Is daar bewyse dat Abraham en Hammurabi mekaar beïnvloed het?

Is daar bewyse dat Abraham en Hammurabi mekaar beïnvloed het?


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Die gevolg van onlangse navorsing is egter dat die chronologie van die antieke wêreld oorgedra word. Hammurabi blyk nou 'n nabye tydgenoot van Moses in plaas van Abraham te wees. In Egiptiese chronologiese studies dateer die aartsvaders vroeër as ooit tevore.

Covenant beweer vroeër:

getuienis wat daarop dui dat die Mesopotamiese heerser met wie Abraham 'n verbond gesluit het, die groot wetgewer van Babilon, koning Hammurabi (1790-1752 v.G.J.) was.

My vraag is: Is daar bewyse dat Abraham en Hammurabi mekaar beïnvloed het?


Daar is geen bewyse aan ons bekend nie, en daar is geen rede om dit hoegenaamd te vind nie. Selfs as ons Genesis letterlik beskou, is dit nog steeds moontlik dat Abraham ongeletterd was. Die daad vir Sarah se graf impliseer geletterdheid in die Kanaäniet, by wie hy dit gekoop het, eerder as geletterdheid by Abraham of enige van sy dienaars.

Die lewenswyse wat die aartsvaders geleef het, het min spore op die land gelaat en minder agtergelaat om later opgegrawe te word. Die enigste dinge wat Abraham agtergelaat het, was kalksteen (?) Grafte op die oppervlak wat waarskynlik lank weggehol het en putte gegrawe het omdat dit oop gehou is. As die mondelinge geskiedenis van die putte verkeerd was en die put wat ons Abraham se put noem, sou ons dit nie kon weet nie.

Abraham word as welvarend opgeteken, maar sy rykdom in beeste sou na 4000 jaar geen indruk agterlaat nie.

Daar is dus veral geen rede om te dink dat Abraham ooit 'n interaksie met Hammurabi gehad het nie, en selfs al het hy dit gedoen (wat nie onmoontlik is omdat hy in Ur begin het nie), is daar geen rede om te dink dat ons 'n rekord daarvan het nie. Die Bybel het tog 'n doel en moes in 'n redelike grootte gehou word om met die hand te kopieer, so sou sulke dinge weggelaat word, en die waarskynlikheid dat enige ander spesifieke rekord sal oorleef, is baie laag. Daar is 'n paar spykerskrifttablette uit die era in Babilon, maar dit word verwag om Abraham nie te noem nie, selfs as ons aanvaar dat hy op 'n tyd daar was.

Maar die bewering van EarthlyCovenant is bisar in die uiterste en beledig die intelligensie van enige herder of bokwagter. Dit argumenteer 'n betekenis uit 'n paar spoorwoorde wat moeilik is om te verstaan, maar die woorde van die verbond self verwaarloos. Vir hulle behoort ons te sê: "Buitengewone aansprake vereis buitengewone bewyse."


Ek sal vooraf noem dat ek self 'n praktiserende Christen is, in die hoop dat u my nie as 'n haat kan afmaak as ek die volgende rapporteer nie: Dit is onwaarskynlik, aangesien die huidige historiese konsensus is dat Abraham was nie 'n historiese figuur nie. Hy is meer soos die Romulus en Remus van die Joodse mense.

Die Abraham -verhaal kan nie definitief verband hou met 'n spesifieke tyd nie, en daar word algemeen aanvaar dat die patriargale tydperk, saam met die uittog en die tydperk van die beoordelaars, 'n laat literêre konstruk is wat nie verband hou met 'n tydperk in die werklike geskiedenis nie

Die verhaal van Abraham, hoewel dit inderdaad baie vroeër afspeel, blyk op homself in die Ystertydperk neergeskryf te wees. Die meeste geloofwaardige geleerdes (die soort mense wat Wikipedia -bladsye het, eerder as IMDB -bladsye) glo nou dat dit een of ander tyd na die einde van die Babiloniese ballingskap was.

Dit gesê, dit lyk asof dele daarvan (veral sommige van die name) baie ouer is. Sommige van die verhaal, maar nie alles nie, is inderdaad baie oud. Maar daar word nie meer 'n betroubare manier oorweeg om dit te probeer dateer volgens die presisie wat ons in staat sou stel om oor tydgenote van Abraham in ander kulture te praat nie.

Meer spesifiek, dit is regtig nie nuttig om te probeer redeneer oor mitiese figure wat met historiese figure in wisselwerking is nie. Die belangrike deel van die verhaal was altyd wat dit sê oor die Jode as 'n volk en hoe hulle hulself (en hul verhouding met hul God) beskou, nie wat dit sê oor die antieke geskiedenis self nie.


Die AnswersInGenesis -webwerf wat in die vraag gekoppel is, as die artikel wat u gekoppel het verteenwoordigend is, sou ek vee dit uit my boekmerke uit as ek jy was. *

Een ding wat ek gevind het, is dat die argeologiese gemeenskap redelik saamgestem het dat daar geen goeie manier is om hul dissipline te gebruik om 'n tydsraamwerk vir Abraham vas te stel nie. Dus, as die artikel iets wil weerlê, gebruik dit 'n argeoloog. Dieselfde argeoloog kan egter nêrens gevind word as hy rugsteun vir sy eie hipotese wil hê nie. In plaas daarvan maak dit staat op 'n Bybelgeleerde vir wie ek geen inligting kon vind nie, buite Christelike webwerwe en IMDB (!). Ek bedoel hy kon Wees 'n heeltemal wettige navorser, maar dit lyk vir my baie sketsmatig.

* - As u omgee vir die betroubaarheid van u inligting, dit wil sê. Ek weet dat baie van my gelowiges verkies om volgens die 'onwetenskaplike metode' te werk: begin met 'n teorie wat hulle wil waar hê, en soek dan inligting wat dit ondersteun, en gooi inligting weg wat nie die geval is nie. Sulke webwerwe is waarskynlik wonderlik vir die mense, solank u die "teorie" in gedagte hou.


In 'n woord, nee.

Abraham en Hammurabi het in verskillende eeue geleef, byna 'n half millennia uitmekaar.

Ek glo wel dat Abraham bestaan ​​het. Jesus het gesê: "Voordat Abraham was, is ek" Johannes 8:58.

Eerstens, in hierdie stelling maak Jesus aanspraak op sy ewige bestaan ​​as God, die Seun; en tweedens onthul dit sy oortuiging dat Abraham 'n regte persoon was, nie 'n mite nie.

Toe, om die Sadduseërs te wys dat die lewe na die dood in die Ou Testament geleer word, het Jesus in Matteus 22: 23-32 en parallelle gedeeltes Lukas 20: 27- gesê dat Abraham, Isak en Jakob nog lewe (wat hulle siel betref) 38 en Markus 12: 18-27. Hy haal Exodus 3: 6 aan waar God vir Moses van homself wil vertel: "Ek is die God van jou vader, die God van Abraham, die God van Isak, die God van Jakob". Dit is slegs twee voorbeelde wat toon dat Jesus in 'n ware Abraham geglo het.

Om te sien hoe Bybelse gebeure en mense met mense en gebeure buite die Bybel verband hou, moet u eers 'n Bybelse chronologie hê. Dit is die groot onderliggende behoefte.

Vir my is Edwin Thiele, Rodger C. Young, Carl Olof Jonsson ("The Gentile Times Reconsidered", 1986, Commentary Press Atlanta) die groot leermeesters in die Bybelse chronologie. Carl se werk is beperk tot die era van die Babiloniese ballingskap. Eugene Merrill ("Kingdom of Priesters", 1987, Baker Book House) bou voort op die werk van Edwin Thiele.
Gleason Archer se "A Survey of Old Testament Introduction" is ook 'n wonderlike werk.

Vir 'n nuttige webwerf, besoek www.rcyoung.org/papers.html

Edwin Thiele toon die datum van 931 vC vir die verdeling van die koninkryk aan die dood van Salomo ("The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings", University of Chicago Press, 1951). Hieruit kan 'n chronologie saamgestel word met die datum van die geboorte van Abraham as 2167 vC.

Sien 1 Konings 6: 1 en Eksodus 12:40 om 'n datum te kry vir die ingang van Jakob in Egipte van 1877 vC, toe Jakob 130 jaar oud was (Gen 47: 9).

Jakob is dus gebore in 2007 v.C. Isak was 60 toe Jakob gebore is (Gen 25:26). En Abraham was 100 toe Isak gebore is (Gen 21: 5). Abraham is dus in 2167 vC gebore.

Abraham was dus etlike eeue voor Hammurabi.

Met hierdie raamwerk het die uittog uit Egipte op Pasga 1446 vC gebeur. 'N Onafhanklike getuie van hierdie datum bestaan ​​in Esegiël 40: 1, verstaan ​​in samewerking met Levitikus 25: 9, soos genoem in Seder Olam en soos onthul deur Rodger Young. Ons het dus twee onafhanklike getuies vir die datum van die uittog:

Getuie 1. Die gegewens in 1 Konings en 2 Konings oor die heerskappy van die konings in die verdeelde koninkryke. Die gegewens was eeue lank soos 'n geheime kode. Die kode is uiteindelik ontsyfer deur Edwin Thiele in Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 1951.

Die belangrike punt hier is dat dit soos 'n geheime kode was. Dit was voorsienend. As dit nie soos 'n geheime kode was nie, sou dit nie moontlik gewees het om 'n ONAFHANKLIKE getuie te wees nie. Omdat die betekenis van die jare van die heerskappy van die konings minstens 20 eeue lank ondenkbaar was totdat Edwin Thiele se werk onafhanklik was van die volgende getuie:

Getuie 2. Esegiël 40: 1 en die opmerking in Seder Olam.
Seder Olam is 'n chronologie wat in die tweede eeu saamgestel is deur 'n Jood wat so 'n akkurate beeld as moontlik van die kennis oor chronologie in die Ou -Testamentiese era wou probeer gee. Een ding wat hy sê, is dat die jubileum in die jare van Esegiël die sewentiende was. ('N Engelse vertaling van die Seder Olam is aanlyn.) Esegiël 40: 1 sê die tiende dag van die maand was Rosh Hashanah, Oujaarsdag. (In werklikheid gebruik dit die term "Rosh Hashanah" in die Hebreeuse teks.) Gewoonlik het Oujaarsdag op die eerste dag van die maand gebeur. Rosh Hashanah vind slegs plaas op die tiende dag van die maand, op die versoendag, in 'n jubeljaar (Levitikus 25: 9). (('N Jubeljaar was elke 49 jaar 'n spesiale jaar in die Ou -Testamentiese era.)) Dit was 'n volle 14 jaar na die verwoesting van die stad Jerusalem wat in 587 vC gebeur het. En Seder Olam sê die Jubeljaar in die dae van Esegiël was die 17de. 587 - 14 = 573. 17 jubileums maal 49 jaar is 833 jaar. 573 + 833 = 1406, die datum van toetrede tot die beloofde land. 1406 - 40 jaar in die wildernis dwaal is 1446 v.C., die datum van die uittog, wat reeds deur Edwin Thiele bereik is. Sien Rodger Young se artikel op sy webwerf.

Baie moderne geleerdes sê dat die Jubilee -stelsel 'n laat toevoeging tot die Joodse godsdiens was, ongeveer 500 v.C. Maar Esegiël 40: 1 en die interpretasie daarvan sê dat die jubelstelsel in 1406 vC begin het. Seder Olam se opmerking (dat dit die 17de jubileum was), wat seker gemaak is uit 'n ander bron wat nie meer bestaan ​​nie, is 'n bewys dat Levitikus voor 1406 vC geskryf is, omdat dit toon dat die Jubilee -stelsel reeds vir 17 jubileums in werking was in die dae van Esegiël. Die twee onafhanklike getuies bevestig mekaar.

Wat hierdie onafhanklike getuies ons bykomend tot al die ander vertel, is dat die data in Kings behoue ​​gebly het; daar was geen foute in die oordrag deur die eeue nie, ten minste wat die lengte van die regeringstyd van die konings betref. Dit is op sigself nogal wonderlik.

Alhoewel die twee metodes slegs in 1446 vC 'n chronologie gee, moet die ooreenkoms tussen die twee berekeningsmetodes vir die uittogdatum ons vertroue in die hele Bybelse verslag versterk. Dit moet ons vertroue in die akkuraatheid van die chronologie tot in die tyd van Abraham versterk.

Ek wonder hoeveel Bybelgeleerdes die afgelope 20 eeue gesukkel het met die kompleksiteit van die lengte van die heerskappy van die konings in 1 en 2 Konings. En hoeveel het gevra: "Here, waarom het u toegelaat dat dit so ingewikkeld is?" Wel, ek dink ons ​​weet dit nou - dit is sodat daar twee onafhanklike getuies kan wees vir die datum van die uittog, wat ook 'n chronologiese ruggraat/raamwerk vir die Bybelse geskiedenis bied vanaf daardie tyd. Ek hoop dat u verstaan ​​wat beweer word, en dat u dit by my nogal verstommend vind: omdat dit nogal wonderlik en nogal verstommend is.


Hammurabi se kode: wat vertel dit ons oor die ou Babilonië?

Hammurabi regeer die ou Babilonië en 'n goeie deel van die Mesopotamiese bekken. Die wetskode wat aan hom toegeskryf word, is een van die vroegste en omvattendste pogings om wette te kodifiseer.

Koning Hammurabi regeer Babilon, geleë langs die Eufraat- en Tigrisrivier, van 1792–1750 vC. Gedurende sy tyd as koning het hy toesig gehou oor 'n groot uitbreiding van sy koninkryk van 'n stadstaat na 'n ryk. Vandag is hy egter die bekendste vir 'n reeks vonnisse wat op 'n groot klipstele geskryf is en Hammurabi's Code genoem is. Geleerdes debatteer steeds oor die presiese betekenis daarvan as 'n stel wette, maar die belangrikheid van die kode as 'n weerspieëling van die Babiloniese samelewing is onbetwisbaar. In hierdie les leer studente oor die lewe in Babilonië deur die lens van Hammurabi's Code. Hierdie les is bedoel om die leerplanne van die wêreldgeskiedenis oor Mesopotamië uit te brei en om studente 'n meer diepgaande blik op die lewe in Babilonië te gee gedurende die tyd van Hammurabi.

Leidende vrae

Wat kan ons leer uit die Ou Babiloniese samelewing uit die kode van Hammurabi?

Hoe het Hammurabi se kode die daaropvolgende wetskodes beïnvloed?

In watter mate beïnvloed die kode van Hammurabi steeds hoe ons wette skep en afdwing?

Leerdoelwitte

Ondersoek die motiewe van Hammurabi vir die skep en verspreiding van sy 'kode'.

Evalueer hoe Hammurabi se kode destyds die Babiloniese samelewing weerspieël.

Beoordeel die mate waarin Hammurabi se kode relevant was na sy dood.

Geskiedenis en sosiale studies

Lesplan Skrywer:

Lesplanbesonderhede

In die 18de eeu vC het Hammurabi (ook Hammurapi gespel) die sesde heerser in die Eerste Dinastie van Babilon geword. Die sukses van Hammurabi se militêre operasies het Babilon noordwaarts uitgebrei langs die Tigris en die Eufraat en suidwaarts na wat nou die Persiese Golf genoem word. Die ryk wat hy geskep het, staan ​​bekend as Babilon, terwyl die beskawing dikwels na Ou Babilonië verwys word.

Die Code of Hammurabi, ingeskryf op 'n groot klipsteen-'n regop plaat-is in 1901 deur 'n Franse ekspedisie ontbloot. Die leier daarvan, vader Vincent Scheil, vertaal die kode die volgende jaar. Destyds was dit die oudste stel wat bekend was as wette. Sedertdien is daar egter vroeër soortgelyke "kodes" opgegrawe. Alhoewel die kode van Hammurabi nie uniek is nie, is dit steeds die langste kode wat nog ontdek is en een van die enigste wat op 'n stele ingeskryf is. Inligting en 'n beeld van die stele kan gevind word deur die Louvre-museum te besoek, wat beskikbaar is deur EDSITEment-hersiene hulpbronne The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. As u eenmaal op die Louvre -webwerf is, klik dan op die skakel vir 'geselekteerde werke' aan die linkerkant, klik dan op Oosterse oudhede onder 'geselekteerde werke', klik op Mesopotamië en Anatolië, en uiteindelik sal u 'n beeld van die stele sien deur na onder te blaai deur die miniatuur beelde. Dit word gemerk as die 'Wetkodeks van Hammurabi'. U het direk toegang tot die inligting oor die stele, wat ook van die Louvre afkomstig is.

Die volledige teks van Hammurabi's Code is beskikbaar by die Avalon-projek wat deur die EDSITE-hersiene webbron hersien is.

Lees 'n verteenwoordigende voorbeeld van die kode: die proloog (eerste en laaste paragrawe) voorskrifte 3, 4, 60, 108, 196 en 228 en die epiloog (paragrawe 1-3 en 5). In die proloog beweer Hammurabi dat sy gesag direk van die gode afkomstig is. Hy verklaar ook dat die doel van die kode is "om die heerskappy van geregtigheid in die land te bewerkstellig ... sodat die sterkes nie die swakkes skaad nie". Die derde voorskrif dui op die bestaan ​​van 'n regstelsel met ouderlinge wat as regters dien. Die vierde voorskrif dui aan dat boetes geld en/of graan opgelê is en impliseer die bestaan ​​van iets soortgelyk aan ons siviele gedagtes waarin die klaer 'n skikking ontvang het. Nommer sestig dui op die bestaan ​​van iets wat soortgelyk is aan 'n deelbou -stelsel waarin een persoon grond boer in ruil vir grond binne vyf jaar. So 'n stelsel is geneig om grond van groot na klein eienaars te herverdeel. Nommer honderd en agt dui aan dat vroue ten minste sekere soorte ondernemings in Ou Babilonië kan besit. Nommer honderd ses en negentig is miskien die bekendste van die voorskrifte. Dit word ook gevind in die Hebreeuse Bybel (Eksodus 21: 18–19, 22–25, Levitikus 24: 17–21) en in die Evangelies (Matteus 5:38). Laastens toon nommer tweehonderd agt en twintig die spesifisiteit van die voorskrifte en impliseer dat daar 'n vasgestelde tariefskedule vir die werk van bekwame handelaars was, in hierdie geval 'n vaste fooi van twee sikkels vir elke sar gebou, vergelykbaar met moderne bouers wat soveel per vierkante voet hef.

Die epiloog verklaar dat die klip waarop die kode aangebring is, in die E-Sagil-tempel in Babilon opgerig is. Dit lig die leser in dat u deur middel van hierdie voorskrifte kan uitvind "wat regverdig is". In die derde paragraaf belowe Hammurabi sy trou aan die god Marduk-die hoogste in die Babiloniese panteon, vergelykbaar met Zeus in die Griekse panteon. Die vyfde paragraaf raai toekomstige konings aan om hierdie voorskrifte te volg.

NCSS.D2.Sy.1.6-8. Ontleed verbande tussen gebeure en ontwikkelings in breër historiese kontekste.

NCSS.D2.Sy.2.6-8. Klassifiseer reeks historiese gebeure en ontwikkelings as voorbeelde van verandering en/of kontinuïteit.

NCSS.D2.Sy.3.6-8. Gebruik vrae wat oor individue en groepe gegenereer word om te ontleed waarom hulle en die ontwikkelings wat hulle gevorm het, as histories belangrik beskou word.

NCSS.D2.Sy.4.6-8. Ontleed verskeie faktore wat die perspektiewe van mense tydens verskillende historiese tydperke beïnvloed het.

NCSS.D2.Sy.5.6-8. Verduidelik hoe en waarom perspektiewe van mense oor tyd verander het.

NCSS.D2.Hy.14.6-8. Verduidelik verskeie oorsake en gevolge van gebeure en ontwikkelings in die verlede.

NCSS.D2.Sy.15.6-8. Evalueer die relatiewe invloed van verskillende oorsake van gebeure en ontwikkelings in die verlede.

NCSS.D2.Hy.16.6-8. Organiseer toepaslike bewyse in 'n samehangende argument oor die verlede.

  • Vir meer inligting oor Hammurabi en die Hammurabi -kode, kan onderwysers die Lesing: The Code of Hammurabi en die gedeelte Mesopotamiese beskawing lees, 'n skakel van EDSITEment -bron Internet Public Library. Dit is ontwerp vir hoërskool- en kollege -studente, en kan ook geskik wees vir sommige hoërskoolleerlinge.
  • U kan inligting vind oor waar die grense van Babilon val in terme van die Moderne Politieke Kaart deur 'n vergelyking met Mesopotamië in 1750 v.G.
  • Gaan alle webwerwe en materiaal na wat studente sal sien. Laai foto's af van alle artefakte wat studente vanlyn sal sien. Laai die nodige uitdeelstukke af en berei dit voor uit die aflaaibare PDF's vir hierdie les. Lees die lesplan deur en besoek die webwerwe wat u van plan is om u studente te laat gebruik. Merk dit as nodig op u rekenaar. Maak seker dat studente die groot beeld van Hammurabi's Stele, óf in druk óf op die skerm, kan sien deur die webblad The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago, wat deur die EDSITEment-hersiene webbron bekom is.
  • Die EDSITEment -les The Emergence and Evolution of Cuneiform in Mesopotamia bied 'n aanvulling op hierdie les.

M3rcy Triomfeer

In die Hebreeuse tradisie is die titel van die boek Genesis dieselfde as die eerste woord (kak), gewoonlik baie grof vertaal met 'in die begin'. ” 1 Dit is 'n logiese naam vir 'n boek wat begin met die bonatuurlike skepping van die wêreld en die vroeë geskiedenis van die mensdom.

Maar wat is die ontstaan van Genesis? Met ander woorde, wanneer is Genesis geskryf? Waar en by wie het dit ontstaan? Die meeste konserwatiewe geleerdes sal saamstem dat Moses die boek Genesis een of ander tyd gedurende die 15de eeu v.C. Een bron sê 1 445 v.C. 2 'N Ander bron sê 1,440-1,400 v.C. 3 Jy kry die idee.

Daar is egter geleerdes wat beweer dat Genesis eintlik tydens die Babiloniese ballingskap in die 6de eeu v.C. Byvoorbeeld, die New World Encyclopedia online sê: "Uiteindelik meen sommige geleerdes dat die Babiloniese tradisie selfs die oorsprongsverhaal van Genesis 1 beïnvloed het, wat mitoloë glo 'n herbewerking van die Babiloniese kosmologie is wat in die Enuma Elish uitgebeeld word." 4

Die implikasies, soos u kan sien, is redelik ernstig. Hierdie liberale geleerdes impliseer werklik dat Genesis niks anders bevat as gekaapte Babiloniese mitologie wat duisende jare later deur Jode bewerk is om hul eie doel te pas nie. As dit waar is, is Bybelse inspirasie 'n breekslag toegedien (2 Tim. 3: 16-17). Ek het 'n gevoel dat dit presies is wat die liberale geleerdes probeer bereik.

Ek kon op hierdie bewering reageer deur aan te toon hoe antieke Joodse tradisie sowel as Bybelse verslae uit die Ou en Nuwe Testament Genesis aan Moses toeskryf. Daar is baie om hier te sê.

In plaas daarvan wil ek een van die verhale in Genesis gebruik om 'n vroeë datum vir die boek te bewys. Hopelik sal hierdie inligting duidelikheid gee oor die 'datum -debat' en u geloof in die historiese akkuraatheid en geloofwaardigheid van die Ou Testament kan versterk.

In Genesis 16 kry ons 'n blik op die lewe van die aartsvader, Abraham. In hierdie spesifieke verhaal sukkel sy vrou, Sarah, om God se belofte van 'n seun met haar onvrugbare baarmoeder en ouderdom te versoen. Sy sê vir Abraham in vers 2: '' Kyk, die HERE het my weerhou om kinders te baar. Gaan asseblief by my diensmeisie in, miskien sal ek by haar kinders kry. ’En Abram luister na die stem van Sarai.” Wat 'n vreemde voorstel! Watter vrou vandag sou so iets aan haar man voorstel? En tog, terwyl ons aanhou lees, leer ons dat Abraham Sarah se raad gevolg het.

Dan, na 'n verwagte konflik tussen Sara en die slavin Hagar, die moeder van Abraham se nuwe seun, Ismael, sê Abraham vir Sara: 'Jou diensmeisie is in jou hand, doen met haar soos jy wil.' En toe Sarai haar hard behandel het , het sy van haar teenwoordigheid gevlug. ”

Weereens, wat 'n vreemde situasie!

Maar eintlik was dit nie vreemd in hul kultuur nie!

Die Law Code of Hammurabi is 'n versameling van 282 wette wat op 'n regop klippilaar ingeskryf is, wat in 1901 deur Franse argeoloë ontdek is terwyl hulle die antieke Susa in die moderne Iran opgrawe.

Hammurabi, 'n Mesopotamiese koning, het vermoedelik van 1,792-1750 v.C. Hierdie wette sou die tyd en kultuur waarin Abraham geleef het, gedefinieer het. En hulle werp lig op Genesis 16!

Oorweeg byvoorbeeld wette 145-146:

As 'n man 'n vrou neem en sy geen kinders baar nie, en hy is van voorneme om 'n ander vrou te neem: as hy hierdie tweede vrou neem en haar in die huis bring, sal hierdie tweede vrou nie gelykheid met sy vrou toegelaat word nie. 5

As 'n man 'n vrou neem en sy vir hierdie man 'n diensmaagd as vrou gee en sy vir hom kinders baar, en dan neem hierdie diensmeisie gelykheid aan met die vrou: omdat sy vir hom kinders gebaar het, sal haar heer haar nie vir geld verkoop nie, maar hy mag haar as 'n slaaf hou en haar onder die diensmeisies reken. 5

Net so vreemd soos wat Abraham se optrede vandag vir ons voorkom, was dit heeltemal normaal in sy kultuur. Dit impliseer dat Abraham en Sarah, ten minste in hierdie verhaal, die wysheid van die wêreld (op daardie tydstip) vertrou het eerder as om God se beloftes te vertrou.

Maar meer spesifiek, hierdie verhaal help om die eis van 'laat datum' te weerlê. Hoe kon Jode in die 6de eeu v.C. Weet u van Mesopotamiese wette wat al duisende jare teruggaan?

Die boek Genesis, soos alle boeke in die Bybel, is histories akkuraat. Dit is nie 'n versameling mites en verhale wat uit ander kulture geleen is nie, maar 'n geïnspireerde historiese rekord!


Bronne

Andrews, Evan. "8 dinge wat u nie mag weet oor die kode van Hammurabi nie." GESKIEDENIS. Besoek op 23 Julie 2019. https://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-hammurabis-code.

Arnold, Bill T. Wie was die Babiloniërs? Society of Biblical Literature / Archeology and Biblical Studies No. 10 Variation: Archaeology and Biblical Studies No. 10. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004.

Baker, Heather. “Hammoerabi van Babilon.” Times Higher Education, geen. 2063 (16): 44.

Charpin, Dominique. Hammurabi van Babilon. Londen New York: I.B. Tauris & amp. New York: uitsluitlik versprei in die VSA en Kanada deur Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Driver, G. R., en koning van Babilonië. The Babylonian Laws / Miles, John C. Sir, 1870-1963. (John Charles),. Antieke kodes en wette van die Nabye Ooste Variasie: Ou kodes en wette van die Nabye Ooste. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.

Glaubitz, H. "Hardgekookte Hammurabi." New York Times (1923-huidige lêer). 22 Augustus 1937.

“Weer Hammurabi.” Outlook (1893-1924) 104, nr. 17 (1913): 885.

Wetskode van Hammurabi, koning van Babilon. 1750 avant J.-C 1792. Basalte, H. 2,25 m W. 0,65 m. Louvre. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/law-code-hammurabi-king-babylon.

Liptak, Adam. "Beskuldig van 'terrorisme' omdat hy wettige materiaal aanlyn geplaas het." Die New York Times, 13 Mei 2019, sek. Amerikaanse https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/13/us/politics/georgia-official-code-copyright.html.

"Die Avalon -projek: kode van Hammurabi." Besoek 23 Julie 2019. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp.

Van de Mieroop, Marc. Koning Hammurabi van Babilon: 'n Biografie. Blackwell Ancient Lives Variasie: Blackwell Ancient Lives. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2005.

Vincent, George E. "The Laws of Hammurabi." Amerikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie 9, nee. 6 (1 Mei 1904): 737–754. https://doi.org/10.1086/211268.


2.4 SLEUTELVOORWAARDES

  • Amarna tydperk
  • Assiriese Ryk
  • Aten
  • Katarak
  • Stadstate
  • Beskawing
  • Verbond
  • Spykerskrif
  • Uitdroging
  • Goddelike koningskappe
  • Ryk
  • Uittog
  • Hammurabi se kode
  • Hiërogliewe
  • Kerma
  • Kush
  • Levant
  • Meroe
  • Meroities
  • Mesopotamië
  • Middelryk
  • Monoteïsme
  • Nebukadnesar II
  • Nuwe Koninkryk
  • Nylrivier
  • Nubië
  • Ou Koninkryk
  • Ostraca
  • Palet van Narmer
  • Politeïsties
  • Profete
  • Piramides
  • Sargon van Akkad
  • Soemeriese koninglys
  • Die Tien Gebooie
  • Vallei van die konings
  • Westelike Deffufa
  • Ziggurat

Wie is Abraham in die Bybel en waarom is hy belangrik?

Abraham speel 'n belangrike rol in die Christelike geloof. Hy is een van die belangrikste figure in die Bybel behalwe Jesus. Die verlosser van die wêreld kom deur sy afkoms (Matteus 1 Lukas 3). Niemand kan die Ou Testament verstaan ​​sonder om Abraham te verstaan ​​nie, want op baie maniere begin die verhaal van verlossing met die oproep van God tot hierdie aartsvader. Abraham was die eerste mens wat deur God gekies is vir 'n rol in die verlossingsplan. Die verhaal van Abraham bevat die eerste vermelding in die Bybel van God en die geregtigheid wat die mens as die enigste middel tot redding toegeken het (Genesis 15: 6). Dit was Abraham wat God gekies het om die vader van baie nasies te wees, bloot omdat dit Sy wil was. God het geweet dat Abraham sou sukkel met die oproep wat hom voorgehou is, maar Hy het ook geweet dat sy stryd groot groei en geloof sou oplewer.

Die naam van Abraham en rsquos was oorspronklik & lsquoAbram & rsquo, wat beteken dat die vader verhewe is. Sy naam is verander na & lsquoAbraham, & rsquo wat beteken & lsquofather van 'n menigte & rsquo, toe God sy verbond met hom begin het (Genesis 17). God het aan Abraham belowe dat hy die vader van baie mense sou wees. Hy en sy vrou Sarah was egter blykbaar verby die normale ouderdom om kinders te hê; daarom sou dit duidelik 'n wonderwerk van God wees as hulle sou hê. Nietemin het Abraham op God vertrou en geglo dat God kon bereik wat Hy beloof het.

God het Abraham kinders belowe (Genesis 15: 5 22:17). Maar toe dit nie so vinnig gebeur soos Abraham gedink het nie, het hy ongeduldig geraak met God en het die saak in sy eie beheer geneem. Sy vrou, Sarah, was nog kinderloos, en daarom het sy vir Abraham gesê om by haar slavin te slaap, sodat hulle 'n kind by die vakbond kan kry. 'N Seun is uit hierdie vakbond gebore, sy naam was Ismael. Dit was egter nie 'n plan van God nie. God se belofte was vir die nageslag van die vereniging van Abraham en Sara en rsquos (Genesis 15: 3-4). Isak was die naam van die seun wat uit die verbintenis van Abraham en Sara gekom het, en deur Isak sou die nasies geseën word.

Toe God vir Abraham en Sarah sê dat hulle 'n kind op hul oudag sou hê, het hulle albei gelag. Hulle gelag oor God en rsquos -plan het getuig van hul ongeloof dat Hy kon doen wat Hy gesê het Hy sou doen. Die Bybel sê vir ons, en dan sê die HERE vir Abraham: Waarom het Sarah gelag en gesê: Sal ek regtig 'n kind hê, nie dat ek oud is nie? & Rsquo Is daar iets te moeilik vir die HERE? Ek sal volgende jaar op die vasgestelde tyd na u terugkeer, en Sarah sal 'n seun hê. & Rsquo Sarah was bang, daarom het sy gelieg en gesê: 'Ek het nie gelag nie.' 'Maar hy het gesê:' Ja, jy het gelag. '' (Genesis 18: 13-15). Ons wil graag dink dat Abraham ongetwyfeld God geglo het, maar dit is nie die geval nie. Hy vind dat God se woord amper onmoontlik is om te glo. Sarah is immers verby die ouderdom van vrugbaarheid. Sy reaksie op die Here toon egter nie totale ongeloof in die verbondsbelofte nie. Hy val op sy gesig, simbolies van onderwerping, vertroue en aanbidding. Abraham wys ons dat ware vertroue in God nie tye uitskakel wanneer dit moeilik is om sy ongelooflike beloftes na te kom nie.

Nadat Abraham deur God geroep is om Haran te verlaat, het hy dit gehoorsaam gedoen. In Genesis 12 lees ons van Abraham (destyds Abram genoem) wat Haran verlaat, waar sy vader Tera gevestig was, en op pad was om die beloofde land te vind. Hierdie verslag gee die ouderdom van Abraham op hierdie tydstip 75, maar Genesis 11 en Handelinge 3 dui daarop dat Abraham baie ouer was as dit toe hy Haran verlaat het. Die Skrif vertel ons ook dat hy 86 was toe sy eerste seun Ismael deur Hagar gebore is, 99 toe hy besny is en 100 toe sy seun Isak deur Sara gebore is.

Abraham en Sara was baie gelukkig met hul nuwe seun Isak, maar God het 'n toets vir Abraham gehad. God het vir hom gesê, & ldquo Neem jou seun, jou enigste seun Isak, vir wie jy lief is, en gaan na die land Moria en offer hom daar as 'n brandoffer op een van die berge waarvan ek jou sal vertel & rdquo (Genesis 22: 2). Dit sou 'n groot skok vir enige ouer gewees het om deur 'n langverwagte kind geseën te word, net om God te laat sê dat hy die kind moet offer. Die Bybel sê nie dat Abraham vir 'n oomblik gehuiwer het nie. Trouens, daar is sekere gedeeltes wat dui op Abraham se sterk geloof dat God sy seun glad nie sou neem nie (Genesis 22: 5, 8). Abraham het geglo dat God Isak sou laat herleef as die offer werklik sou plaasvind (Hebreërs 11:19). Of dit nou vir God, rsquos, Abraham, rsquos, Isaac & rsquos of ter wille van ons was, Abraham het sy seun na 'n berg geneem, neergelê en gereed gemaak om hom dood te maak in gehoorsaamheid aan Gods bevel. God het egter ingegryp deur te keer dat Abraham sy seun vermoor en 'n offer bring in die vorm van 'n ram wat in die borsel vasgevang is. Terwyl die geloof van Abraham en rsquos getoets is, bewys hy sy geloof deur sy gehoorsaamheid aan God.

Abraham het 'n lang en uitdagende reis gehad. Gedurende hierdie reis het hy hard gewerk en hartseer en seëninge beleef. Die meeste van die tyd kon hy nie die pad vorentoe sien nie, maar hy het die belofte in sy hart vasgehou. God sou voortgaan om die belofte na te kom meer as duisend jaar na die dood van Abraham en die dood tot die vervulling daarvan in Sy Seun Jesus Christus. Ons weet deur Abraham dat God altyd sy beloftes nakom. Ons het moontlik nie al die antwoorde nie, maar God het dit beslis.


Die prestasies van antieke Mesopotamië

Die wêreld van wiskunde en sterrekunde is baie te danke aan die Babiloniërs-byvoorbeeld die seksgesimale stelsel vir die berekening van tyd en hoeke, wat steeds prakties is vanweë die veelvoudige deelbaarheid van die getal 60 op die Griekse dag van 12 "dubbel-ure" en die sterreteken en sy tekens. In baie gevalle is die oorsprong en roetes van lenings egter duister, soos in die probleem van die voortbestaan ​​van die antieke Mesopotamiese regsteorie.

Die bereiking van die beskawing self kan uitgedruk word in terme van die beste punte daarvan - moreel, esteties, wetenskaplik en, nie die minste nie, literêr. Die regsteorie het floreer en is vroeg reeds gesofistikeerd, en dit kom tot uitdrukking in verskeie versamelings van regsbesluite, die sogenaamde kodes, waarvan die kode van Hammurabi die bekendste is. Dwarsdeur hierdie kodes herhaal die besorgdheid van die heerser oor die swakkes, die weduwee en die weeskind - selfs al was die frases ongelukkig slegs literêre clichés. The aesthetics of art are too much governed by subjective values to be assessed in absolute terms, yet certain peaks stand out above the rest, notably the art of Uruk IV, the seal engraving of the Akkad period, and the relief sculpture of Ashurbanipal. Nonetheless, there is nothing in Mesopotamia to match the sophistication of Egyptian art. Science the Mesopotamians had, of a kind, though not in the sense of Greek science. From its beginnings in Sumer before the middle of the 3rd millennium bce , Mesopotamian science was characterized by endless, meticulous enumeration and ordering into columns and series, with the ultimate ideal of including all things in the world but without the wish or ability to synthesize and reduce the material to a system. Not a single general scientific law has been found, and only rarely has the use of analogy been found. Nevertheless, it remains a highly commendable achievement that Pythagoras’ law (that the sum of the squares on the two shorter sides of a right-angled triangle equals the square on the longest side), even though it was never formulated, was being applied as early as the 18th century bce . Technical accomplishments were perfected in the building of the ziggurats (temple towers resembling pyramids), with their huge bulk, and in irrigation, both in practical execution and in theoretical calculations. At the beginning of the 3rd millennium bce , an artificial stone often regarded as a forerunner of concrete was in use at Uruk (160 miles south-southeast of modern Baghdad), but the secret of its manufacture apparently was lost in subsequent years.

Writing pervaded all aspects of life and gave rise to a highly developed bureaucracy—one of the most tenacious legacies of the ancient Middle East. Remarkable organizing ability was required to administer huge estates, in which, under the 3rd dynasty of Ur, for example, it was not unusual to prepare accounts for thousands of cattle or tens of thousands of bundles of reeds. Similar figures are attested at Ebla, three centuries earlier.

Above all, the literature of Mesopotamia is one of its finest cultural achievements. Though there are many modern anthologies and chrestomathies (compilations of useful learning), with translations and paraphrases of Mesopotamian literature, as well as attempts to write its history, it cannot truly be said that “cuneiform literature” has been resurrected to the extent that it deserves. There are partly material reasons for this: many clay tablets survive only in a fragmentary condition, and duplicates that would restore the texts have not yet been discovered, so that there are still large gaps. A further reason is the inadequate knowledge of the languages: insufficient acquaintance with the vocabulary and, in Sumerian, difficulties with the grammar. Consequently, another generation of Assyriologists will pass before the great myths, epics, lamentations, hymns, “law codes,” wisdom literature, and pedagogical treatises can be presented in such a way that modern readers can fully appreciate the high level of literary creativity of those times.


Ancient Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is an ancient, historical region that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq and parts of Kuwait, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Part of the Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia was home to the earliest known human civilizations. Scholars believe the Agricultural Revolution started here.

The earliest occupants of Mesopotamia lived in circular dwellings made of mud and brick along the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. They began to practice agriculture by domesticating sheep and pigs around 11,000 to 9,000 B.C. Domesticated plants, including flax, wheat, barley and lentils, first appeared around 9,500 B.C.

Some of the earliest evidence of farming comes from the archaeological site of Tell Abu Hureyra, a small village located along the Euphrates River in modern Syria. The village was inhabited from roughly 11,500 to 7,000 B.C. Inhabitants initially hunted gazelle and other game before beginning to harvest wild grains around 9,700 BCE. Several large stone tools for grinding grain have been found at the site.

One of the oldest known Mesopotamian cities, Nineveh (near Mosul in modern Iraq), may have been settled as early as 6,000 B.C. Sumer civilization arose in the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley around 5,000 B.C.

In addition to farming and cities, ancient Mesopotamian societies developed irrigation and aqueducts, temples, pottery, early systems of banking and credit, property ownership and the first codes of law.


Hammurabi

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Hammurabi, ook gespel Hammurapi, (born, Babylon [now in Iraq]—died c. 1750 bce ), sixth and best-known ruler of the 1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon (reigning c. 1792–1750 bce ), noted for his surviving set of laws, once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history. Sien Hammurabi, Code of.

Why is Hammurabi important?

Hammurabi ruled Babylon from about 1792 to 1750 BCE. He is noted for his surviving set of laws, which were inscribed on a stela in Babylon’s temple of Marduk. Hammurabi’s Code was once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history, though older, shorter law collections have since been found.

What is Hammurabi’s Code?

Hammurabi’s Code is the most complete extant collection of Babylonian laws. It consists of Hammurabi’s legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce) as well as family law (marriage and divorce), criminal law (assault and theft), and civil law (slavery and debt).

What did Hammurabi accomplish?

Hammurabi conquered southern Babylonia, transformed a small city-state into a large territorial state, and shifted the balance of power in Mesopotamia from the south to the north, where it remained for more than 1,000 years. However, he failed to set up an effective bureaucracy, and his son lost much of the territory Hammurabi had conquered.

Like all the kings of his dynasty except his father and grandfather, Hammurabi bore a tribal Amorite name belonging to the Amnanum. Only scanty information exists about his immediate family: his father, Sin-muballit his sister, Iltani and his firstborn son and successor, Samsuiluna, are known by name.

When Hammurabi succeeded Sin-muballit about 1792 bce , he was still young, but, as was customary in Mesopotamian royal courts of the time, he had probably already been entrusted with some official duties in the administration of the realm. In that same year Rim-Sin of Larsa, who ruled over the entire south of Babylonia, conquered Isin, which served as a buffer between Babylon and Larsa. Rim-Sin later became Hammurabi’s chief rival.

The reconstruction of Hammurabi’s rule is based mainly on his date formulas (years were named for a significant act the king had performed in the previous year or at the beginning of the year thus named). These show him engaged in the traditional activities of an ancient Mesopotamian king: building and restoring temples, city walls, and public buildings, digging canals, dedicating cult objects to the deities in the cities and towns of his realm, and fighting wars. His official inscriptions commemorating his building activities corroborate this but add no significant historical information.

The size, location, and military strength of the realm left to Hammurabi made it one of the major powers in Babylonia. That Hammurabi was not strong enough to change the balance of power by his own will is well expressed in a diplomatic report: “There is no king who is powerful for himself: with Hammurabi, ‘the man of Babylon,’ go 10 or 15 kings, so with Rim-Sin, ‘the man of Larsa’ with Ibalpiel, ‘the man of Eshunna,’…go 20 kings.”

Hammurabi inherited one major direction for his political activity: to succeed in controlling the Euphrates waters—important in an area that depended exclusively on irrigation agriculture. Such a policy naturally led to conflicts with the kingdom of Larsa, which was situated in a disadvantageous downstream position. This policy, begun by Hammurabi’s great-grandfather but most forcefully and partially successfully pursued by his father, Hammurabi himself took up in 1787 bce , near the beginning of his reign, when he conquered the cities Uruk ( Erech) and Isin, held by Rim-Sin, and clashed again with Rim-Sin the year after. But, according to Hammurabi’s date formulas and contemporary diplomatic correspondence, these operations led no further because Hammurabi shifted the direction of his military operations in 1784 toward the northwest and the east. For almost 20 years thereafter no significant warlike activity is reported. These years were characterized by changing coalitions among the main kingdoms—Mari, Ashur, Eshnunna, Babylon, and Larsa. Hammurabi used this time of uneasy stalemate to fortify several cities on his northern borders (1776–1768 bce ).

The last 14 years of Hammurabi’s reign were overshadowed by continuous warfare. In 1764 Hammurabi dealt with a coalition of Ashur, Eshnunna, and Elam—the main powers east of the Tigris—whose position threatened to block his access to the metal-producing areas of Iran. It can be assumed, however, that Hammurabi took the initiative in moving against Rim-Sin of Larsa in 1763 bce . Few particulars are reported about this latter war, but it seems that Hammurabi successfully employed a stratagem that apparently had been used before by Sin-muballit against Rim-Sin: damming up the water of a main watercourse and then either releasing it suddenly to create a devastating flood or simply withholding it—the main resource of life—from the enemy’s people (that Hammurabi used this device to bring about Rim-Sin’s defeat can be assumed from the fact that in 1760 he rebuilt a canal—the western branch of the Euphrates—to facilitate the resettlement of the uprooted population that lived along its course before this war). The final siege of Larsa, Rim-Sin’s last stronghold, lasted for several months. It was the last step to Hammurabi’s victory.

In 1762 bce Hammurabi again engaged in hostilities with the eastern powers. It is unknown whether this was a protective move on his part or a reaction on theirs to the change in the balance of power. The motives that led Hammurabi in 1761 bce against his longtime ally, Zimrilim, king of Mari, 250 miles (400 km) upstream from Babylon on the Euphrates, remain enigmatic. Two explanations are likely: it was either again a fight over water rights or an attempt by Hammurabi to gain control over Mari’s excellent location at the crossroads of the ancient Middle East’s overland trade.

Two years later Hammurabi had to direct his armies eastward for a third time (1757–1755 bce ). The final destruction of Eshnunna during this campaign—again achieved by damming up the waters—most likely proved to be a pyrrhic victory, because it removed a buffer zone between Babylonia proper and the peoples of the east (among them probably the Kassites, who were to take over in Babylonia 160 years hence). During his last two years, Hammurabi thus had to concentrate on the construction of defense fortifications. By this time he was a sick man, and he died about 1750 bce , with the burden of government already being carried by his son, Samsuiluna.

Changes affecting nearly all spheres of life took place during Hammurabi’s reign. They were aimed at the consolidation of conditions resulting from the transformation of a small city-state into a large territorial state. His letters show that he personally engaged in the details of implementing these changes and in the daily routine of the administration of his realm. This personal style is characteristic for Hammurabi and also for other contemporary rulers. Hammurabi’s laws—not a law code in the modern sense—must also be considered as an expression of his concern to be a just ruler—an ideal pursued by Mesopotamian kings at all times.

That Hammurabi failed to set up an effective bureaucratic system may be attributed to his personal style in the governance of his realm and the fact that he was fully engaged in wars during the last part of his reign. The lack of effective administration might have been one reason for the fast deterioration after his death of what he had achieved in military terms.

When Hammurabi conquered southern Babylonia he did not follow the century-old tradition of having himself deified during his lifetime. There is reason to believe that this was his personal decision, probably based on a different view of the nature of kingship, setting a precedent for the concept of kingship until Hellenistic times.

Hammurabi’s eminence in Mesopotamian history has long been exaggerated. It was first based on the discovery of his laws but subsequent discoveries of older, though less voluminous, collections of laws have led to a less enthusiastic view. Moreover, the frequently noted resemblance between Hammurabi’s laws and the Mosaic laws is now seen in terms of common heritage rather than as proof for direct dependency.

Hammurabi is also credited with bringing Mesopotamia again under a single rule. Although there existed certain trends toward such unification—particularly expressed in the themes depicted on contemporary seals and in the apodoses of omens evoking a past when such kings as Sargon of Akkad and Shulgi ruled Mesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea—it is doubtful that unification was the only motive for Hammurabi’s conquests. The lasting achievement of Hammurabi’s rule was that the theatre of Mesopotamian history, which had been in the south from the beginning of the 3rd millennium bce , was shifted to the north, where it remained for more than 1,000 years.


Is there evidence to suggest that Abraham and Hammurabi influenced one another? - Geskiedenis

By Gene D. Matlock, B.A., M.A.

This article was published through courtesy ofhttp://www.viewzone.com , where you can the find the original and lots of other incredible, mind- boggling articles on forbidden archeology and unsolved mysteries.

In his History of the Jews, the Jewish scholar and theologian Flavius Josephus (37 - 100 A.D.), wrote that the Greek philosopher Aristotle had said: ". These Jews are derived from the Indian philosophers they are named by the Indians Calani." (Book I:22.)

Clearchus of Soli wrote, "The Jews descend from the philosophers of India. The philosophers are called in India Calanians and in Syria Jews . The name of their capital is very difficult to pronounce. It is called 'Jerusalem.'"

"Megasthenes, who was sent to India by Seleucus Nicator, about three hundred years before Christ, and whose accounts from new inquiries are every day acquiring additional credit, says that the Jews 'were an Indian tribe or sect called Kalani. '" (Anacalypsis, by Godfrey Higgins, Vol. I p. 400.)

Martin Haug, Ph.D., wrote in The Sacred Language, Writings, and Religions of the Parsis , "The Magi are said to have called their religion Kesh- -Ibrahim.They traced their religious books to Abraham, who was believed to have brought them from heaven." (p. 16.)

There are certain striking similarities between the Hindu god Brahma and his consort Saraisvati, and the Jewish Abraham and Sarai , that are more than mere coincidences. Although in all of India there is only one temple dedicated to Brahma, this cult is the third largest Hindu sect.

In his book Mois s y los Extraterrestres , Mexican author Tom s Doreste states,

Voltaire was of the opinion that Abraham descended from some of the numerous Brahman priests who left India to spread their teachings throughout the world and in support of his thesis he presented the following elements: the similarity of names and the fact that the city of Ur, land of the patriarchs, was near the border of Persia, the road to India, where that Brahman had been born.

The name of Brahma was highly respected in India, and his influence spread throughout Persia as far as the lands bathed by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The Persians adopted Brahma and made him their own. Later they would say that the God arrived from Bactria, a mountainous region situated midway on the road to India. (pp. 46-47.)

Bactria (a region of ancient Afghanistan) was the locality of a prototypical Jewish nation called Juhuda or Jaguda, also called Ur-Jaguda. Ur meant "place or town." Therefore, the bible was correct in stating that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldeans." "Chaldean," more correctly Kaul-Deva (Holy Kauls), was not the name of a specific ethnicity but the title of an ancient Hindu Brahmanical priestly caste who lived in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Indian state of Kashmir.

"The tribe of Ioud or the Brahmin Abraham, was expelled from or left the Maturea of the kingdom of Oude in India and, settling in Goshen, or the house of the Sun or Heliopolis in Egypt, gave it the name of the place which they had left in India, Maturea." (Anacalypsis Vol. I, p. 405.)

"He was of the religion or sect of Persia, and of Melchizedek."(Vol. I, p. 364.)

"The Persians also claim Ibrahim, i.e. Abraham, for their founder, as well as the Jews. Thus we see that according to all ancient history the Persians, the Jews, and the Arabians are descendants of Abraham.(p.85) . We are told that Terah, the father of Abraham, originally came from an Eastern country called Ur, of the Chaldees or Culdees, to dwell in a district called Mesopotamia. Some time after he had dwelt there, Abraham, or Abram, or Brahma, and his wife Sara or Sarai, or Sara-iswati, left their father's family and came into Canaan. The identity of Abraham and Sara with Brahma and Saraiswati was first pointed out by the Jesuit missionaries."(Vol. I p. 387.)

In Hindu mythology, Sarai-Svati is Brahm's sister. The bible gives two stories of Abraham. In this first version, Abraham told Pharaoh that he was lying when he introduced Sarai as his sister. In the second version, he also told the king of Gerar that Sarai was really his sister. However, when the king scolded him for lying, Abraham said that Sarai was in reality both his wife and his sister! ". and yet indeed she is my sister she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother and she became my wife." (Genesis 20:12.)

But the anomalies don't end here. In India, a tributary of the river Saraisvati is Ghaggar. Another tributary of the same river is Hakra. According to Jewish traditions, Hagar was Sarai's maidservant the Moslems say she was an Egyptian princess. Notice the similarities of Ghaggar, Hakra and Hagar.

The bible also states that Ishmael, son of Hagar, and his descendants lived in India. ". Ishmael breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his kin. They dwelt from Havilah (India), by Shur, which is close to Egypt, all the way to Asshur." (Genesis 25:17-18.) It is an interesting fact that the names of Isaac and Ishmael are derive from Sanskrit: (Hebrew) Ishaak = (Sanskrit) Ishakhu = "Friend of Shiva." (Hebrew) Ishmael = (Sanskrit) Ish-Mahal = "Great Shiva."

A third mini-version of the Abraham story turns him into another "Noah." We know that a flood drove Abraham out of India. ". Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time, Even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor and they served other gods. And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan." (Joshua 24:2-3.)

Genesis 25 mentions some descendants of his concubine Ketura (Note: The Moslems claim that Ketura is another name of Hagar.): Jokshan Sheba Dedan Epher. Some descendants of Noah were Joktan, Sheba, Dedan, and Ophir. These varying versions have caused me to suspect that the writers of the bible were trying to unite several different branches of Judaism.

About 1900 BC, the cult of Brahm was carried to the Middle and Near East by several different Indian groups after a severe rainfall and earthquake tore Northern India apart, even changing the courses of the Indus and Saraisvati rivers. The classical geographer Strabo tells us just how nearly complete the abandonment of Northwestern India was. "Aristobolus says that when he was sent upon a certain mission in India, he saw a country of more than a thousand cities, together with villages, that had been deserted because the Indus had abandoned its proper bed." (Strabo's Geography, XV.I.19.)

"The drying up of the Sarasvati around 1900 BCE, which led to a major relocation of the population centered around in the Sindhu and the Sarasvati valleys, could have been the event that caused a migration westward from India. It is soon after this time that the Indic element begins to appear all over West Asia, Egypt, and Greece." ( Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World , by Subhash Kak, taken from IndiaStar online literary magazine p.14)

Indian historian Kuttikhat Purushothama Chon believes that Abraham was driven out of India. He states that the Aryans, unable to defeat the Asuras (The mercantile caste that once ruled in the Indus Valley or Harappans) spent so many years fighting covertly against the Asuras, such as destroying their huge system of irrigation lakes, causing destructive flooding, that Abraham and his kindred just gave up and marched to West Asia. (See Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism.) Therefore, besides being driven out of Northern India by floods, the Aryans also forced Indian merchants, artisans, and educated classes to flee to West Asia.

Edward Pococke writes in India in Greece ,

". in no similar instance have events occurred fraught with consequences of such magnitude, as those flowing from the great religious war which, for a long series of years, raged throughout the length and breadth of India. That contest ended by the expulsion of vast bodies of men many of them skilled in the arts of early civilization, and still greater numbers, warriors by profession. Driven beyond the Himalayan mountains in the north, and to Ceylon, their last stronghold in the south, swept across the Valley of the Indus on the west, this persecuted people carried with them the germs of the European arts and sciences. The mighty human tide that passed the barrier of the Punjab, rolled on towards its destined channel in Europe and in Asia, to fulfill its beneficent office in the moral fertilization of the world.the distance of the migratory movement was so vast, the disguise of names so complete, and Grecian information so calculated to mislead, that nothing short of a total disregard of theoretic principles, and the resolution of independent research, gave the slightest chance of a successful elucidation."

(p. 28.)

If all these refugee ruling peoples were exclusively of Indian heritage,
why doesn't History mention them?

The exodus of refugees out of ancient India did not occur all at once but over a period of one or more thousand years. If all these refugee ruling peoples were exclusively of Indian heritage, why doesn't History mention them? Indeed they are mentioned as Kassites, Hittites, Syrians, Assyrians, Hurrians, Arameans, Hyksos, Mittanians, Amalekites, Aethiops (Atha-Yop), Phoenicians, Chaldeans, and many others. But we have been wrongly taught to regard them as ethnicities indigenous to Western Asia. Our history books also call them "Indo-Europeans," causing us to wonder where they were really from. "The people of India came to realize their social identity in terms of Varna and Jati (societal functions or caste) not in terms of races and tribes." (Foundations of Indian Culture p. 8.)

Here's an example of how the ancient Indians identified people: The leaders were called Khassis (Kassites), Kushi (Kushites), Cossacks (Russian military caste) Caesars (Roman ruling caste), Hattiya (Hittites), Cuthites (a dialectical form of Hittite), Hurrite (another dialectical form of Hittite), Cathay (Chinese leaders), Kasheetl/Kashikeh among the Aztecs, Kashikhel/Kisheh by the Mayans, and Keshuah/Kush by the Incas. The Assyrians (in English), Asirios (in Spanish), Asuras or Ashuras (India), Ashuriya, Asuriya (Sumer and Babylonia), Asir (Arabia), Ahura (Persia), Sur in Central Mexico, etc., were people who worshipped Surya (the Sun).

Naturally, in areas where this religion prevailed, they were known as "Assyrians," no matter what the real names of their respective kingdoms were.

Another problem that western scholars have in identifying the Indo-Europeans as Indians is that India was not then and never was a nation. Furthermore, it is not "India." It is Bharata , and even Bharata is not a nation. Bharata is a collection of nations, just as Europe is a collection of nations, presently held together by the real or perceived threat of Moslem expansionism. Indian scholars have told me that when and if this expansionism ever disappears, the "Bharata Union" will again splinter into many smaller nations.

"The Arabian historians contend that Brahma and Abraham, their ancestor, are the same person. The Persians generally called Abraham Ibrahim Zeradust. Cyrus considered the religion of the Jews the same as his own. The Hindoos must have come from Abraham, or the Israelites from Brahma. " (Anacalypsis Vol. I, p. 396.)

Was our Abraham Really the Hindu Deity Ram?

Ram and Abraham were possibly the same person or clan. For example, the syllable "Ab" or "Ap" means "father" in Kashmiri. The prototypical Jews could have called Ram "Ab-Ram" or "Father Ram." It's also conceivable that the word "Brahm" evolved from "Ab-Ram" and not vice-versa. The Kashmiri word for "Divine Mercy," Raham, likewise derives from Ram. Ab-Raham = "Father of Divine Mercy." Rakham = "Divine Mercy" in Hebrew Ram is also the Hebrew term for "highly placed leader or governor." Indian historian A. D. Pusalker, whose essay "Traditional History From the Earliest Times" appeared in The Vedic Age , said that Ram was alive in 1950 BC, which is about the time that Abraham, the Indo-Hebrews, and the Aryans made the greatest India-to-the-Middle East migration since the Great Flood.

"One of the shrines in the Kaaba was also dedicated to the Hindu Creator God, Brahma, which is why the illiterate prophet of Islam claimed it was dedicated to Abraham. The word "Abraham" is none other than a malpronunciation of the word Brahma. This can be clearly proven if one investigates the root meanings of both words. Abraham is said to be one of the oldest Semitic prophets. His name is supposed to be derived from the two Semitic words 'Ab' meaning 'Father' and 'Raam/Raham' meaning 'of the exalted.' In the book of Genesis, Abraham simply means 'Multitude.' The word Abraham is derived from the Sanskrit word Brahma. The root of Brahma is 'Brah' which means - 'to grow or multiply in number.' In addition Lord Brahma, the Creator God of Hinduism is said to be the Father of all Men and Exalted of all the Gods, for it is from him that all beings were generated. Thus again we come to the meaning 'Exalted Father.' This is a clear pointer that Abraham is none other than the heavenly father Brahma."

(Vedic Past of Pre-Islamic Arabia Part VI p.2.)

Several word-meanings can be extracted from "Abram," each of which points directly to his exalted position. Ab = "Father" Hir or H'r = "Head Top Exalted" Am = "People." Therefore, Abhiram or Abh'ram can mean "Father of the Exalted." Here's still another: Ab - - Ram = "Father of the Merciful." Ab, also meaning "Snake," could indicate that Ab-Ram (Exalted Snake) was a Naga king. All the meanings that can be extracted from the compound word "Abraham" reveal the divine destiny of his followers. Hiram of Tyre, Solomon's close friend, was "Exalted People" or Ahi-Ram (Exalted Snake).

In ancient India, the Aryan cult was called "Brahm-Aryan." The Aryans worshiped multiple gods. Abraham turned away from polytheism. By so doing, he could have become "A-Brahm" (No longer a Brahman.) The Aryans called the Asuras "Ah-Brahm." Therefore, we can logically assume that the fathers of the Indus civilization were probably prototypical Jews.

Jerusalem was a Hittite (Indian hereditary leadership caste) city at the time of Abraham's death. In Genesis 23:4, Abraham asked the Jerusalem Hittites to sell him a burial plot. The Hittites answered, ". thou art a prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead none of us shall withhold from thee." (p. 6). If Abraham was revered as a prince by the Hittites, he, too, was a highly regarded member of India's hereditary ruling and warrior caste. The bible never did say that Abraham wasn't a Hittite. It just said, "I am a stranger and a sojourner with you." (Genesis 23:4.) As the Hittites said, they recognized Abraham as being even above them. Just as the Hittites were not a unique ethnicity, neither were the Amorites or Amarru. Marruta was the Indian caste name of commoners. The word "Amorite" (Marut) was the first caste name of the Indian Vaishyas: craftsmen, farmers, cattlemen, traders, etc.

G. D. Pande writes in Ancient Geography of Ayodhya , "Maruts represented the Visah. The Maruts are described as forming troops or masses. Rudra, the father of the Maruts, is the lord of cattle." (p. 177.) Malita J. Shendge states: ". the Maruts are the people." (The Civilized Demons p. 314.) We should not be surprised to find the Khatti (Hittites) and Maruts (Amorites) functioning as the fathers (protectors) and mothers (helpmates or assistants) of Jerusalem.

In India, the Hittites were also known as Cedis or Chedis (pronounced Hatti or Khetti). Indian historians classify them as one of the oldest castes of the Yadavas. "The Cedis formed one of the most ancient tribes among the Ksatriyas (the aristocratic class made up of Hittites and Kassites) in early Vedic times. As early as the period of the Rgveda the Cedi kings had acquired great reknown. they are one of the leading powers in northern India in the great epic." (Yadavas Through the Ages, p. 90.) Ram or Rama also belonged to the Yadava clan. If our Abraham, Brahm, and Ram are the one and the same person, Abraham went to Jerusalem to be with his own people!

Ram's congregations segregated themselves in their own communities, called Ayodhya, which in Sanskrit means "The Unconquerable." The Sanskrit word for "fighter" is Yuddha or Yudh. Abraham and his group belonged to the Ayodhya (Yehudiya, Judea) congregation who remained aloof from non-believers and Amalekites (Aryans?).

Melchizadek. the sage of Salem

If what I have said thus far isn't convincing enough, maybe the word "Melchizedek" will be. Melchizedek was a king of Jerusalem who possessed secret mystical and magical powers. He was also Abraham's teacher.

Melik-Sadaksina was a great Indian prince, magician, and spiritual giant - the son of a Kassite king. In Kashmiri and Sanskrit, Sadak = "a person with magical, supernatural powers." A certain Zadok (Sadak?) was also a supernaturally-endowed priest who annointed Solomon. Why does the Kassite (of royal caste) Melik-Sadaksina, a mythical Indian personage, suddenly appear in Jerusalem as the friend and mentor of Abraham? According to Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar in The Hindu History , Brahm was the spiritual leader of the Aryans. As an Aryan (Not of Yah), he naturally believed in idols. The bible says that he even manufactured them. Upon seeing how increasing idol worship and religious guesswork were contributing to the further downfall of his people, Brahm backed away from Aryanism and reembraced the ancient Indian (Yah) philosophy (Cult of the MaterialUniverse) even though it, too, was foundering in manmade evils. He decided that mankind could save himself only by dealing with what was real not the imagined.

Shocked at the barbarism and blind selfishness of the people, the wise men and educated people among the proto-Hebrews isolated themselves from the masses. Dr. Mazumdar wrote, "The moral fall was rapid. The seers and sages lived apart from the masses. They seldom married and were mostly given to religious contemplation. The masses, without proper light and leader, soon became vicious in the extreme. Rape, adultery, theft, etc., became quite common. Human nature ran wild. Brahma (Abraham) decided to reform and regenerate the people. He made the chief sages and seers to marry and mix with the people. Most refused to marry, but 30 agreed." Brahm married his half sister Saraisvati. These sages became known as prajapatis (progenitors).

"Northern Afghanistan was called Uttara Kuru and was a great center of learning. An Indian woman went there to study and received the title of Vak, i.e. Saraisvati (Lady Sarah). It is believed that Brahm, her teacher (and half brother), was so impressed by her beauty, education, and powerful intellect, that he married her." (The Hindu History p. 48, in passim.)

From the holy community in Southern Afghanistan, similar communities spread all over the world: the whole of India, Nepal, Thailand, China, Egypt, Syria, Italy, the Philippines, Turkey, Persia, Greece, Laos, Iraq, - even the Americas! The linguistic evidence of Brahm's presence in various parts of the world is more than evident: Persian: Braghman (Holy) Latin: Bragmani (Holy) Russian: Rachmany (Holy) Ukranian Rachmanya (Priest Holy) Hebrew: Ram (Supreme Leader) Norwegian From (Godly). A sacred word among the Hindus was and is the mystic syllable OM. It is associated eternally with the earth, sky, and heaven, the Triple Universe. It is also a name of Brahm. The Aztecs also worshiped and chanted the syllable OM as the dual principal of all creation: OMeticuhlti (Male Principle) and OMelcihuatl (Female Principle). The Mayan priestly caste was called Balam (pronounced B'lahm). Had an "R" sound existed in Mayan, it would have been Brahm. The Peruvian Incas worshiped the sun as Inti Raymi (Hindu Ram).

Names that undeniably derive from Rama literally pepper Native-American languages, especially the languages of those tribes extending from our American Southwest, to Mexico, and all the way to South America, beyond Peru. The Tarahumara Indians of Chihuahua are an ideal example. Their real name is Ra-Ram-Uri. As in Sumeria and Northern India, the Ra-Ram-Uri "Uri" = "People." Because the Spanish "R" is trilled, this "Uri" could also be Udi or Yuddhi, the Sanskrit name for "Warrior Conqueror." Many Mexican tribes mention that a foreign race of Yuri once invaded their part of the world. The Ra-Ram-Uri sun god is Ono-R ame. In Kashmiri, Ana = "Favorite Son" The Ra-Ram-Uri moon goddess, the consort of Ono-R ame, is Eve-Ruame. Kashmiri Hava = "Eve, or The Female Principle."

A Ra-Ram-Uri governor is called Si-Riame. In Sanskrit/Kashmiri, Su-Rama = "Great Rama." According to ancient Mexican legends, the Yoris belonged to a tribe called Surem (Su-Ram?) Before the conquest, Central Mexico and the American Southwest, as far as Eastern Colorado, were known as Sur . Sur = "Sun" in Kashmiri. The Tarahumara cure doctor or spiritual guide is an Owi-Ruame. In Sanskrit, Oph = "Hope." Their devil is called Repa-Bet-Eame. Kashmiri: Riphas (Appearance) + Buth (Malignant Spirit) + Yama (Angel of Death). Many other astonishing Kashmiri/Sanskrit correspondences appear in the Ra-Ram-Uri language. Their relation to ancient Phoenicia, Sumeria, and Northern India is beyond question.

The Phoenicians. global navigators.

Most people think of the Phoenicians as a tribe of sailor-traders that inhabited what is now Lebanon. However, the Pancika or Pani as the Hindus called them, or Puni, by the Romans (a name also derived from Rama), were, like gypsies, scattered all over the globe.

The Spaniards called the land of the Ra-Ram-Uri Chiahuahua, pronounced as Shivava by the natives themselves. In Sanskrit, Shivava = "Shiva's Temple." According to Hindu religious scholars, Ram and God Shiva were once the same deity. Shiva and Yah's (the same one we read about in the Bible) name are also prominent in Native-American religious practices and can be found inscribed as petroglyphs all over the American Southwest. (Refer to my book India Once Ruled the Americas! )

Ayodhya was also another name for Dar-es-Salam in African Tanzania and Jerusalem (Judea). It is true that the Jerusalemites were known as Yehudiya or Judeans (Warriors of Yah), a fact making the Jews' Indian origins incontrovertible.

There was no part of the ancient world, including China, that wasn't influenced by Ram's religious views. For example, Christians and Jews have been brainwashed to believe that Mohammed copied his teachings from Jewish sources. The truth is that in Mohammed's time, Ram or Abraham's theology was the foundation stone of all religious sects. All Mohammed did was to purge them of idol worship.

". the Temple of Mecca was founded by a colony of Brahmins from India.it was a sacred place before the time of Mohamed, and.they were permitted to make pilgrimages to it for several centuries after his time. Its great celebrity as a sacred place long before the time of the prophet cannot be doubted." (Anacalypsis, Vol. I, p. 421.)

". the city of Mecca is said by the Brahmins, on the authority of their old books, to have been built by a colony from India and its inhabitants from the earliest era have had a tradition that it was built by Ishmael, the son of Agar. This town, in the Indus language, would be called Ishmaelistan." (Ibid, p. 424.)

Before Mohammed's time, The Hinduism of the Arab peoples was called Tsaba. Tsaba or Saba is a Sanskrit word, meaning "Assembly of the Gods ". Tsaba was also called Isha-ayalam (Shiva's Temple). The term Moslem or Moshe-ayalam (Shiva's Temple) is just another name of Sabaism. The word has now shrunk to Islam. Mohammed himself, being a member of the Quaryaish family, was at first a Tsabaist. The Tsabaists did not regard Abraham as an actual god, but as an avatar or divinely ordained teacher called Avather Brahmo (Judge of the Underworld).

At the time of Jesus, the respective languages, religious symbolism, and traditions of the Arabs and Jews were nearly identical. If we could take a time machine to the past, most of us would not see any real differences between the Arabs and Jews. History tells us that the Arabs of Christ's time worshiped idols. So did the lower class and rural Jews. For this reason, the Middle Eastern squabble between the Jews and the Moslems and the hate between the Moslems and Hindus in India are ridiculous. The Moslems are fighting the Jews and Hindus, or vice-versa, over nothing. All three groups sprang from the same source.

The Kashmiri-Sanskrit equivalent of Hebron (Khev'run in Hebrew) screams out the Indian origins of Jerusalem's earliest inhabitants: Khab'ru (grave tomb). (See Grierson's Dictionary. p. 382.) Even in Hebrew, Kever = "Tomb."

Indian linguist and orientalist Maliti J. Shendge's The Languages of Harappans welds together, once and for all, West Asia and the Indus Valley civilization. Not only does she prove that Harappa was Akkadian and Sumerian, she also proves that the first "Abraham" was none other than Adam before Eve was created from one of his ribs.

". it may be said that the region from Tigris-Euphrates to the Indus and its east was inhabited by the Akkadian speaking Semites who later called themselves as Asshuraiu. Their Indian name as known from Rgveda is 'Asura' which is not far removed. That this region should be inhabited by different clans of the same ethos is not very surprising. It would however be wrong to think that it was a racially homogenous group. As our linguistic evidence shows it was a mixed population of the Akkadians and Sumerians. The other ethnic groups also may have been present, whose traces may be looked for in future work. This mixed composition of the population is not inconsistent with the present state of knowledge, as the presence of these ethnic elements in the Indus valley only confirms and extends an identical demographic pattern, which was in existence probably from the earliest times of prehistory and civilization.

"If these Akkadians were the same as the West Asian clan, there should have been an equal preponderance of this primaeval couple in the Vedic mythology. However, beyond one cryptic reference, there is no reference to them. This was baffling. It seemed unlikely that this clan was without the primaeval parents, though their god was Asura. The predominance of Brahman in RV as the primaeval father is there which is also inadequate as he is male principle alone. A close look at Brahman revealed its ancestry to be made of two words Abu + Rahmu which is the primaeval pair in the Semitic mythology. The Akkadian counterpart of Rahmu is Lahmu which later became goddess Laksmi, born in the sea and courted by both gods and demons. Lahmu is a dragon in Akkadian but in Ugaratic Rahmu is the lass of Abu. Brahma (abu + rahmu = abrahma = brahma) all the changes postulated here being covered in the above correspondences, or lass of Abu, the supreme Semitic godhood, has undergone many transformations and has many counterparts in the Indian pantheon, amongst whom is Laksmi one of the important ones being worshipped as the goddess of all material creation. Thus the Asura clan of the Indus valley worshipped Abu-Rahmu as the primaeval couple."

Ms. Shendge's research really strengthens my conviction that the remains of Abraham and Sarai in Hebron may really be those of the real Brahm and Saraisvati. Our Abraham was evidently a priest, perhaps even the founder, of the Abu-Rahmu (Adam and Eve) cultus, who brought his monotheistic religion to West Asia. Though he and Sarai were deified in various forms back in their native India, they remained as humans in Judaism.


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