Roe II DD -418 - Geskiedenis

Roe II DD -418 - Geskiedenis


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Roe II DD-418

Roe II (DD-418: dp. 1,620; 1, 348 '; b. 36'1 "; dr. 11'5" (gemiddelde); s. 35 k. Cpl. 192; a. 4 5 ", 8 21 "tt .; cl Sims) Die tweede Roe (DD-418) is op 23 April 1938 neergelê deur die Charleston Navy Yard, Charleston, SC, gelanseer op 21 Junie 1939, geborg deur mev. Eleanor Roe Hilton, en in opdrag van 5 Januarie 1940 , Lt.kom. R. M. Seruggs in bevel. Roe het na beëindiging oefeninge langs die oostelike kus en in die Stille Oseaan uitgevoer. In die lente van 1941 keer sy terug na die ooskus en bly gedurende die somer hoofsaaklik in die middel-Atlantiese kusgebied. In die herfs verhuis sy noordwaarts, na Argentia, om handelskonvooie tussen Newfoundland en Ieeland te begelei. Op daardie plig toe die Verenigde State die Tweede Wêreldoorlog binnegaan, het Roe in Januarie 1942 suidwaarts gegaan, die benaderings na Bermuda en na Norfolk gepatrolleer, en in middel Februarie die hawe van New York binnegekom, waarvandaan sy die konvooi -lopies van die Noord -Atlantiese Oseaan hervat het. By die aankoms van Ieeland op 3 Maart het sy tot middernag gebly - in die hawe en op patrollie van daardie eiland en in die Denemarke Straat. Teen die einde van die maand keer Roe terug na New York. In April het sy skepe na Panama begelei en daarna in die waters van New England deurgebring. In Junie het sy nog 'n Noord-Atlantiese lopie voltooi, hierdie keer na die Verenigde Koninkryk en in Julie het sy groter skepe in die kus- en Karibiese opleidingsoperasies vertoon. In Oktober werk sy tussen Trinidad en hawens in Brasilië, keer daarna terug na Norfolk om voor te berei op Operasie "Torch", die landings in Noord -Afrika. Roe, wat aan die Northern Attack Group toegewys is, het die transporte na Mehedia geskerm en daarna troepe ondersteun. terwyl hulle probeer om Port Lysutey, die Sebou -rivier en die Sale -veld te neem. Sy het die aand van 7-8 November, voor die hoofgroep, uit die aanrandingsgebied aangekom, en met haar SG-radar probeer om die baken-duikboot, Shad, op te spoor. Sy was onbewustelik en het haar eie posisie ten opsigte van die aanlegste en strande van die landingsgebied vasgemaak en teruggekeer na die hoofmag om dit na die vervoergebied te lei. Tydens die vroeë oggendlandings het sy as beheervernietiger op die blou en geel strande opgetree en daarna oorgegaan na skutondersteuningspligte. Kort na sonsopkoms het sy Savannah (CL-42) bygestaan ​​om die vyandige vuur tydelik stil te maak uit die Kasba, 'n ou vesting op 'n elif wat die mond van die Sebou beveel. Deur die dag en tot die 15de het Roe in die gebied gebly om vuur te gee ondersteun en skerm die groter skepe. Sy draai toe weswaarts en kom terug op Hampton Roads op die 26ste. Gedurende die winter en die daaropvolgende lente, 1943, het Roe weer begeleide werk met tenkwa -lopies na olie- en Golfhawe in die Golf en die Karibiese Eilande en byvoering en versterkingskonvooie na Casablanca verrig. Op 10 Junie vertrek sy uit New York na die Middellandse See en haar tweede aanval - Operasie "Husky", die inval in Sicilië. Aan die einde van die maand by Oran aangekom, gaan sy verder na Bizerte, waarna sy noordwaarts met die "Joss" stoom. "krag vir Lieata op 8 Julie. Op die 9de neem sy haar pos in die brandsteungebied van die strand Red, naby die Torre de Gaffe, in. Vroeg op die 10de het sy en Swanson (DD-443) na Porto Empedoele, 'n Italiaanse motortorpedobootbasis, bewaak deur 'n mynveld 24 myl wes van Licata, beweeg om klein pitte wat op hul radarskerms geregistreer het, te ondersoek. Terwyl albei verwoesters voorberei het om op die "vyandige" bote te skiet, het Roe uitgeswaai om die mynveld te vermy en terselfdertyd in die suide van Swanson te val. Haar spoed het Swanson egter oorskry, en net voor 0300 het Roe Swanson reghoekig aan die hawekant getref en 'n gedeelte van haar eie boog afgesny en Swanson se vuurkamer laat oorstroom. Beide skepe het in die water doodgegaan. Gelukkig was albei 0500 selfoon teen 0500. Toe die daglig toeneem, het die Luftwaffe probeer om die beskadigde skepe te voltooi. Die vernietigers het hulself verdedig en in die proses een Ju. 88 met 13 rondes naby 5-duim-vuur wat deur 'n influena versmelt is om die waarde van die nuwe lont in die lugweergeveg te bewys. Medio September hervat sy die transatlantiese konvooi-diens en voltooi twee lopies na Noord-Afrika voor die einde van die jaar. Met die nuwe jaar, 1944, is Roe na die Stille Oseaan oorgeplaas. Sy vertrek op 26 Januarie uit New York en het deur die Panamakanaal gegaan en oor die Stille Oseaan gegaan om by die Sudest 12 Maart by CTF 76 aan te meld. Van daar af, en ander hawens en ankerplekke in Nieu -Guinee, het sy die 7de Phib Force -skepe begelei wat geallieerde troepe langs die kus en deur die naburige eilande vervoer het, en skutondersteuning gebied in teikengebiede. Van 16 tot 21 Maart ondersteun sy operasies op Manus. Begin April het sy weermagpersoneel van Manus na Rambutyo vervoer, waarna hulle voorberei het vir die landings in Humboldtbaai, wat sy op 22 April ondersteun het. Middel Mei het sy die offensief in die Toem-Wadke-omgewing bygestaan; dan, aan die einde van die maand, het LST's aan Biak gekeur. Brandondersteuningsplig en begeleiding van versterkings en voorrade na Biak duur tot in Junie voort. Op die 29ste het sy eall-ondersteuning verleen vir weermag-eenhede wat noordoos van die Driniumorrivier veg. Toe, in Julie, het die verwoester na Noemfoor geskuif om 'n voorafbomende bombardement te voer en vuur te ondersteun, wat middernag verlig is, vertrek Roe uit die Admiraliteite en stoom na Majuro, waar sy by die 5de vloot aansluit. Vir die volgende ses weke het sy gedien as 'n vliegtuigreddingsskip in gebiede buite Maloelap, Wotje, Mili en Jaluit. Patrollie-, plakkers- en begeleidingsdienste het haar daarna tussen die busse laat bly en tussen die Marshalls en Marianas, veral laasgenoemde, tot vroeg in Desember toe sy by TG 94.9 aangesluit het vir 'n bombardement van Iwo Jima. , waaruit Roe twee soek- en reddingsmissies en een genadesloop uitgevoer het, terwyl hy 'n dokter na 'n konvooi op pad na Saipan geneem het, voordat hy op 24 en 27 op verdere stakings teen Iwo Jima op pad was. Op die 24ste het Roe 'n klein treiler gesink en saam met Case (DD-370) 'n ander skip na die onderkant gestuur-vermoedelik 'n vernietiger wat vir vinnige vervoerdienste omskep is. Op die 27ste vernietig sy verskeie klein vaartuie en beskadig geboue en lugvaartinstallasies in en naby die westelike wasbak van die eiland. en begeleiding van Guam. Einde April keer sy terug na die Voleano-Bonin-gebied vir radarpaaltjie en soek- en reddingsoperasies tydens lugaanvalle op die Japannese tuiseilande. Einde Mei hervat sy die bedrywighede in die Marianas en in Junie ontvang sy bevele aan die weskus.Roe kom op 29 Julie in San Francisco -baai aan, en ondergaan 'n werfreparasie toe die oorlog op 14 Augustus eindig. Roe, wat daarna vir inaktivering aangewys is, is op 30 Oktober 1945 uit diens gestel en is op 16 November uit die vlootlys gehaal. Sy is verkoop in Augustus 1947. Roe (DD-418) het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ses gevegsterre verdien.


Roe II DD -418 - Geskiedenis

Referate (1941-1944), insluitend korrespondensie, Naval flight School Handbook, memorabilia en foto's.

Biografiese/historiese inligting

Gordon W. Hooper was 'n Amerikaanse werwer en werk hoofsaaklik in die noordooste van die Verenigde State tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Omvang en rangskikking

Die versameling bevat 'n US Navy Flight School Handbook wat hoofsaaklik handel oor werwing en opleiding van vlootbeamptes en personeel van die vlootreservaat op die gebied van lugvaart, lugvaart, geselekteerde diens, lewensredding, gegradueerde werk en die voorraadkorps. Die handboek bevat ook inligting oor talle Amerikaanse vlootskepe en duikbote, insluitend die naamgewing, inbedryfstelling, borgskap en toewydingswetgewing van die Amerikaanse vlootfinansiering en die oordrag van afgetrede en reserwe personeel.

Materiaal rakende spesifieke skepe bevat 'n verslag van die sink van 'n Japannese treiler en vernietiger deur verwoester USS ROE (DD-418) naby Iwo Jima, die vyfde verjaardaggeskiedenis (1944) van die vernietiger USS LANG (DD-399) 'n lys van bedrywighede wat die LANG het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deelgeneem aan 'n Thanksgiving 1944 -spyskaart vir die LANG, wat 'n lys met offisiere en bemanning bevat, 'n uitnodiging en spyskaart vir die inbedryfstelling van die USS SWEARER (1943) en allerhande gefotostateerde items.

Foto's van die vernietiger USS J. FRED TALBOTT (DD-156) en die slagskip USS TEXAS (BB-35) is ingesluit.

Administratiewe inligting
Bewaringsgeskiedenis

9 September 1993, 1 item Tweede Wêreldoorlog Naval Flight School Handbook.

25 Mei 1994, 13 items USS LANG (DD-399) skeepsgeskiedenis en spyskaartprogram, foto's van USS TEXAS en USS TALBOTT, en diverse. Geskenk van mev Helen Hooper, Leviltown, NY.


USS Roe DD-418 (1940-1947)

Versoek 'n GRATIS pakkie en kry die beste inligting en hulpbronne oor mesothelioom oornag by u afgelewer.

Alle inhoud is kopiereg 2021 | Oor ons

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Aanbevole leesstof

Waarom kry minder Amerikaanse vroue aborsies?

Die werklike probleem met globalisering

Hoe om Trump aanspreeklik te hou

Sonder om hierdie geskiedenis te kenne, meen Williams, is dit moeilik om te verstaan ​​waarom lewensbeskouing in die Amerikaanse politiek so 'n blywende krag gehad het, selfs al het die openbare mening oor ander sosiale kwessies, soos LGBT-regte en geboortebeperking, steeds verander na meer toelaatbaar. Volgens hom het aborsie 'n ander geskiedenis. Sy vroeë teenstanders het gedink dat dit hul plig en hul regering se plig was om die ongeborenes saam met die armes en die swakkes te beskerm. Hulle het geglo dat hul posisie vroue bemagtiging bied, nie onderdrukking nie.

Die belangrikste is dat hierdie geskiedenis toon hoe verwronge die aborsiedebat geword het, aangesien vroue se liggame en die toekoms van kinders verander is in retoriese bewysgronde vir politici links en regs. Deesdae is lewenslange demokrate amper uitgestorwe, en openlik kieskeurige Republikeine haal selde 'n nasionale verhoog soos vanjaar se presidensiële wedloop. Vyftig jaar gelede was dit nie die geval nie. Wat het gebeur met die progressiewe pro-lifers van Amerika?

As die eerste voorstanders van wettiging van aborsies in Amerika dokters was, was hul katolieke kollegas hul sterkste teenstanders. Teen die laat 19de eeu het bykans alle state aborsie verbied, behalwe in gevalle waar die ma se lewe bedreig is. Soos Williams skryf: "Die land se koerante het dit as vanselfsprekend aanvaar dat aborsie 'n gevaarlike, immorele aktiwiteit was en dat diegene wat aborsies uitgevoer het, misdadigers was." Maar in die dertigerjare het 'n paar dokters 'n beroep gedoen op minder streng aborsieverbod - meestal 'liberale of sekulêre Jode wat geglo het dat Katolieke pogings om die openbare reg te gebruik om die kerk se eie standaarde van seksualiteit te handhaaf, mense se persoonlike vryheid skend', volgens Williams. In 1937 het die National Federation of Catholic Physicians 'Guild 'n verklaring uitgereik waarin hulle hierdie aborsie-ondersteuners veroordeel, wat volgens hulle' die geneesheer 'die grafgrawer van die land sou wees'. Alhoewel sommige protestante vroeër betrokke was by die pogings om aborsies op 'n vroeë stadium te verbied, het Katolieke in hierdie vroeë jare die verset oorweldigend gelei.

Sommige hospitale het aborsiewette losweg vertolk en vertrou op sielkundiges om te bevestig dat 'n vrou selfmoordrisiko loop as sy gedwing word om haar swangerskap te beëindig. Maar selfs sommige van die dokters wat hierdie prosedures uitgevoer het en advokate vir liberalisering van aborsies voorgestaan ​​het-soos Alan Guttmacher, 'n ginekoloog in New York, wat in die 1960's die hoof was van Planned Parenthood en die naam is van een van vandag se mees prominente voorkeursorganisasies -verminder van die volledige ondersteuning van die prosedure, in die hoop dat geboortebeperking die behoefte daarvan sou uitskakel. 'Ek hou nie van moord nie,' het Guttmacher gesê, maar hy het gedink aborsie is geregverdig as dit 'n ma se lewe behou.

Intussen het 'n handjievol howe 'n ander aspek van die debat aangeneem: of aborsie 'n skending van menseregte was. Van 1939 tot 1958 het vyf hooggeregshowe van die staat en die Amerikaanse distrikshof in DC uitsprake gelewer wat die fetale persoonlikheid erken. Hierdie uitsprake was in ooreenstemming met die oortuigings van teologies -konserwatiewe Katolieke, wat geglo het dat die lewe by die bevrugting begin, en hierdie groep het heel moontlik die besluite beïnvloed. Soos Guttmacher in 1963 geskryf het, "Die Katolieke Kerk is so goed gemobiliseer en maak so 'n groot persentasie van die bevolking uit dat die verandering van die wet van enige staat in die noordooste van die VSA ten minste vir die komende dekades 'n virtuele onmoontlikheid is."

Maar alhoewel hierdie katolieke teologies konserwatief was, was die meeste van hulle nie wat die meeste Amerikaners polities konserwatief sou beskou nie, hetsy teen middel van die eeu of hedendaagse standaarde. "Daar was 'n paar politieke konserwatiewes wat aan die vroeë beweging deelgeneem het, maar meestal was die openbare retoriek van die beweging geneig om gegrond te wees op liberalisme, gesien deur 'n middel van die 20ste-eeuse Katolieke lens," het Williams gesê. 'Dit is New Deal, liberalisme van die Great Society.'

Vir die meeste Amerikaanse katolieke in die middel van die eeu het opponerende aborsie dieselfde logika gevolg as om sosiale programme vir die armes te ondersteun en 'n lewensloon vir werkers te skep. Katolieke sosiale leerstellings, uiteengesit in dokumente soos die 19de-eeuse ensikliek Rerum novarum, het aangevoer dat alle lewe van bevrugting tot die dood bewaar moet word, en dat die staat 'n verpligting het om hierdie saak te ondersteun. "Hulle het geglo in uitgebreide voorgeboortelike gesondheidsversekering en in versekering wat ook voordele sal bied vir vroue wat kinders met gestremdhede gebaar het," het Williams gesê. Hulle wou 'n vaartbelynde aannemingsproses hê, hulp aan arm vroue en kindersorg wat deur die federasie gefinansier word. Alhoewel katolieke aborsie verbied wou hê, wou hulle ook hê dat die staat arm vroue en gesinne moes ondersteun.

Ander progressiewe mense het egter 'n meer berekende benadering tot armoede en gesinsbeplanning geneem. Sommige voorstanders van die New Deal was van mening dat geboortebeperking gebruik kan word om regeringsbeleid te implementeer - 'n manier om die aantal mense in armoede te verminder en uiteindelik die staat geld te bespaar, het Williams gesê. Aangesien tegnologie dit makliker gemaak het om fetale misvormings op te spoor, het aborsie -voorstanders gereeld aangevoer dat vroue die keuse moet hê om hul swangerskappe te beëindig as dokters onreëlmatighede sien. "Dit was 'n wydverspreide opvatting onder advokate vir abortus-liberalisering ... dat die samelewing beter sou wees as minder ernstig misvormde babas gebore word," het Williams gesê. Die Katolieke wat aborsie gekant het, "het dit as 'n baie nuttelose perspektief beskou", het hy gesê. 'As u geglo het dat die fetus 'n mens is, sal hierdie lewe vernietig word weens die lewensgehalte van iemand anders, en hulle beskou dit as 'n baie gevaarlike manier van dink.

Soms was daar 'n donker rassekomponent in die aborsie en retoriek van geboortebeperking. Aan die begin van die 20ste eeu was daar byvoorbeeld 'groot steun in sommige dele van die land vir die eugenetiese gebruik van geboortebeperking om die voortplantingsvermoë van arm, seksueel losbandige of verstandelik gestremde vroue te beperk - veral Afro -Amerikaners, ”Skryf Williams in sy boek. Dekades later, toe die uitgawes vir openbare hulp in die 1960's opgeblaas het, het 'n nuwe soort rassisme die debat oor aborsies betree. 'Baie blankes het welsynsontvangers gestipotipeer as enkellopende Afro -Amerikaanse vroue wat buite die huwelik swanger geraak het en' kinders as 'n kontantgewas 'geteel het,' het die goewerneur van Alabama, George Wallace gesê, 'skryf William. 'Wallace het uiteindelik 'n sterk standpunt teen aborsie ingeneem, maar soos sommige van sy mede -konserwatiewes, was hy 'n vroeë voorstander van wettiging.

In die 60's was die eerste ernstige golf van wettige voorstelle vir aborsie in staatshuise, begin met wetgewing in Kalifornië. Katolieke groepe het gemengde sukses teen hierdie pogings gemobiliseer en herhaaldelik 'n paar groot struikelblokke getref. In die eerste plek was die 'beweging' nog nie regtig 'n beweging nie-teenstanders van aborsie het hul oortuigings nie as 'lewensreg' of 'pro-lewe' genoem nie, totdat kardinaal James McIntyre die Right to Life League begin het in 1966. Daarna het aktiviste teen aborsie meer georganiseerd begin raak. Maar omdat Katolieke so lank opposisiepogings gelei het, het aborsie ook iets van 'n 'Katolieke kwessie' geword, wat potensiële Protestantse bondgenote — en kiesers vervreem het. "Afro -Amerikaners was een van die demografiese groep wat die meeste geneig was om aborsie teë te staan ​​- in werklikheid was die teenkanting teen aborsie groter onder Afro -Amerikaanse protestante as selfs onder blanke katolieke," skryf Williams. "Maar lewensbedreigende organisasies het min verbintenis met swart instellings-veral swart kerke-en hulle was te katoliek en te wit om by die meeste Afro-Amerikaanse Protestante aan te spreek."

Katolieke geestelikes het rustig begin om staatsorganisasies te begin, met die aanvanklike finansiering, maar opsy gestaan ​​om protestantse leiers te laat lei. Baie het ook hul teenkanting teen geboortebeperking beklemtoon. "Hulle het as leiers in hul bewegings hoof Christene aanvaar wat voorstanders van voorbehoeding was," het Williams gesê. En "hulle het hulpbronne probeer verskaf vir vroue wat buite die huwelik swanger geraak het - hulle wou die stigma verminder."

Die eerste groot verliese vir die lewensbewegingsbeweging het plaasgevind in 1970. Hawaii, Alaska en New York het die eerste state geword wat elektiewe aborsie wettig gemaak het, en dokters hoef nie meer die prosedure uit te voer wanneer 'n vrou se lewe in gevaar is nie. Alhoewel Hawaii slegs die prosedure toegelaat het, het New York nie dieselfde vereiste gestel nie. "In die eerste vyftien maande nadat New York elektiewe aborsie gewettig het, het die dokters van die staat 200 000 aborsies uitgevoer", skryf Williams, "waarvan minstens 60 persent vir nie -inwoners was."

Baie pro-lifers reageer met afgryse. Baie katolieke was al lank “ongemaklik” oor 'n gedetailleerde bespreking van 'n aangeleentheid wat hulle gevoel van beskeidenheid en ordentlikheid skend, 'skryf Williams. Na die wetsontwerpe van die 1970's het hul taktiek verander. Pamflette het meer grafies geword. Advokate was verheug oor fetale fotografie en het geglo dat dit genoeg sou wees om 'n baba se baba-agtige eienskappe te sien om enige Amerikaner van sy persoonlikheid te oortuig. Namate koerante ten gunste van wettigingspogings gekantel het, het pro-lifers hul pogings om hierdie foto's te versprei, vergroot. "Deur hierdie skokkende beelde te versprei", het Williams geskryf, het hulle beweer "hulle vertel bloot die waarheid oor 'n onderwerp wat die nuusmedia weier om te dek."

Namate meer state in die vroeë sewentigerjare oor geliberaliseerde aborsiewette gedebatteer het, het die pro-life-beweging uiteindelik sy momentum gevind. Alhoewel hulle 'n aantal wetgewende nederlae gely het, was daar ook oorwinnings-in 1972, byvoorbeeld, het regs-tot-lewe-advokate kiesers in Michigan en Noord-Dakota suksesvol georganiseer teen referendum om aborsie te wettig. Diegene wat by die beweging betrokke was, was meer uiteenlopend as ooit, insluitend pasifiste teen oorlog, universiteitstudente en, baie belangrik, baie vroue. Dit het gelyk asof die druk op wettiging van aborsies miskien gestop kan word.

In 1973 het alles verander. In Roe v. Wade en 'n gepaardgaande besluit, Doe v. Bolton, het die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof beslis dat vroue 'n grondwetlike reg het om 'n aborsie te ondergaan, wat weeg teen die staat se verpligting om die gesondheid van vroue en potensiële menselewens te beskerm. Skielik beteken pro-lewe om teen die staat se ingryping in gesinsake te staan, of ten minste die inmenging van die hof met die regte van die burgers om te bepaal wat hul staatswette moet wees. Ronald Reagan, wat eens een van die land se eerste wette op die gebied van abortus-liberalisering onderteken het as goewerneur van Kalifornië, het die rekord ondersteun wat die 'doelstellings' van 'n menslike lewenswysiging ondersteun, wat die Grondwet sou verander om aborsie te verbied. Nuwe leiers het die pro-life-saak aangeneem, insluitend Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority, wat 'die kwessie verbind het met 'n magdom ander polities konserwatiewe oorsake-soos veldtogte om gebed in skole te herstel, die vordering van die gay-regte-beweging te stop, en verdedig selfs teen die verspreiding van internasionale kommunisme deur die opbou van kernwapens, ”skryf Williams. Advokate het hul fokus na die Hooggeregshof verskuif en regters verseker wat sou omslaan Roe. En in die afgelope jaar het 'n aansienlike aantal staatswetgewers toenemende beperkings op aborsie geplaas, wat dit vir klinieke moeiliker maak om te werk en vir vroue om die prosedure te ondergaan.

Aborsie het ook byna uitsluitlik 'n debat geword oor geslag en seksualiteit, en grootliks 'n debat onder vroue. Mans het dekades lank pogings aangewend om voor en teen aborsie te pleit, en vroue is standaard stilgemaak, grootliks afwesig van politiek en medisyne, of hulle is aktief uitgesluit van die opposisiebeweging deur Katolieke geestelikes. In die sewentigerjare het dit verander. "Die debat oor aborsie was 'n konflik oor geslag, alhoewel die meeste voorlewendes van die laat 1960's en vroeë 1970's hierdie feit traag was om te erken," skryf Williams. 'Dit was nie 'n konflik tussen mans en vroue nie, soos sommige voorstanders geglo het, dit was 'n debat tussen twee verskillende groepe vroue.

Lees opvolgnotas

Aan die kant van keuse, het aborsie-ondersteuners geglo dat hulle nie net die reg van vroue om hul liggaam te beheer verdedig nie-"hulle het [arm] vroue die gereedskap gegee wat hulle nodig gehad het om vrywillig die grootte van hul gesinne te beperk." Maar sommige teenstanders word ook geïdentifiseer as 'pro-life feminists', en geglo aborsie het mans 'n verskoning gegee om vroue as seksuele objekte te behandel. Soos Williams skryf, het hulle gedink "vroueregte sal slegs gerespekteer word as hul rolle as lewegewers en moeders ten volle vereer is."

Namate meer evangeliste in die jare daarna by die beweging aangesluit het Roe, het lede van die pro-life-beweging meer gefokus op seksuele konserwatisme, en hulle teenstand teen aborsie gekombineer met 'n algemene standpunt teen die sedes van die seksuele revolusie. Vanaf die Falwell-jare was aborsie slegs een in 'n reeks konserwatiewe kwessies, wat die alliansie van die pro-life-beweging met die Republikeinse Party versterk het. Maar, soos Williams aandui, was die Republikeinse Party nog nooit 'n gemaklike tuiste vir die sosiale geregtigheid van diegene wat die beweging begin het nie. 'Republikeine het voorheen min steun aan die lewensdoel gegee Roe", Skryf hy, en die party het" min aandag gegee aan armoedevermindering, maatreëls vir maatskaplike welsyn of die ander oorsake wat lewensleiers van 'n vroeëre generasie interesseer het. " Tog, in 'n demokratiese wêreld wat sterk beïnvloed word deur organisasies soos Emily's List en NARAL, word dit steeds moeiliker vir politici aan die linkerkant om 'n vrymoedige lewensposisie in te neem. Soos die Southern Baptist-leier, Russell Moore, verlede jaar in 'n onderhoud aan my gesê het: 'Ek wens ons was in 'n situasie waarin ons twee partytjies gehad het. Ek het my loopbaan begin werk vir 'n lewenslange Demokratiese kongreslid, en hy was lewenslank, pro-familie. Die wêreld bestaan ​​nie meer nie. ”


Mục lục

Roe ượ ườ ườ ạ ưở ưở Charl Roe Hilton en nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Mỹ vào ngày 5 op 1 November 1940 deur quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân R. M. Scruggs.

Trước chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất chạy thử máy, Roe tiến hành huấn luyện thực tập dọc theo vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ và tại Thái Bình Dương. Và mùa Xuân năm 1941, no quay trở lại vùng bờ Đông và trong mùa Hè đã hoạt động chủ yếu tại khu vực giữa Đại Tây Dương. Sang mùa Thu, nó di chuyển gần lên phía Bắc, đến Căn cứ Hải quân Argentia, để hộ tống các đoàn tàu buôn đi lại giữa Newfoundland en Ysland.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Ti Tây Dương Sửa đổi

Sau khi Nhật Bản bất ngờ Tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tot 12 November 1941, Roe op 1 November 1942, kan u 'n paar dae later in Bermuda na Norfolk, Virginia, gaan. Vào giữa tháng 2, of New York kan ons 'n bietjie meer as 'n paar keer 'n bietjie na Bắc Đại Tây Dương kyk. Đi đến ngoài khơi Ysland vào ngày 3 tháng 3, nó tiếp tục ở lại cho đến giữa tháng, tuần tra ngoài khơi hòn đảo và tại eo biển Đan Mạch. In New York en in New York kan ons 4 sing, maar ook in Panama, en in 5 dae in New England. Trong tháng 6, nó hoàn tất một chuyến đi khác vượt Đại Tây Dương, lần này đến tận quần đảo Anh, và trong tháng 7, nó hộ tống các tàu chiến lớn vibenể cể tấnấ bểnấ cểnấ cểnấểểấấấấấấấấấấấớớnấểấấấấấấấấấấnấể Carấấấấấấ ấnấểểấ ấộể . Vào giữa Tháng 8, chiếc TLU Khu Truc Dji Gespecialiseerd Phia Nam, VA cho đến Tháng 10 đã Hoat động giữa Trinidad và các Cang thuốc Brasilië, Roi kaai Gespecialiseerd Norfolk DJE Chuan bi cho Chien dịch Torch, cuộc đó Bo Luc Luong lon của đồng Minh lên Bắc Phi.

Phc phân về lực lượng tấn công phía Bắc, Roe hộ tống các tàu vận chuyển đi đến Mehedia, rồi bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho lực lượng trên bờ khi họ tiến quân để chiếm Port Lyautey trên sông Sebou và sân bay Salé. Nó dẫn trước lực lượng chính đi đến khu vực tấn công trong đêm 7-8 tháng 11, dùng radar SG để cố tìm kiếm chiếc tàu ngầm Skadu làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc. Không tìm thay chiếc TLU Ngam, geen tu xác aanskouing vi Tri Tuong đối của Minh nhờ DJE Chan lied và các Bai Tại Khu Vuc đó Bo, Roi kaai tro lại cùng Luc Luong CHINH giúp Dan đương Họ đến Khu Vuc Van chuyển. Trong cuộc đổ bộ vào sáng hôm sau, nó hoạt động như tàu kiểm soát vận tải tại các bãi Blue andà Yellow, rồi chuyển sang nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ. Trong buổi sáng hôm đó, nó cùng tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Savannah áp đảo các khẩu đội pháo đối phương tại Kasba, một pháo đài cổ nằm trên vách núi kiểm soát khu vực cửa sông Sebou.

Kies op 15 tot en met 11, Roe tiếp tục ở lại khu vực tấn công bắn pháo hỗ trợ, và sau đó hộ tống cho các tàu chiến lớn. Nó sau đó lên đường quay trở về nhà, về đến Hampton Roads, Virginia vào ngày 26 tháng 11. Trong mùa Đông và mùa Xuân tiếp theo 1943, nó làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống cá t tuà và tànà và tàuàà Caribe, cũng như các đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển tiếp liệu và lực lượng tăng viện sing Casablanca. Van 10 tot 6, ons het New York gesing vir Trung Hải cho chiến dịch Đổ bộ lên Sicilië.

Ori đến Oran vào cuối tháng 6, Roe tiếp tục đi đến Bizerte, nơi nó khởi hành đi lên phía Bắc, đi đến Licata vào ngày 8 tháng 7. Sang ngày hôm sau, nó chiếm vị trí bắn pháo hỗ trợ ngoài ỗ baffe bơnơ bgonơ bgonơ bgonơ bgo bơnơ bgonơ bgo bơnơ bgonơ bgonơ bgo bơnơ bgonơ bgo bơnơ bgo bơniể Gaan na 10 tot 7, en kom nie Swanson di chuyển về phía Porto Empedocle, m ct căn cứ tàu phóng lôi Ý được bảo vệ bởi một bãi mìn cách 24 dặm (39 km) van phía Tây Licata để xác minh một mục tiêu hiệnệnệnệnện Trong khi cả hai con tàu sẵn sàng để nổ súng vào tàu "đối phương", Roe cơ động để tránh bãi mìn nên đi vào phía sau của Swanson. U kan dit nie sien nie Swanson, nên ngay trước 03 giờ 00, Roe đâm trúng trực diện Swanson bên mạn trái, khiến nó bị mất một phần mũi tàu và khiến Swanson bị ngập nước phòng nồi hơi. Cả hai con tàu bị chết đứng giữa biển, nhưng đến 05 giờ 00 cả hai lại có thể di chuyển được.

Sáng hôm đó, máy bay của Không quân Đức tìm cách kết liễu hai con tàu bị hư hại. RoeSwanson chống trả tự vệ, bắn rơi một máy bay ném bom Junkers Ju 88 bằng đạn pháo 5 inch với kíp nổ tiếp cận, chứng tỏ giá trị của loại kíp nổ kiểu mới trong việc phòng không. Sau khi được sửa chữa tạm thời tại Oran, Roe kaai ​​trở về New York để được sửa chữa triệt để. Ữn giữa tháng 9, nó tiếp nối hoạt động hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương, thực hiện hai chuyến khứ hồi đến Bắc Phi trước cuối năm đó.

Mật trận Thái Bình Dương Sửa đổi

Sang ons op 1944 Roe được điều động het Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương gesing. Nó rời New York vào ngày 26 tháng 1, báng qua kênh đào Panama, en trình diện để hoạt động cùng Tư lệnh Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 76 maan Sudest vào ngày 12 uur tàu đổ bộ thuộc Đệ Thất hạm đội vận chuyển binh lính Đồng Minh tiến dọc theo bờ biển và các đảo land cận, bắn pháo hỗ trợ xuống các khu vực mục tiêu. Van 16 tot 21 dae 21, 3, kan ons ook 'n manus gee. Sang đầu tháng 4, nó vận chuyển binh lính Lục quân từ Manus đến đảo Rambutyo, rồi chuẩn bị cho việc đổ bộ lên vịnh Humboldt, nie meer nie, maar 22 uur later, 22 uur later cho binh lính Lục quân đang chiến đấu về phía Tây Bắc sông Driniumor. Đến giữa tháng 5, nó giúp cho việc tấn công tại khu vực Toem-Wakde rồi vào cuối tháng đã hỗ trợ cho các tàu đổ bộ LST tại Biak. Các nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ và hộ tống vận tải tiếp liệu và tăng cường đến Biak được tiếp tục cho đến tháng 6, rồi trong tháng 7, chiếc tàu khu trục chuyển đến Noemfoor, thực hiện phá phá chuẩn bị rồi bắn pháo hỗ trợ sau khi diễn ra cuộc đổ bộ tại đây.

Được thay phiên vào giữa tháng, Roe rời khu vực quần đảo Admiralty để đi đến Majuro, nơi nó gia nhập Đệ Ngũ hạm đội. Trong sáu tuần lễ tiếp theo sau, nó phục vụ như tàu cứu hộ máy bay tại khu vực ngoài khơi Maloelap, Wotje, Mili và Jaluit. Các nhiệm vụ tuần tra, canh phòng và hộ tống tại các khu vực quần đảo Marshall và Mariana, chủ yếu là tại Mariana, kéo dài cho đến đầu tháng 12, khi nó gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 94.9 cho một đợt bắn phá Iwo Jima. Hoàn thành nhiệm vụ vào ngày 8 tháng 12, lực lượng rút lui về Saipan, nơi nó thực hiện hai nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm giải cứu và đưa một bác sĩ sang một đoàn tàu hướng đến Saipan, trước khi lại lên đường bắn phá Iwo Jima vào các ngày 24 và 27 tháng 12. Trong ngày 24 tháng 12, nó đánh chìm một tàu đánh cá, và cùng với Saak đánh chìm một chiếc khác, được tin là một tàu khu trục nhỏ được cải biến thành tàu vận chuyển cao tốc. Sang ngày 27 tháng 12, nó tiêu diệt nhiều tàu nhỏ, phá hủy nhà cửa và các công sự phòng không ở phía Tây hòn đảo.

Một đợt tấn công khác xuống các quần đảo Volcano và Bonin diễn ra vào tuần đầu của tháng 1 năm 1945, tiếp nối bởi một đợt nghỉ ngơi tại Ulithi trước khi tiếp nối hoạt động tuần tra và hộ tống từ Guam. Vào cuối tháng 4, nó quay trở lại khu vực Volcano-Bonin làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc radar và tìm kiếm giải cứu trong các hoạt động không kích xuống các đảo chính quốc Nhật Bản. Đến cuối tháng 5, nó quay trở lại hoạt động tại khu vực Mariana, và sang tháng 6, nó được lệnh quay trở về vùng bờ Tây. Chiếc tàu khu trục về đến vịnh San Francisco vào ngày 29 tháng 7, và đang trải qua một đợt đại tu khi chiến tranh kết thúc vào ngày 14 tháng 8. Roe được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 30 tháng 10 năm 1945 tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 16 tháng 11, và nó bị bán để tháo dỡ vào tháng 8 năm 1947.

Roe được tặng thưởng sáu Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.


Roe II DD-418 - History

History of USS HULL (DD-350)

Recommended reading for additional DD-350 history

Down to the Sea: An Epic Story of Naval Disaster and Heroism in World War II

(click picture to view cover)

(click picture to view)

Newsweek Battle Baby compliments of Pat Douhan SOM2 DD-350

All DD-350 pages compliments of Dave Vrooman EM3 '60 - '62

USS Romp (DD-350), the third of the Farraguts, was the first to be built by a government shipyard. The new destroyer was assigned to the New York Navy Yard for construction. Romp was named for Captain Isaac Hull, skipper of USS Constitution in her epic battle with the British frigate Guerriere during the War of 1812. She was the fourth United States vessel and the third destroyer to bear the name. The destroyer Romp was laid down 7 March 1933 launched 31 January 1934, sponsored by Miss Patricia Louise Platt and commissioned 11 January 1935, with Commander R. S. Wentworth commanding.

Like her two sisters following a shakedown cruise, which took her to the Azores, Portugal, and the British Isles, Romp was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years. , Romp was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years.

During the summer of 1936, she cruised to Alaska. In April 1937 she took part in fleet exercises in Hawaiian waters, ultimately calling Pearl Harbor her homeport when the fleet transferred from the mainland to the advanced anchorage on 12 October 1939. During this increasingly tense pre-war period, Romp often acted as plane guard to the Navy's Pacific carriers during the perfection of tactics, which would be a central factor in America's victory in World War II. She continued these operations until the outbreak of the war.

The pattern of fleet problems, plane guard duty and patrolling was rudely interrupted 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and other Hawaiian Military facilities. Romp was alongside tender USS Dobbin (AD-3) undergoing repairs, but quickly put her anti-aircraft batteries into operation. Her antiaircraft battery chased off several attackers and assisted in splashing others. As the main object of the raid was battleships, the destroyer suffered no hits and with the end of the attack came extraordinary efforts to raise steam. Scant hours later, she was able to sortie from Pearl to escort USS Onderneming (CV-6) back to the still-smoking port. During the next critical months of the war, Romp operated with Admiral Wilson Brown's Task Force 11, screening USS Lexington (CV-2) in important strikes on Japanese bases in the Solomons. Her return to Pearl Harbor 26 March meant 3 months of convoy duty in the submarine threatened waters between Hawaii, and the West Coast of the United States.

Romp was soon back in the thick of combat however. She sailed, on the first anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, for Suvu, Fiji Islands, to prepare for America's first offensive land thrust, the amphibious assault on Guadalcanal. In company with her sisters, she departed 26 July for the Solomons, and on the day of the landings, 7 August 1942, she fought off enemy air attacks, screened cruisers during shore bombardment, and then took up station as antisubmarine protection for the transports. Next day she helped repel strong enemy bombing attacks, shooting down several of the attackers, and that evening performed the sad duty of sinking transport USS George F. Elliott(AP-13), burning beyond control, the transport's wounds proved too severe for damage control forces. On 9 August, the destroyer sank a small schooner off Guadalcanal, departing that evening for Espiritu Santo. During the difficult weeks on Guadalcanal, Romp made three voyages with transports and warships in support of the troops, undergoing air attacks 9 and 14 September. For the next two years, Imperial Japanese forces felt the presence of the far-ranging destroyer from the Aleutians to the Southern Pacific. DD-350 supported swift strikes against enemy held islands in the Central Pacific, sometimes as a diversion to the true invasion targets, sometimes as a prelude to full-scale landings.

The ship returned to Pearl Harbor 20 October, and spent the remainder of the year with battleship Colorado (BB-45) in the New Hebrides. She sailed 29 January from Pearl Harbor bound for repairs at San Francisco, arriving 7 February 1943. Upon completion, she moved to the bleak Aleutians, arriving Adak 16 April, and began a series of training maneuvers with battleships and cruisers in the northern waters. As the Navy moved in to retake Attu in May, Romp continued her patrol duties, and during July and early August, she took part in numerous bombardments of Kiska Island. The ship also took part in the landings on Kiska 15 August, only to find that the Japanese had evacuated their last foothold in the Aleutian chain.

Romp returned to the Central Pacific after the Kiska operation, arriving Pearl Harbor 26 September 1943. She departed with the fleet 3 days later for strikes on Wake Island, and operated with escort carriers during diversionary strikes designed to mask the Navy's real objective-the Gilberts. Romp bombarded Makin during this assault 20 November, and with the invasion well underway arrived in convoy at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1943. From there, she returned to Oakland 21 December for amphibious exercises. Next on, the island road to Japan was the Marshall Islands, and Romp sailed with Task Force 53 from San Diego 13 January 1944. She arrived 31 January off Kwajalein, screening transports in the reserve area, and through February carried out screening and patrol duties off Eniwetok and Majuro. Joining a battleship and carrier group, the ship moved to Mille Atoll 18 March, and took part in a devastating bombardment. Romp also took part in the bombardment of Wotje 22 March.

The veteran ship next participated in the devastating raid on the great Japanese base at Truk 29-30 April, after which she arrived Majuro 4 May 1944. There she joined Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee's battleships for a thrust into the Marianas and the invasion of Saipan. Romp bombarded Saipan 13 June, covered minesweeping operations with gunfire, and patrolled during the initial landing 15 June. Two days later DD-350 was detached and with other ships steamed out to join Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carriers as the Japanese made preparations to close the Marianas for a decisive naval battle. The great fleets approached each other 19 June for the biggest carrier engagement of the war, and as four large air raids hit the American dispositions fighter cover from the carriers of Romp's Task Group 58.2 and surface fire decimated the Japanese planes. With an able assist from American submarines, Mitscher succeeded in sinking two Japanese carriers in addition to inflicting fatal losses on the Japanese naval air arm during "The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". Hull's accurate antiaircraft fire, now considerably more formidable than the .50 cal. machine guns she used at Pearl Harbor just thirty months before, contributed to the "ring of steel" protecting the carriers from the wrath of the Japanese. Mitscher's forces so decimated the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy's aircrews that her carriers were never to effectively threaten the Allies again.

During July, the destroyer operated with carrier groups off Guam, and after the assault, 21 July patrolled off the island. In August she returned to Seattle, arriving the 25th, and underwent a yard refit that kept her in the States until 23 October. When she anchored at Pearl Harbor. Romp was assigned to screen the Third Fleet refueling group which kept the fast carriers in the Central Pacific operational, departing 20 November 1944 to rendezvous with fast carrier striking forces in the Philippine Sea.

Suddenly, Hull's luck had changed. Fueling began 17 December, but increasingly heavy seas forced cancellation later that day. The refueling group became engulfed in the approaching typhoon Cobra next day, with barometers falling to very low levels and winds increasing above 90 knots. At about 1100 18 December Romp became locked "in irons," in the trough of the mountainous sea and unable to steer. All hands worked feverishly to maintain integrity and keep the ship afloat during the heavy rolls, but finally, in the words of her commander, Lieutenant Commander J. A. Marks: "The ship remained over on her side at an angle of 80 degrees or more as the water flooded into her upper structures. I remained on the port wing of the bridge until the water flooded up to me, then I stepped off into the water as the ship rolled over on her way down."

The typhoon swallowed many of the survivors, but valiant rescue work by Tabberer (DD-418) and other ships of the fleet in the days that followed saved the lives of 7 officers and 55 enlisted men.

Hull received 10 battle stars for World War II service.


William J. Ruhe

Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Sil Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Silver Stars and the Navy Unit Commendation

During the Korean Conflict he commanded the USS Sea Devil SS-400, and in 1959 he was assigned as Commander of Submarine Division 22. He also served as commanding officer of the Naval Reserve Center in his hometown of Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Captain Ruhe came aboard USS Topeka CLG-8 as Commanding Officer in December, 1964 and served in that capacity until October, 1965.

After retirement he was employed by General Dynamics as Corporate Director of Marine Programs.

Captain Ruhe wrote two books about his naval service: War in the Boats: My WWII Submarine Battles, and Slow Dance to Pearl Harbor: A Tin Can Ensign in Prewar America. He also wrote the submariners song "Down,Down Underneath the Ocean".

He passed away at his home in McLean, Virginia on November 4, 2003.
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60 Pictures of Easy Company

The 506th, which is part of the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division, was established in 1942 at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, and underwent extensive training under strict rules and regulations. The most physically challenging part of their training was the regular running of Currahee, a 1,735 ft (529 m) steep hill.

The hill itself became an unofficial symbol of the entire regiment, which adopted the nickname “Currahee,” and E Company also adopted the Cherokee word as its motto―We stand alone together.

Major Richard Winters Captain Lewis Nixon & Lieutenant Harry Welsh Austria 1945

While the “E” stands for “Easy,” these men were anything but, jumping into Normandy behind enemy lines as part of the 2nd Battalion hours before the invasion.

During Operation Overlord, E Company was part of the airborne invading force which was to secure the rear and provide cover until the Omaha and Utah beachheads were linked.

Among their most famous endeavors was taking and holding the town of Carentan―a crucial strategic point, without which the outcome of the Allied invasion could have taken a different turn.

General Anthony Clement “Nuts” McAuliffe

After the liberation of France, E Company was sent to assist the British forces around Eindhoven, as part of Operation Market Garden.

In late October 1944, they would play a key role in evacuating over 100 British soldiers who were trapped behind German lines near the village of Renkum, close to the town of Arnhem.

Richard Winters in Holland, October 1944

Their next stop was the winter offensive in December 1944 and January 1945 in Belgium. The men from Easy Company took part in the famous Battle of the Bulge, and fought under horrible winter conditions, suffering from a general lack of supplies and ammunition.

Some of their more notable actions from this period involved taking control of the Bois Jacques woods area, and the frustrating attack on the town of Foy, where they dealt with fierce resistance as well as the breakdown of the chain of command.

Easy Company near Foy

However, Foy was eventually captured from the enemy, as the German line in Bastogne fell apart. The figurative gates of Germany were finally open.

As the war was nearing its end, the company was assigned to occupation duties which included guarding Berchtesgaden, better known as Adolf Hitler’s famous Eagle’s Nest. E Company’s contribution to the fight was rewarded with patrol duties in mostly safe areas during the last few months of the war.

Although the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment is still in service as a training unit of the U.S. Army, the direct lineage of E Company is today inactive.

More photos

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

Popeye Wynn and Hank Zimmerman

Burr Smith was killed by a direct mortar hit along with PENKALA near FOY

Joe Lesniewski Herbert M. Sobel Sr.

Staff Sergeant Myron N. “Mike” Ranney

Robert “Popeye” Wynn

George Luz and ‘Babe’ Heffron

David Webster

David Kenyon Webster

Floyd Talbert, unidentified soldier, Paul Rogers and Forrest Guth

Richard Winters (facing the camera in the back) teaching his soldiers to pack their parachutes. Skip Muck is the man on the right looking at the camera.

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

William Dukeman Pat Christenson, Denver ‘Bull’ Randleman and Bill Dukeman

Joe Toye and Don Malarkey

Easy Company

Don Malarkey, Joe Toye and Skip Muck

Donald Hoobler

William J. “Wild Bill“ Guarnere

Joe Liebgott Earl McClung

Floyd Talbert Earl ‘One Lung’ McClung Don Malarkey and Floyd Talbert

Captain Richard D. Winters and Captain Lewis Nixon

Skip Muck and Chuck. Easy Company, 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division.

Lynn D. Campton, Easy Company

Easy Company members Joe Liebgott, Eugene Roe and Burton Christenson in Eindhoven, 1944.

101st Airborne Medic Eugene Roe, a member of Easy Company, Band of brothers.

Carwood Lipton

Frank Perconte

Left to right: Forrest Guth, Floyd Talbert, John Eubanks, unknown, Francis Mellet on D-Day

George Luz (1921-1998) Fought in Normandy, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge. Luz is credited with keeping Easy Company morale up with his humor in dire times.

Smith, Muck, Malarkey, Randelmann, Serila, Sheehy, Burgess, Lowery, Grant, Cunningham, bain, Toye at Camp McKall

Easy Company’s David Kenyon Webster, author of “Parachute Infantry – An American Paratrooper’s Memoir of D-Day and the Fall of the Third Reich”

Forrest Guth and Floyd Talbert with locals on D-day morning

Albert Blithe at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, in 1942.

Eugene Roe

Forrest Guth (1921 2009) One of the original 140 men who trained under Sobel at Camp Toccoa. Guth had the ability to repair and modify weapons. For instance he could make an M-1 rifle fully automatic. He became the armorer for his comrades. Guth’s uniform was also unique Guth sewed many extra pockets on it. Guth fought in D-Day, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge.

William ‘Wild Bill’ Guarnere

Colonel Robert Frederick Sink

Don Malarkey, left, with Burr Smith in Austria near war’s end.

Technical Sergeant Donald Malarkey

Major Richard Winters.

Staff Sergeant Darrell Powers

Private First Class Edward Heffron

Richard Winters at the end of training

Gordon Carson and Frank Perconte, Easy Company, 101st Airborne

Captain Herbert M. Sobel

Easy Company during Operation Market Garden

Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe and his staff gathered inside Bastogne’s Heintz Barracks for Christmas dinner December 25th, 1944. This military barracks served as the Division Main Command Post during the siege of Bastogne, Belgium during World War II.


A. V. Roe and Company (Avro)

A. V. Roe and Company, better known simply as Avro, was one of the most famous of all British aircraft manufacturers, best known for the iconic Avro Lancaster bomber. Originally founded in 1910 by the aircraft pioneer Alliot Verdon Roe, by the time the Lancaster appeared the company was part of the Hawker Siddeley Group, while Roe himself had moved on to form Saunders-Roe Ltd.

A. V. Roe&rsquos interest in aircraft developed before the First World War. His first design was the Roe I Biplane of 1907, which lacked a powerful enough engine to take off without assistance, until one was loaned in 1908. On 8 June 1908 Roe successfully took to the air, although only for a series of short hops.

A. V.&rsquos brother H. V. Roe was himself a successful businessman, and owner of Everard and Company of Brownsfield Mills, Manchester. On 1 January 1910, with financial assistance from H. V., A. V. Roe and Company was founded. The fledgling company was given engineering space at Brownsfield Mills. The first aircraft produced by the new company was the Roe II Triplane, one of a series of early designs that culminated in the Avro 500 biplane of 1912, considered by Roe to be his first truly successful design. A. V. Roe was responsible for a number of &ldquofirsts&rdquo, amongst them the Avro Type F of 1912, the first aircraft to fly with an entirely enclosed cockpit.

All of these early aircraft were produced in very small numbers, but the Avro 504 would change that, with 8,340 built over two decades. A tiny number of these aircraft saw front line service during the First World War with the R.F.C, while the R.N.A.S. used the Avro 504 during its famous raid on the Zeppelin sheds at Freidrichshafen on 21 November 1914. Despite this its main claim to fame, and the reason so many were built, was that the Avro 504 became the standard training aircraft for the young R.A.F.

The interwar years saw the arrival of Roy Chadwick, later famous as the designer of the Lancaster, and the departure of A. V. Roe. In 1928 he sold the company to J. D. Siddeley, and Avro became part of the Armstrong Siddeley Development Company and a sister-firm of Armstrong Whitworth. Siddeley followed suit in 1935 when he sold out to Hawker, and Avro became part of the Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Group.

A large number of new designs were produced between the wars, with most produced in small numbers. The next major success was the Avro 621 Tutor, which replaced the Avro 605 in RAF service. This aircraft was designed in 1929, and remained in service throughout the Second World War.

The next major success for Avro was the Anson, of which over 11,000 were produced. Originally ordered as a coastal reconnaissance aircraft, the Anson was soon replaced in that role by the Lockheed Hudson, but went on to serve as a training aircraft.

The most famous of all Avro aircraft was the Lancaster. This was developed from the much less successful Avro Manchester, a very similar looking but twin engined aircraft, which was led down by the failure of the Rolls-Royce Vulture engine. The Lancaster saw the twin Vultures replaced by four much more reliable Merlin engines, producing one of the finest aircraft of the Second World War.

The design of the Lancaster was used as the basis for the Avro York transport aircraft, the Avro 691 Lancastrian passenger plane and the post-war Avro 694 Lincoln, originally designed for the Pacific war. The Lincoln was further modified to produce the Avro 696 Shackleton, a mainstay of Coastal Command after the war.

A dramatic change in design came with the Avro 698 Vulcan, the first large delta wing aircraft, and Avro&rsquos first military jet aircraft. Over the next decade the company produced a number of civil airlines, but the Avro name disappeared in July 1963 when the company became part of Hawker Siddeley Aviation.

Major Aircraft
Avro 504 trainer
Avro 549 Aldershot bomber, 1922-1926
Avro 555 Bison carrier reconnaissance and spotting aircraft, 1922-29
Avro 621 Tutor trainer, 1929-1936
Avro 636 Sea Tutor trainer, 1932
Avro 652 Anson maritime reconnaissance aircraft, 1933-1968
Avro 679 Manchester heavy bomber, 1939-1942
Avro 683 Lancaster heavy bomber, 1941-1960s
Avro 865 York transport, 1943-c.1960
Avro 694 Lincoln heavy bomber, 1945-55
Avro 696 Shackleton long range maritime reconnaissance, 1949-
Avro 698 Vulcan heavy bomber, 1952-

British Aircraft Manufacturers since 1908, Gunter Endres. A very useful reference book which provides brief histories of seventy five British aircraft manufacturers, ranging from famous names like Avro or Supermarine, to more obscure firms such as Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside. The publication date of 1995 means that this book covers the entire history of all but a handful of the main First and Second World War Companies.

Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on Equity (ROE) is the measure of a company&rsquos annual return ( net income Net Income Net Income is a key line item, not only in the income statement, but in all three core financial statements. While it is arrived at through ) divided by the value of its total shareholders&rsquo equity Stockholders Equity Stockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus , expressed as a percentage (e.g., 12%). Alternatively, ROE can also be derived by dividing the firm&rsquos dividend growth rate by its earnings retention rate (1 &ndash dividend payout ratio Dividend Payout Ratio Dividend Payout Ratio is the amount of dividends paid to shareholders in relation to the total amount of net income generated by a company. Formula, example ).

Return on Equity is a two-part ratio in its derivation because it brings together the income statement and the balance sheet Balance Sheet The balance sheet is one of the three fundamental financial statements. These statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting , where net income or profit is compared to the shareholders&rsquo equity. The number represents the total return on equity capital and shows the firm&rsquos ability to turn equity investments into profits. To put it another way, it measures the profits made for each dollar from shareholders&rsquo equity.

Return on Equity Formula

The following is the ROE equation:

ROE = Net Income / Shareholders&rsquo Equity

ROE provides a simple metric for evaluating investment returns. By comparing a company&rsquos ROE to the industry&rsquos average, something may be pinpointed about the company&rsquos competitive advantage Competitive Advantage A competitive advantage is an attribute that enables a company to outperform its competitors. It allows a company to achieve superior margins . ROE may also provide insight into how the company management is using financing from equity to grow the business.

A sustainable and increasing ROE over time can mean a company is good at generating shareholder value Shareholder Value Shareholder value is the financial worth owners of a business receive for owning shares in the company. An increase in shareholder value is created because it knows how to reinvest its earnings wisely, so as to increase productivity and profits. In contrast, a declining ROE can mean that management is making poor decisions on reinvesting capital in unproductive assets.

ROE Formula Drivers

While the simple return on equity formula is net income divided by shareholder&rsquos equity, we can break it down further into additional drivers. As you can see in the diagram below, the return on equity formula is also a function of a firm&rsquos return on assets (ROA) Return on Assets & ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets. and the amount of financial leverage Financial Leverage Financial leverage refers to the amount of borrowed money used to purchase an asset with the expectation that the income from the new asset will exceed the cost of borrowing. it has. Both of these concepts will be discussed in more detail below.

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Return on Equity Template

Why is ROE Important?

With net income in the numerator, Return on Equity (ROE) looks at the firm&rsquos bottom line to gauge overall profitability for the firm&rsquos owners and investors. Stockholders are at the bottom of the pecking order of a firm&rsquos capital structure Capital Structure Capital structure refers to the amount of debt and/or equity employed by a firm to fund its operations and finance its assets. A firm's capital structure , and the income returned to them is a useful measure that represents excess profits that remain after paying mandatory obligations and reinvesting in the business.

Why Use the Return on Equity Metric?

Simply put, with ROE, investors can see if they&rsquore getting a good return on their money, while a company can evaluate how efficiently they&rsquore utilizing the firm&rsquos equity. ROE must be compared to the historical ROE of the company and to the industry&rsquos ROE average &ndash it means little if merely looked at in isolation. Other financial ratios Financial Ratios Financial ratios are created with the use of numerical values taken from financial statements to gain meaningful information about a company can be looked at to get a more complete and informed picture of the company for evaluation purposes.

In order to satisfy investors, a company should be able to generate a higher ROE than the return available from a lower risk investment.

Effect of Leverage

A high ROE could mean a company is more successful in generating profit internally. However, it doesn&rsquot fully show the risk associated with that return. A company may rely heavily on debt Long Term Debt Long Term Debt (LTD) is any amount of outstanding debt a company holds that has a maturity of 12 months or longer. It is classified as a non-current liability on the company&rsquos balance sheet. The time to maturity for LTD can range anywhere from 12 months to 30+ years and the types of debt can include bonds, mortgages to generate a higher net profit, thereby boosting the ROE higher.

As an example, if a company has $150,000 in equity and $850,000 in debt, then the total capital employed is $1,000,000. This is the same number of total assets employed. At 5%, it will cost $42,000 to service that debt, annually. If the company manages to increase its profits before interest to a 12% return on capital employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), a profitability ratio, measures how efficiently a company is using its capital to generate profits. The return on capital , the remaining profit after paying the interest is $78,000, which will increase equity by more than 50%, assuming the profit generated gets reinvested back. As we can see, the effect of debt is to magnify the return on equity.

The image below from CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Course shows how leverage increases equity returns.

Drawbacks of ROE

The return on equity ratio can also be skewed by share buybacks Dividend vs Share Buyback/Repurchase Shareholders invest in publicly traded companies for capital appreciation and income. There are two main ways in which a company returns profits to its shareholders &ndash Cash Dividends and Share Buybacks. The reasons behind the strategic decision on dividend vs share buyback differ from company to company . When management repurchases its shares from the marketplace, this reduces the number of outstanding shares Weighted Average Shares Outstanding Weighted average shares outstanding refers to the number of shares of a company calculated after adjusting for changes in the share capital over a reporting period. The number of weighted average shares outstanding is used in calculating metrics such as Earnings per Share (EPS) on a company's financial statements . Thus, ROE increases as the denominator shrinks.

Another weakness is that some ROE ratios may exclude intangible assets from shareholders&rsquo equity. Intangible assets Intangible Assets According to the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance. Like all assets, intangible assets are non-monetary items such as goodwill Goodwill In accounting, goodwill is an intangible asset. The concept of goodwill comes into play when a company looking to acquire another company is , trademarks, copyrights, and patents. This can make calculations misleading and difficult to compare to other firms that have chosen to include intangible assets.

Finally, the ratio includes some variations on its composition, and there may be some disagreements between analysts. For example, the shareholders&rsquo equity can either be the beginning number, ending number, or the average of the two, while Net Income may be substituted for EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business&rsquo profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. Formula, examples and EBIT EBIT Guide EBIT stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and is one of the last subtotals in the income statement before net income. EBIT is also sometimes referred to as operating income and is called this because it's found by deducting all operating expenses (production and non-production costs) from sales revenue. , and can be adjusted or not for non-recurring items Non-Recurring Item In accounting, a non-recurring item is an infrequent or abnormal gain or loss that is reported in the company&rsquos financial statements. .

How to Use Return on Equity

Some industries tend to achieve higher ROEs than others, and therefore, ROE is most useful when comparing companies within the same industry. Cyclical industries tend to generate higher ROEs than defensive industries, which is due to the different risk characteristics attributable to them. A riskier firm will have a higher cost of capital and a higher cost of equity.

Furthermore, it is useful to compare a firm&rsquos ROE to its cost of equity Cost of Equity Cost of Equity is the rate of return a shareholder requires for investing in a business. The rate of return required is based on the level of risk associated with the investment . A firm that has earned a return on equity higher than its cost of equity has added value. The stock of a firm with a 20% ROE will generally cost twice as much as one with a 10% ROE (all else being equal).

The DuPont Formula

The DuPont formula DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability breaks down ROE into three key components, all of which are helpful when thinking about a firm&rsquos profitability. ROE is equal to the product of a firm&rsquos net profit margin, asset turnover, and financial leverage:

/> DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability

If the net profit margin increases over time, then the firm is managing its operating and financial expenses well and the ROE should also increase over time. If the asset turnover increases, the firm is utilizing its assets efficiently, generating more sales per dollar of assets owned. Lastly, if the firm&rsquos financial leverage increases, the firm can deploy the debt capital to magnify returns. DuPont analysis is covered in detail in CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Fundamentals Course.

Video Explanation of Return on Equity

Below is a video explanation of the various drivers that contribute to a firm&rsquos return on equity. Learn how the formula works in this short tutorial, or check out the full Financial Analysis Course!

Caveats of Return on Equity

While debt financing can be used to boost ROE, it is important to keep in mind that overleveraging has a negative impact in the form of high interest payments and increased risk of default Debt Default A debt default happens when a borrower fails to pay his or her loan at the time it is due. The time a default happens varies, depending on the terms agreed upon by the creditor and the borrower. Some loans default after missing one payment, while others default only after three or more payments are missed. . The market may demand a higher cost of equity, putting pressure on the firm&rsquos valuation Valuation Principles The following are the key valuation principles that business owners who want to create value in their business must know. Business valuation involves the . While debt typically carries a lower cost than equity and offers the benefit of tax shields Tax Shield A Tax Shield is an allowable deduction from taxable income that results in a reduction of taxes owed.Die waarde van hierdie skilde hang af van die effektiewe belastingkoers vir die onderneming of individu. Algemene uitgawes wat aftrekbaar is, sluit in waardevermindering, amortisasie, verbandbetalings en rente -uitgawes.

Verder is dit belangrik om in gedagte te hou dat ROE 'n verhouding is, en die onderneming kan optree soos bate-afskrywings Waardedaling Die waardedaling van 'n vaste bate kan beskryf word as 'n skielike afname in billike waarde as gevolg van fisiese skade, veranderinge in bestaande wette skep en koop van aandele terugkoop Aandele -terugkoop 'n Aandele -terugkoop verwys na wanneer die bestuur van 'n publieke maatskappy besluit om aandele wat voorheen aan die publiek verkoop is, terug te koop. 'N Maatskappy kan besluit om sy aandele terug te koop om 'n marksein te stuur dat sy aandeelprys waarskynlik sal styg, om finansiële statistieke op te blaas deur die aantal uitstaande aandele (bv. Verdienste per aandeel of VPA), of bloot omdat hy sy eie aandele in die maatskappy. om ROE kunsmatig te versterk deur die totale aandeelhouers en rsquo -ekwiteit (die noemer) te verminder.

Bykomende hulpbronne

Dit is 'n CFI & rsquos -gids vir die opbrengs op ekwiteit, die formule vir opbrengs op ekwiteit en die voor- en nadele van hierdie finansiële statistiek. CFI is 'n verskaffer van die Financial Modeling & amp Valuation Analyst (FMVA) en handelsbenaming Word 'n Certified Financial Modeling & amp Valuation Analyst (FMVA) & reg CFI se Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA) & reg -sertifisering sal u help om die vertroue te kry wat u nodig het in u finansies beroep. Skryf vandag nog in! . Sien hierdie ekstra waardevolle CFI -hulpbronne om aan te leer en u vaardighede in finansiële ontleders uit te brei:

  • Return on Assets (ROA) Return on Assets & amp ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) is 'n tipe opbrengs op belegging (ROI) wat die winsgewendheid van 'n onderneming meet in verhouding tot sy totale bates.
  • Gids tot EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA of verdienste voor rente, belasting, waardevermindering, amortisasie is 'n onderneming se wins voordat enige van hierdie netto aftrekkings gemaak word. EBITDA fokus op die bedryfsbesluite van 'n onderneming omdat dit kyk na die onderneming se winsgewendheid uit kernbedrywighede voor die impak van kapitaalstruktuur. Formule, voorbeelde
  • Kontantvloeigids -waardasie Gratis waarderingsgidse om die belangrikste konsepte in u eie tempo te leer. Hierdie artikels sal u die beste praktyke vir sakewaardering leer en hoe u 'n onderneming kan waardeer deur gebruik te maak van vergelykbare ondernemingsanalise, afslag op kontantvloeimodellering en presedente transaksies, soos gebruik in beleggingsbankwese, aandele -navorsing,
  • Beste praktyke vir finansiële modellering Gratis finansiële modelleringsgids Hierdie finansiële modelleringsgids dek wenke en beste praktyke oor aannames, bestuurders, voorspelling, die koppeling van die drie state, DCF -analise, meer

Opleiding vir finansiële ontleders

Kry finansiële opleiding van wêreldgehalte met CFI & rsquos aanlyn gesertifiseerde opleidingsprogram vir finansiële ontleders Word 'n gesertifiseerde finansiële modellerings- en waarderingsanalis (FMVA) en reg CFI se finansiële modellerings- en waardasie-ontleder (FMVA) en reg-sertifisering sal u help om die vertroue te kry wat u nodig het in u finansiële loopbaan. Skryf vandag nog in! !

Verkry die vertroue wat u nodig het om op die leer te gaan in 'n sterk loopbaan vir korporatiewe finansies.

Leer finansiële modellering en waardasie in Excel maklike manier, met stap-vir-stap opleiding.


Kyk die video: WIND ROSE - Diggy Diggy Hole Official Video. Napalm Records