Ontsnapte slaaf voor 'n koningin

Ontsnapte slaaf voor 'n koningin


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Ontsnapte slaaf voor 'n koningin - Geskiedenis

Toe Groot -Brittanje in 1834 slawerny in sy ryk afskaf en sodoende al sy besittings vrye gebied maak, ontsnap duisende Afro -Amerikaners na die toevlug van Kanada. Die migrasie is in 1850 verder aangespoor met die aanvaarding van die Fugitive Slave Act, wat dit moontlik gemaak het om ontsnapte slawe oral in die VSA terug te keer en terug te keer, en die noorde was nie meer 'n veilige hawe vir ontsnapte slawe nie. Tot dertigduisend slawe het na Kanada gevlug, en soos in die noordelike VSA het baie gratis swartes saamgespan om hulp en advies te gee. Henry Bibb en Josiah Henson, wat self aan slawe ontsnap het (wie se vertellings in hierdie gereedskapskas opgesom word), het in 1851 die vlugtelinge se tuiskolonie in Kanada gevorm, en Bibb het die eerste swart koerant in Kanada, die Stem van die vlugteling. In 'n vergadering teen slawerny (ongeveer 1850) het Bibb 'n welkome verklaring afgelewer aan vlugtende slawe wat in Kanada aangekom het. In sy kort stelling word die temas van selfbeskikking, selfrespek en uiteindelik selfbesit verweef.

Vlugtende nedersettings in Kanada het geleidelik gegroei, hoofsaaklik in die weste van Ontario. In 1855 het die blanke afskaffer Benjamin Drew deur "Kanada -Wes" gereis om 'n onderhoud te voer met vlugtige slawe wat hulle daar gevestig het, en hul verhale gepubliseer in 'N Noord-sy-aansig van slawerny: die vlugteling (die vertellings van John Little en sy vrou is opgeneem in Tema I: BEHALWING: Runaways). In hierdie keuses lees ons uit Drew se beskrywings van sewe voortvlugtende gemeenskappe en uit groot beplande nedersettings wat deur anti-slawerny-aktiviste ontwikkel is, tot groepe Afro-Amerikaners in groot stede in Ontario, tot geïsoleerde groepe swart boere in die buiteland en mdashand van die 'True Bands' wat hy beskryf as ' bruin persone van albei geslagte, gekoppel aan hul eie verbetering. " Kort uittreksels uit vyftien van die vlugtelinge se verhale is ingesluit. Hoe het pas -vry Afro -Amerikaners vir hulself gemeenskappe in die veilige hawe van Kanada geskep? (8 bladsye.)

  1. Hoe het vlugtende slawe vir hulself gemeenskappe in die veilige hawe van Kanada geskep?
  2. Watter hulp het hulle van ander (swart en wit) ontvang?
  3. Hoe het hul ervarings vergelyk met dié van vlugtende slawe wat in die noordelike VSA gebly het?
  4. In watter mate is die gevoel van gemeenskap onder vlugtende slawe beïnvloed deur hul slawe -ervaring, hul ontsnappingservaring en die bedreigings vir hul veiligheid, alhoewel hulle op vrye gebied was?
  5. Vergelyk die "True Bands" in Kanada met ander groepe wat deur Afro -Amerikaners geskep is vir hul wedersydse voordeel (sien #5: Mutual Benefit.) Watter behoeftes en doelwitte is in hierdie groepe as die hoogste prioriteit beskou?
  6. Waarom, en vir watter gehoor, het Benjamin Drew gepubliseer Die vlugteling? Watter gerugte, 'twyfel en verwarring' wou hy verdryf?
  7. Wat het gemeenskaplike pogings deur Afro -Amerikaners van die antebellum belemmer en verbeter?
  8. Vergelyk die migrasie -ervarings van hierdie Afro -Amerikaners met diegene wat in die vroeë twintigste eeu na die noordelike VSA gemigreer het (sien The Making of African American Identity, Deel III, Tema II: MIGRASIES).

Kanada: The Promised Land, in beweging: die Afro -Amerikaanse migrasie -ervaring, van die Schomburg -sentrum vir navorsing oor swart kultuur (New York Public Library)

The Black Canadian Experience in Ontario, 1834-1914: Flight, Freedom, Foundation, uit Archives of Ontario

'N Noord-sy-aansig van slawerny: die vlugteling, 1856, deur Benjamin Drew, volledige teks in Documenting the American South, van die University of North Carolina Library

Onderhoude met vyf vlugtende slawe in Kanada, in Drew, 'N Oorsig van slawerny aan die noordekant, 1856, in From Revolution to Reconstruction, Universiteit van Groningen, Nederland

Verslag oor ontsnapping na Kanada deur Wisconsin, van die Wisconsin Historical Society

Geskiedenis van Buxton, vroeë Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap in Ontario, Kanada, van die Buxton National Historic Site and Museum

Oor vlugtelinge in Mexiko: Rebellie: John Horse and the Black Seminoles, van J. B. Bird en die Southwest Alternate Media Project


Inhoud

Histories was Britte in groot getalle verslaaf, tipies deur ryk handelaars en krygshere wat inheemse slawe uit die voor-Romeinse tyd uitgevoer het, [3] en deur buitelandse indringers uit die Romeinse Ryk tydens die Romeinse verowering van Brittanje. [4] [5] [6]

Duisend jaar later het Britse handelaars in die vroeë moderne tyd belangrike deelnemers aan die Atlantiese slawehandel geword. Dan sou welvarende mense op die Britse eilande, sowel as in Britse kolonies, Afrika -slawe besit. In 'n driehoekige handelsstelsel het skeepseienaars verslaafde Wes-Afrikaners na die Nuwe Wêreld (veral na die Karibiese Eilande) vervoer om daar verkoop te word. Die skepe het goedere na Brittanje teruggebring en goedere na Afrika uitgevoer. Sommige entrepreneurs het slawe na Brittanje gebring, [6], waar hulle in slawerny gehou is. Na 'n lang afskaffingsveldtog onder leiding van Thomas Clarkson en (in die Laerhuis) deur William Wilberforce, verbied die parlement handel met slawe deur die Afskaffingswet van 1807, [7] wat die Royal Navy se Wes -Afrika -eskader toegepas het, deur te neem. Brittanje het sy invloed gebruik om ander lande regoor die wêreld te oorreed om die slawehandel af te skaf en verdragte te onderteken om die koninklike vloot toe te laat om slaweskepe te verbied.

In 1772 was Somerset v Stewart van mening dat slawerny geen grondslag in die Engelse reg gehad het nie en dus 'n skending van Habeas Corpus was. Dit is voortgebou op die vroeëre Cartwright -saak uit die bewind van Elizabeth I, wat ook die konsep van slawerny gehad het, is nie in die Engelse reg erken nie. Hierdie saak het destyds oor die algemeen besluit dat slawerny nie onder die Engelse reg bestaan ​​nie. Wetlik ("de jure") kon slawe -eienaars nie in die hof wen nie, en afskaffingsiste het regshulp verleen aan slawe van swart mense. Die werklike ("de facto") slawerny het egter in Brittanje voortgegaan met tien tot veertien duisend slawe in Engeland en Wallis, wat meestal huishoudelike dienaars was. Toe slawe uit die kolonies ingebring word, moes hulle kwytskelding onderteken wat hulle in diens van Brittanje gemaak het. Die meeste moderne historici is oor die algemeen dit eens dat slawerny in die laat 18de eeu in Brittanje voortgeduur het en uiteindelik omstreeks 1800 verdwyn het. [8]

Slawerny elders in die Britse Ryk is nie geraak nie - dit het inderdaad vinnig gegroei, veral in die Karibiese gebiede. Slawerny is in die kolonies afgeskaf deur die eienaars in 1833 uit te koop deur die Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Die meeste slawe is bevry, met uitsonderings en vertragings wat vir die Oos -Indiese Kompanjie, Ceylon en Saint Helena voorsien is. Hierdie uitsonderings is in 1843 uitgeskakel. [9]

Die verbod op slawerny en serwituut word nou gekodifiseer ingevolge artikel 4 van die Europese Konvensie oor Menseregte, wat sedert 1953 van krag is en regstreeks in die Britse reg ingelyf is deur die Wet op Menseregte 1998. Artikel 4 van die Konvensie verbied ook dwangarbeid, met enkele uitsonderings soos straf of militêre diens. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Van voor die Romeinse tyd was slawerny algemeen in Brittanje, met inheemse Britte wat gereeld uitgevoer word. [10] [11] Na die Romeinse verowering van Brittanje is slawerny uitgebrei en geïndustrialiseer. [12]

Na die val van Romeinse Brittanje het beide die Engele en Sakse die slawestelsel gepropageer. [13] Sommige van die vroegste berigte oor slawe uit die vroeë Middeleeuse Brittanje kom uit die verslag van ligharige seuns uit York wat deur pous Gregorius die Grote in Rome gesien is.

Vikings het handel gedryf met die Gaeliese, Piktiese, Brythoniese en Saksiese koninkryke tussendeur hulle op slawe aangeval. [14] Die Saksiese slawehandelaars werk soms saam met Noorse handelaars wat dikwels Britte aan die Iere verkoop het. [15] In 870 beleer en verower Vikings die vesting van Alt Clut (die hoofstad van die koninkryk Strathclyde) en neem in 871 die meeste inwoners van die terrein, waarskynlik deur Olaf the White en Ivar the Boneless, na die slawemarkte van Dublin . [14] Maredudd ab Owain († 999) het 'n groot losprys betaal vir 2 000 Walliese slawe, [14] wat die grootskaalse slaaf wat op die Britse Eilande toegeslaan het, aantoon.

Die Angelsaksiese mening was teen die verkoop van slawe in die buiteland: 'n wet van Ine van Wessex lui dat elkeen wat sy eie landgenoot verkoop, hetsy dit sonder skuld of vry is, sy eie geld in boete moet betaal, selfs as die man dit verkoop was skuldig aan misdaad. [16] Desondanks het wetlike boetes en ekonomiese druk wat tot wanbetaling in betalings gelei het, die aanbod van slawe gehandhaaf, en in die 11de eeu was daar steeds 'n slawehandel uit Bristol, as 'n gedeelte in die Vita Wulfstani maak duidelik. [17] [5]

Die Bodmin vervaardigings, 'n manuskrip wat nou in die British Library [18] is, bewaar die name en besonderhede van slawe wat gedurende die 9de of 10de eeu in Bodmin (die destydse hoofstad Cornwall) bevry is - wat daarop dui dat slawerny destyds in Cornwall bestaan ​​het en dat talle Cornishs slawe-eienaars het uiteindelik hul slawe vrygelaat. [19] [20]

Volgens die Domesday Book -sensus was meer as 10% van Engeland se bevolking in 1086 slawe. [21]

Hoewel daar geen wetgewing teen slawerny was nie, [22] het Willem die Veroweraar 'n wet ingestel wat die verkoop van slawe in die buiteland verhinder. [23]

In 1102 het die Kerkraad van Londen wat deur Anselm byeengeroep is, 'n bevel uitgevaardig: "Laat niemand hierna waag om die berugte besigheid, wat in Engeland heers, te verkoop om mans soos diere te verkoop nie." [24] Die Raad het egter geen wetgewende bevoegdhede gehad nie, en geen wetwet was geldig tensy dit deur die monarg onderteken is nie. [25]

Die invloed van die nuwe Normandiese aristokrasie het gelei tot die agteruitgang van slawerny in Engeland. Hedendaagse skrywers het opgemerk dat die Skotse en Walliese gevangenes as slawe tydens strooptogte geneem het, 'n gebruik wat teen die 12de eeu nie meer algemeen in Engeland was nie. Aan die begin van die 13de eeu het verwysings na mense wat as slawe geneem is, gestop. Volgens historikus John Gillingham was daar teen 1200 slawerny op die Britse Eilande nie meer nie. [22]

Vervoer na die kolonies as 'n kriminele of as 'n bediende dien as straf vir beide groot en klein misdade in Engeland vanaf die 17de eeu tot ver in die 19de eeu. [26] 'n Vonnis kan lewenslank of vir 'n spesifieke tydperk wees. Die strafstelsel vereis dat gevangenes aan regeringsprojekte soos padbou, bouwerke en mynbou moet werk, of hulle aan individue as onbetaalde arbeid moet bevry. Daar word van vroue verwag om as huishulp en plaasarbeiders te werk. Net soos slawe, kon bediendes gekoop en verkoop word, kon hulle nie trou sonder die toestemming van hul eienaar nie, was hulle onderhewig aan fisieke straf en het hulle hul plig tot arbeid opgelê deur die howe. Hulle het egter sekere sterk beperkte regte behou, in teenstelling met slawe wat nie een gehad het nie. [27]

'N Veroordeelde wat 'n deel van sy tyd uitgedien het, kan aansoek doen om 'n "verlofkaartjie" en 'n paar voorgeskrewe vryhede verleen. Dit het sommige gevangenes in staat gestel om 'n meer normale lewe te hervat, om te trou en 'n gesin op te rig, en 'n paar het die kolonies moontlik gemaak om hulle uit die samelewing te verwyder. [28] Ballingskap was 'n noodsaaklike komponent en word beskou as 'n groot afskrikmiddel vir misdaad. Vervoer word ook beskou as 'n menslike en produktiewe alternatief vir uitvoering, wat waarskynlik die vonnis vir baie sou gewees het as vervoer nie ingestel was nie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die vervoer van Engelse onderdane na die buiteland kan teruggevoer word na die Engelse Wet op Vagabonds 1597. Tydens die bewind van Henry VIII is na raming 72 000 mense doodgemaak vir 'n verskeidenheid misdade. [29] [ mislukte verifikasie ] 'N Alternatiewe praktyk, ontleen aan die Spaanse, was om die doodsvonnis te pendel en die gebruik van gevangenes as 'n arbeidsmag vir die kolonies toe te laat. Een van die eerste verwysings na 'n persoon wat vervoer word, kom in 1607 toe ''n vakleerling van Bridewell na Virginia gestuur is om weg te hardloop met die goed van sy meester'. [30] Die wet is min gebruik ten spyte van pogings deur James I, wat met beperkte sukses probeer het om dit te aanvaar deur 'n reeks bevele van Privy Council in 1615, 1619 en 1620 aan te neem. [31]

Vervoer is selde as 'n kriminele vonnis gebruik totdat die Piracy Act 1717: ''n Wet op die verdere voorkoming van roof, inbraak en ander misdade, en vir die doeltreffender vervoer van misdadigers en onwettige woluitvoerders en vir die verklaring van die wet op sommige Punte wat verband hou met Pirates ", het 'n sewe jaar lange strafvervoer tot stand gebring as 'n moontlike straf vir diegene wat skuldig bevind is aan mindere misdrywe, of as 'n moontlike vonnis waarop die doodstraf deur koninklike vergifnis verlaag kan word. Misdadigers is van 1718 tot 1776 na Noord -Amerika vervoer. Toe die Amerikaanse rewolusie vervoer na die Dertien Kolonies onuitvoerbaar gemaak het, is diegene wat daaraan gevonnis is, gewoonlik gestraf met gevangenisstraf of harde arbeid. Van 1787 tot 1868 is misdadigers wat onder die wet skuldig bevind en gevonnis is, na die kolonies in Australië vervoer. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Na die Ierse rebellie van 1641 en die daaropvolgende Cromwelliaanse inval, het die Engelse parlement die Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 goedgekeur wat die Ierse bevolking in verskillende kategorieë ingedeel het volgens hul mate van betrokkenheid by die opstand en die daaropvolgende oorlog. Diegene wat aan die opstand deelgeneem het of die rebelle op enige manier bygestaan ​​het, is gevonnis om opgehang te word en dat hulle besittings gekonfiskeer moet word. Ander kategorieë is tot verbanning gevonnis met die hele of gedeeltelike konfiskering van hul boedels. Terwyl die meerderheid van die hervestiging in Ierland na die provinsie Connaught plaasgevind het, is miskien 50 000 na die kolonies in Wes -Indië en in Noord -Amerika vervoer. [32] Iere, Walliese en Skotse mense is gedurende die tyd van Cromwell gestuur om op suikerplantasies in Barbados te werk. [33]

Gedurende die vroeë koloniale tydperk het die Skotte en die Engelse, saam met ander Wes -Europese nasies, hul "Gypsy -probleem" hanteer deur hulle in groot getalle as slawe na Noord -Amerika en die Karibiese Eilande te vervoer. Cromwell het Romanichal Gypsies as slawe na die suidelike plantasies gestuur, en daar is dokumentasie van Sigeuners wat in besit is van voormalige swart slawe in Jamaika. [34]

Lank voor die Highland Clearances het sommige hoofmanne, soos Ewen Cameron van Lochiel, 'n paar van hul stamme in Noord -Amerika verkoop. Hulle doel was om die oorbevolking en die gebrek aan voedselbronne in die blik te verlig. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Talle aanhangers van die Highland Jacobite, gevange geneem in die nasleep van die Slag van Culloden en streng regeringstogte van die Hooglande, is op skepe in die rivier die Teems opgesluit. Sommige is tot vervoer na die Carolinas gevonnis as bediende. [35]

Byna tweehonderd jaar in die geskiedenis van steenkoolmynbou in Skotland was myners verbonde aan hul "maisters" deur 'n 1606 Act "Anent Coalyers and Salters". Die Colliers and Salters (Scotland) Act 1775 verklaar dat "baie colliers en salters in slawerny en slawerny verkeer" en het emansipasie aangekondig dat diegene wat na 1 Julie 1775 begin werk nie slawe sou word nie, terwyl diegene wat reeds in slawerny was, kon Na 7 of 10 jaar, afhangende van hul ouderdom, moet u aansoek doen om 'n besluit van die Baljuhof wat hul vryheid verleen. Min kon dit bekostig, totdat 'n verdere wet in 1799 hul vryheid bepaal het en hierdie slawerny en slawerny onwettig gemaak het. [36] [37]

Van die 17de eeu tot die 19de eeu het werkhuise mense opgeneem wie se armoede hulle geen ander alternatief gelaat het nie. [ aanhaling nodig ] Hulle was onder dwangarbeidsvoorwaardes werksaam. Werkhuise het verlate babas opgeneem, wat gewoonlik as onwettig beskou word. Toe hulle oud genoeg word, word hulle as kinderarbeid gebruik. Charles Dickens verteenwoordig sulke kwessies in sy fiksie. 'N Lewensvoorbeeld was Henry Morton Stanley. Dit was 'n tyd toe baie kinders gewerk het as gesinne arm was, almal het gewerk. Eers in 1833 en 1844 is die eerste algemene beskermingswette teen kinderarbeid, die Factory Acts, in Brittanje aangeneem. [38]

Van die 16de tot die 19de eeu word geraam dat tussen 1 miljoen en 1,25 miljoen Europeërs deur Barbary -seerowers en Barbary -slawehandelaars gevange geneem en as slawe verkoop is. [39] Die slawe het hul naam gekry aan die Barbary -kus, dit wil sê die Middellandse See -kus van Noord -Afrika - wat nou Marokko, Algerië, Tunisië en Libië is. Daar is berigte oor aanvalle op Barbary en ontvoering van diegene in Frankryk, Ierland, Italië, Portugal, Spanje en die Verenigde Koninkryk en so ver noord as Ysland en die lot van diegene wat in Noord -Afrika en die Ottomaanse Ryk in slawerny ontvoer is. [40]

Dorpenaars langs die suidkus van Engeland het die koning versoek om hulle te beskerm teen ontvoering deur seerowers van Barbary. Item 20 van The Grand Remonstrance, [41] 'n lys van griewe teen Charles I wat hom in 1641 voorgelê het, bevat die volgende klag oor Barbary -seerowers van die Ottomaanse Ryk wat Engelse in slawerny ontvoer het: [ aanhaling nodig ]

En alhoewel dit alles op die skyn van die bewaring van die seë geneem is, is 'n nuwe ongeëwenaarde belasting van skeepsgeld bedink, en op dieselfde skyn, wat albei jare lank op die onderwerp gehef is, naby £ 700,000, en tog die handelaars is so naak gelaat vir die geweld van die Turkse seerowers, dat baie groot skepe van waarde en duisende onderdane van sy majesteit deur hulle geneem is, en steeds in ellendige slawerny bly.

Admiraal sir John Hawkins van Plymouth, 'n noemenswaardige Elizabethaanse seevaarder, word algemeen erken as 'die pionier van die Engelse slawehandel'. In 1554–1555 stig Hawkins 'n slawehandelsindikaat van welgestelde handelaars. Hy vaar met drie skepe na die Karibiese Eilande via Sierra Leone, kap 'n Portugese slaweskip en verkoop die 300 slawe daarvan in Santo Domingo. Tydens 'n tweede reis in 1564 het sy bemanning 400 Afrikane gevange geneem en verkoop in Rio de la Hacha in die huidige Colombia, wat 'n wins van 60% vir sy finansiers gemaak het. [42] 'n Derde reis het behels dat die koop van slawe direk in Afrika en die vang van 'n Portugese skip met sy vrag by die Karibiese Eilande, Hawkins al die slawe verkoop het. Met sy terugkeer publiseer hy 'n boek met die titel 'N Alliansie om te slaag vir slawe. [43] Na raming het Hawkins tydens sy vier reise van die 1560's 1 500 Afrikane onder slawe vervoer oor die Atlantiese Oseaan, voordat hy in 1568 gestop het na 'n geveg met die Spanjaarde waarin hy vyf van sy sewe skepe verloor het. [44] Die Engelse betrokkenheid by die Atlantiese slawehandel het eers in die 1640's hervat nadat die land 'n Amerikaanse kolonie (Virginia) verkry het. [45]

Teen die middel van die 18de eeu het Londen die grootste Afrikaanse bevolking in Brittanje gehad, wat bestaan ​​uit vrye en verslaafde mense, sowel as baie weghol. Die totale getal was moontlik ongeveer 10 000. [46] Eienaars van Afrikaanse slawe in Engeland sou adverteer oor slaweverkope en belonings vir die herowering van weghol. [47] [48]

'N Aantal vrygemaakte slawe het daarin geslaag om prominent te wees in die Britse samelewing. Ignatius Sancho (1729–1780), bekend as "The Extraordinary Negro", het sy eie kruidenierswinkel in Westminster geopen. [49] Hy was bekend vir sy poësie en musiek, en onder sy vriende was die romanskrywer Laurence Sterne, die akteur David Garrick en die hertog en hertogin van Montague. Hy is veral bekend vir sy briewe wat na sy dood gepubliseer is. Ander soos Olaudah Equiano en Ottobah Cugoano was ewe bekend, en was saam met Ignatius Sancho aktief in die afskaffingsveldtog. [50]

Driehoekige handel Redigeer

Teen die 18de eeu het die slawehandel 'n belangrike ekonomiese steunpilaar geword vir stede soos Bristol, Liverpool en Glasgow, wat betrokke was by die sogenaamde "Driehoekige handel". Die skepe vertrek uit Brittanje, gelaai met handelsgoedere wat aan die Wes -Afrikaanse kus verruil is vir slawe wat deur plaaslike heersers van die dieper binneland gevang is, die slawe is deur die berugte "Middle Passage" oor die Atlantiese Oseaan vervoer en met aansienlike wins verkoop vir arbeid in plantasies. Die skepe was gelaai met uitvoergewasse en goedere, die produkte van slawe -arbeid, soos katoen, suiker en rum, en is terug na Brittanje om die items te verkoop.

Die eiland Man en die transatlantiese slawehandel Edit

Die eiland Man was betrokke by die trans -Atlantiese slawehandel in Afrika. Goedere uit die slawehandel is op die eiland Man gekoop en verkoop, en Manx -handelaars, seelui en skepe was betrokke by die handel. [51]

Geen wetgewing is ooit in Engeland uitgevaardig wat slawerny gewettig het nie, anders as die Portugese Ordenações Manuelinas (1481–1514), die Nederlanders Ordonnansies van die Oos -Indiese Kompanjie (1622), en Frankryk s'n Kode Noir (1685), en dit het verwarring veroorsaak toe Engelse slawe huis toe gebring het wat hulle wettiglik in die kolonies gekoop het. [52] [53] In Butts v. Penny (1677) 2 Lev 201, 3 Keb 785, is 'n aksie ingestel om die waarde van 10 slawe wat deur die eiser in Indië aangehou is, te verhaal. Die hof het bevind dat 'n aksie vir trover in die Engelse reg sou lê, omdat die verkoop van nie-Christene as slawe in Indië algemeen was. Geen uitspraak is egter in die saak gelewer nie. [54] [55]

'N Engelse hofsaak van 1569 waarin Cartwright betrokke was, wat 'n slaaf van Rusland gekoop het, het beslis dat Engelse wet slawerny nie kan erken nie. Hierdie uitspraak is oorskadu deur latere ontwikkelings, veral in die Navigasiewette, maar is in 1701 deur die opperhoofregter bekragtig toe hy beslis dat 'n slaaf vrygelaat word sodra hy in Engeland aankom. [56]

Agitasie het gesien dat 'n reeks oordele die vloed van slawerny afweer. In Smith v. Gould (1705–07) 2 Salk 666, John Holt (Lord Chief Justice) verklaar dat volgens "die gemenereg kan niemand 'n eiendom in 'n ander besit nie". (Sien die "ontroue rasionaal".)

In 1729 onderteken die Prokureur -generaal en Prokureur -generaal van Engeland die Yorke -Talbot -slawerny -mening en gee hul mening (en by implikasie die van die Regering) uit dat slawerny van Afrikane wettig in Engeland is. In hierdie tyd is slawe openlik gekoop en verkoop op kommoditeitsmarkte in Londen en Liverpool. [57] Slawerny is ook aanvaar in die vele kolonies van Brittanje.

Lord Henley LC het gesê Shanley v. Harvey (1763) 2 Eden 126, 127 dat "sodra 'n man sy voet op Engelse grond sit, hy vry is".

Na R v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett (1772) 20 Staat Tr 1 die wet bly ongeskonde, hoewel die besluit 'n beduidende voorskot was om ten minste die gewelddadige verwydering van iemand uit Engeland, al dan nie 'n slaaf, teen sy wil te voorkom. 'N Man met die naam James Somersett was die slaaf van 'n Boston -doeanebeampte. Hulle het na Engeland gekom, en Somersett het ontsnap. Kaptein Knowles het hom gevang en op sy boot geneem, Jamaika gebind. Drie afskaffers, wat sê dat dit sy 'peetouers' is, het aansoek gedoen om 'n bevel van habeas corpus. Een van Somersett se advokate, Francis Hargrave, het gesê: "In 1569, tydens die bewind van koningin Elizabeth I, is 'n regsgeding teen 'n man aanhangig gemaak omdat hy 'n ander man wat hy as 'n slaaf in die buiteland gekoop het, geslaan het. jaar] van Elizabeth [1569], het een Cartwright 'n slaaf uit Rusland gebring en hom gegesel waarvoor hy ondervra is en dit is opgelos dat Engeland 'n te suiwer lug was vir 'n slaaf om in te asem. ' Hy het aangevoer dat die hof in Cartwright se saak beslis het dat Engelse gemenereg geen voorsiening maak vir slawerny nie, en sonder 'n grondslag vir die wettigheid daarvan, sou slawerny andersins onwettig wees as valse gevangenisstraf en/of aanranding. [58] In sy uitspraak van 22 Junie 1772 begin Lord Chief Justice William Murray, Lord Mansfield, van die Court of King's Bench deur te praat oor die gevangenskap en gedwonge aanhouding van Somersett. Hy eindig met:

So 'n daad van heerskappy moet erken word deur die wet van die land waar dit gebruik word. Die mag van 'n meester oor sy slaaf was in verskillende lande buitengewoon anders.

Die toestand van slawerny is van so 'n aard dat dit nie in staat is om dit op morele of politieke redes nie, maar slegs deur 'n positiewe wet te stel, wat die krag daarvan behou lank na die redes, geleentheid en tyd vanwaar dit ontstaan ​​het , word uit die geheue uitgevee.

Dit is so onheilspellend dat niks daaraan gely kan word nie, maar positiewe wet. Wat ook al die ongerieflikhede uit die besluit mag voortspruit, ek kan nie sê dat hierdie saak deur die Engelse wet toegelaat of goedgekeur word nie en daarom moet die swartes ontslaan word. [59]

Verskeie berigte oor Mansfield se besluit verskyn. Die meeste stem nie saam oor wat gesê is nie. Die beslissing is slegs mondelings gegee, en die hof het nie 'n formele skriftelike verslag daarvan gegee nie. Abolitioniste het die standpunt wyd versprei dat daar verklaar word dat die toestand van slawerny nie onder die Engelse reg bestaan ​​nie, hoewel Mansfield later gesê het dat alles wat hy besluit het, is dat 'n slaaf nie met geweld uit Engeland verwyder kan word nie. [60]

Nadat hy gelees het oor Somersett's Case, het Joseph Knight, 'n slaaf van Afrikaner wat deur sy meester John Wedderburn in Jamaika gekoop en na Skotland gebring is, hom verlaat. Getroud en met 'n kind het hy 'n vryheidsgeding ingedien, omdat hy nie as 'n slaaf in Groot -Brittanje aangehou kon word nie. In die geval van Knight v. Wedderburn (1778), sê Wedderburn dat Knight hom 'ewigdurende serwituut' skuld. Die Court of Sessions of Scotland het hom beslis en gesê dat slawerny slawerny nie onder die wet van Skotland erken word nie, en dat slawe hofbeskerming kan kry om 'n meester te verlaat of om te voorkom dat hulle met geweld uit Skotland verwyder word om na slawerny in die kolonies terug te keer. [61]

Die afskaffingsbeweging is gelei deur Quakers en ander nie-konformiste, maar die toetswet het hulle verhinder om parlementslede te word. William Wilberforce, 'n lid van die House of Commons as onafhanklike, het die parlementêre woordvoerder geword vir die afskaffing van die slawehandel in Brittanje. Sy bekering tot die Evangeliese Christendom in 1784 het 'n sleutelrol gespeel om hom in hierdie sosiale hervorming interessant te maak. [62] William Wilberforce se slawehandelwet 1807 het die slawehandel in die Britse Ryk afgeskaf. Eers in die Slavery Abolition Act 1833 is die instelling uiteindelik afgeskaf, maar geleidelik. Aangesien grondeienaars in die Britse Wes -Indiese Eilande hul onbetaalde arbeiders verloor het, het hulle 'n vergoeding van £ 20 miljoen ontvang. [63]

Die Royal Navy het die Wes -Afrika -eskader (of voorkomende eskader) in 1808 teen aansienlike koste gestig nadat die parlement die slawehandelwet goedgekeur het. Die taak van die eskader was om die Atlantiese slawehandel te onderdruk deur die kus van Wes -Afrika te patrolleer, die slawehandel met geweld te voorkom, insluitend die onderskep van slaweskepe uit Europa, die Verenigde State, die Barbary -seerowers, Wes -Afrika en die Ottomaanse Ryk . [64]

Die Church of England was betrokke by slawerny. Slawe was die eiendom van die Anglikaanse Kerk se Vereniging vir die verspreiding van die evangelie in buitelandse dele (SPGFP), wat suikerplantasies in die Wes -Indiese Eilande gehad het. Toe slawe in 1834 deur die wet van die Britse parlement geëmansipeer is, het die Britse regering vergoeding aan slawe -eienaars betaal. Onder die wat hulle betaal het, was die biskop van Exeter en drie sakekollegas, wat vergoeding ontvang het vir 665 slawe. [65] Die vergoeding van Britse slawehouers was byna £ 17 miljard se huidige geld. [66]

Geskiedkundiges en ekonome het die ekonomiese gevolge van slawerny vir Groot -Brittanje en die Noord -Amerikaanse kolonies bespreek. Baie ontleders, soos Eric Williams, stel voor dat dit kapitaalvorming moontlik gemaak het wat die Industriële Revolusie gefinansier het, [67] alhoewel die bewyse onduidelik is. Slawe -arbeid was 'n integrale deel van die vroeë vestiging van die kolonies, wat meer mense nodig gehad het vir arbeid en ander werk. Slawe -arbeid het ook die belangrikste verbruikersgoedere gelewer wat die basis was vir die wêreldhandel gedurende die agtiende en vroeë negentiende eeu: koffie, katoen, rum, suiker en tabak. Slawerny was baie belangriker vir die winsgewendheid van plantasies en die ekonomie in die Amerikaanse Suide, en die slawehandel en verwante besighede was belangrik vir New York en New England. [68]

In 2006 het die destydse Britse premier, Tony Blair, sy diepe droefheid uitgespreek oor die slawehandel, wat hy as 'diep skandelik' beskryf het. [69] Sommige kampvegters het herstel van die voormalige slawehandelslande geëis. [70]

In onlangse jare het verskeie instellings hul eie bande met slawerny begin evalueer. Byvoorbeeld, English Heritage het in 2013 'n boek oor die uitgebreide skakels tussen slawerny en Britse plattelandshuise gepubliseer. Londen en Greene King het almal om verskoning gevra vir hul historiese verband met slawerny. [71] [72] [73] [74] [75]

University College London het 'n databasis ontwikkel wat die kommersiële, kulturele, historiese, keiserlike, fisiese en politieke erfenis van slawerny in Brittanje ondersoek. [76]

Die Verenigde Koninkryk is 'n bestemmingsland vir mans, vroue en kinders, hoofsaaklik uit Afrika, Asië en Oos -Europa wat aan mensehandel onderwerp word vir seksuele slawerny, dwangarbeid en huishoudelike diens. [77] Navorsing wat in 2015 gepubliseer is, na die aankondiging van die regering se 'Modern Slavery Strategy', [78] het die aantal moontlike slagoffers van moderne slawerny in die Verenigde Koninkryk geraam op ongeveer 10–13 duisend, waarvan ongeveer 7–10 duisend was tans nie aangeteken nie (aangesien 2744 bevestigde gevalle reeds by die National Crime Agency bekend was). [79]


Die National Hero of Jamaica, The Nanny of the Maroons

Gelukkige Swart Geskiedenis Maand! Vir elke 28 dae van Februarie het ons by The Mary Sue 'n berig oor 'n swart vrou waarvan u behoort te weet - sommige waarvan u miskien gehoor het, sommige 'n bietjie meer duister en sommige fiktief wat nog baie verdien liefde.

Moshidi Motshegwa as The Maroon Queen in “Black Sails, ”, wat gebaseer was op Queen Nanny

Dag drie: The Nanny of the Maroons

Een van die dinge wat ek voel altyd ontbreek in Black History Month, is 'n uitbreiding van swartes. ” Die swart identiteit en ervaring is nie beperk tot die Verenigde State nie, en as iemand wat 'n eerste generasie swart Amerikaner is, is daar soms 'n persepsie dat swart prestasie beperk is tot wat hier in die state gebeur het. Die verhale en geskiedenis van swart Afrikaners, Afro-Latinx en Afro-Caribs word dikwels nie vertel nie. Ek wou seker maak dat ek nie net oor swart Amerikaners sou praat nie, en ek het na my eie wortels gegaan (half Jamaican, half St. Lucian) om te praat oor een van die Jamaikaanse nasionale heldinne, The Nanny of the Maroons, of#8220 Queen Nanny. ”

Die Maroons was Afrikane wat slawerny in die Amerikas vrygespring het en met die inheemse mense op die eilande gemeng het om hul eie nedersettings te vorm. In Jamaika was daar verskeie konflikte tussen hierdie bevryde Afrikaners en die Britte. Die vrou sou bekend staan ​​as The Nanny of the Maroons, 'n figuur wat, hoewel dit histories is, die meeste van wat oor haar bekend is, uit mondelinge geskiedenis kom. Wat uit die geskiedenis vermoed word, is dat sy omstreeks 1680 in die Gold Coast van Afrika (nou bekend as Ghana) gebore is.

Nanny is na Jamaika gebring, en saam met ander slawe ontsnap hulle uit slawe -aanplantings en soek toevlug in die berge van Jamaika, waar hulle 'n maroen gemeenskap stig. Teen 1720 het Nanny die leier geword van 'n kastanjebruin nedersetting, Nanny Town, geleë in die Blue Mountain -streek.

Due to the frequent scuffles and tension between the maroons and the British, Nanny trained her maroon warriors in the art of guerrilla warfare. It has been speculated that Nanny was from the Ashanti tribe and brought their influence, including the fact that they are a matrilineal society, to her warriors.

She was also very knowledgeable in traditional healing methods and had a vast knowledge of herbs, which led people to believe she was an obeah woman. Nanny became the military and spiritual leader for the people of Nanny Town and during a period of 30 years, she was credited with freeing more than 1000 slaves and helping them to resettle in the Maroon community.

The British fought Nanny and her maroon troops from 1728 to 1734. In 1734, British commander Stoddard destroyed Nanny Town and claimed to have killed all of the maroons residing there, but Nanny survived—and she, along with other survivors took refuge, it is believed, near the Rio Grande in Jamaica.

In 1739 Cudjoe, another maroon leader, signed a peace treaty with the British. Later, as a result of that treaty, Nanny and her maroons were granted five hundred acres of land upon which to settle, which became New Nanny Town.

She is also on the logo for the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition, so as we say at home, big ups to Nanny!

What I love most about the story of Nanny is that it shows how women have been instrumental in fighting slavery and preserving tradition in the black community. Nanny’s knowledge allowed her and the others in Nanny town to survive against the extremely well-armed British forces. Nanny is a reminder of the accomplishments of Caribbean women in fighting for their own freedom and independence, even against a superpower.

Recommended Reading:
The Mother of Us All: A History of Queen Nanny, Leader of the Windward Jamaican Maroons by Karla Gottlieb
Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas by Richard Price
The Counter-Revolution of 1776: Slave Resistance and the Origins of the United States of America by Gerald Horne
Diasporic Blackness: The Life and Times of Arturo Alfonso Schomburg by Vanessa K. Valdés
Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica (Latin America Otherwise) by Deborah A. Thomas

—The Mary Sue has a strict comment policy that forbids, but is not limited to, personal insults toward enigiemand, hate speech, and trolling.—


31 photos you’ve probably never seen, showing Harriet Tubman, Underground Railroad history

Wednesday marks Harriet Tubman Day, a day held to honor the anti-slavery activist, observed across the country each March 10.

Tubman’s name has been making the headlines this year, as President Joe Biden’s Treasury Department is studying ways to speed up the process of adding Tubman’s portrait to the front of the $20 bill, after the Trump administration allowed the Obama-era initiative to lapse.

We thought we’d look through the archives of Getty Images to see what kind of photos we could find showing Tubman and the history surrounding her name and achievements. Here are 31 of them, below.


How Did Slaves Escape?

Our most ambitious video program for the upcoming Civil War exhibition is an interactive in which the visitor takes on the identity of a slave who attempts to escape to freedom and is faced with decisions as to where to go and what to do. The purpose is to replicate a harrowing experience that was endured by many Virginians.

Boston Productions Inc., the video company that we have engaged, is filming footage of the Virginia landscape, hiring and filming actors, and developing a script. One of our jobs—the one addressed in this blog—is to provide factual information about how real slaves actually escaped.

"Slaves Entering Sally Port of Fort Monroe," Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 8, 1861 (Library of Congress)

  • Most slaves didn’t try to escape—new systems of surveillance were in place, failure could bring whipping or even death, families of successful fugitives were abused, rumors had Yankees putting fugitives in irons, sending them off to slavery in Cuba, and committing acts of the “most beastly and infamous character” against slave women.
  • Some slaves in the path of Union armies were “refugeed” to the interior, south or southwest of Richmond, so that they would not be lost by escape or capture. In the interior, chances for liberty diminished.
  • The early Confederate policy of conscripting male slaves to build fortifications along the Chesapeake Bay and near Yorktown provided an opportunity for escape—it brought African Americans near Union-held Fort Monroe and taught them the geography of the region. By 1863, some 10,000 slaves had escaped to freedom there.
  • When George McClellan’s Union army moved up the Peninsula in the spring of 1862, many slaves there seized the opportunity to escape.
  • By early 1863, most slaves east and northeast of Richmond had either been removed or had escaped. Runaways passing through the region encountered an empty landscape.
  • Slaves fled not only to Union lines but also to the woods or swamps—usually to avoid digging entrenchments—and even to the Confederate army (“the soldiers employ runaway negroes to cook for the mess, clean their horses, and so forth”).
  • Fugitives sometimes encountered patrols—local slave patrols sent out in search of them, as well as Confederate and Yankee cavalry units that crossed their paths. Some of the Union patrols—described in documents as “recruiting expedition[s in search of] all Africans, including men, women, and children”—emanated from Yorktown and Norfolk, beginning in 1863.
  • On reaching Union lines, runaways might find employment—as laborers, cooks, teamsters, washerwomen, or nurses. They might work on government-run farms situated on abandoned estates near Hampton and Norfolk. Or they might be turned away by units that had no interest in their welfare. Some Union troops in the Norfolk-Suffolk area even sold slaves back into bondage (“caught hundreds of fugitives and got pay for them”).
  • Tens of thousands of black Virginians escaped to freedom. Six thousand of them served in the Union army, beginning in 1863.

Will you want to try this interactive once it’s installed in the Civil War show? Depending on the decisions you make, the slave either reaches Union lines and (in most cases) freedom or is captured and returned to slavery.

William M. S. Rasmussen is Lead Curator and Lora M. Robins Curator at the Virginia Historical Society.


Verwysings

  • 1 Charles G. Roland, “Slavery” in the Oxford Companion to Canadian History, 585.
  • 2 Robin Winks, The Blacks in Canada: A History, second edition (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997), 9.
  • 3 Refers to “Pawnee,” an Indigenous nation which inhabited the basin of the Missouri River. Canadian Museum of History, Virtual Museum of New France, Population, Slavery (accessed 22 August 2018).
  • 4 James A. Rawley, The Translatlantic Slave Trade: A History, revised edition (Dexter, MI: Thomson-Shore Inc., 2005), 7.
  • 5 Winks, The Blacks in Canada, 53.
  • 6 Ken Alexander and Avis Glaze, Towards Freedom: The African-Canadian Experience (Toronto: Umbrella Press, 1996), 29.
  • 7 Canadian Heritage, Historic Black Communities, Black History Month (accessed 22 August 2018).
  • 8 Jim Hornby, Black Islanders: Prince Edward Island’s Historical Black Community (Charlottetown: Institute of Island Studies, 1991), 8.
  • 9 Hornby, Black Islanders, 30.

Explore Black Canadian history

The story of Africville

By Matthew McRae

If you’ve never heard of Africville, you’re not alone the tragic story of this small Black community in Nova Scotia is not as well known as it should be.

Tags for The story of Africville

Black sleeping car porters

By Travis Tomchuk

Tags for Black sleeping car porters

One woman’s resistance

Viola Desmond helped inspire Canada’s civil rights movement by refusing to give up her seat in a movie theatre. Now, she is on the $10 bill.


Ayuba Suleiman Diallo: “The Fortunate Slave”

Habeeba Husain

Lately, it feels as though the Western world paints Islam as this new phenomenon that came to the United States only recently. Immigrants from Muslim majority countries started showing their face on American soil in the last few years, right? Most definitely wrong! Muslims were here before the United States even became its own country. Through the Atlantic slave trade, many Africans were forced into this land, and we seldom hear about some of their Muslim backgrounds. In history books, slavery is mentioned as this bad thing that happened, but the humanity of these people is often overlooked just as it was in the 1700s. We need to start talking about their stories and realize these people deserve much of the credit for building this country into what it is today.

One such person is Ayuba Suleiman Diallo. He was from eastern Senegal, born to a family of religious leaders. He memorized the entire Quran, was an expert in Maliki fiqh (one of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence), and possessed an immaculate intelligence.

Despite his accomplishments and status in his homeland, he like so many others in Africa, was a victim to the Atlantic slave trade. Enemies captured him, shaved his beard (a distinguishing feature of Muslim men), and sold him to work on a tobacco plantation after his ship landed at Annapolis, Maryland in 1731.

Throughout this difficult time, Diallo upheld his daily prayers and Islamic diet. He ran from the family who owned him because praying became difficult. When the children of the family would see him pray, they threw dirt on him and mocked him. But soon after fleeing, Diallo was again captured and this time, taken to prison.

This is where Diallo met English lawyer Thomas Bluett. Diallo’s piety, literacy, intelligence, and adherence to faith impressed Bluett, who ended up befriending him. Bluett wrote about Diallo in Some Memoirs of the Life of Job:

“His Memory was extraordinary for when he was fifteen Years old he could say the whole Alcoran [Quran] by heart, and while he was here in England he wrote three Copies of it without the Assistance of any other Copy, and without so much as looking to one of those three when he wrote the others. He would often laugh at me when he heard me say I had forgot any Thing, and told me he hardly ever forgot any Thing in his Life, and wondered that any other body should.”

Diallo wrote a letter (seen below) in Arabic to send to his father, and it traveled from Annapolis to England. Eventually, this letter landed in the hands of James Oglethorpe, the founder of the Georgia colony. Oglethorpe had Diallo’s letter translated at Oxford, and like Bluett, was also very impressed by him. He was touched by the struggles presented in the letter, and he subsequently sent the amount needed to purchase Diallo’s freedom and bring him to England in 1733. Additionally, Oglethorpe arranged to have slavery banned in Georgia after reading the letter. (Not soon after Oglethorpe returned to England in 1742, however, the ban was uplifted due to the colonialist settlers’ persistence.)

During the voyage to England with Bluett, Diallo maintained his worship. He even slaughtered animals on his own in accordance to Islamic law so he could eat the meat. Within six weeks Diallo learned the English language despite being sick. After his arrival to England, he debated theology with the Christian priests and bishops, and they joined the already lengthy list of people who Diallo impressed with his intelligence, monotheism, and morality. The King and Queen soon also joined that list. With all his interactions with the country’s social elite, Diallo was inducted into the Gentleman’s Society of Spalding, a club celebrating intellectuals and academia. Diallo, after suffering through such difficulties as becoming separated from his family, sold into the slave trade, forced to work in horrid conditions, humiliated by children, and imprisoned, was finally recognized as an equal.

This is illustrated in a famous portrait of Diallo by William Hoare. Search Ayuba Suleiman Diallo’s name online, and instantly, a picture pops up—the same one I came across on my Twitter timeline. In the painting, Diallo is depicted similar to others during this time, front-facing and respectable. This portrait is the first of a freed slave in the history of British art, and arguably, it is the first painting of an African Muslim man depicted as an equal, according to Dr. Lucy Peltz.

Diallo had agreed to the portrait as long as he was shown in his traditional garb. Because the painter did not know what that clothing looked like, Diallo described it to him. What he has hanging around his neck in the painting is one of the three copies of the Quran he wrote from his memory during his time in England.

In 1734, Diallo safely returned back to his home. His father died, one of his wives remarried because she thought he passed, and his home was wrecked due to war. However, he again overcame hardship, lift himself up, and was able to live a prosperous life.

Stories like Diallo’s remind us that Black Muslims were a huge part of building the United States from the beginning. Muslims did not start coming to America in the last few decades. They were here from the start. They were an integral part of this country then, and they are integral part of this country now. By reading and discussing these historical figures, we can see their amazing resilience in the face of hardship, appreciate how their lives impact ours today, and aspire to be as strong as they were.


Josiah Henson

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Josiah Henson, (born June 15, 1789, Charles county, Maryland, U.S.—died May 5, 1883, Dresden, Ontario, Canada), American labourer and clergyman who escaped slavery in 1830 and found refuge in Canada, where he became the driving force behind the Dawn Settlement, a model community for former slaves. He was also involved in the Underground Railroad, and he served as a model for the title character in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1851–52).

Henson was born on a plantation in Maryland. From an early age, he witnessed the brutality of slavery, notably when his father tried to defend Josiah’s mother from an overseer. As punishment, his father endured 100 lashes, had an ear cut off, and was sold to another slaveowner farther south. Henson never saw or heard of his father again. Henson passed through several owners before being bought by Isaac Riley of Montgomery county, Maryland. He subsequently became a trusted overseer, and in 1825 Henson was tasked with transporting slaves to the Kentucky plantation of Riley’s brother. Although there were various opportunities to escape, Henson and the slaves arrived in Kentucky later that year. In about 1829 Isaac Riley agreed to grant Henson’s freedom in exchange for $450. Henson had already raised most of the money by preaching, but Riley later dramatically increased the fee. Soon after, Henson learned of plans to sell him, separating him from his wife and children. In 1830 the Henson family fled to Canada, receiving shelter and support at safe houses along the Underground Railroad. Once established in Canada, Henson occasionally returned to the United States, where he led other runaway slaves on the long perilous trek to freedom along the Underground Railroad. It was reported that he helped some 200 slaves.

In Canada Henson became a leader among the growing number of fugitive slaves. He was the driving force behind the establishment of the Dawn Settlement in Dresden, Ontario. Its goal was to employ and educate former slaves, and a focal point of the settlement was the British-American Institute, an industrial school. To secure financial backing for the community, Henson made a number of trips to the United States and Great Britain. In 1851 he was granted a personal audience with Queen Victoria.

Henson’s autobiography, The Life of Josiah Henson, was published in 1849 it was subsequently reprinted under a variety of titles. Stowe cited the work among her sources for Uncle Tom’s Cabin. In 1983 Henson became the first black person to be featured on a Canadian postage stamp.


Escaped Slave Before a Queen - History

F rederick Douglass lived a remarkable life. Born in 1818 on Maryland's Eastern Shore, his mother was a slave, his father an unknown white man. Eventually he was sent to Baltimore where he worked as a ship's caulker in the thriving seaport. He made his dash to freedom from there in 1838. His ability to eloquently articulate the plight of the slave through his various publications and public speeches brought him international renown. Towards the end of his life, Douglass served his country as Consul General to Haiti and Charge d'Affaires for Santo Domingo. He died in 1895.

Frederick Douglass
Douglass began his life in bondage working the fields on Maryland's Eastern Shore. At age 18, he was sent to Baltimore where he learned to caulk ships. He worked in the local shipyards earning a wage that was not given to him but to his master. His first step to freedom was to borrow the identity papers of a freed slave:

"It was the custom in the State of Maryland to require the free colored people to have what were called free papers. These instruments they were required to renew very often, and by charging a fee for this writing, considerable sums from time to time were collected by the State. In these papers the name, age, color, height, and form of the freeman were described, together with any scars or other marks upon his person which could assist in his identification. This device in some measure defeated itself-since more than one man could be found to answer the same general description. Hence many slaves could escape by personating the owner of one set of papers and this was often done as follows: A slave, nearly or sufficiently answering the description set forth in the papers, would borrow or hire them them till by means of them he could escape to a free State, and then, by mail or otherwise, would return them to the owner. The operation was a hazardous one for the lender as well as for the borrower. A failure on the part of the fugitive to send back the papers would imperil his benefactor, and the discovery of the papers in possession of the wrong man would imperil both the fugitive and his friend."

Hopping A Northbound Train

Armed with these papers, and disguised as a sailor, Douglass nervously clamors aboard a train heading North on a Monday morning:

In order to avoid this fatal scrutiny on the part of railroad officials, I arranged with Isaac Rolls, a Baltimore hackman, to bring my baggage to the Philadelphia train just on the moment of starting, and jumped upon the car myself when the train was in motion. Had I gone into the station and offered to purchase a ticket, I should have been instantly and carefully examined, and undoubtedly arrested. In choosing this plan I considered the jostle of the train, and the natural haste of the conductor, in a train crowded with passengers and relied upon my skill and address in playing the sailor, as described in my protection to do the rest. One element in my favor was the kind feeling which prevailed in Baltimore and other sea-ports at the time, toward 'those who go down to the sea in ships.' 'Free trade and sailors' rights' just then expressed the sentiment of the country. In my clothes I was rigged out in sailor style. I had on a red shirt and a tarpaulin hat, and a black cravat tied in sailor fashion carelessly and loosely about my neck. My knowledge of ships and sailor's talk came much to my assistance, for I knew a ship from stem to stem, and from keelson to cross-trees, and could talk sailor like an 'old salt.'

'I suppose you have your free papers?' To which I answered:

'No, sir I never carry my free papers to sea with me.'

'But you have something to show that you are a freeman, haven't you?'

'Yes sir,' I answered: 'I have a paper with the American eagle on it, and that will carry me around the world.'

Slave Pen, Alexandria, VA
Slaves were held here before auction.
With this I drew from my deep sailor's pocket my seaman's protection, as before described. The merest glance at the paper satisfied him, and he took my fare and went on about his business. This moment of time was one of the most anxious I ever experienced. Had the conductor looked closely at the paper, he could not have failed to discover that it called for a very different looking person from myself, and in that case it would have been his duty to arrest me on the instant and send me back to Baltimore from the first station. When he left me with the assurance that I was all right, though much relieved, I realized that I was still in great danger: I was still in Maryland, and subject to arrest at any moment. I saw on the train several persons who would have known me in any other clothes, and I feared they might recognize me, even in my sailor 'rig,' and report me to the conductor, who would then subject me to a closer examination, which I knew well would be fatal to me.

Though I was not a murderer fleeing from justice, I felt perhaps quite as miserable as such a criminal. The train was moving at a very high rate of speed for that epoch of railroad travel, but to my anxious mind it was moving far too slowly. Minutes were hours, and hours were days during this part of my flight. After Maryland, I was to pass through Delaware - another slave State, where slave-catchers generally awaited their prey, for it was not in the interior of the State, but on its borders, that these human hounds were most vigilant and active. The borderlines between slavery and freedom were the dangerous ones for the fugitives. The heart of no fox or deer, with hungry hounds on his trail in full chase, could have beaten more anxiously or noisily than did mine from the time I left Baltimore till I reached Philadelphia."

New York City and Temporary Refuge

"My free life began on the third of September, 1838. On the morning of the fourth of that month, after an anxious and most perilous but safe journey, I found myself in the big city of New York, a a free man - one more added to the mighty throng which, like the confused waves of the troubled sea, surged to and fro between the lofty walls of Broadway.

But my gladness was short-lived, for I was not yet out of the reach and power of the slave-holders."

Final Safety - New Bedford Massachusetts

Fleeing New York City, Douglass makes his way north to the sea town of New Bedford where he experiences the exhilaration of freedom:

Verwysings:
Douglass, Frederick, My Escape From Slavery, Century Magazine (1881) Douglass, Frederick, My Bondage and My Freedom (1855).


Kyk die video: De sneeuw koningin. Snow Queen in Dutch. 4K UHD. Dutch Fairy Tales