Kasteel Arques-la-Bataille

Kasteel Arques-la-Bataille


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Die skilderagtige Arques-la-Bataille-kasteel is 'n verwoeste 12de-eeuse vesting gebou op 'n rotsagtige heuwel wat uitkyk op die gelyknamige stad in Normandië, Frankryk.

Van ten minste die 11 het 'n vesting op die terrein gestaanste eeu en in 1052 het Willem die Veroweraar die terrein beleër tydens die opstand deur sy oom William van Talou. In 1204 was Arques Castle ook die laaste Normandiese vesting wat sy wapen neergelê het voor die seëvierende koning van Frankryk, Philippe Auguste, wat twee jaar tevore tevergeefs probeer het.

Die vesting was die plek van baie konfrontasies tydens die Honderdjarige Oorlog, waartydens die kasteel onneembaar geblyk het, terwyl die Engelse dit eers beset het ná die sessie van Normandië deur die Verdrag van Troyes van 1420. Dit was ook by Arques -kasteel dat Henri IV van Frankryk het in 1589 'n beslissende stryd teen die troepe van die Katolieke Liga gewen.

In 1688 is die kasteel militêr verlaat en 'n groot deel van die struktuur is in die daaropvolgende dekades vir boumateriaal geplunder.

Die kasteel word sedert 1875 as 'n historiese monument geklassifiseer.


Arques-la-Bataille

Arques-la-Bataille is 'n stad in Seine-Maritime in die streek Normandië, 5 km suid-oos van Dieppe.

Die ongeveer 14 vierkante kilometer van sy gebied het 'n golwende voorkoms; drie riviere (Eaulne, Bethune en La Varenne) verbind hulle om die Arques te vorm, wat in die hawe van Dieppe in die see vloei.

Boonop het baie beboste gebiede gebly.

Die stad is steeds bekend vir die geveg wat hier plaasgevind het in September 1589, toe koning Henry IV, wat Parys kon binnegaan, in die kasteel van Arques gevestig was in afwagting van Britse versterkings, en uiteindelik Charles van Lorraine, hertog Mayenne, hoof van die Liga se leërs, verslaan het. Dit moet egter wag tot 1882 dat die stad amptelik Arques-la-Bataille geword het om verwarring met die gelyknamige oord Pas-de-Calais te vermy.

Danksy die spoorlyn het die dorp in die negentiende eeu geïndustrialiseer (steenkoolhandel en implementering van 'n viscose produksie -eenheid) en verstedeliking weerspieël hierdie ontwikkeling (skepping van woonhuise).

Sy ryk erfenis en sy tuin maak Arques-la-Bataille (ongeveer 2700 inwoners) 'n aangename stop naby die kus en die Caux.


Die kasteel van ARQUES-LA-BATAILLE

Die kasteel van Arques-la-Bataille staan ​​bo-op 'n droë en rotsagtige heuwel en domineer 2 valleie en word omring deur 'n mensgemaakte sloot. Dit was oorspronklik omring deur 'n beskermende palissade. Die kasteel is na bewering tussen 1040 en 1045 deur Willem van Arques gebou. 'N Paar jaar na die opbou daarvan het Willem die Veroweraar, Neef van Willem van Arques, die kasteel beleër. Hongersnood het hom gedwing om te kapituleer ná 'n jaar van pynlike beleg. In 1123 versterk die jongste seun van Willem die Veroweraar, wat Henry 1ste, koning van Engeland geword het, die kasteel met 'n vierkantige kasteel en 'n muur.

In 1204 het Philippe Auguste Normandië geannekseer en die kasteel van Richard the Lion Heart geneem, dit was die laaste Normandiese vesting wat homself oorgegee het aan die koning van Frankryk. In 1668 is die gebou afgetrek nadat die weermag dit verlaat het. Van 1735 tot 1771 is die terrein van die kasteel sonder toestemming in 'n steengroef omskep. Lodewyk XVI het die vesting gesluit en die inwoners kon die klippe wegneem.

In 1860 is die kamers omskep in 'n museum, die binnekant is skoongemaak en die besoeke is deur 'n wag gehou. Die museum is in 1939, met die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, permanent gesluit en is deur die Duitsers beset. By die roete in 1944 moes die insittendes hulle terugtrek deur ammunisie op te blaas en 'n baie vervalle kasteel agter te laat.


The Rouen Chronicles: Arques La Bataille, Dieppe

Dit is vyftig jaar sedert dit my geluk was om 'n jaar in Frankryk, 'n junior jaar in die buiteland, deur te bring in 'n baie goed georganiseerde program van die St. Lawrence-universiteit, waar ek my voorgraadse graad (en dit in Frans!) Behaal het. Nou, 'n halfeeu later, het ek probeer om die geleentheid op 'n aantal maniere te vier, onder andere:

– lees soveel Balzac as wat ek kan

– lees die werke (in Frans) van een van ons professore aan die Universiteit van Rouen – Robert Merle, wat een van die beste professore was waarmee ek die studie geniet het.

– sien die films gemaak van Robert Merle se boeke (Day of the Dolphin, Weekend A Zuydcoote).

Ek onthou sommige van die plekke waar ek die geluk gehad het om die onvergeetlike jaar te besoek en daaroor te skryf, plekke waarvan ek destyds skaars verstaan ​​het, waaronder Arques-La-Bataille en Dieppe.

Ek het Arques-La-Bataille die eerste keer 'n halfeeu gelede saam met Dominique, Didier en “Mr. ’ Vergos en Frank Kappler besoek. Dit was deel van 'n daguitstappie waarop die Vergoses vriendelik genoeg was om vir Frank K. en ek te neem. Ons was in die middel van ons junior jaar in die buiteland (September 1964 – Julie 1965) in Parys en toe Rouen Frankryk. In Rouen het ons by die Vergos -gesin by hul huis in 75bis rue de Renard (Fox St.) gewoon. Nadat ons 'n uur lank in die kasteel by Arques-La-Bataille rondgesteek het, meestal deur die ruïnes geklim het, het ons die res van die dag in Dieppe gaan kuier. Dit was 'n wonderlike dag saam met al die indrukke. Jare later – 25 om presies te wees, in Julie 1989 – met Nancy, Molly en Abbie – besoek ek dieselfde plekke. Ons het ongeveer 'n week net buite Dieppe gebly en 'n daguitstappie na Arques-La-Bataille onderneem. Daardie somer was die 200ste herdenking van die Franse Revolusie van 1789, 'n interessante tyd om daar te wees.

Waaraan herinner ek my dat die heer Vergos my vertel het oor Arques-La-Bataille ?: dat dit 'n kasteel was vanwaar – of een van die kastele waaruit William-The-Conqueror sy inval in Engeland in 1066 geloods het. Dit was omtrent dit, alhoewel dit 'n groot deel van die meer gewigtige geskiedenis van die plek weglaat, waarvan ek die besonderhede eers meer onlangs sou leer. 'N Indrukwekkende plek, selfs in puin, is die kasteel by Arques eintlik gebou deur die oom van William-The-Conqueror, ene William van Talou tussen 1040 en 1045. Dit staan ​​bo-op 'n rotsagtige heuwel wat oorheers twee valleie omring deur 'n mensgemaakte sloot. Omdat hy nie sy eie oom vertrou het nie (stel jou voor!), Beleër en verower William -The -Concoror dit na 'n half jaar beleg. gebruik dit as basis vir die inval in Engeland. In 1123 versterk Henry 1st, koning van Engeland, die jongste seun van William-The-Conqueror, die kasteel deur die muur weer toe te pas. Nie lank daarna nie, in 1204, neem die Franse koning Philippe Auguste die kasteel van Richard-The-Lion-Heart, die laaste Normandiese vesting wat na Frankryk val.

In die daaropvolgende eeue het dit uiteindelik gereeld van eienaar verander en in 1419 'n basis geword vir die Engelse in Normandië. Hulle is in 1449 verdryf. 140 jaar later was Arques-La-Bataille die toneel van een van die mees beslissende gevegte in die Franse geskiedenis van daardie tydperk. Dit was net na die moord op Henry III by St. Cloud deur fanatiese katolieke priester. Henry IV sou eers vyf jaar later formeel gekroon word, maar die nabygeleë Dieppe was 'n belangrike basis vir sy operasies teen die Katolieke Liga.

Daar, in Arques, gedurende die twee weke tussen 15-29 September 1589, ontmoet Henry IV, destydse leier van die Hugenote-faksie, wie se reg op die kroon deur die Katolieke Liga betwis is, sy teëstanders op die slagveld by Arques . Dit was 'n hewige stryd waarin die uitslag die meeste van die tyd in twyfel was. Toe Henry IV na die Katolieke Liga kyk, het hy te kampe gehad met 'n leër wat twee keer so groot was. As hy suksesvol was, het die militêre leier van die Katolieke Liga, Charles, hertog van Mayenne, belowe om Henry IV in 'n hok na Parys terug te neem, hom deur die stad te paradeer sodat mense kon spoeg en toevlug na hom toe laat gaan. dwaalleer, en dan gegrot.

Elizabeth I van Engeland het op 'n kritieke oomblik haar Protestantse bondgenoot te hulp gekom, wat beslissende hulp was wat die gety op die slagveld in Henry se guns laat draai het. Binne minder as drie dae het Engeland 4000 troepe gestuur, waaronder 40 Engelse offisiere en 1200 Skotse troepe om hul Katolieke teenstanders te betrek. Met hierdie hulp is die Katolieke Liga -magte, onder leiding van Charles de Lorraine, die hertog van Mayenne, jonger broer van die hertog van Guise, deurslaggewend verslaan.

As gevolg van Henry se oorwinning het die Hugenote beheer oor die belangrikste hawestad Dieppe, slegs ses kilometer van Arques, behou. Dieppe beheer destyds die winsgewende handel uit Amsterdam en Londen. As die Katolieke Liga die stryd gewen het en sodoende die beheer oor Dieppe en sy ryk kommersiële hulpbronne sou beheer, is dit onwaarskynlik dat Henry IV die momentum sou gehad het om die Franse kroon (wat met reg syne was) te gryp. Die gevolge van die geveg het ver buite Frankryk gegaan na die Verenigde Provinsies (vandag Nederland). Dit het die hand van die Verenigde Provinsies in hul stryd teen Spaanse oorheersing versterk deur die Spaans-Katolieke posisie te verswak. Spaanse troepe in Nederland moes suidwaarts na Frankryk gestuur word om Henry IV se toenemende invloed teen te werk, wat die Nederlanders asemhaling benodig.

In die tydperk na Henry se oorwinning in Arques, 1589 – 1595, met 'n swakker Spaanse militêre teenwoordigheid in Nederland, kon die Nederlanders die Spaanse terugdryf uit gebiede in die oostelike en suidelike gebiede van Nederland, wat groter beskerming bied die ryk hawestede Amsterdam, Rotterdam, ens. Die Nederlanders sou nog 'n halwe eeu teen Spanje veg vir hul wettige onafhanklikheid, maar hul vermoë om grondgebied te beheer tydens die kritieke jare toe die Spaanse aandag gevestig was op die stryd teen die Franse invloed, het die Verenigde Provinsies gehelp hul ekonomiese en politieke beheer te versterk. Gedurende hierdie tydperk van uitgebreide politieke beheer van sy omliggende streke het die Nederlanders, terwyl hulle nog in oorlog was met Spanje, hul maritieme ondernemings na die Middellandse See geloods en kort daarna na Oos-Asië en Indië en (hedendaagse) Indonesië.

Die gloriedae daaragter, in 1668, is die kasteelgebou deur die weermag verlaat en 'n lang tydperk van verval beleef. Die perseel is van 1735 tot 1771 as 'n steengroef gebruik sonder enige formele magtiging en daarna formeel deur Louis XVI gesluit, nie lank voordat hy sy kroon en sy kop verloor het nie. In 1860 is die oorblywende kamers in die kasteel wat meestal verval het, in 'n museum omskep, die binnekant is skoongemaak en besoeke is toegelaat. Die museum is permanent gesluit in 1939. Die volgende jaar het die indringende Nazi-leërs Arques-La-Bataille beset. Met die aanvang van die D-Day Allied Invasion van 6 Junie 1944, het die Duitsers gedwing om terug te trek, en die ammunisie wat hulle daar gebruik het, opgeblaas en 'n baie verwoeste kasteel agtergelaat, nou met byna 'n millennium geskiedenis. Dit is onaangeraak gelaat sedert – nog steeds 'n fassinerende plek om rond te kuier en was in daardie toestand toe dit in 1965 en weer in 1989 besoek is.

In 'n koringland bo die krytkranse net noord van Dieppe, net oos en bo Le Puys. Daar word gesê dat die leër van Julius Caesar ter plaatse kampeer, en vandaar het Caesar sy inval in Engeland in 55 v.C. Vanuit hierdie hoogtes het Nazi -masjienskutters op 17 Augustus 1942 'n Kanadese aanvalparty vermoor

Dieselfde dag lank gelede dat ek saam met die Vergoses en Frank Kappler Arches-La-Bataille besoek het, het ons 'n paar uur in Dieppe deurgebring waar ons op die strand gestap en die kasteel besoek het, nou 'n plaaslike museum waar die stad se ryk maritieme geskiedenis te sien was. Dit was in April 1965. Vier en twintig jaar later, in die somer van 1989, keer ek terug met die gesin, Nancy, Molly, Abbie. Molly was twaalf, Abbie destyds sewe. Deur die tussenkoms van 'n Franse vriend in Finland, waar ek destyds gewerk het, kon ons slaapplek kry vir wat ons gesê het ''n kasteel' 'n paar kilometer noord van die stad, reg langs die Engelse kanaal, waar ons tien dae gebly het. .

Die verblyf was weliswaar minder as luuks, maar ons het ons goed genoeg aangepas by die situasie en het dit ook goed beleef. Die kasteel was nie net 'n kasteel nie, maar 'n jeugkoshuis wie se gasvryheid ons gedeel het met 'n groot groep Italiaanse tieners wat wakker gesels het, dieselfde tyd deurgebring het en nie opgehou het totdat die slaap hulle uiteindelik oorwin het nie. Dit blyk dat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog dieselfde fasiliteit, nie meer as 100 meter van die strand teen 'n smal kloof wat na die top van die kranse gelei het nie, blykbaar die hoofkwartier van die Nazi -SS was, op die waarskuwing van 'n geallieerde inval .

Dieppe is vandag 'n skaduwee van sy voormalige self, 'n aangename kusoord en vissersdorp, maar 'n ingekrimpte weergawe van wat 400 jaar gelede een van Frankryk se aktiefste hawens was wat wêreldwyd handel en eksplorasie doen. Die maritieme geskiedenis van Dieppe is oral, van die hawe en die mark waar daagliks vars vis te koop was, tot die kapel vir verlore matrose op die see net noord van die stad, tot die museum wat net suid van die grootste deel van die stad geleë is. heuwel wat uitkyk oor die strand en die see. Aandenkings van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is volop, van die nabygeleë geallieerde begraafplase tot by die gedenkteken vir 'Operation Jubilee', die afgebroke Kanadese landing van Augustus 1942, 'n voorloper van die D-Day-inval.

Sewe en veertig jaar later, in 1989 toe ons laas besoek het, het die inwoners ons vertel dat Kanadese wat Dieppe besoek, dikwels in die stad se kroeë drink, ter waardering vir die mislukte sending. Dit was eers dekades later (in die afgelope paar jaar eintlik) dat die rede vir die operasie, wat vir almal wat van die strand af na die kranse opkyk, weinig takties sin het. In 'n onlangse dokumentêr, Dieppe ontbloot, en boek Dieppe gedekodeer, Het die Kanadese historikus David O'Keefe aangevoer dat die missie slegs bedoel was om 15 tot 20 ultra-geheime kommando's te dek. Die eenheid, wat spesifiek vir Dieppe saamgestel is, het hul oog op Hotel Moderne, waar hulle hoop om dokumente, boeke, selfs die berugte Enigma -masjien weg te ruk, enigiets wat die Duitsers se opgeknapte koderingstelsel kon laat kraak.

Die Kanadese is beveel om die Nazi -posisies in Dieppe aan te val, wat beteken dat die kranse afskaal om die hoë terrein te bereik. Dit het 'n kalkoenskiet geword, want die Duitse Kanadese is deur Nazi -masjiengeweervuur ​​doodgemaak toe hulle die klowe wou bestorm of die kranse met toue wou klim. Volgens Veterans Affairs Canada word die 2 910 Kanadese wat as die ergste Kanadese militêre ondergang van die oorlog beskou is, van die 4 963 betrokke Kanadese teruggekeer na Engeland. Nog 1 946 is gevange geneem en 913 is dood. Die kommando -eenheid het nooit naby die Hotel Moderne gekom nie. Twee jaar later het die Geallieerdes Dieppe bevry.

Vroeëre geskiedenis …

Vanaf Arques-La-Bataille vloei die Arquesrivier noord deur die nabygeleë Dieppe wat in die Engelse kanaal uitmond. Teen die tyd dat Henry IV die hertog van Guise in 1589 verslaan het, het Dieppe reeds 'n lang geskiedenis en 'n strategiese ligging gehad. Histories eers in 1015 genoem as Deppa die afleiding van die term wat uit die Oud -Engels kom ontplof of ou Noorse djupr van dieselfde betekenis.Dieselfde byvoeglike naamwoord kan herken word in ander plekname soos Dieppedalle (bv. Saint-Vaast-Dieppedalle) en Dipdal in Normandië, wat dieselfde is as Deepdale in Groot-Brittanje. Dit word die eerste keer genoem, soos verwag kan word as 'n vissersdorp. Teen die tyd van die Honderdjarige Oorlog (1337 tot 1453) grootliks tussen Engeland en Frankryk, waartydens Engeland 'n basis in Noord -Frankryk behou het. Teen daardie tyd het dit 'n hawe van 'n strategiese waarde geword. Die Franse konings, wat die strategiese belangrikheid van die stad besef het, het dit talle voorregte verleen toe dit tydens die Honderdjarige Oorlog deur die Engelse beset is, en die inwoners het hulle by die eerste geleentheid in 1435 verdryf.

Soos in baie Noord -Frankryk die geval was, is Dieppe met 'n gevestigde handelaarsklas sterk beïnvloed deur die Protestantse Hervorming. Hugenote -invloede was sterk daar. In 1588 het Phillip II van Spanje met die hertog van Guise, hoof van die Katolieke Liga, in Frankryk gesluit om Dieppe in beslag te neem en dit as 'n vlootbasis te gebruik om die aanval op die Spaanse Armada te begin. Maar die plan is geneutraliseer deur magte lojaal aan Henry III (van Frankryk) wat dit in die kiem geslaan het. As die poging nie slaag nie, het die Katolieke Bond met Spaanse hulp Calais noordooswaarts langs die kus beslag gelê.

As gevolg van die ondersteuning van Dieppe van Protestantisme het dit baie gely tydens die godsdiensoorloë, en die donkerste tydperk daarvan het in die tweede deel van die 17de eeu gekom. In 1668 sterf byna 10 000 van sy mense tydens 'n plaag in 1685, die Protestante van die stad word vervolg nadat Lodewyk XIV die Edik van Nantes herroep het wat aan Protestante godsdiensvryheid verleen het. Die stad was in 1694 ook altyd altyd 'n kommersiële prys, en die stad is byna heeltemal vernietig deur die Engelse en Nederlandse vloot, wat die hawe meer as 'n eeu lank op 'n ernstige manier onbruikbaar gemaak het. In die 19de eeu is pogings aangewend om die hawe te herbou. Die bombardement van 1694 het waarskynlik verhinder dat Dieppe as die voorste noordelike hawe van Frankryk sou verskyn, aangesien Le Havre, Brest en Cherbourg die belangrikheid daarvan oorskry het.

Dieppe Kartografie Skool

In sy kommersiële bloeitydperk in die 16de eeu het Dieppe 'n paar van die beste ontdekkingsreisigers, seevaarders ter wêreld en een van die beste skole in die kartografie ter wêreld gelewer. Die bloeitydperk vir L’École de cartographie de Dieppe (die Dieppe Cartography School) was vanaf 1540 en#8211 1585, onder sy groot kartograwe, Pierre Desceliers, Jean Rotz, Guillaume Le Testu, Nicolas Desliens, Nicolas Vallard en Jacques de Vau de Claye. Alhoewel breedtegraad aangedui word, net soos ander kaarte uit die 16de eeu, toon dié van die Dieppe -skool nie langslyne nie. Lengtegraad begin vanaf 1568 op kaarte verskyn, dié van Mercator, maar dit is afwesig op Dieppe -kaarte.

In die van David Woodward Geskiedenis van kartografie (2007) Sarah Toulouse het 'n gedetailleerde lys gepubliseer van 37 kaarte en atlasse wat tussen 1542 en 1635 geskep is, blykbaar deur die Dieppe -skool of ander Normandiese kaartmakers. Die kaarte wat so geskep is, is gebruik en weerspieël die vroeë Franse pogings om Kanada te koloniseer, met baie van die oorspronklike Franse setlaars wat uit Dieppe self kom. Die kaarte gee ook voorbeelde van die Spaanse verowering van Peru en die Portugese verowering van die Indonesiese streek destyds. Toulouse bespiegel dat baie van die besonderhede van die Dieppe -kartograwe gebaseer was op Portugese bronne, veral die vorige. Die Portugese ontdekkingsreisigers het vroeg in die 16de eeu die voortou geneem in wêreldwye verkenning (Magellaan, ens.). Professor Gayle K. Brunelle van die California State University het aangevoer dat, hoewel die Dieppe -skool van kartograwe slegs 'n generasie aktief was - van ongeveer 1535 tot 1562 - die kartograwe wat daarmee gepaard gaan, as propagandiste vir Franse geografiese kennis en territoriale aansprake in die Nuwe wêreld . Die dekades toe die Dieppe -skool floreer, was ook die dekades waarin die Franse handel met die Nuwe Wêreld op sy 16de eeu hoogtepunt bereik het, wat die Noord -Atlantiese visbedryf betref, die nog steeds jong bonthandel, en die belangrikste vir die kartograwe, die wedywering met die Portugese om beheer oor die kus van Brasilië en die voorraad winsgewende Brasiliëhout.


Ближайшие родственники

Oor Guillaume d 'Arques, vicomte d 'Arques & heer van Folkestone

-http: //fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/normacre.htm#GuillaumeArquesMBeatri.
GUILLAUME d'Arques (-[1090]). Guillaume de Jumi èges rekords wat & quotGunnor & quot gehad het 𠇎xcepta Sainfria. duas sorores Wewam et Avelinam ”, en voeg by dat “tertia. sororum Gunnoris comitiss æ ” [Aveline, uit die konteks] getroud met “Osberno de Bolebec ”, deur wie sy “Galterium Giffardum primum et Godefridum patrem Willelmi de Archis ” [48] gehad het. & quotGuillelmus et Gislebertus filii Godefredi Archarum vicecomitis & quot grond in Montvilla geskenk aan Sainte-Trinit é de Rouen gedateer 1059 [49]. Vicomte d'Arques. Heer van Folkestone [50]. 'N Handves gedateer 1080 vertel dat & quotGozelinus vicecomes de Archis 𠉬um coniuge sua et filiis & quot gestig Sainte-Trinit é de Rouen en geskenk het, en dat & quotWillelmus de Archis heres defuncti 𠉪vi sui Gozelini & quot die skenking bevestig [51] [Orderic Vitalis records �garus Adelinus et Robertus Belesmensis atque Guillelmus de Archis monachus Molismensis ” as adviseurs van Robert [III] Hertog van Normandië, gedateer op [1089] [52]. Dit is moontlik dat die derde naam Guillaume Vicomte d 𠆚rques was, maar daar is geen ander rekord gevind dat hy 'n monnik by Molesme in Bourgondië geword het nie.]

m BEATRIX Malet, dogter van GUILLAUME [I] Malet en sy vrou Esilia [Crespin]. �trix soror Roberti Malet ” skenk eiendom aan Eye priory, vir die siele van 𠇏ratrum meorum Roberti Maleth et Gilberti Malet ”, deur ongedateerde handves [53]. Brown dui aan dat Beatrix Redlingfield aan Eye geskenk het deur 'n ongedateerde handves, wat haar bevestig as 'n man van 'William vicomte van Arques' [54]. “Willielmus de Abrincis miles dominus de Folkestan ” bevestigde skenkings aan Folkestone priory, insluitend die skenkings gemaak deur & quotBeatrix post mortem domini sui Willielmi de Archis & quot van & quotterram dotis su æ de Newenton & quot by undated charter [55]. Guillaume en sy vrou het twee kinders gehad:

  • (a) MATHILDE d'Arques. Guillaume de Jumi rekords "Mathildis" as die dogter van “ Willelmi de Archis ”, en voeg by dat sy getroud is met “ Willelmus camerarius de Tancarvilla ” deur wie sy 𠇏ilium Rabellum x1 e sukses gehad het “ m GUILLAUME [I] de Tancarville, seun van RAOUL [I] de Tancarville en sy vrou Avicia --- (-1129).
  • (b) EMMA d'Arques (-na 1140). “Willielmus de Abrincis miles dominus de Folkestan ” bevestigde skenkings aan Folkestone priory, insluitend die skenkings deur & quotdomini Nigelli de Munevilla quondam domini de Folkestan antecessoris mei 𠉬um uxore sua Emma & quot for the souls of & quotantecessorum suorum illius & quot deur 'n ongedateerde handves, wat ook aandui dat Nele sonder manlike erfgename gesterf het en dat Henry I King of England getroud is met & quotfiliam eius …Matildam & quot; & quot; Rualoni de Abrincis & quot [57]. “Manasses Gisnensis comes et Emma uxor eius 𠉯ilia Willielmi de Arras ” stig Redlingfield priory by charter dated 1120, getuienis van “Widonis fratris mei, Ros æ fili æ Ö Die Historia Comitum Ghisnensium name & quotEmmam filiam Roberti camerarii de Tancarvilla in Normannia, viduam Odonis de Folkestane in Anglia & quot as vrou van & quotManasses & quot [59], wat blykbaar verkeerd is. & quotManasses Gisnensium comes et Emma comitissa & quot verleen die administrasie van die kerk van Saint-L éonard per handves gedateer 1129 [60] aan Saint-Bertin. Volgens Domesday Descendants het sy 'n non geword in Saint-Leonard de Guines na die dood van haar tweede man [61]. m eerstens NELE de Muneville, seun van --- (-1103). Here van Folkestone. m tweedens (voor 1106) MANASSES Comte de Guines, seun van BAUDOUIN Comte de Guines en sy vrou Adela [Christina] [van Holland] (-Ardres 1137).

Ben M. Angel merk op: 'n Groot aantal van die bestaande aanlynprofiele vir Guillaume verwys blykbaar na "The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families":

William van Arques was die onderwerp van 'n volledige studie deur professor D. C. Douglas in die inleiding tot sy uitgawe "The Domesday Monacharum of Christ Church Canterbury", waar volledige verwysings na die owerhede gegee word en dit nie nodig is om weer oor die grond te gaan nie. Kortliks het hy Folkestone, Kent, gehou en was die seun van Godfrey Vicomte van Arques. Die identiteit van die huurder van Folkstone word bepaal deurdat dit oorgedra is na Nigel de Monville wat met sy dogter en mede -meisie Emma getroud is. Hy moet nie verwar word met Willem van Arques, 'n monnik van Moleme wat 'n raadgewer van Robert Curthose was nie, en nog minder met William, graaf van Arques, die oom van Willem die Veroweraar. Die verwoeste kasteel van Arques-la-Bataille is bekend.

Ek het probeer om weer oor die grond te gaan en te soek na D.C. Douglas "Monacharum of Christ Church Canterbury," maar dit is nie aanlyn (gratis) beskikbaar nie. Dit lyk asof die gedeeltes wat verband hou met Guillaume noodsaaklik is om sy deelname aan die verowering en sy verhouding met Osbern, wat vermoedelik die seun van Guillaume d'Arques en Beatrice de Bolbec is, te bepaal.

Die Foundation for Medieval Genealogy se Medlands -projek het 'n inskrywing vir Guillaume (seun van Godfroi, getroud met Beatrix), maar dit toon dat hy slegs twee dogters gehad het (seun Osbern word nie gelys nie). Van die bladsy oor Normandië Nobility:

GODEFROI Giffard, 1059, Vicomte d'Arques, getroud --- de Rouen, dogter van GOZELIN Vicomte de Rouen en sy vrou Emmeline ---.

Godefroi en sy vrou het [vier] kinders gehad:

Guillaume de Jumi noem Guillaume d'Arques as seun van Godefroi [527].

& quotGuillelmus et Gislebertus filii Godefredi Archarum vicecomitis & quot grond in Montvilla geskenk aan Sainte-Trinit é de Rouen gedateer 1059 [528].

Vicomte d'Arques. Heer van Folkestone [529].

'N Handves gedateer 1080 vertel dat & quotGozelinus vicecomes de Archis 𠉬um coniuge sua et filiis & quot gestig Sainte-Trinit é de Rouen en geskenk het, en dat & quotWillelmus de Archis heres defuncti 𠉪vi sui Gozelini & quot die skenking bevestig

m BEATRIX Malet, dogter van ---. Sy word in Domesday Descendants [531] genoem as die moeder van Emma d'Arques, maar die primêre bron waarop dit gebaseer is, is nog nie geïdentifiseer nie.

Guillaume en sy vrou het twee kinders gehad:

Guillaume de Jumi èges noem Mathilde as dogter van Guillaume d'Arques en vrou van & quotGuillaume de Tancarville le Cam érier & quot, en voeg by dat hulle ouers was van een seun Rabel [532].

m GUILLAUME de Tancarville, seun van RAOUL de Tancarville & amp; sy vrou Avicia --- (-1129).

(b) EMMA d'Arques (-na 1140).

“Manasses Gisnensis comes et Emma uxor eius 𠉯ilia Willielmi de Arras ” stig Redlingfield priory by charter dated 1120, seen by “Widonis fratris mei, Ros æ fili æ me Ö Die primêre bron wat haar eerste huwelik bevestig, is nog nie geïdentifiseer nie. Die Historia Comitum Ghisnensium name & quotEmmam filiam Roberti camerarii de Tancarvilla in Normannia, viduam Odonis de Folkestane in Anglia & quot as vrou van & quotManasses & quot [534], wat verkeerd blyk te wees. & quotManasses Gisnensium comes et Emma comitissa & quot verleen die administrasie van die kerk van Saint-L éonard per handves gedateer 1129 [535] aan Saint-Bertin.

Volgens Domesday Descendants het sy 'n non geword in Saint-Leonard de Guines na die dood van haar tweede man [536].

m eerstens NELE de Muneville (-1103). Here van Folkestone.

m tweedens (voor 1106) MANASSES Comte de Guines, seun van BAUDOUIN Comte de Guines & amp; sy vrou Adela [Christina] [van Holland] (-Ardres 1137).

Die kind uit hierdie huwelik was:

4. i. Osbern D 'ARCHES is gebore omstreeks 1059 in Arques, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk en is oorlede omstreeks 1116 in Thorp Arch, West Riding, Yorkshire, Engeland, ongeveer 57 jaar oud.

Guillaume trou daarna met Beatrice 'Beatrix' MALET (Sien skakel vir afstamming), dogter van William I MALET Sheriff Of York, Seigneur de Graville en Hesilia 'Elise' CRISPIN, omstreeks 1065. Beatrice is gebore omstreeks 1047 in Graville, St Honorine, Normandië, Frankryk en sterf aan Thorp Arch, West Riding, Yorkshire, Engeland.

Die kind uit hierdie huwelik was:

5. i. Emma D 'ARQUES Erfgenaam van Folkstone is gebore omstreeks 1070 in Prob Thorp Arch, West Riding, Yorkshire, Engeland en is oorlede aan Folkstone, Kent, Engeland

Geoffrey DE BOLBEC (Osbern II DE 1) is gebore omstreeks 1015 in Bolbec, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk en sterf in Bolbec, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk. Geoffrey trou met die vrou van Geoffrey DE (BOLBEC) ONKEND omstreeks 1034. Vrou is gebore omstreeks 1015 en is oorlede aan Bolbec, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk.

Kinders uit hierdie huwelik was:

3. i. Beatrice DE BOLBEC (Geoffrey DE 2, Osbern II DE 1) is gebore omstreeks 1035 in Bolbec, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk en is oorlede omstreeks 1060 in Prob Arques-la-Bataille, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk op 25-jarige ouderdom. Beatrice trou met Guillaume D 'ARQUES Vicomte d'Arques (Sien skakel vir afstamming), seun van Godfrey DES ARQUES Viscomte des Arques en Amelie DE ROUEN, omstreeks 1055. Guillaume is gebore omstreeks 1035 in Arques, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk en is dood ongeveer 1086 in Thorp Arch, West Riding, Yorkshire, Engeland, ongeveer 51 jaar oud

4. ii. Hugh DE BOLBEC is gebore omstreeks 1036 in Bolbec, Seine-Inferieure, Normandië, Frankryk en sterf na 1086 in Hartwell, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, Engeland.

Sien die inskrywing van Guillaume D 'ARQUES Vicomte d'Arques vir die kinders en afstammelinge van hierdie egpaar.


In die 12de eeu was daar 'n konflik tussen die burggraaf Carcassonne en verskeie seigneurs, insluitend Arques en Lagrasse. Die boedels te Arques het die eiendom van die geword seigneurs van Termes.

In 1217 was Béranger d'Arques een van die medewerkers van Guillaume de Peyrepertuse.

In 1210, ná die nederlaag van die Château de Termes tydens die Albigensiaanse kruistog, val Simon de Montfort, 5de graaf van Leicester, Arques aan. Nadat die dorp verbrand is (Villa de Arquis), aan die oewer van die Rialsès, het hy hierdie deel van Razès aan een van sy luitenante, Pierre de Voisins, gegee.

In 1284 werk Gilles de Voisins bagan aan die bou van 'n kasteel, met die doel om die Rialsès -vallei te verdedig en die transhumance -roetes na die Corbières -massief te beheer.

In 1316 het Gilles II de Voisins, bekend as "Gilet", die kasteel verander en voltooi.

In 1518 trou Françoise de Voisins, die laaste van die Voisins, met Jean de Joyeuse wat die baronie Arques geneem het. Die kasteel is verlaat ten gunste van Couiza.

In 1575 is die kasteel deur die Protestante beleër en slegs die paleis kon die aanval weerstaan.

Teen die begin van die Franse Revolusie het die kasteel in puin gelê. Dit is as 'n nasionale bate verkoop en het daarna ernstige skade gely.

Die kasteel bestaan ​​uit 'n enceinte en 'n hoë plein met vier torings. Dit is gebou na die Albigensiaanse kruistog van die 13de eeu op lande wat aan Pierre de Voisins, een van Simon de Montfort se luitenante, gegee is.

Die amper vierkantige enceinte (51m by 55m) omring die kasteel met 'n poort wat versier is met machicolation en met 'n hoeksteen gedra word wat die arms van die Voisin -familiedrag dra ("De gueules à trois fusées d'or en fasce, begeleide en chef d'un lambel à quatre pendant de même"). Talle geboue moes die lengte van die enceinte. Twee goed bewaarde torings bly oor.

Die plein, 25 m hoog, is 'n militêre argitektuur wat geïnspireer is deur kastele in die Ile de France. Dit het vier verdiepings wat bedien word deur 'n wenteltrap. The various rooms were constructed with extreme care. The top floor was given over to defence of the castle. Forty soldiers could defend it thanks to numerous murder holes and rectangular bays set symmetrically into the walls.

It is a good example of the progress in military construction in a strategically important region.

The castle is owned partly by the commune and partly privately. It has been listed since 1887 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. [1] It has been renovated and, in part, reconstructed. It is open to visitors.


DE PONTHIEU, Enguerrand II Comte de Ponthieu

    Enguerrand II (d. 1053) was the son of Hugh II count of Ponthieu. He assumed the county upon the death of his father on November 20, 1052.

Enguerrand II was the eldest son and heir of Hugh II, Count of Ponthieu and his wife Bertha of Aumale, heiress of Aumale.[1] Enguerrand was married to Adelaide, daughter of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and sister of William the Conqueror.[2] But at the Council of Reims in 1049, when the proposed marriage of Duke William with Matilda of Flanders was prohibited based on consanguinity, so was Enguerrand's existing marriage to Adelaide, causing him to be excommunicated.[3] The marriage was apparently annulled c.1049/50.[4] He had given her in dower, Aumale, which she retained after the dissolution of their marriage.[5]

The Conqueror's uncle, William of Arques, who had originally challenged Duke William's right to the duchy based on his illegitimacy, had been given the county of Talou by Duke William as a fief, but still defiant and on his own authority proceeded to build a strong castle at Arques.[6] Enguerrand was allied to William of Arques by virtue of the latter being married to Enguerrand's sister.[1] By 1053 William of Arques was in open revolt against Duke William and Henry I of France came to William of Arques' aid invading Normandy and attempting to relieve the castle of Arques.[7] Duke William had put Arques under siege, but had remained mobile with another force in the countryside nearby.[8] To relieve the siege Enguerrand was with Henry I of France and on October 25, 1053 was killed when the Normans feigned a retreat in which Enguerrand and his companions followed and were ambushed, a tactic the Normans used again to great success at the Battle of Hastings.[7]

Enguerrand married Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale, daughter of Robert I, Duke of Normandy.[a][9] By her he had a daughter:

• Adelaide II, Countess of Aumale, m. William de Bréteuil, Lord of Bréteuil, son of William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford.[10]
As Enguerrand died without male issue[10] he was followed by his brother Guy I as Count of Ponthieu.[11]

Verwysings
1. Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band III Teilband 4 (Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, Germany, 1989), Tafel 635
2. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), pp. 350-2
3. Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900-1250 Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 68
4. Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900-1250 Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 71
5. Collectanea topographica et genealogica, Volume 6, ed. Frederic Madden, Bulkeley Bandinel, John G. Nichols (John B. Nichols & Sons, London, 1840), p. 265
6. Elisabeth Van Houts, The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press, Manchester & New York, 2000), p. 68
7. Jim Bradbury, The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare (Routledge, NY, 2004), pp. 160-1
8. David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1964), p. 388
9. George Andrews Moriarty, The Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III and Queen Philippa (Mormon Pioneer Genealogy Society, Salt Lake City, UT, 1985), p. 13
10. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), p. 351
11. Thomas Stapleton, 'Observations on the History of Adeliza, Sister of William the Conqueror', Archaeologia, Vol. 26 (J.B. Nichols & Sons, 1836), pp. 349-360

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In Cotman’s Footsteps through Normandy: #3 Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe

This is the third article in an occasional series exploring Normandy subjects in the Cotman collection at Leeds Art Gallery. In September 2016 I spent the month travelling through Normandy and visited all the sites represented at Leeds. Cotman’s port of landing on his first visit to Normandy in 1817 was Dieppe. In the first article I explored Cotman’s depictions of the Church of St Jacques, the second of Dieppe castle and harbour and here I follow him to the nearby Castle of Arques-la-Bataille, albeit in mostly torrential rain.

At Arques la Bataille.
Photography by Olivia Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 12.49 GMT

Cotman landed at Dieppe on 20 June 1817 and put up at the Hotel de Londres on the harbour front. His letters record that the weather was very hot and on the 21st he made Arques-la-Bataille, an hour to an hour and a half’s walk and of his very first sketching objective in France.

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Google Earth map of Dieppe and Arques la Bataille area. Google Earth map of Arques la Bataille area

Cotman’s letters of 1817 give a splendidly vivid account of his activities. A local official, Monsieur Gaillon, put himself at Cotman’s service, and at six a.m. on Friday 21st June – his first day proper on French soil – ‘did me the favour of accompanying me to the Chateau d’Arques, a very fine ruin of immense size, & not totally unlike Conway or Harlech, but four times their size & Thickness, – many of the Towers going to a great depth below y outward base of the vaults – which are of frightful depth, and are seen in various places open on the hill – ‘

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Castle of Arques la Bataille, the east range from the north-east corner
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 13.04 GMT

‘I have several sketches of it. We breakfasted in y bourg at a small Inn – upon Wine, Eggs & Tea, – accompanied with smiles, no beauty, two pocket knives that wd not open or shut, two four-pronged pewter forks, – no tea-spoons, bad bread, good butter, – a very clean table cloth, a napkin for each – y latter certainly an extra from the orders of M. Gallion – all this was at 10 o’clock & I ate most heartily – the room had but one chair, which was placed for me but I am now a Frenchman, therefore took a stool from y many about. Mr G’s attentions were delicate in every point. Two large folding windows that opened from top to bottom a Table, mess stools, one chair & three barometers, made up y furniture of the room. – Our return was dreadful we made the circuit of y valley, saw the most elegant church of d’Arques, which I shall return to sketch, – and arrived at my Hotel at 3 o’clock perfectly exhausted from Heat, having been obliged to lay down several times on y road, – refreshed myself with wine, eggs &c, & took to my couch – & slept till six o’clock.’ It seems plain that Cotman travelled the road of many first time visitors to France. It does not seem to have occurred to him that there might have been a connection between him drinking wine for breakfast and lying in the road in the middle of the afternoon.

Arriving at the castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 12.28 GMT

The main objective of the expedition was to sketch the huge castle mouldering along the ridge above the modern village. Given its impressive bulk from close up, the castle does not present itself that prominently from most of the contemporary routes of arrival. Its access looks most unlikely up a narrow, winding, and badly surfaced road signposted from the main square in the town but perseverance will be rewarded once the goal is attained. The castle was built by the uncle of William the Conqueror, but was captured by the nephew in 1053. It reached its full size during the early sixteenth century, when the massive walls moat, bank and bastions that form the present subject were built.

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Gateway to the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 12.32 GMT

Cotman recorded his first impression of the castle gateway flanked by massive round towers, with the rest of the building seen in sharply receding perspective, surrounded by a moat and bank. His original sketch of the subject is lost, but he developed a fine sepia watercolour of the subject dated 1818 now at the British Museum (1902,0514.51).

John Sell Cotman
Gateway to the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe, 1818
Graphite and sepia wash on paper, 218 x 264 mm
British Museum, London (1902,0514.51)
Image by courtesy of the British Museum.
To see this subject on the British Museum’s own online catalogue click on the following link, and use your browser’s ‘back’ button to return to this page:
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=745572&partId=1&searchText=cotman+arques&page=1

The principal purpose of his tour of Normandy was to collect subjects to turn into etchings to be included in a fine folio set to be published under the title of ‘Architectural Antiquities of Normandy’. The complete series of one hundred etchings was published at intervals up to its completion in 1822. The gateway to the Castle of Arques was not only one of the first subjects that Cotman sketched in Normandy, but it also took its place as the first plate and point of entry into the published series.

John Sell Cotman
Gateway to the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe, 1819
Etching, printed in brown/black ink on thick, off-white, wove paper, image 216 x 297 mm, on plate 250 x 316 mm. Leeds example on sheet 277 x 395 mm, trimmed to plate margin at bottom as published folio, 354 x 496 mm
Drawn, etched and editioned 1 October 1819 by John Sell Cotman as plate 1 of his Architectural Antiquities of Normandy, published 1822
Leeds Art Gallery (1949.744)
Image courtesy of Leeds Art Gallery. To be included in the forthcoming catalogue of the Leeds Cotman collection, October 2017.

Leeds has an impression of the published etching. The impression is lettered in upper plate margin, right ‘Pl.1’, and in the lower plate margin, left ‘Drawn & Etched by J S Cotman’ and right, ‘London, Published 1st Oct. 1819 by J & A Arch, Cornhill’ and titled in centre ‘Castle of Arques/ principal entrance’. The plate was drawn and etched by John Sell Cotman and editioned by J & A Arch in London on 1 October 1819 as the first plate of his ‘Architectural Antiquities of Normandy’, published in 1822. The remains are somewhat dilapidated and in the foreground are the crumbling piers of a former drawbridge, dwarfing a figure working in the moat. There are glimpses of a wooded landscape beyond the banks on either side. Cotman exactly captures the mouldering character of the ruins, and the fascinating variegation of its surfaces. The latter called for some his finest hieroglyphics and the etching is worth examining with a magnifying glass to appreciate the inventiveness and originality of his drawing with the burin.

John Sell Cotman
Gateway to the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe, 1819
Etching, detail of Cotman’s hieroglyphics

It is remarkable how unchanged are the ruins from Cotman’s time, despite various attempts at depredation (see http://www.normandythenandnow.com/on-being-a-normandy-castle-at-arques-la-bataille/). Cotman’s composition does not quite do justice to the extent of the ruins, which take a good fifteen to twenty minutes to walk around along the top of the bank. It may be noted that the drawbridge piers have disappeared under a modern ramp at the entrance, and that the entrance itself appears to have acquired an outer wall masking the semi-circular-headed opening shown by Cotman. It was pleasing to note, however, on a rainy visit to the site in September 2016, that the glimpses of trees over the banks at either side are perfectly observed. The castle gate, however, was firmly locked, for despite several hundred thousand Euros recently being spent on shoring up walls, the interior is too unstable to permit public entry. It was some compensation to see a small figure working his way along the bottom of the moat – initially in exactly the same spot as Cotman’s. On investigation he turned out to be collecting snails.

Gateway to the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 12.35 GMT Gateway to the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe
Detail: collecting snails
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 12.35 GMT

None of Cotman’s on-the spot sketches at Arques la Bataille are now known. Miklos Rajnai in his catalogue of Cotman’s Normandy subjects at the Castle Museum, Norwich published in 1975, under no.6 gives a comprehensive account of the known subjects. Besides the present subject Cotman also drew an oblique view of the towers in the east curtain – to the left of the present subject (Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Bedford), which was not used in ‘Architectural Antiquities’ but supplied the idea of the small figure that appears in the present etching.

Mary Ann Turner after John Sell Cotman
Tower on the East side of the Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe, 1820
Etching, printed in brown/black ink on india paper bonded to thick, off-white, wove paper, image 131 x 100 mm, on plate 170 x 142 mm. on sheet as published octavo, 242 x 150 mm
Etched by Mary Ann Turner after the drawing at Bedford by John Sell Cotman and published in Dawson Turner’s ‘A Tour in Normandy’, 1820, Volume 1, opposite p.37.
Collection: The Author
Photograph by David Hill

There are also drawings of part of the keep (Horne Collection, Florence), the inner gateway (untraced, but known through a copy by Elizabeth Turner), and treatments in pencil and sepia of the panoramic view from the east (Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1967.624 and NWHCM : 1951.235.169 Rajnai 1975 nos.7, 6). The latter are interesting for being landscape subjects more than architectural and antiquarian, and offer evidence, as with his drawing of ‘Dieppe from the Heights’ discussed in part 2 of this series, that on his first trip to Normandy in 1817, Cotman had still not settled on an exclusively architectural focus for his Normandy work. Once again he let the Turner’s etch his drawing and publish it in their ‘Tour of Normandy’. One can at least say that when Cotman himself got round to etching such prospects himself, the results were somewhat superior.

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Castle of Arques la Bataille from the East
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 14.08 GMT
The exact viewpoint of Cotman’s drawings is today a little hemmed in by buildings, but there are open views of the castle over the nearby lake as here.

John Sell Cotman
Castle of Arques la Bataille from the East, 1819
Graphite on wove paper, 195 mm x 391 mm
Norwich Castle Museum NWHCM : 1967.624
Image from Miklos Rajnai and Marjorie Allthorpe-Guyton, ‘John Sell Cotman : Drawings of Normandy in Norwich Castle Museum’ [Norwich: Norfolk Museums Service, 1975] no.7, repr. John Sell Cotman
Castle of Arques la Bataille from the East, 1819
Graphite and sepia wash on wove paper, 187 x 391 mm
Norwich Castle Museum NWHCM : 1951.235.169
Image from Miklos Rajnai and Marjorie Allthorpe-Guyton, ‘John Sell Cotman : Drawings of Normandy in Norwich Castle Museum’ [Norwich: Norfolk Museums Service, 1975] no.6, repr.

Mary Ann Turner after John Sell Cotman
Castle of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe, from the East, 1820
Etching, printed in brown/black ink on india paper bonded to thick, off-white, wove paper, image 99 x 200 mm, on plate 136 x 226 mm. on sheet as published octavo, 150 x 242 mm
Etched by Mary Ann Turner after the drawing by John Sell Cotman and published in Dawson Turner’s ‘A Tour in Normandy’, 1820, Volume 1, opposite p.33.
Collection: The Author
Photograph by David Hill

Having done what he could in the heat of the 21st, and resting up on the road on his way home, he spent the next couple of days sketching in Dieppe before returning on the 24th to Arques la Bataille to sketch the church. Cotman’s drawing of the church is now lost, but once more (four full-page plates in the first forty pages of Volume 1) Cotman allowed his work to be etched and published by the Turners in their ‘Tour of Normandy’.

Church of Arques la Bataille from near the Castle
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 12.27 GMT Church of Arques la Bataille
Photograph by David Hill, taken 5 September 2016, 14.25 GMT Mary Ann Turner after John Sell Cotman
Church of Arques la Bataille, near Dieppe, West Front, 1820
Etching, printed in brown/black ink on india paper bonded to thick, off-white, wove paper, image 146 x 121 mm, on plate 183 x 138 mm. on sheet as published octavo, 242 x 150 mm
Etched by Mary Ann Turner after the drawing by John Sell Cotman and published in Dawson Turner’s ‘A Tour in Normandy’, 1820, Volume 1, opposite p.40.
Collection: The Author
Photograph by David Hill

In addition the Norwich Castle Museum has two later drawings, probably made by Miles Edmund Cotman for the series of drawings used by Cotman for teaching when he was Master of Drawing at King’s College School, London, from 1834 onwards (NWHCM : 1996.153.1.11/14). These testify to the importance that the site retained for him right up to the end of his career. The castle of Arques la Bataille was his first subject in France, and the first plate of his great work of the ‘Architectural Antiquities of Normandy’. It is plain that he invested especial care and graphic expressiveness into the etching. It is doubly appropriate in the context that the subject is an entrance and it seems plain too, that like the diminutive figure in the moat, he sensed that he had an imposing work before him.


Richard FitzPons

Richard Fitz Pons[1] (c. 1080 – 1129)[2] was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, active as a marcher lord on the border with Wales.

He is described as a follower of Bernard de Neufmarche, and probably first builder of Bronllys Castle.[3] He started construction at Llandovery Castle[4] in 1116. [5]

His father was Pons fitz Pons.[6][7]

He married Matilda Fitz Walter (died after 1127), daughter of Walter Fitz Roger, sheriff of Gloucester, and Bertha de Ballun.[8] Walter de Clifford was one of their four children.[9][10].

Richard was the heir of Drogo fitz Pons and Walter fitz Pons, both mentioned in the Domesday Survey. He is now taken to be their nephew.[11] They had lands in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Pinxton in Derbyshire, Glasshampton in Worcestershire[12][13]

  1. ^ fitz Pontz, fitzPontz, fitz Poyntz, fitzPoyntz, fitzPonce.
  2. ^ Ancestors of Eugene Ashton ANDREW & Anna Louise HANISH Richard Fitz Pons CLIFFORD ANDREW ANGERMUELLER HANISH STRUDELL Decendants
  3. ^ Bronllys Castle
  4. ^ Llandovery Castle
  5. ^ Archaeology in Wales - Archaeoleg CAMBRIA Archaeology
  6. ^ [1].
  7. ^ There is uncertainty. Another story would make him son of William of Talou, Count of Arques-la-Bataille, known as Guillaume d'Arques, William de Normandie.[2]
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ Charles Cawley (2010). Medieval Lands, English earls 1067-1122
  10. ^ thePeerage.com - Person Page 10486
  11. ^ Keats-Rohan, Domesday People I:180-181, 455-456.
  12. ^ Worcestershire History Encyclopaedia: Astley <!Document Title>
  13. ^ Drogo also in Wiltshire, large holdings in Devon.[4].

c) RICHARD FitzPons (-[1127/29]). "Ricardus filius Puncii" donated �lesiam de Lecha" to Great Malvern monastery, Worcestershire, for the soul of "uxoris meæ Mathildis et liberorum meorum…", by undated charter, witnessed by "Simon et Osbernus fratres mei…"[1383]. "…Ricardo filio Poncii…" witnessed the charter dated 1121 under which Henry I King of England confirmed the grant of "heredibus suis Herefordiam [parvam et] Ullingeswicam" to "Waltero de Gloec" by the bishop of Hereford[1384]. The charter dated to [10 Apr/29 May] 1121 which records the arrangements for the marriage of "Miloni de Gloec" and "Sibilia filia Beorndi de Novo Mercato" refers to land held by "Ric fil Pontii"[1385]. A charter dated to [1127] records that "Ricard Pontii filii" granted the manor of "Lechia" to "Mathildi uxori mee in matrimoniu" in exchange for her original marriage portion, the manor of Ullingswick in Herefordshire, which he gave to "Helie Giff in mat-monu cum filia mea Berta"[1386]. Richard presumably died before [1129] as he is not named in the [1129/30] Pipe Roll. Henry I King of England confirmed a donation to Llanthony priory which "Ricardus filius Pontii" had made with the consent of "Hugonis filii Pontii", by charter dated [1130][1387].

m MATILDA, daughter of [WALTER of Gloucester & his wife Berthe ---] (-after [1127]). A charter dated to [1127] records that "Ricard Pontii filii" granted the manor of "Lechia" to "Mathildi uxori mee in matrimoniu" in exchange for her original marriage portion, the manor of Ullingswick in Herefordshire, which he gave to "Helie Giff in mat-monu cum filia mea Berta"[1388]. Round indicates that this charter means that Matilda must have been the daughter of Walter of Gloucester, noting that Ullingswick was recorded in Domesday Book as belonging to the church of Hereford, and also that King Henry I confirmed its grant and that of Little Hereford by the bishop of Hereford to Walter of Gloucester by another charter[1389]. The fact that Matilda named two of her children after her supposed parents also indicates that this parentage is probably correct (although the name Walter was already used in the FitzPons family before Richard´s marriage). See below under the wife of her son Walter [I] for some further speculation about Matilda´s parentage, involving the Tosny family, which appears to be incorrect. "Ricardus filius Puncii" donated �lesiam de Lecha" to Great Malvern monastery, Worcestershire, for the soul of "uxoris meæ Mathildis et liberorum meorum…", by undated charter, witnessed by "Simon et Osbernus fratres mei…"[1390].

Richard & his wife had four children:

i) SIMON FitzRichard (-[before 1127]). A charter of Edward III King of England records that Clifford priory, Herefordshire was founded by “Simonem filium Ricardi filii Poncii quondam dominum de Clifford antecessorem comitissæ Lincolniæ”[1391]. The text does not specify which countess of Lincoln is referred to. It is assumed that Simon was the older son of Richard as he founded the priory in his name. "…Simo filii ei…" witnessed the charter dated to [1127] which records that "Ricard Puncii filii" granted Aston, Gloucestershire ("Hestoniam") to "Mathilli uxori mee"[1392]. He presumably died before [1127] as he did not witness the charter estimated to that date under which his father reassigned the marriage portion of his mother.

ii) ROGER FitzRichard (-[1127/29]). "Rog fil Ric, Walti fr eius…" witnessed the charter dated to [1127] which records that "Ricard Pontii filii" granted the manor of "Lechia" to "Mathildi uxori mee in matrimoniu" in exchange for her original marriage portion, the manor of Ullingswick in Herefordshire, which he gave to "Helie Giff in mat-monu cum filia mea Berta"[1393]. Roger presumably died before [1129] as he is not named in the [1129/30] Pipe Roll.

iii) WALTER [I] FitzRichard (-1190). His parentage is confirmed by the undated charter, dated to before 1190, under which "Hugh de Say and Lucia his wife, daughter of Walter de Clifford, son of Richard fitz Poncius" donated the mill of Rochford to Haughmond Abbey[1394].

iv) BERTHA . A charter dated to [1127] records that "Ricard Pontii filii" granted the manor of "Lechia" to "Mathildi uxori mee in matrimoniu" in exchange for her original marriage portion, the manor of Ullingswick in Herefordshire, which he gave to "Helie Giff in mat-monu cum filia mea Berta"[1395]. m ([1127]) ELIAS Giffard, son of ELIAS Giffard & his wife Ala --- (-after 1166).

1. Burke, B. "Clifford - Earls of Cumberland and Barons

Clifford" in "Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire" pp.122-124.

2. Cokayne, G.E. "Giffard" in "The Complete Peerage" Vol. V, pp.639, note c.

son of Pons NOT William I King of England

Richard Fitz Pons was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, active as a marcher lord on the border with Wales.

He is described as a follower of Bernard de Neufmarche, and probably first builder of Bronllys Castle. He started construction at Llandovery Castle in 1116.

His father was Pons fitz Pons.

He married Matilda Fitz Walter (died after 1127), daughter of Walter Fitz Roger, sheriff of Gloucester, and Bertha de Ballun. Walter de Clifford was one of their four children.

Richard was the heir of Drogo fitz Pons and Walter fitz Pons, both mentioned in the Domesday Survey. He is now taken to be their nephew. They had lands in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Pinxton in Derbyshire, Glasshampton in Worcestershire.

The early motte and bailey castle was built on a cliff overlooking a ford on the River Wye in 1070 by William Fitz Osbern. When his heir, Roger de Breteuil, 2d Earl of Hereford, forfeited his lands for rebellion against the King in 1075, the castle was granted to Ralph Tosny, who held it directly from the Crown. From Ralph, it passed to his son in law Richard des Ponts (more correctly, Richard Fitz Pons). Richard's son, Walter Fitz Richard, later took the name of Walter de Clifford after he seized the castle from its Tosny overlord before 1162. Much of the stone castle would seem to have been built before 1162, as it much resembles the Tosny Conhes Castle in Normandy.

Source -- Wikipedia / "Clifford Castle" Richard Fitz Pons (c. 1080 – 1129)

  • Anglo-Norman nobleman, active as a marcher lord on the border with Wales.
  • Follower of Bernard de Neufmarche,
  • probably first builder of Bronllys Castle.
  • Started construction at Llandovery Castle in 1116.
  • Father was Pons fitz Pons - Another story would make him son of William of Talou, Count of Arques-la-Bataille, known as Guillaume d'Arques, William de Normandie. - Lundy, Darryl. "p. 15846 § 158451". The Peerage
  • Married Matilda Fitz Walter (died after 1127), daughter of Walter Fitz Roger, sheriff of Gloucester, and Bertha de Ballun. Walter de Clifford was one of their four children.

Richard was the heir of Drogo fitz Pons and Walter fitz Pons, both mentioned in the Domesday Survey. He is now taken to be their nephew. They had lands in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Pinxton in Derbyshire, Glasshampton in Worcestershire


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