team Alinghi. [62] [63] The races were finally held [ verduideliking nodig ] in February 2010 in Valencia.

On September 25, 2013, Ellison's Oracle Team USA defeated Emirates Team New Zealand to win the 34th America's Cup in San Francisco Bay, California. [64] Oracle Team USA had been penalized two points in the final for cheating by some team members during the America's Cup World Series warm-up events. [65] The Oracle team came from a 1–8 deficit to win 9–8, in what has been called "one of the greatest comebacks in sports history". [66]

Oracle Racing lost the 2017 America's Cup to Team New Zealand.

In 2019, Ellison, in conjunction with Russell Coutts, started the SailGP international racing series. [67] The series used F50 foiling catamarans, the fastest class of boat in history with regattas held across the globe. Ellison committed to five years of funding to support the series until it could become self sustaining. The first season was successful with global audiences of over 1.8 billion. [68] [69] [70]

Aviation Edit

Ellison is a licensed pilot who has owned several aircraft. [9] He was cited by the city of San Jose, California, for violating its limits on late-night takeoffs and landings from San Jose Mineta International Airport by planes weighing more than 75,000 pounds (34,019 kg). In January 2000, Ellison sued over the interpretation of the airport rule, contending that his Gulfstream V aircraft "is certified by the manufacturer to fly at two weights: 75,000 pounds, and at 90,000 pounds for heavier loads or long flights requiring more fuel. But the pilot only lands the plane in San Jose when it weighs 75,000 pounds or less, and has the logs to prove it." [71] US District Judge Jeremy Fogel ruled in Ellison's favor in June 2001, calling for a waiver for Ellison's jet, but did not invalidate the curfew. [72]

Ellison also owns at least two military jets: a SIAI-Marchetti S.211, a training aircraft designed in Italy, and a decommissioned MiG-29, which the US government has refused him permission to import. [9]

Tennis Redigeer

In 2009, Larry purchased the Indian Wells Tennis Garden tennis facility in California's Coachella Valley and the Indian Wells Masters tournament, both of which he still owns.

Homes Edit

Ellison styled his estimated $110 million Woodside, California, estate after feudal Japanese architecture, complete with a man-made 2.3-acre (0.93 ha) lake and an extensive seismic retrofit. [73] In 2004 and 2005 he purchased more than 12 properties in Malibu, California, worth more than $180 million. The $65 million Ellison spent on five contiguous lots at Malibu's Carbon Beach made this the most costly residential transaction in United States history until Ron Perelman sold his Palm Beach, Florida, compound for $70 million later that same year. [74] His entertainment system cost $1 million, and includes a rock concert-sized video projector at one end of a drained swimming pool, using the gaping hole as a giant subwoofer. [75]

In early 2010, Ellison purchased the Astor's Beechwood Mansion – formerly the summer home of the Astor family – in Newport, Rhode Island, for $10.5 million. [76]

In 2011 he purchased the 249-acre Porcupine Creek Estate and private golf course in Rancho Mirage, California, for $42.9 million. [76] The property was formerly the home of Yellowstone Club founders Edra and Tim Blixseth, and was sold to Ellison by creditors following their divorce and bankruptcy. [77]

On June 21, 2012, the governor of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie, declared that Ellison had signed an agreement to buy most of the island of Lanai from the Castle & Cooke company, owned by David H. Murdock. Following the purchase Ellison owns 98% of Lanai, Hawaii's sixth-largest island. [78]

In December 2020, he left California and moved to Hawaii. [79]

Filantropie Redigeer

In 1992 Ellison shattered his elbow in a high-speed bicycle crash. After receiving treatment at University of California, Davis, Ellison donated $5 million to seed the Lawrence J. Ellison Musculo-Skeletal Research Center. In 1998, the Lawrence J. Ellison Ambulatory Care Center opened on the Sacramento campus of the UC Davis Medical Center. [80]

To settle an insider trading lawsuit arising from his selling nearly $1 billion of Oracle stock, a court allowed Ellison to donate $100 million to his own charitable foundation without admitting wrongdoing. A California judge refused to allow Oracle to pay Ellison's legal fees of $24 million. Ellison's lawyer had argued that if Ellison were to pay the fees, that could be construed as an admission of guilt. His charitable donations to Stanford University raised questions about the independence of two Stanford professors who evaluated the case's merits for Oracle. [81] In response to the September 11 terrorist attacks of 2001, Ellison made a controversial offer to donate software to the federal government [82] that would have enabled it to build and run a national identification database and to issue ID cards. [83]

Forbes ' 2004 list of charitable donations made by the wealthiest 400 Americans stated that Ellison had donated [ wanneer? ] $151,092,103, about 1% of his estimated personal wealth. [84] In June 2006, Ellison announced he would not honor his earlier pledge of $115 million to Harvard University, claiming it was due to the departure of former President Lawrence Summers. Oracle spokesman Bob Wynne announced, "It was really Larry Summers' brainchild and once it looked like Larry Summers was leaving, Larry Ellison reconsidered . [I]t was Larry Ellison and Larry Summers that had initially come up with this notion." [85] In 2007 Ellison pledged $500,000 to fortify a community centre in Sderot, Israel, after discovering that the building was not fortified against rocket attacks. [86] Other charitable donations by Ellison include a $10 million donation to the Friends of the Israel Defense Forces in 2014. [87] In 2017 Ellison again donated to the Friends of the Israel Defense Forces, this time for $16.6 million. His donation was intended to support the construction of well-being facilities on a new campus for co-ed conscripts. [88]

In August 2010 a report listed Ellison as one of the 40 billionaires who had signed "The Giving Pledge". [89] [90]

In May 2016 Ellison donated $200 million to the University of Southern California for establishing a cancer research center: the Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC. [91]

Ellison was critical of NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, saying that "Snowden had yet to identify a single person who had been 'wrongly injured' by the NSA's data collection". [92] He has donated to both Democratic and Republican politicians, [93] and in late 2014 hosted Republican Senator Rand Paul at a fundraiser at his home. [94] [95]

Ellison was one of the top donors to Conservative Solutions PAC, a super PAC supporting Marco Rubio's 2016 presidential bid. As of February 2016, Ellison had given $4 million overall to the PAC. [96] In 2020, Ellison allowed Donald Trump to have a fundraiser at his Rancho Mirage estate, [97] [98] but Ellison was not present. [99]

In 1997, Ellison received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. [100] [101]

In 2013, Ellison was inducted into the Bay Area Business Hall of Fame. [102]

In 2019, the Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC honored Ellison with the first Rebels With A Cause Award in recognition of his generous support through the years. [103]


August 16, 1944 – Eva Ginzova

Eva Ginzova is one of the few teenage diarists from the Holocaust to have had a sibling who also wrote. Petr Ginz, her brother, was a prolific author and artist in his own right. Eva was proud of his education and his accomplishments. He appears as a subject in many of her diary entries and it is clear that his well-being was as important to her as her own.

Eva was younger than Petr, and it is obvious that she looked up to him. Because he was older, he had been sent to the Theresienstadt “camp-ghetto” two years earlier. When she arrived, she discovered that Petr had already established a reputation among his peers. On August 16, 1944, she wrote, “When I arrived, one girl asked me whether Petr was my brother, and said that he was the most intelligent boy from the heim [children’s home]. I was very pleased and very proud of him.”

Petr’s presence in Theresienstadt was a great comfort to Eva, but one that would not last. On September 28, 1944, they were separated when Petr was sent to Auschwitz. After the war was long over, Eva wrote one last entry in her diary. It was the heartbroken observation that Petr had not come home. Eva survived the Holocaust, Petr did not.

Eva’s diary reminds us that no one lives apart from the influences of others. Our parents, siblings, and friends help to make us who we are. Their lives and legacies stay with us as long as we live. One of the greatest crimes of the Holocaust was the splitting of families, especially when murder made the separation permanent.

Read more about Theresienstadt (Terezin Ghetto).

Learn more about Eva Ginzova (now Chava Pressberger), her career as an artist, and the publication of her brother’s diary.


555th Parachute Infantry Battalion [Triple Nickles] (1944-1947)

On August 6, 1945, Private First Class Malvin L. Brown was killed after falling 140 feet during a “let-down” from a tree while fighting a forest fire in the Umpqua National Forest in southern Oregon. Brown was the first smokejumper to die while fighting a wildfire since the program’s inception by the U.S. Forest Service in 1939. He was also the only member of the “Triple Nickles” 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion to die in the line of duty during World War II.

The 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion was nicknamed “Triple Nickles” because of its numerical designation and because 17 of its original 24 “colored test platoon” were from the 92nd Infantry (“Buffalo Soldiers”) Division of the U.S. Army. Their identifying symbol is three buffalo nickels joined in a triangle and the oddly-spelled “Nickle” is one of their trademarks.

During the winter of 1943-1944, the first black paratroopers in army history began training at Fort Benning, Georgia. After several months, the segregated unit was moved to Camp Mackall, North Carolina, where it was reorganized and redesignated as Company A of the newly activated 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion. Unlike other African American infantry units officered by whites, the 555th was entirely black since six black officers also completed jump training.

By late 1944, the first platoon of Triple Nickles was fully trained, combat-ready, and alerted for European duty. The men were anxious to fight Hitler’s Nazis in Europe or the Japanese in the Pacific. Instead, racial military politics and changing war conditions kept the paratroopers home and away from the war they had been trained to fight.

On May 5, 1945, a Japanese incendiary balloon explosion killed the pregnant wife of a local minister and five young members of their church while on a Sunday picnic near Bly, Oregon. The Army kept the details of the incident a secret as they didn’t want members of the public to panic regarding the thousands of such balloon bombs that had been launched by the Japanese toward American shores, intended to start major forest fires and create just such fears.

In early 1945, the Triple Nickles had received secret orders from the War Department called “Operation Firefly.” They were sent to Pendleton, Oregon, assigned to the 9th Services Command, and trained by the Forest Service to become history’s first military smokejumpers. They were specifically designated to respond to Japanese balloon bombs.

During that year’s fire season, the Triple Nickles made more than 1,200 individual jumps and helped control at least 28 major fires although none were believed to have been caused by the Japanese. The paratroopers suffered numerous injuries but only one fatality: the day of Malvin Brown’s death, August 6, 1945, was also the day the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Both events made the front page of the local newspaper in Roseburg, Oregon but the pioneer paratrooper’s death was barely noticed by comparison and soon forgotten.

In December 1947, the Triple Nickles were deactivated and their personnel were assigned to other Army units. One group, the 2nd Airborne Ranger Company, became the first black unit to make a combat jump during the Korean War. Ultimately, the Triple Nickles served in more airborne units, in peace and in war, than any other parachute group in history.


17 August 1944 - History

As follows is a transcript of the monthly report from the 603rd Squadron to the 1st Bombardment Division. Many names are mentioned in the report. You may wish to use your web browser's Find Command to search for a particular individual. If you are unsure about the spelling, try the first few letters.

Eighth Air Force
1st Bombardment Division
1st Combat Bombardment Wing (H)
398th Bombardment Group (H)
603rd Bombardment Group (H)

603 Bomb Squadron
Geskiedenis
August 1st to August 31st 1944

Eighth Air Force
1st Bombardment Division
398th Bombardment Group (H)

Period Covered from August 1, 1944 to August 31, 1944
Prepared by
David M. Hall, 1st Lt., A.C.

Squadron History
603rd Bombardment Squadron (H)

August 1, 1944

Target: Melun-Villaroche, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 3, 1944

Target: Saarbrucken, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 4, 1944

Target: Peenmeunde, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

2nd Lt. John S. MacArthur (later promoted to 1st Lt., August 12) and his crew were hit by flak over target area and are reported missing in action.

The members of the crew were:

Editor’s Notes

August 5, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

6 Augustus 1944

Target: Brandenburg, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Robert L. Hopkins, Flight Commander, let the low group.

August 8, 1944

Target: Bretteville Le Rabet, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Meyer C. Wagner Jr., Squadron Commanding Officer and Captain Robert L. Hopkins, Flight Commander who led the 398th Group on today’s mission were hit by flak over the target and are now reported missing in action.

The crew lost included the 3rd Squadron Commanding Officer since reaching the European Theater of Operations, the last of the original Flight Commanders and the Squadron Navigator, 1st Lt. Vonn Wernecke.

The members of the crew were:

Naam Ranglys Position Home Address
1 Hopkins, Robert L. Kapt. Loods Mulberry Grove, Illinois
2 Wagner, Meyer C. Kapt. C.A. [603rd Commanding Officer as C.A. would have sat in the Co-Pilot's seat] Warwick Hotel, Houston, Texas
3 Kushera, Frederick J. Jr. 2de Lt. Co-Pilot (flew tail gun position) 2022 Dorland Drive, Whittier, California
4 Wernecke, Vonn (NMI) 1ste Lt. [Squadron] Navigator 13005 – 8th Avenue N.W., Seattle, Washington
5 Stitz, Thomas J. 2de Lt. Navigator 114 West High Street, Canal Fulton, Ohio
6 Arnold, Charles (NMI) 2de Lt. Bombardier Marseilles, Illinois
7 Germiller, William J. T/Sers. Engineer/ Top Turret Gunner 23 Hoffman Avenue, Poughkeepsie, New York
8 Gibeau, Raymond G. T/Sers. Radio -operateur Bellaire, Kansas
9 Hochadel, James F. S/Sgt. Ball Turret Gunner 736 Elm Street, Youngtown, Ohio
10 Werner, John I. S/Sgt. Left Waist Gunner 1780 – 142nd Avenue, San Leandro, California

Editor’s Notes
  1. S/Sgt. James F. Hochadel, Ball Turret Gunner and 2nd Lt. Charles Arnold, Bombardier were killed in action.
  2. The remaining 8 men became Prisoners of War, with two escaping after capture. These were Captain Meyer C. Wagner, Jr. and 1st Lt. Vonnerlin Wernecke.

Captain James G. Davidson, Jr., who has been Squadron Operations Officer for over a month was made Squadron Commanding Officer. The spot for Squadron Navigator is still open.

Technical Sergeant L.D. Mason, engineer gunner on Lt. Engel’s crew at the completion of 27 missions has finished his tour in the European Theater of Operations.

August 9, 1944

Target: Saarbrucken, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Due to bad weather the Group bombed a target of opportunity instead of the primary.

August 10, 1944

1st Lt. Robert W. Kaufman came out on Special Order #20 as a Squadron Flight Commander.

August 11, 1944

Captain Harvery H. Latson, a Squadron Flight Commander led the Low Group to Brest, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 12, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

  1. Edward C. Jordan
  2. J.J. Lee
  3. W.L. Meyran
  4. L.M. Sundheim
  5. E.W. Klatte
  6. R.W. Lehner, and
  7. M.W. Magnan

Two other men, who previously have been reported missing in action also made First Lieutenant:

2nd Lt. Linder Tanksley, bombardier on 1st Lt. Dean L. Foster’s crew became the first member of the Squadron to actually complete the required number of combat missions. He flew a total 32 missions.

August 13, 1944

Captain Harvey H. Latson flew with Colonel Frank P. Hunter, Jr., in the lead ship to Le Manoir, France.

Captain James G. Davidson, Jr., Squadron Commanding Officer flew with 1st Lt. W.J. Durtschi in the group deputy lead position.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

2nd Lt. J.W. Beck, navigator, completed his tour of duty in the E.T.O. with 31 missions, as did Technical Sergeant L.G. Nance, Jr., radio operator gunner, with 29 missions.

August 15, 1944

See attached loading list. (not transcribed).

2nd Lt. John F. Naoiti, Navigator, was promoted to First Lieutenant.

2nd Lt. Arthur Silverman, Co-Pilot, finished his tour with 33 missions as did 1st Lt. J. Gurney, Bombardier, with 30 missions.

August 16, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

The following men completed their tour of duty:

  1. 1st Lt. Anthony J. Jellen, navigator – 33 missions
  2. 1st Lt. Dean L. Foster, pilot – 32 missions
  3. Technical Sergeant J.C. Bird, engineer gunner – 30 missions
  4. Technical Sergeant W. Hineman, Jr., radio operator gunner – 32 missions
  5. Staff Sergeant F. P. Devaney, ball turret gunner – 32 missions
  6. Staff Sergeant Dwight Hinkle, tail gunner – 25 missions
  7. Staff Sergeant Arthur Wilkinson, waist gunner – 29 missions

August 18, 1944

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

  1. Carlotho Turner
  2. Robert E. Ullom
  3. Arthur Silverman
  4. Roy W. Wilkins
  5. Raymond A. Winkler
  6. William A. Wright, Jr.

August 19, 1944

The Squadron enlisted men were given a party in the combat mess hall.

Second Lieutenant John O. Hobbs was promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

August 21, 1944

Under Special Order #22 Captain Harvey H. Latson became Squadron Operations Officer and 1st Lt. L.W. Sundheim became Squadron Navigator.

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

August 24, 1944

After seven consequitive “stand-downs” mostly due to bad weather the Group finally flew a mission to Kolleda, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

1st Lt. Charles E. Khourie and crew flew 1st combat combat mission.

The other members of the crew who reported to the Squadron August 6 are:

  1. 2nd Lt. John J. Leyden, Jr.
  2. 2nd Lt. Frederico Gonzalez
  3. 2nd Lt. Jack E. Kutchback
  4. Sergeant Robert C. Mayfield
  5. Sergeant William A. Schumate
  6. Sergeant Howard E. Rogers
  7. Corporal Joseph J. Kelly, Jr.
  8. Corporal John L. Crecelius, and
  9. Corporal Paul E. Russell

August 25, 1944

Target: Neu Brandenberg, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 26, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers completed their combat tours:

  1. 1st Lt. Henry Timbrook, Jr., navigator – 33 missions
  2. 1st Lt. John F. Naioti, navigator –32 missions
  3. 1st Lt. P.F. Heitman, navigator – 33 missions

August 27, 1944

The group was recalled due to weather just a short distance from the target Schonefeld, Germany. The 603rd Squadron was stood down. However, Squadron ships were used on the mission.

1st Lt. J.P. Baker, navigator, flew in a PFF ship with the 601st Squadron.

August 28, 1944

The following new men entered the Squadron as replacement:

  1. 2nd Lt. Kenneth S. Hastings
  2. 2nd Lt. Donald J. Decleene
  3. 2nd Lt. Oral B. Birch
  4. Corporal John S. Bourquin
  5. Corporal James J. Briody
  6. Corporal Wilbur F. Lucas
  7. Corporal Donald B. Colbert
  8. Corporal Oliver W. Bradford
  9. Corporal Kenneth A. Green

August 29, 1944

2nd Lt. George Potter enters the Squadron as a Mickey Navigator.

August 30, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Jack C. Novak, who recently was promoted from First Lieutenant, completed his tour of duty with 32 missions.