Olie

Olie


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Hoe FDR 'n Saoedi -koning bekoor en Amerikaanse toegang tot olie gewen het

'N Geheime oorlogstydbyeenkoms. ...lees meer

Exxon Valdez -oliestorting

Die Exxon Valdez -oliestorting was 'n mensgemaakte ramp wat plaasgevind het toe Exxon Valdez, 'n olietenkskip wat besit word deur die Exxon Shipping Company, 11 miljoen liter ru -olie in Prince William Sound in Alaska op 24 Maart 1989 gemors het. Dit was die ergste oliestorting in Amerikaanse geskiedenis tot ...lees meer

Groot oliestorting begin in die Golf van Mexiko

20 April 2010: 'n Ontploffing en brand aan boord van die Deepwater Horizon -oliebooreiland in die Golf van Mexiko, ongeveer 50 kilometer van die kus van Louisiana, maak 11 mense dood en veroorsaak die grootste oliestorting in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis. Die tuig was in die laaste fases van ...lees meer

Spindletop

Op 10 Januarie 1901 ontplof 'n enorme geiser olie uit 'n boorplek by Spindletop Hill, 'n heuwel wat ontstaan ​​het deur 'n ondergrondse soutafsetting naby Beaumont in Jefferson County, suidoostelike Texas. Bereik 'n hoogte van meer as 150 voet en produseer naby 100,000 ...lees meer

John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), stigter van die Standard Oil Company, het een van die rykste manne ter wêreld en 'n groot filantroop geword. Gebore in beskeie omstandighede in die staat New York, het hy in 1863 die destydse oliebedryf aangegaan deur te belê in 'n Cleveland, Ohio ...lees meer

Oliebedryf

Die 19de eeu was 'n tydperk van groot verandering en vinnige industrialisering. Die yster- en staalbedryf het nuwe konstruksiemateriaal veroorsaak, die spoorweë het die land verbind en die ontdekking van olie het 'n nuwe bron van brandstof verskaf. Die ontdekking van die Spindletop -geiser in 1901 ...lees meer

Skaars Bugatti gevind in Britse motorhuis

Op 2 Januarie 2009 berig die media dat 'n seldsame, ongerestoureerde 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante Coupe in die motorhuis van 'n Britse dokter gevind is. 'N Maand later, op 7 Februarie, verkoop die motor op 'n veiling in Parys vir ongeveer $ 4,4 miljoen. Die swart tweesitplek, een van net 17 57S ...lees meer

Gusher dui op die begin van die Amerikaanse oliebedryf

Op 10 Januarie 1901 produseer 'n boorgat by Spindletop Hill naby Beaumont, Texas, 'n enorme ru -olie, wat die landskap honderde voet bedek en dui op die koms van die Amerikaanse oliebedryf. Die geiser is op 'n diepte van meer as 1000 voet ontdek, ...lees meer

Oliewerkers verdrink in die Noordsee

Op 30 Maart 1980 stort 'n drywende woonstel vir oliewerkers in die Noordsee in duie, en 123 mense sterf. Die Alexander Kielland -platform huisves 208 mans wat gewerk het op die Edda -olierig naby die Ekofisk -veld, 235 myl oos van Dundee, Skotland. Die meeste van die Phillips Petroleum ...lees meer

Die skuldigbevinding van die Exxon Valdez -kaptein word omgekeer

Die appèlhof in Alaska vernietig die skuldigbevinding van Joseph Hazelwood, die voormalige kaptein van die olietenkskip Exxon Valdez. Hazelwood, wat skuldig bevind is aan nalatigheid vir sy rol in die groot oliestorting in Prince William Sound in 1989, het suksesvol aangevoer dat hy ...lees meer


Olie - GESKIEDENIS

Vanweë die woestyntoestand was daar baie booraktiwiteite in Libië lank voordat daar vermoedens was dat daar petroleum was. Die soektog na water behels die boor van diep putte. Tot in 1915 het diepwaterputte wat deur Italianers geboor is, soms aardgas gevind. Dit was van belang, maar aardgas was destyds nie 'n uitstekende produk nie. In die VSA is die aardgas uit olies afgebrand (opgevlam) as 'n oorlas.

In 1935 het 'n professor van die Universiteit van Milaan, wat aan die hoof was van 'n waterboorprogram, 'n punt gemaak om na petroleum te kyk. Dit was waarskynlik meer uit akademiese belang as 'n ernstige kommer vir die vind van 'n beduidende ekonomiese hulpbron. 'N Paar jaar later is petroleum opgespoor in 'n waterput wat naby Tripoli geboor is.

Hierdie vonds was genoeg om 'n geologiese opname in Tripolitania te bewerkstellig. Een put is geboor om petroleum te soek, maar niks is gevind nie. Tog is daar in 1940 'n ondersoekprogram begin, maar die beskikbare toerusting was onvoldoende om die ernstige toestande van die Sahara -woestyn te hanteer. Kort daarna het oorlog na Libië gekom en alle verkenning het gestop.

Onmiddellik na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was die politieke status van Libië, wat deur Italië beheer is, onseker. Daar was geen staat wat petroleum -ondersoekende ondernemings die regte kan waarborg wat hulle kan vind nie. Daarom is geen ondersoek uitgevoer tot nadat Libië in 1951 'n onafhanklike koninkryk geword het nie. In 1953 verleen Libië prospekteerpermitte aan elf petroleummaatskappye. Die maatskappye het geologiese opnames gedoen. In 1955 is 'n petroleumput suksesvol geboor onder woestynomstandighede net oorkant die grens in Algerië.

Die Lidyan -leiers was vasbeslote om die mark vir ondersoekende permitte in Libië te behou eerder as om 'n konsessie aan een onderneming of 'n konsortium van 'n paar maatskappye toe te staan. Verder selfs as een onderneming 'n konsessie op 'n spesifieke gebied gekry het, sou hy na vyf jaar 'n kwart van die konsessie moes prysgee. Dit was om die regering in staat te stel om daardie gebied aan 'n nuwe onderneming toe te ken in die hoop dat 'n nuwe onderneming sou slaag waar 'n ander een misluk het.

Die voorwaardes was dat die oliemaatskappye 'n tantième van 12,5 persent op hul inkomste en 'n belasting van 50 persent op winste moes betaal. Die tantième en ander bedryfsuitgawes was natuurlik aftrekbaar om die wins van die onderneming te bereken.

Oliemaatskappye was baie geïnteresseerd in die ontwikkeling van petroleumbronne in Libië omdat dit aan die Middellandse See geleë was. Hulle bronne uit Iran is beperk deur 'n politieke krisis daar in die jare 1951 tot 1954. Die Suez-krisis van 1956-57 het gelei tot die sluiting van die Suez-kanaal. Alle petroleum uit die ooste van Suez moes met groot ekstra koste om die suidpunt van Afrika gebring word. Daarbenewens word gedink dat Libië 'n stabiele, pro-Westerse regering het.

Teen 1957 was daar ongeveer 'n dosyn ondernemings in Libië op ongeveer sestig verskillende toegewings. Die maatskappye wat daar bedryf het, het die sewe hoofvakke en die Franse para-statale Compagnie Fran & ccedilaaise des P & eacutetroles ingesluit. Daar was ook Oasis, 'n konsortium van drie maatskappye wat nuut is in die internasionale ondersoek na petroleum, Amerada Hess, Conoco en Marathon. Daar was ook die oliemaatskappy van Bunker Hunt, die seun van die Amerikaanse oliemagnaat H.L. Hunt.

In 1957 besluit Esso om in die gebied oorkant die grens te boor vanwaar die Algerynse olieput ingebring is. Dit het drie putte geboor en een daarvan was suksesvol. Dit is in Januarie 1958 ingebring met 'n vloei van 500 vate per dag. Dit was nie veel in ag genome die boorkoste nie.

In 1959 het Esso geboor in die Siritica -streek, wat die noordelike sentrale deel van die land is. Dit het 'n put met 'n vloei van 17 500 vate per dag ingebring. Dit het gevolg deur nog 'n put wat ongeveer 15 000 vate per dag vloei. Later in 1959 is ander olieputte in Siritica ingebring. Altesaam ses groot olievelde in Libië is in 1959 ontdek. Esso en Oasis was die leiers op die gebied.


Energiebronne

Die Wilmington -olieveld is die derde grootste veld in die aangrensende Verenigde State, met 'n uiteindelike herstel wat op drie miljard vate olie geraam word. Die veld is geleë op die Wilmington Anticline van 13 myl lank en 3 myl breed, wat strek van ons land aan die San Pedro tot by die Seal Beach, en word vertikaal verdeel deur foute wat afsonderlike produserende entiteite genaamd Fault Blocks skep. Olie word vervaardig uit vyf groot sandintervalle wat wissel in dieptes van 2 000 voet tot 11 000 voet, waar meer as twee en 'n half miljard vate olie teruggevind is. Olie en gas word herwin deur primêre produksie, sekondêre wateroorstromings en stoomoorstromings. Altesaam 6,150 putte is tot op hede geboor.

Bedryfsgebiede vir olie

Oliebedrywighede

In die Wilmington -olieveld, wat sowel tydelande as hooglandseiendomme omvat, hou DOP toesig oor die werk van twee private kontrakteurs en hul 300 werknemers. Tidelands Oil Production Company is die veldaannemer vir Wes -Wilmington. Sedert 1932 is meer as 3 400 putte op grond geboor. In die 1950's en 1960's is water oorstroom om die herstel te verhoog en die insinking te beheer.

California Resources Corporation (CRC) is die veldaannemer vir die Long Beach Unit (LBU), die oostelike deel van die Wilmington -veld. THUMS Long Beach Company (vernoem na die oorspronklike veldkontrakteurs: Texaco, Humble, Union, Mobil en Shell) is die agent vir CRC. In 1964 is vier mensgemaakte eilande, vernoem na die ruimtevaarders wat hul lewens verloor het tydens die beginjare van die Amerikaanse ruimteverkenning (Grissom, White, Chaffee en Freeman), gebou. Pier J is uitgebrei tot die Long Beach -hawe om die LBU te ontwikkel. Ongeveer 1 450 putte is geboor. Die Long Beach-eenheid het by die aanvang van water begin oorstroom om te help om insakking te voorkom. Die olieproduksie van Wilmington Field is vandag ongeveer 46 000 vate per dag uit 1,550 aktiewe putte.

Eilandskema

Eiland Grissom

In die Hooglande, die Stad is sowel 'n royalty -deelnemer as 'n werkende eienaar in sy eiendomme langs Signal Hill en ander eiendomme in die stad. Die Signal Hill West Unit (SHWU) en Signal Hill East Unit (SHEU) is deel van die Long Beach -olieveld in Long Beach en Signal Hill. Die oppervlakte -uitgedrukte anticline -struktuur is kilometers ver sigbaar en is 'n plaaslike baken langs die Long Beach -lughawe. Signal Hill Petroleum Inc. is tans die rekordoperateur. Recreation Park is aan die noordekant van 7de Straat geleë. Altesaam 7 putte word nou bedryf deur Breitburn Energy Company LLC, 'n onafhanklike oliemaatskappy in Los Angeles. Die City Wasem Community Lease is geleë naby Marine Stadium, wat 'n uitbreiding van die Seal Beach -olieveld is. Die oliebad van die mariene gebied is in 1979 deur Elliot & Ten Eyck (ET) ontdek en ontwikkel. Die huurkontrak het tans 16 aktiewe putte.


Is my ou olievoorraad iets werd?

Ondersteun asseblief hierdie navorsing! Die oorspronklike navorsing van die American Oil & amp Gas Historical Society en gepaardgaande forumonderhoud hang af van u individuele finansiële ondersteuning. AOGHS is nie verbonde aan enige petroleummaatskappy, voorspraakgroepe of bedryfsorganisasies nie.

Die vignet van 'n petroleumvoorraad -sertifikaat is dikwels 'n belangrike deel van die waarde daarvan vir scripophily - die koop en verkoop van sertifikate as versamelstukke nadat dit nie 'n aflosbare waarde as sekuriteit het nie.

Petroleummaatskappy se geskiedenis

Alhoewel dit dikwels omstrede is, moet die geskiedenis van Amerikaanse petroleum -eksplorasie, produksie en vervoer behoue ​​bly. Van kerosine vir lampe, petrol vir motors en plastiekpolimere vir alledaagse produkte, bied die industrie se sosiale, ekonomiese en tegnologiese geskiedenis 'n konteks vir die verstaan ​​van moderne energiedebatte.

In die gejaag om voorraadsertifikate tydens olie -oplewing af te druk, het nuwe maatskappye dikwels gekies om sertifikate te druk met behulp van 'n vignet derricks!

Versamelaars het 'n verbasende aantal voorbeelde gevind waar vinnig gevormde eksplorasiemaatskappye presies dieselfde olieveldtoneel vir aandelesertifikate gekies het. Dit het moontlik tyd en geld bespaar deur 'n gewone vignet te kies wat vandag op aandele van die Centralized Oil & amp Gas Company gevind word Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Company Evangeline Oil Company Texas Production Company Tulsa Producing and Refining Company Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company Oil Prospectors Inc. Craven Oil & amp Refining Buck Run Oil and Refining Home Oil & amp Gas Hog Creek Carruth Company Buffalo-Texas Oil Company en die Champion Oil Company.

Kan u my iets gratis vertel oor hierdie ou petroleummaatskappy? Ek het sy voorraadbewys op 'n solder gevind. Is ek ryk? Waarskynlik nie. Soos in die onderstaande ondernemings getoon is, het die Amerikaanse petroleumbedryf sedert die 1850's baie groot ongelukke veroorsaak. Sien Not a Millionaire from Old Oil Stock vir 'n voorbeeld van een wat eintlik by die howe aangekom het.

Amerika se eerste oliemaatskappy en die Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company van New York het dit in 1855 georganiseer.

Ongelukkig kan hierdie klein historiese samelewing nie versoeke toestaan ​​nie vry navorsing rakende die individuele maatskappygeskiedenis en die potensiële waarde van aandele -sertifikate. Soos u moontlik ontdek het, is finansiële navorsing moeilik en tydrowend. As u gelukkig is, kan 'n besoeker aan hierdie webwerf of 'n vrywilliger van die organisasie nuttige inligting gepos het.

As u sertifikaat nie hier gelys word nie en om verdere navorsingservarings te deel, u word uitgenooi om u navraag in die huidige in te dien Voorraad Sertifikaat Q & ampA Forum.

Hieronder is navorsing ingedien deur 'n toonaangewende vrywilliger van die American Oil & amp Gas Historical Society. Die geskiedenis van die onderneming vertel dikwels boeiende verhale en dit is ook so eksklusief van die Stock Sertifikaat Q & ampA forum -plasings ook op hierdie webwerf. Kyk hier vir meer van hierdie seldsame geskiedenis.

Jongste navorsing – Opgedateer Mei 2021

Badger Oil & amp Gas Company*
Bailey Gaunce Oil & amp Refining Corporation*
Barrington Oil Company
Beaumont Confederated Oil & amp Pipe Line Company
Groot Indiese Oil & amp Development Company
Big Six Oil Company*
Black Gold Petroleum Company*
Black Hills Petroleum Company
Blokkeer olie en gassindikaat*
Blue Ridge Natural Gas & amp Oil Corporation*
Bluebird Oil & amp Gas Association*
Boulder Petroleum Company
Buck Run Oil and Refining Company
Buffalo Oil Company
Buffalo-Texas Oil Company
Bug Drilling Company*
Burkburnett-Center Oil Company*
Burkburnett-Claiborne Oil Company*
Burk Imperial Oil Company*
Burk-Tex produksiemaatskappy*
Busseyville Oil & amp Gas*
Butler Perryman belange*
* Navorsing aan die gang

D.M. Simon Oil & amp Gas Company*
Dallas Oil Company van Texas*
Delaware Union Oil Company*
Delhi Oil Company
Denton-Eastland Oil Company*
Desoto Oil Company*
DeSoto Oil Company*
Detroit Oil & amp Refining Company*
Dominion Oil Company*
Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Company
Doughboy Oil Company
Dysart Oil Company
* Navorsing aan die gang

Fairchild Petroleum*
Farmers Oil & amp Gas Company*
Federal Consolidated Oil Company*
Federale olie- en gasmaatskappy
Sewe en vyftig oliemaatskappy*
Fort Stockton Oil Company*
Foster Farm Oil Company
Franklin Oil & amp Refining Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Garfield Oil & amp Refining Company*
Gate City-Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company*
Gatex Oil Company*
Galloway Oil Corporation
Gas-, olie- en ontwikkelingsmaatskappy (The)
General Oil Company*
General Resources Corporation*
Gin Site Oil Company*
Gladys City Oil, Gas & amp Manufacturing Company
Gladys Oil Company
Glenn McCarthy, Inc.
Globe Aardgasmaatskappy*
Goue medalje -oliemaatskappy*
Golden Gate Oil Company
Golden Goose Oil and Refining Company
Golden Valley Oil & amp Gas Company
Sterkte -oliemaatskappy*
Goshen Oil & amp Gas Company*
Grand County Oil & amp Refining Company*
Great Basin Oil Company*
Groot oliebak sekuriteite*
Great Southern Oil & amp Refining Association*
Great Southwestern Petroleum Company*
Groot soetgras -olies*
Great Western Oil & amp Gas Company
Greater Great Falls Oil Company*
Green River Oil & amp; Uranium Company*
Gypsy-Burke Oil Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Hamilton Oil & amp Gas Company*
Hale Petroleum Company*
Harris-Fisher Oil Company*
Havana Oil Company
Hayden-Burk Petroleum Company*
Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company*
Hesperian Petroleum Company*
Higgins Wonder Oil Company
Hiram Wilson Oil Company*
Hoffman Oil & amp Refining Corporation
Hog Creek Carruth Oil Company
Holiday Oil & amp Gas Company*
Holly Oil Company
Homa Oil & amp Gas Company*
Home Oil & amp Development Company
Home Oil Company*
Homestead Oil Company
Perdeskoen Four Leaf Mining & amp Oil Company*
Horseshoe-Western Oil Company
Humble Oil Ridge Company*
Huntsville Consolidated Gas Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Imperial Drilling Company*
Indiese olie- en gasmaatskappy*
Industrial Oil & amp Refining Company*
Interkontinent Petroleum*
International Oil & amp Gas Corporation
Interstate Oil Company*
Iowa en California Oil & amp Gas Company*
Iowa-Beaumont Oil Company
* Navorsing aan die gang

Kantexo Oil & amp Gas Company*
Keck Oil Company*
Ken-Saw Petroleum Corporation*
King George Oil Company*
Kokernot Oil Company
Kutz Canon Oil & amp Gas Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

La Lomita -oliesindikaat*
Lewis Oil Corporation
Lewiston-Clarkston Oil & amp Gas Company*
Lexa Oil Company*
Lincoln-Idaho Oil Company
Lincoln Olieproduserende Maatskappy*
Liquid Gold Oil Company*
Louisiana Consolidated Petroleum Company*
Love Petroleum Company*
Loy Oil Company*
Lucky Jim Oil Company
Lucky Long Oil Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Hoe hou hierdie topverkoper uit die vyftigerjare verband met onversigtige beleggers en die mans agter 'n skaduryke eksplorasieonderneming? Lees Oil Prospectors, Inc.

Mahala Oil & amp Gas Company*
Mary Owens Oil Company*
McKeesport Gas Company
McTon Oil Company*
Meridian Petroleum Company
Mexican Oil & amp Coal Company*
Mid-Central Oil & amp Minerals Company*
Middle States Oil Corporation
Midfields Oil Company
Mid-Texas Petroleum Company*
Minnesota-Western Oil Company
Minnesota Victoria Oil Company*
Milwaukee Electra Oil Development Company*
Mississippi Oil Company*
Monarch Vacuum Petroleum Company*
Monroe Prospect Company*
Montana-Canadian Oil Company*
Montrose Gas, Oil and Coal Company
Morris-Van Keuren Oil and Gas Syndicate
Motex Oil Company*
Mountain States Resources Corporation
Multiple Dome Oil Company*
Murdock Oil & amp Gas Company
Muskogee Oil & amp Gas Company*
Mutual Consolidated Petroleum Corporation*
Mutual Oil & amp Development Company*
Mutual Oil Union Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Nanticoke Oil Company*
National Consolidated Oil Company*
National Energy Corporation*
National Oil Company*
National Oil Company van New Jersey
National Oil Refining and Manufacturing Company*
National Petroleum Company*
National Petroleum Lease Corporation*
National Union Oil & amp Gas Company
New Mexico Oil Properties Association
Neilan Oil & amp Refining Company
New England Petroleum Company*
New England-Texas Oil Refining Syndicate
Newfield Gas & amp Oil Company*
Nordon Corporation*
North Coast Oil & amp Refining Company*
North Counties Oil Company
Northern Oil Company*
Northwest Petroleum*
Northwestern Oils Inc.
Nova Petroleum Corporation
* Navorsing aan die gang

Occident Oil Company*
October Oil Company*
Ohio Oil Company (Marathon)
Ohio-Kansas Oil & amp Gas Company
Oil Exploration International*
Oil Prospectors Inc.
Oliehuurontwikkelingsmaatskappy*
Okla-Queen Oil Company*
Oklahoma-Gulf Royalty Corporation*
Okmulgee produksie- en raffineringsmaatskappy*
Old Colony Oil Company
Omaha Oil & amp Refining Company
Omaha-Lusk Oil Company*
Orange County Petroleum Company*
Oregon en Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company*
Otter Creek Oil & amp Gas Company
Overland Oil Inc.*
Oor die Top Oil Company
Uil Petroleummaatskappy*
Ozena Oil Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Stille Oseaan Land en Olie*
Pacific States Oil Company*
Pacific States Petroleum Company*
Palmer Union Oil Company
Paramount Petroleum Company
Pawnee Bill Oil Company
Pelican Petroleum Company
Peoples Oil and Production Company*
Petroleum Maatschappij Salt Creek Company
Petroleumprodusente -vereniging
Penn Bayless Oil & amp Gas Company*
Penn Royal Oil Company*
Pennsylvania Oil & amp Development Company
Petroleumkonsolidasie -maatskappy*
Petroleumproduksiemaatskappy van Amerika*
Phenix Oil and Gas Company*
Filippynse olie -ontwikkelingsmaatskappy*
Phoenix Oil Company*
Pine Valley Oil Company*
Pioneer Oil & amp Gas Company*
Pittsburgh-Youngstown Oil & amp Gas Company*
Plateau Oil & amp Gas Company*
Plateau Petroleums Beperk*
Pongratz Petroleum Company*
Pospersoneel Oil & amp Gas Company*
Power Petroleum Trust Estate*
Powers Manufacturing Company*
Prescott-Peoria Oil Company*
Price River Petroleum Company
Produsente en Refiners Corporation
Provident Oil & amp Refining Company*
Prudential Oil and Refining Company
Puente ru -olie maatskappy
Puente Oil Company
* Navorsing aan die gang

Sable Oil & amp Gas Company*
St. Elco Oil & amp Gas Company*
St. Martins Oil & amp Gas Company*
Sammies Oil Corporation (Kies olie)
San Jacinto River Oil Company*
San Mateo Oil and Refining Company*
Sanger Oil & amp Refining Company
Santa Fe Dome Oil Company
Santa Fe Western Gas & amp; Uranium Corporation*
Sawyer Petroleum Company
Sawyer-Adecor International
Scofield, Shurmer en Teagle*
Seaboard Oil & amp Gas Company
Seattle Toledo Oil Company*
Security Oil Company*
Security Oil Syndicate No. 2*
Sen-Burk Oil Company*
Seven States Oil Company*
Sherman Gasoline Company*
Shoe & amp Leather Petroleum Company
Shoshone Oil Company
Signal Oil and Gas Company*
Solar Oil Corporation*
Sound Cities Gas & amp Oil Company
Sour Lake Texas Oil Company*
Southeastern Limited Oil Company*
Southern Montana Oil Company*
Southern Rose Oil & amp Gas Company
Southern States Drilling Company*
Southern States Oil Company*
Korporasie Southwest Oil Corporation*
Southwestern Oil Development Company
Southwestern Petroleum & amp Pipe Line Company*
Spear Oil Company
Square Deal Oil Company*
Standard Consolidated Oil & amp Land Company*
Standard Exploration Company*
Star Oil Company
Staveless Barrel & amp Tank Company
Steelman Realty Gas & amp Oil Company
Sterling Oil Company van Oklahoma*
Studebaker Oil & amp Refining Company*
Swaelolie -maatskappy*
Sunset Pacific Oil Company
Sunshine State Oil & amp Refining Company
Sure Oil Company*
Syndicate Oil Corporation of America*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Tapo Oil Company*
Texas-Bunger Oil and Refining Company*
Texas-Rotan Oil Company*
Texas-Washington Oil Company*
Texas Control Consolidated Oil Company*
Texas Crude Oil Company*
Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation
Texas Independent Pipe Line Company*
Texas Oil & amp Refining Company
Texas Oil, Gas & amp Mineral Products Company*
Texas Oil Products Company
Texas Producers Oil Company*
Texas produksiemaatskappy
Texas United Oil Company
Die 1919 -oliemaatskappy*
Tideland Oil & amp Gas Corporation*
Toltec Oil Company*
Trans-World Oil Company
Treasure State Oil & amp Gas Company
Triangle Petroleum Company*
Drie-staat boormaatskappy*
Maatskappy vir vervaardiging en verfyning van Tulsa
Twentieth Century Oil & amp Gas Company*
Twentymile Oil & amp Gas Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Oom Sam Oil Company*
Union Oil & amp Gas Company*
Union Oil, Gas & amp Refining Company*
Verenigde Cuban Oil Inc.
United Plains Oil Company*
United Southern Oil Company*
Verenigde State se olie- en gasmaatskappy
United Sulphur & amp Oil Company*
United Texas Petroleum Company*
Uranium-Petroleummaatskappy*
Amerikaanse oliemaatskappy*
Ute Oil Company – Oil Shale Pioneer
* Navorsing aan die gang

Ventura Oil Development Company*
Vernon Winner Oil Company*
Vista Petroleum*
Vrywilliger -oliemaatskappy*
* Navorsing aan die gang

Wallace Oil Company Warren Oil & amp; Uranium Mining Company*
Washington-Montana Oil Company*
Wellington Oil Company
Wellmington Oil Corporation*
Weskus -pyplynmaatskappy
Western Giant Oil Company*
Western Natural Gas Company*
Western Nebraska Oil Company*
Western States Oil Company*
Wichita Oil & amp Gas Company
Winona Oil Corporation
Wolf Butte Oil & amp Gas Company*
Woman's Federal Oil Company of America
Vroue se nasionale olie- en amp -ontwikkelingsmaatskappy
World Oil Company
Wyoming Chief Oil Refining Company*
Wyoming Consolidated Oil Company*
Wyoming-Dakota Oil Company
Wyoming Oil & amp Coal Company*
Wyoming Peerless Oil Company
Wyoming Prairie Oil & amp Gas Company
Wyoming Second Standard Oil Company*
* Navorsing aan die gang


Brandstofolie - Geskiedenis

Omstreeks 1847 het die inwoner van Pittsburgh, Samuel Keir, 'n manier bedink om petroleum te distilleer tot 'n lampbrandstof wat hy 'koolstofolie' noem. Die uitvinding van die petroleumlamp in die middel van die 1850's het gelei tot die stigting van die eerste Amerikaanse oliemaatskappy, die Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. Die Amerikaanse oliebedryf is gebore naby Titusville in die noordweste van Pennsylvania in 1859. Daar het Edwin L. Drake die eerste kommersieel suksesvolle olieput in die Verenigde State geboor. Die eerste groot oliemaatskappy was egter die Standard Oil Company wat in 1870 deur John D. Rockefeller gestig is. Standard Oil het sy eerste olieraffinadery in Pennsylvania gebou en later sy uitgebreide bedrywighede landwyd uitgebrei.

Sedert die eerste bekendstelling van petroleum as 'n verligter, en die daaropvolgende oorvloed en gevolglike goedkoop, is verskeie attensies gemaak om dit as brandstof as plaasvervanger vir steenkool te gebruik, veral vir die vervaardiging van stoom. Die voordele en nadele was maklik verstaanbaar. Een van die eerste was die kleiner ruimte wat dit beslaan, met 'n laer gewig en die gemak waarmee dit gemanipuleer kan word, geen roosters, geen as, geen hark, ens. die verbranding daarvan en die oond in die regte toestand hou deur die vuur te hark, die asput skoon te maak, ens. af en toe waarneming en regulering van die aanbod is voldoende, wat alle goeie uitvindings nader bring tot die groot begeerte: die afskaffing van alle harde meganiese arbeid deur mense, aan wie die oorvloedige natuur nie so 'n oorvloedige brein gegee het nie niks, om vermors te word terwyl u die arbeid doen wat breinlose diere of masjinerie ook kan verrig, indien nie beter nie.

Die nadele van die universele gebruik van petroleum as brandstof was eerstens die moeite en arbeid wat verband hou met die vervoer en berging daarvan terwyl die vaste steenkool in oop motors gelaai kan word en in hope opgegooi moet word. lugdigte vaartuie, wat veel meer koste en belegging van kapitaal inhou as wat die vervoer en berging van steenkool veroorsaak. 'N Ander nadeel is die groot brandbaarheid en gevolglike gevaar daarvan om dit in hoeveelhede te bewaar, terwyl steenkool in hierdie opsig volkome veilig is, inderdaad so veilig dat 'n brandende vuurhoutjie, of selfs 'n brandende stok of stuk hout veilig kan gegooi word 'n hoop steenkool en sal verbrand sonder om die steenkool aan te steek, terwyl petroleum, en selfs soms die dampe daarvan, so brandbaar is dat dit gevaarlik is om naby hulle te kom met enige vlam wat hierdie dampe, gemeng met lug, 'n plofbare mengsel produseer. As dit eers ontsteek is, sal water petroieum nie blus nie, aangesien dit bo -op dryf.

Die eerste eksperiment is omstreeks 1864 in een van die Amerikaanse vlootwerwe, in Brooklyn of Pidladelphia, gedoen, waar 'n ingenieur die idee bedink het om 'n groot aantal keroseenlampe onder 'n stoomketel te plaas. Hy het die groot hitte wat deur 'n petroleumlamp afgegee word, waargeneem en vermoed dat as hulle net groot genoeg was om die hele vuurkamer van 'n keteloond te vul, hulle stoom sou opwek. Hy het die feit oor die hoof gesien dat die groot hitte wat deur so 'n lamp geproduseer word, nie veel verder as die skoorsteen strek nie, en dat 'n lang stroom brandende of verhitte gasse onder die ketel en deur die rookkanale gelei moet word om stoom op te wek, en dat slegs 'n voldoende massa steenkool of ander geskikte materiaal moet ontbrand en die verbranding, aangehelp deur 'n trek, gee 'n lang stroom hitte uit wat versprei waar dit nodig is, terwyl lampe die plek waaronder dit is, slegs matig verhit direk geplaas. 'N Beter idee was om 'n deurlopende bespuiting van petroleum oor stukke baksteen te spuit, sodat dit aan die brand gesteek word en 'n ontploffing tussen hulle plaasvind. Dit is probeer, maar met twyfelagtige sukses.

Die volgende verhoor was in die Battery, New York, in 1865. Die uitvinder het 'n spuit petroleum verbrand wat uit geperforeerde pype gekom het, terwyl twee ontploffings, een 'n reeks klein lugontploffings en een 'n reeks oorverhitte stoomontploffings, die verbranding gehelp het. . Dit het baie beter gewerk, aangesien dit die vlamme deur die terugvloeisels kon dryf. Sedertdien is verskeie proewe gedoen, maar die meeste het dieselfde plana -fyn petroleumbespuiting en 'n blaas lug en oorverhitte stoom aanvaar. Daar is egter gou gevind dat die stoomontploffing, hoewel dit gehelp het om die petroleum te atomiseer (dit is kragtig gehelp om die straal in ontelbare klein druppels soos stof te onderverdeel), maar ook die temperatuur verlaag het as dit nie baie hoogs oorverhit was nie , inderdaad so hoog dat dit die olie volatitaliseer toe dit daarmee in aanraking kom. Daar is ook gevind dat die hoeveelheid hoeveelheid lug wat nodig is vir perfekte verbranding, enorm is, nie minder nie as 50 volumes lug vir 1 volume petroleumdamp. Maar dit is geen beswaar nie, aangesien lug niks kos nie.

Wat metallurgie betref, was die probleem redelik goed opgelos; gepoleerde plaatyster en staal is met sukses en ekonomie gemaak met behulp van petroleum as brandstof, terwyl dit vir ander metallurgiese bedrywighede duidelik blyk, maar 'n goeie steaum-ketel is verlang. oond bedoel om petroleum as brandstof te gebruik. Deur verbeterings in die metodes waarna verwys word, is gevind dat petroleum met groot voordeel in plaas van steenkool gebruik kan word vir die vervaardiging van yster, staal, glas, ens., En dat selfs al kos dit $ 10 per vat en steenkool $ 5 per ton, was die voordeel altesaam aan die kant van petroleum tot 'n bedrag van 50 persent, terwyl 1 pond olie onder stoomketels baie byna 15, 16 pond of meer water sal verdamp. Hierdie baie gunstige resultaat is ongetwyfeld te wyte aan die feit dat die verbranding van steenkool natuurlik en noodwendig meer verkwistend is, terwyl 'n vloeibare brandstof met baie meer ekonomie verbrand kan word, mits slegs die regte metode bedink is.

Wat ander mededingende metodes betref, was een teen die einde van 1878 by die United States Navy Yard in Brooklyn, en het getoon dat die uitvinding vreeslik uit die gewrig is, soos bewys deur die onpraktiese en kru idees waarop dit gebaseer is. Teen 1880 was die kuns om petroleum as brandstof te verbrand, om die maksimum beskikbare hitte te verkry, nog in die kinderskoene.

Teen 1882 beweer een waarnemer dat die Russe Amerika aansienlik voor was in die aanwending van petroleum as brandstof. Hulle het dit suksesvol op een van hul spoorweë gebruik om lokomotiewe te bestuur, en het hiervoor die ru -nafta gebruik soos dit uit die putte kom. Meestal het die Kaspiese See die vloeibare brandstof gebruik, wat baie goedkoper was as steenkool. Dit is met die inspuiters verteer, en die verbranding is met die grootste gemak gereguleer. 'N Aantal voordele is vir die vloeibare brandstof geëis. Die oonde hou langer as gevolg van die afwesigheid van swael, daar was geen branders, rook of vonke nie, die werk van die bykomstighede word aansienlik vereenvoudig, en die verhittingseffek van die brandstof is aansienlik groter as die van hout of steenkool.

Die Italiaanse vloot het in 1890 begin met die eksperimenteer met olie, en teen 1900 verbrand die meeste van sy torpedobote olie. Teen die vroeë 1890's was dit duidelik dat vlootgeeste oral verhard het oor die kwessie van steenkooluithouvermoë. Teen 1893 het sommiges die koms van vloeibare brandstof as naby beskou, en aangesien skepe aangevuur kan word (adm. PH Colomb van die Royaal -vloot beweer dat hy hierdie werkwoord bedink het) op see met vloeibare brandstof wanneer dit onmoontlik sou wees om op te neem steenkool, die bespoediging van die koms was 'n saak waarop bereken moet word. With coal, the experience of such ships as the HMS Amphion, with a nominal extreme speed of 17 knots and a nominal coal endurance of 11,000 miles at 10 knots, on a displacement of 4,300 tons, appeared to give more satisfaction to the naval mind as a combination than the HMS Blenheim's 21.6-knot speed with 15,000 miles coal-endurance on a displacement of 9,000 tons. An Amphion would not be justified in running away from a Blenheim, so that the extra speed was not so far called for and while the nominal 4,000 miles greater coal-endurance may be an advantage, it would seem to be much more than balanced by the displacement of the Blenheim. While, therefore, great stress must be laid on coal-endurance so long as coal is the fuel, it may be easy to overdo it in sacrificing other elements.

Oil offered many benefits compared to coal. With twice the thermal content of coal, boilers could be smaller and ships could travel further at greater speed. Oil burned with less smoke, so the location of the fleet would not be so readily compromised. Oil could be stored in tanks anywhere on the ship, allowing more efficient designs. Oil could be transferred through pipes without reliance on stokers, reducing manning. Refueling at sea was feasible, which provided greater operational flexibility. When coal fired boilers are compared with oil fired ones, the biggest differences exist in the combustion equipment. As oil can be combusted in burners of rather simple design, extensive equipment is needed in combustion of coal. In the rest of the boiler, however, there are only a few minor differences in design between boilers fired with solid fuels and those fired with oil. One major difference is that generally more combustion air is needed with solid fuels than with oil, which leads to bigger amounts of flue gases and also to a bigger boiler volume. To turn it the other way round, with a given boiler a bigger output is obtained by oil firing than by coal firing, presuming that combustion of both is possible. The US Navy had conducted significant experiments with oil as fuel almost continuously after 1864. George Wallace Melville, a graduate of Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, worked in the engineering field until July 1861, when he joined the Navy in the rank of Third Assistant Engineer. In August 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed Commodore Melville as the Navy's First Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. He rapidly realized the urgent need for the establishment of a test and evaluation station where naval machinery and components could undergo examination and trial for reliability before being placed aboard Navy ships. Submitting a Congressional request for funds to establish an experiment station and test laboratory, Melville's arguments finally convinced Congress to authorize a modest $400,000 for the buildings and equipment which became the US Naval Engineering Experiment Station when it was completed in 1908.

During his administration of over 16 years, Melville superintended the design of 120 ships of the "New Navy" and introduced such widely acclaimed innovations as the water tube boiler, vertical engines, and the repair ship. Promoted to Rear Admiral (RADM) in 1899, Melville was appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy in 1900. Melville worked to create an oil-burning fleet.

The mixed-firing method of spraying oil on coal was routine by the early 1900s. By 1900 natural gas still provided a significant amount of illumination and some heating. Coal and fuel oil provided most of the energy for heating of homes and offices in cities. Wood was still the dominant source of heat energy in rural areas.

The Royal Navy laid down [Dec 05], built [Dec 05-Oct 06], and commissioned [Dec 06] the first all big-gun battleship, HMS Dreadnought, which revolutionized naval architecture (in spite of the fact that the US Navy already had the USS South Carolina class approved in 1905, they were not laid down until December 1906, hence, the failure to complete in a timely manner gave Dreadnought the honors). This opened up a frantic naval construction race between all of the great naval powers, since all of their ships were now obsolete. HMS Dreadnought mounted 10x12-inch naval rifles in five dual barbettes, three on the center line and one on each side of the forward structure, giving her an 8-gun broadside she turned 21-knots max. with a radius of operations of 6600 miles at 10 kts and 5000 at 19 kts her power plant was a hybrid in as much as she burned both coal and oil. The transition by the Royal Navy from coal to oil was stimulated by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and Admiral Sir John (Jacky) Fisher. The Royal Navy had already adopted oil for submarines and destroyers, as had the American Navy. When Churchill went to Whitehall in 1911, coal was still the primary source of power for naval vessels. Ordered in 1912 to outmaneuver and cross the T of the German fleet, the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were built to burn oil only. Once this decision was made, it followed that the rest of the Royal Navy would turn to oil. This technological change was a great success, and every navy soon switched to oil. An extensive investigation of petroleum as fuel by the Liquid Fuel Board in 1902-03 proved tremendously important to the entire naval and commercial world. The Board recommended using oil as a standalone fuel in 1904. The first oil-burning American destroyer, USS Paulding, was commissioned in 1910. The BB-34 New York Class battleships, laid down in 1911, were the first US Navy battleships armed with 14-inch guns, and the last to be built with more than four main battery turrets, intermediate weight side armor and coal-fired boilers. The BB-36 Nevada Class were the last US Navy battleships to have reciprocating engines, and the last to have two propellers. At the same time they were the first of the ships to carry fourteen-inch guns, and the US Navy's first to have oil as their primary fuel. The US Navy began to establish fuel oil depots in 1910 to supply the needs of submarines and destroyers. Its first fuel oil facilities were located on the East Coast at Key West, Charleston, Norfolk, and Narragansett Bay.


Oil is a natural resource formed by the decay of organic matter over millions of years, and like many other natural resources, it can only be extracted from reserves where it already exists. The only difference between oil and every other natural resource is that oil is well and truly the lifeblood of the global economy.

The world derives over a third of its total energy production from oil, more than any other source by far. As a result, the countries that control the world’s oil reserves often have disproportionate geopolitical and economic power.

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 14 countries make up 93.5% of the proven oil reserves globally. The countries on this list span five continents and control anywhere from 25.2 billion barrels of oil to 304 billion barrels of oil.


Oil and Gas Industry in Alabama

Mobile Bay Gas Platforms Alabama is among the top 17 producers of oil and among the top 16 producers of natural gas in the United States. Oil and gas are found in many counties as well as in Mobile Bay. The state has developed some of the most stringent environmental regulations regarding drilling in its offshore waters. Alabama's oil production has steadily increased from an average of just over five million barrels in 2009 to nine million barrels in 2015. Alabama's natural gas production has steadily declined since 2005 but has leveled since 2012 at about 200 billion cubic feet per year. In 2015, the state the oil and gas industry contributed $11.3 billion to the Alabama economy, which was 6.4% of the state's GDP. Alabama Oil and Gas Regions Oil in Alabama generally occurs in the state's two sedimentary basins, the Interior Salt Basin in the southwest and the Black Warrior Basin in the northwest, both of which extend westward into Mississippi. Geologists use the term "basin" to describe a broad area where layered sedimentary rocks sag thousands of feet downward into a "bowl" shape, although there is often no evidence of this at the surface. The Interior Salt Basin consists of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, which date back 200 million years. The Black Warrior Basin is composed of Paleozoic rocks, some of which date back 580 million years. This region is also famous for its vast coal reserves, such as the Warrior Coal Field. Oil Rig Petroleum forms in the microscopic pores of rocks such as sandstone and limestone and slowly makes its way to the surface. When the petroleum becomes trapped in its migration, it forms an oil or gas field. Common traps are geologic features known as faults and anticlines. Faults are cracks in layers of rock in which the rocks on either side of the crack move in relation to each other. This can be envisioned by thinking of a knife slicing through a layer cake and seeing one side of the cake slump downward. Anticlines are dome-shaped folds in sections of layered rock. Geologists search for these traps with machines that measure gravity, magnetic, and seismic data, all of which tell them critical properties of buried rock layers. Geologists refer to a likely place for oil or gas as a "prospect." When a prospect is identified, "landmen" are sent in to lease the mineral rights from property owners, who retain a royalty, which is a share of the revenue generated by the oil and gas produced from the owner's property. After the leases are acquired, drilling rigs are brought in to drill and test the prospect. Chesley Pruet and Dudley Hughes Knowing the geology of the state extremely well, Jones became convinced that Alabama would one day become a significant petroleum producer. He continued to lobby the legislature for laws to encourage oil men to come to Alabama with their drilling rigs. But it was not until World War II broke out in 1939 that Jones saw his wishes come true, when demand for oil rose and Alabama's fortunes changed. In 1944, Texas oilman Haroldson "H. L." Hunt drilled beside a fault in Choctaw County and discovered the Gilbertown Field in the Eutaw Sand at a depth of 3,700 feet. That field produced 15 million barrels of oil (1 barrel = 42 gallons), not a lot by modern standards but enough to make "oil fever" spread rapidly. Other companies, many of which were run by independent prospectors popularly known as "wildcatters," followed Hunt's lead, but 11 years passed before they found the next significant discovery. Early Jurassic Landscape Reconstruction As oil drilling boomed in south Alabama in the late 1960s and 1970s, wildcatter Walter Sistrunk struck gas in the Black Warrior Basin in Lamar County, as did engineer William Tucker in Fayette County. Both men, as well as Pruet and Hughes, headed small but aggressive companies called "Independents" that used investment money from various other oil industry sources. These pioneers lured many more companies, which spread natural gas development through the northwest Alabama region. Gas Rig in the Gulf of Mexico In 1978, with protections in place to preserve the bay's ecology, Mobil moved in a huge offshore rig. They drilled more than 21,000 feet into an ancient desert called the Norphlet Sandstone and discovered the largest natural gas field east of the Mississippi, the Lower Mobile Bay–Mary Ann Field. The discovery formed the core of offshore development that eventually located six trillion cubic feet of reserves and as of 2007 has sent $2.1 billion worth of royalties to Alabama's Heritage Trust Fund, which uses the interest from the funds to help pay for the state's education and infrastructure needs. The fund was the first of its kind in U.S. history. Oil and gas activity in Mobile Bay and the nearby Gulf of Mexico waters stands today as a global environmental standard for offshore drilling and production operations. Choctaw Ridge Oil Field Walter B. Jones's vision for Alabama has come true. Alabama now ranks 10th among the states in natural gas production and 15th in liquid petroleum. Since the first meager gas discovery at Hazel Green, thousands of wells have been drilled across the state. Most have produced nothing, but by 2007 the successful ones were producing nearly $2.5 billion worth of oil and gas annually, $500 million of which goes to Alabama's citizens in the form of taxes, royalties, and trusts. Alabama's several locally owned and operated companies join many others from across the nation and abroad to employ thousands of local workers in finding, extracting, refining, and transporting the state's petroleum resources.

Oil and gas is still being found in Alabama, and geologists believe new opportunities exist in the hard shales of the deep Black Warrior Basin beneath Pickens and Tuscaloosa Counties and in the thick fractured shales of St. Clair and neighboring counties.

Cockrell, Alan. Drilling Ahead: The Quest for Oil in the Deep South, 1945-2005. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.


Ons geskiedenis

Today we operate in most of the world's countries and are best-known by our familiar brand names: Exxon, Esso and Mobil. We make the products that drive modern transportation, power cities, lubricate industry and provide petrochemical building blocks that lead to thousands of consumer goods.

Colonel Edwin Drake and Uncle Billy Smith drill the first successful oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The colonel's discovery triggers an oil boom that parallels the gold rush of a decade earlier.

Rockefeller and his associates form the Standard Oil Company (Ohio), with combined facilities constituting the largest refining capacity of any single firm in the world. The name Standard is chosen to signify high, uniform quality.

Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil.

Standard Oil lubricates Thomas Edison's first central generating system. Also in this year, Standard Oil Trust forms to include the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey Standard) and the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony).

The Standard Oil Trust moves its headquarters to 26 Broadway, New York City. The nine-story office building becomes a landmark. The same year, Vacuum develops Gargoyle Arctic engine oils for newly designed generators and motors that operate at speeds of up to 1,000 rpm.

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, use both Jersey Standard fuel and Mobiloil (Vacuum) lubricants for their historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Socony gains a strong foothold in the vast market for kerosene in China by developing small lamps that burned kerosene efficiently. The lamps become known as Mei-Foo, from the Chinese symbols for Socony, meaning "beautiful confidence."

Following a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Standard Oil breaks up into 34 unrelated companies, including Jersey Standard, Socony and Vacuum Oil. The year also marks the first time Jersey Standard's sales of kerosene are surpassed by gasoline, a product that in the early days had often been discarded as a nuisance.

Ralph De Palma, winner of the Indianapolis 500, is the first of many Indy winners to use Mobil products. His average speed: 89.84 mph.

Jersey Standard acquires a 50-percent interest in Humble Oil & Refining Company of Texas. It was during this year that Humble, led by its pioneering Chief Geologist Wallace Pratt, employed micropaleontology, the study of microscopic fossils contained in cuttings and core samples from drilling, as an aid in finding oil.

Jersey Standard researchers produce rubbing alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol &mdash the first commercial petrochemical.

Embodying the phonetic rendition of the initials &lsquoS&rsquo and &lsquoO&rsquo in Standard Oil, Jersey Standard brings out a new blend of fuel under the trade name Esso.

Humble geophysicists use a refraction seismograph and discover an oil field in Sugarland, Texas.

Amelia Earhart uses Mobiloil to protect Friendship when she makes her historic solo flight across the Atlantic. The previous year, Charles Lindbergh used Mobiloil in the Spirit of St. Louis on the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

First commercial unit in a cat-cracking refinery begins operation at Socony-Vacuum&rsquos Paulsboro, New Jersey, refinery. The unit used a process developed by French scientist Eugene P. Houdry with the financial backing of Socony-Vacuum. The process added a clay-like catalyst to the cracking process to boost gasoline yields and octane rating.

Harlem postman Victor Green creates the Green Book. Often referred to as the &ldquoBible of Black travel,&rdquo the Green Book listed service stations, hotels, restaurants and other establishments where Black travelers would be welcomed. Jersey Standard was the only major retail distributor of the Green Book through its network of Esso service stations, which welcomed Black motorists and also provided business opportunities for Black franchisees. The Green Book was published and distributed nationwide until 1967.

Jersey Standard researchers produce an artificial rubber, butyl. Today, butyl is used in the creation of tires, surgical tapes, protective coatings and more.

The world's first commercial production of alkylate begins at a Humble plant in Baytown, Texas. Alkylation made possible the manufacturing of iso-octane, used as a blending agent to produce 100-octane aviation gasoline.

The world&rsquos first fluid catalytic cracker goes onstream at Louisiana Standard&rsquos Baton Rouge refinery. The process, developed by four Jersey Standard researchers known as the &ldquofour horsemen,&rdquo improved on the Houdry method for cat cracking and eventually became the industry standard for producing gasoline. Fortune magazine called it &ldquothe most revolutionary chemical-engineering achievement of the last 50 years.&rdquo

Jersey Standard introduces Uniflo motor oil, the first multigrade motor oil recommended for both summer and winter use.

Jersey Standard establishes the Esso Education Foundation, a program that gives financial aid to private colleges and universities.

Pan American Airways flies its first trans-Atlantic Boeing 707 flight from New York to London. The flight is fueled by Mobil aviation fuel.

An advertising copywriter in Chicago comes up with the advertising slogan &ldquoPut a tiger in your tank.&rdquo

Humble invents 3-D seismic technology, a revolution that completely changes the way the industry searches for oil and gas resources. (This breakthrough technology, coupled with the use of massive parallel computers in seismic imaging, has helped our geologists sharply reduce finding costs since the 1980s while increasing new field resource additions.)

Mobil celebrates 100 years since the founding of the Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 and changes its name to Mobil Oil Corporation. The company launches a wide-reaching identity program to emphasize the Mobil trade name.

Jersey Standard officially changes its name to Exxon Corporation. The name change is approved by Jersey Standard shareholders in a special shareholders&rsquo meeting.

Mobil introduces a synthetic automotive engine lubricant &mdash Mobil 1. Today, Mobil 1 is the world&rsquos leading synthetic motor oil.

Mobil participates in completion of Beryl A, the world's first concrete production platform. The 50-story-high structure was the prototype for other concrete deepwater facilities operating in the North Sea.

Mobil invents a process for converting methanol into high-octane gasoline through the use of the company&rsquos versatile ZSM-5 catalyst.

Exxon opens its own facility for environmental health research at East Millstone, New Jersey. Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. conducts research to further assure the safety of Exxon operations and products.

Exxon celebrates 100 years since the formation of the Standard Oil Trust in 1882. In its first 100 years, the company evolved from a domestic refiner and distributor of kerosene to a large multinational corporation, involved at every level of oil and gas exploration, production, refining and marketing, and petrochemicals manufacturing.

Exxon Research and Engineering invents a powerful new imaging technique called 3-D microtomography to study the internal structure of opaque objects without damaging them.

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound in Alaska. The Valdez oil spill was a tragic accident that ExxonMobil deeply regrets. The company took immediate responsibility for the spill, cleaned it up and voluntarily compensated those who claimed direct damages. Learn more about the Exxon Valdez.

Exxon introduces Exxpol, a single-site metallocene catalyst used to produce consistent, controllable molecular structures that make plastic and rubber products tougher and impact-resistant, with less haze and with excellent organoleptics (low off-taste and odor).

Exxon establishes the Save The Tiger Fund in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. The Save The Tiger Fund is dedicated to supporting the conservation of Asia&rsquos remaining wild tigers. Since its establishment, ExxonMobil has provided $1 million annually in support of the Save The Tiger Fund.

Mobil introduces Speedpass, an electronic system which automatically activates the pump and charges purchases to a credit card. Speedpass is similar to the electronic toll technology successfully used on subway, bus and highway systems around the world.

On November 30, 1999, Exxon and Mobil join to form Exxon Mobil Corporation. &ldquoThis merger will enhance our ability to be an effective global competitor in a volatile world economy and in an industry that is more and more competitive,&rdquo said Lee Raymond and Lou Noto, chairmen and chief executive officers of Exxon and Mobil, respectively.

ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (EMRE) develops the SCANfining process, which uses a new proprietary catalyst to selectively remove more than 95 percent of the sulfur from gasoline while minimizing octane loss.

ExxonMobil, joined by other sponsors, initiates the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University &mdash a pioneering research effort to identify technologies that can meet energy demand with dramatically lower greenhouse gas emissions.

ExxonMobil partners with professional golfer Phil Mickelson and his wife, Amy, to launch the Mickelson ExxonMobil Teachers Academy. The academy is designed to provide third- through fifth-grade teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to motivate kids to pursue careers in science and math.

ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum, with other joint-venture partners, expand development of the giant North Field offshore Qatar, the largest nonassociated gas field in the world.

Exxon Neftegas Limited (a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation) completes the drilling of the Z-11 well, the longest measured depth extended-reach drilling (ERD) well in the world. (Located on Sakhalin Island offshore eastern Russia, the record-setting Z-11 achieved a total measured depth of 37,016 feet [11,282 meters], or more than seven miles.)

ExxonMobil's donation through &ldquoIdol Gives Back&rdquo enables the distribution of hundreds of thousands of bed nets throughout disease-stricken communities in Angola.

Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) and Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI) announced the opening of a greenhouse facility enabling the next level of research and testing in their algae biofuels program. In 2017, these efforts will yield a breakthrough involving modification of an algae strain that more than doubles its oil content without significantly inhibiting the strain&rsquos growth.

ExxonMobil finalizes its agreement with XTO Energy Inc., creating a new organization to focus on global development and production of unconventional resources. A plan to build and deploy a rapid response system that will be available to capture and contain oil in the event of a potential future underwater well blowout in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico is announced by Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and Shell. ExxonMobil leads the containment system efforts on behalf of the sponsor companies.

Exxon Mobil Corporation announced two major oil discoveries and a gas discovery in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico after drilling the company's first post-moratorium deep-water exploration well. This is one of the largest discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico in the last decade.


The Complete History Of Oil Markets

Like most other commodities in the markets, crude oil prices have routinely experienced wild price swings alternating between times of great shortages, high demand and high prices and periods of oversupply, low demand and depressed prices. These so-called crude oil &ldquoPrice Cycles&rdquo tend to last several years, depending on variables such as oil demand, volume of oil drilled, processed and sold by the major producers.

Since the early days of commercial production in Baku, Azerbaijan, these price swings have been triggered by economic and political events, technological advancements and changes within the petroleum industry, and continue to influence prices in the present day.

Crude Oil Price History: 1861-Present


Source: IG Group

1800-1869: Early black gold rush

The modern oil industry traces back its roots to Baku where the first commercial refinery was established in 1837 to distil oil into paraffin for heating and lighting purposes.

The first modern oil well was sunk in Baku in 1846 and reached a depth of 21 meters. The single oil field accounted for more than 90% of global production, with most of the oil finding its way to Persia (present-day Iran).

Several commercial oil wells soon followed:

Pennsylvania was the epicenter of the first black gold rush, producing nearly 50% of the world&rsquos oil. Prices shot up rapidly from .49 per barrel in 1861 to $6.59 a barrel in 1865, representing a massive 1,245% climb in the space of just four years.

1870-1913: The auto revolution

Whereas some economists contend that the modern oil industry only took off after WWII with the creation of the Marshall Plan - part of which was an agreement for a Free On Board price for all players - others argue that the incorporation of Standard Oil Co by John D. Rockefeller in 1870 in Ohio was the true launchpad for the industry. Related: EIA Sharply Cuts Oil Price Forecast

Standard Oil quickly rose to prominence over the next two decades, driving down prices and buying up the competition. The company was so successful that it controlled nearly 90% of refined oil in the United States by 1890. As production continued to expand both in the US and in Russia, global oil prices fell from an average of $2.56 a barrel in 1876 to just .56 in 1892. This was further accelerated with the launch of the first commercial cars in Germany and the US in 1896, a technological revolution that would fuel unprecedented growth for the industry.

1901-1911: Rise of the oil majors

Many of the modern oil majors can trace their origins to the early 20th century.

- The discovery of oil at Spindletop, Texas, led to the creation of Texaco and Gulf Oil in 1901

- Increasing competitive pressure led to Shell and Royal Dutch merging in 1907 to form Royal Dutch/Shell

- BP, formerly known as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, was incorporated in 1908 following the discovery of oil in Iran

- Chevron, Exxon and Mobil (now Exxon Mobil) came into being in 1911 after the split of Standard Oil Co following an antitrust ruling by the US Supreme Court

The seven oil majors went on to control 85% of the world&rsquos oil reserves during their golden years in the 1970s.

1914-1949: Oil discoveries, wars, crises

The discovery of oil in Cushing, Oklahoma, in 1912 is considered an important milestone for the US oil industry because the region grew to become one of the most important oil fields in the country. Notably, it also became the settlement point for the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price, a leading global oil price benchmark.

The next four and a half decades were a turbulent period marked by a series of major wars and economic crises, all of which would have an important bearing on oil prices.

First was WWI (1914-1918) which drove up global demand for oil that more than doubled oil prices from .81 per barrel in 1914 to $1.98 by the end of the war. Demand continued to grow even after the war ended mainly fueled by the ever-increasing popularity of the automobile and a gasoline shortage in the US west coast. At first, prices surged to $3.07 per barrel before retreating and stabilizing around $1.61 as production increased.

Around this time, oil companies started researching other applications for the commodity including commercial production of plastics. However, prices remained relatively low despite the extra demand created by these applications mainly due to a combination of stiff competition and plentiful supply. Meanwhile, major oil discoveries elsewhere continued to keep the markets awash with the commodity including Venezuela, Iraq, the USSR, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Mexico.

The discovery of oil in East Texas in 1930 was one of the major highlights of this period because it helped create an oil glut that happened to coincide with the Great Depression that consequently depressed prices from $1.19 in 1930 to .65 in 1931. It took the intervention of the Texas Railroad Commission which enforced production quotas to stabilize prices and prevent further declines.

Just like WWI, the beginning of WWII in 1939 also helped drive demand and goose prices. However, the effect was less pronounced this time around due to bountiful global supply. Nevertheless, the war made governments acutely aware of the need to control reserves, and it would clearly show in their actions over the next couple of decades.

1950-2003: Battle to control production

The ending of the second world war would usher in a period whereby many countries made concerted efforts to hold sway in global oil production, with several governments nationalizing their oil infrastructure.

Between 1950 and1960, Iran, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia all partly nationalized their oil industries. The Suez crisis of 1956-57 saw Egypt seize the Suez Canal through which nearly five percent of the world&rsquos oil flowed.

However, it was the US and USSR that would emerge as the biggest heavyweights in terms of production control. In the late 1950s, the USSR started to flood the market with cheap oil leading to price cuts by the majors in a bid to remain competitive. In response to these developments, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela teamed up and formed OPEC as a means to lower competition between their countries and also as a means to have a bigger impact in controlling supply.

OPEC went on to expand its membership over the next two decades with UAE, Libya, Indonesia, Qatar, Nigeria, Algeria, Gabon and Ecuador joining the organization. Between 1960 and 1976, most of these countries took control of their oil reserves by buying out or forcibly taking shares from the oil majors.

The US and the USSR continued to throw their weight around but soon the influence shifted to OPEC. In 1973, OPEC members embargoed countries supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur war. Consequently, oil prices shot up to levels never witnessed before, from $2.48 per barrel in 1972 to $11.58 by 1974 and even higher in parts of the US. Related: Is The U.S. Gas Boom Already Over?

It was around this time when oil was discovered in the North Sea in a region controlled by the UK and Norway. Oil from this area is referred to as Brent crude and is used alongside WTI to benchmark prices.

Iran sharply cut production during the Iranian revolution (1970-1980) and also during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 leading to a spike in prices to $36.83. However, prices fell again due to demand shocks as well as increased production by the USSR, which became the world&rsquos largest producer in 1988. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Gulf War. This created a major supply shock that led to prices shooting up from $14.98 per barrel before the war to $41.00 in September 1991.

The 1990s witnessed wild price fluctuations. The Soviet Union fell in 1991, precipitating the collapse of the Russian oil sector with production halving over the next decade mainly due to reduced investments. However, global demand also tumbled in 1997 due to the Asian financial crisis but managed to recover by the turn of the century after the region&rsquos economic outlook improved.

2003-Present: Hydraulic fracturing and a changing landscape

This next decade witnessed some of the most spectacular explosions in oil prices.

The US invaded Iraq in 2003 leading to supply uncertainties. This was further compounded by massive demand growth by Asia and China. Consequently, prices jumped from $28.38 per barrel in July 2000 to $146.02 in July 2008.

From here prices fell due to the global financial crisis of 2008 before staging a comeback. The Arab Spring of 2011 created supply shortages and helped push prices to $126.48 per barrel.

Technological advancements in recent times have significantly altered the global oil landscape. Hydraulic fracturing has pushed the US to the top of the pack once again, reducing the influence of OPEC and depressing prices. Flooding of the market by US shale has led to a sharp drop in global oil prices, from $114.84 per barrel in June 2014 to $28.47 in January 2016. OPEC has tried to ameliorate the glut by teaming up with non-OPEC countries such as Russia to implement production cuts. Consequently, prices have recovered somewhat but have never approached levels seen in the past decade.

With the US now acting as the new &lsquoswing producer&rsquo OPEC&rsquos influence and ability to control prices is likely to remain diminished. The unresolved trade war between the US and China as well as geopolitical uncertainty in Iran, Syria and other countries has helped goose prices from their 2016 lows of below $30 per barrel to $54.70 in October 2019. But with continued high levels of shale production and a weakening global economy, prices are expected to remain subdued with prices projected to average $66 a barrel in 2019 and $65 a barrel in 2020.


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