Chinese godsdiens: 'n lesing

Chinese godsdiens: 'n lesing


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Die video is dus 'n kort lesing oor die godsdienste van antieke China.


Chinese tradisionele godsdiens

Chinese godsdiens is nie 'n georganiseerde, verenigde stelsel van oortuigings en praktyke nie. Dit het geen leierskap, hoofkwartier, stigter of denominasies nie. In plaas daarvan is "Chinese godsdiens" 'n term wat die komplekse interaksie van verskillende godsdienstige en filosofiese tradisies beskryf wat in China van invloed was.

Chinese godsdiens bestaan ​​uit vier hooftradisies: Chinese volksgodsdiens, Confucianisme, Taoïsme en Boeddhisme. Die godsdienstige uitkyk van die meeste Chinese mense bestaan ​​uit 'n kombinasie van oortuigings en praktyke uit hierdie vier tradisies. Dit is selde dat slegs een tot die uitsluiting van die ander geoefen word. Hierdie afdeling fokus op Chinese volks- of inheemse godsdiens, maar daar word ook verwys na die ander tradisies.


Inhoud

Han -dinastie (206 BCE – 220 CE) Edit

Verskeie legendes vertel van die teenwoordigheid van Boeddhisme in Chinese bodem in baie antieke tye. Hoewel die wetenskaplike konsensus is dat Boeddhisme in die eerste eeu nC tydens die Han -dinastie vir die eerste keer na China gekom het, deur sendelinge uit Indië [2], is dit nie presies bekend wanneer Boeddhisme China binnegekom het nie.

Generasies geleerdes het gedebatteer of Boeddhistiese sendelinge Han China eers bereik het via die maritieme of oorlandse roetes van die Silk Road. Die maritieme roete -hipotese, bevoordeel deur Liang Qichao en Paul Pelliot, het voorgestel dat Boeddhisme oorspronklik in die suide van China, die Yangtze -rivier en die Huai -rivier beoefen word. Aan die ander kant moes dit in die loop van die eerste eeu nC vanuit die noordweste via die Gansu -gang na die Geelrivierbekken en die Noord -Chinese vlakte gekom het. Die toneel word duideliker vanaf die middel van die tweede eeu, toe die eerste bekende sendelinge met hul vertaalaktiwiteite in die hoofstad Luoyang begin het. Die Boek van die latere Han teken op dat prins Liu Ying van Chu (vandag Jiangsu) in 65 nC "verheug was oor die praktyke van Huang-Lao Daoïsme" en dat beide Boeddhistiese monnike en leke by sy hof was wat die Boeddhistiese seremonies gelei het. [3] Die hipotese oor die land, wat Tang Yongtong bevoordeel, het voorgestel dat Boeddhisme deur Sentraal -Asië versprei word - veral die Kushan -ryk, wat in ou Chinese bronne dikwels bekend was as Da Yuezhi ("Groot Yuezhi"), na die stigterstam. Volgens hierdie hipotese is Boeddhisme die eerste keer in China in die Westelike Streke en die Han -hoofstad Luoyang (vandag Henan) beoefen, waar keiser Ming van Han die Tuin van die Wit Perd in 68 nC opgerig het.

In 2004 het Rong Xinjiang, 'n professor in geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Peking, die oorlandse en maritieme hipoteses ondersoek deur 'n multidissiplinêre oorsig van onlangse ontdekkings en navorsing, insluitend die Gandhāran Boeddhistiese tekste, en tot die gevolgtrekking gekom:

Die standpunt dat Boeddhisme deur die seeroete na China oorgedra is, het nie oortuigende en ondersteunende materiaal nie, en sommige argumente is nie voldoende streng nie. Op grond van die bestaande historiese tekste en die argeologiese ikonografiese materiaal wat sedert die tagtigerjare ontdek is, veral die eerste-eeuse Boeddhistiese manuskripte wat onlangs in Afghanistan gevind is, meen die kommentator dat die mees aanneemlike teorie is dat Boeddhisme China van die Groter Yuezhi van Noordwes-Indië bereik het en geneem het die landroete om Han China te bereik. Nadat hy China binnegekom het, het die Boeddhisme vermeng met die vroeë Daoïsme en die Chinese tradisionele esoteriese kunste, en die ikonografie daarvan het blinde aanbidding ontvang. [4]

Die Franse sinoloog Henri Maspero sê dat dit 'n 'baie eienaardige feit' is dat Daoïsme en Boeddhisme gedurende die hele Han -dinastie 'voortdurend deurmekaar was en as 'n enkele godsdiens verskyn'. [5] 'n Eeu nadat prins Liu Ying se hof beide Daoïste en Boeddhiste ondersteun het, het keiser Huan van Han in 166 offers gebring aan die Boeddha en offers aan die Huang-Lao-gode Yellow Emperor en Laozi. [6] Die eerste Chinese verskoning vir Boeddhisme, 'n laat 2de-eeuse leek met die naam Mouzi, het gesê dat hy deur daoïsme gelei is tot Boeddhisme-wat hy noem dàdào (大道, die "Groot Dao").

Ek, toe ek nog nie die Groot Weg (Boeddhisme) verstaan ​​het nie, het Taoïstiese praktyke bestudeer. Honderde en duisende resepte is daar vir langlewendheid deur onthouding van graan. Ek het dit beoefen, maar sonder sukses het ek dit sien gebruik, maar sonder resultaat. Daarom het ek hulle verlaat. [6]

Die vroeë Chinese Boeddhisme was verenig en vermeng met Daoïsme, en dit was binne Daoistiese kringe dat dit sy eerste vaardighede gevind het. Spore is duidelik sigbaar in Chinese vertalings van die Boeddhistiese geskrifte in die Han -periode, wat skaars onderskei het tussen Boeddhistiese nirvana en Daoïstiese onsterflikheid. Wuwei, die Daoïstiese konsep van nie-inmenging, was die normale term vir die vertaling van Sanskrit nirvana, wat getranskribeer word as nièpán (涅槃) in moderne Chinese gebruik. [7]

Tradisionele rekeninge Wysig

'N Aantal gewilde verslae in historiese Chinese literatuur het gelei tot die gewildheid van sekere legendes oor die bekendstelling van Boeddhisme in China. Volgens die gewildste het keiser Ming van Han (28–75 nC) die bekendstelling van Boeddhistiese leerstellings in China laat val. Die (vroeë 3de tot vroeë 5de eeu) Mouzi Lihuolun teken eers hierdie legende op:

In die ou tyd het keiser Ming in 'n droom 'n god gesien wie se liggaam die glans van die son gehad het en wat voor sy paleis gevlieg het, en hy was baie bly hieroor. Die volgende dag vra hy sy amptenare: "Watter god is hierdie?" die geleerde Fu Yi het gesê: "U onderwerp het gehoor dit het gesê dat daar in Indië iemand is wat die Dao bereik het en wat genoem word Boeddha, hy vlieg in die lug, sy liggaam het die glans van die son gehad, dit moet die god wees." [8]

Die keiser stuur toe 'n gesant na Tianzhu (Suid -Indië) om navraag te doen oor die leer van die Boeddha. [9] Daar word gesê dat Boeddhistiese geskrifte op die rug van wit perde na China teruggestuur is, waarna White Horse Temple vernoem is. Twee Indiese monnike het ook saam met hulle teruggekeer, met die naam Dharmaratna en Kaśyapa Mātaṅga.

'N Chinese fresco uit die 8de eeu by Mogao-grotte naby Dunhuang in Gansu beeld keiser Wu van Han uit (141–87 v.C.) wat standbeelde aanbid van 'n goue man "goue manne wat in 121 vC deur 'n groot Han-generaal ingebring is in sy veldtogte teen die nomades ". Maar ook nie die Shiji ook nie Boek van Han geskiedenis van keiser Wu noem 'n goue Boeddhistiese standbeeld (vergelyk keiser Ming).

Die eerste vertalings Edit

Die eerste gedokumenteerde vertaling van Boeddhistiese geskrifte uit verskillende Indiese tale na Chinees vind plaas in 148 nC met die koms van die Parthiaanse prins-monnik An Shigao (Ch. 安世高). Hy werk daaraan om Boeddhistiese tempels in Luoyang te vestig en organiseer die vertaling van Boeddhistiese geskrifte in Chinees, wat getuig van die begin van 'n golf van Sentraal -Asiatiese Boeddhistiese proselitisme wat 'n paar eeue sou duur. 'N Shigao vertaal Boeddhistiese tekste oor basiese leerstellings, meditasie en abhidharma. 'N Xuan (Ch. 安 玄), 'n Partiese leek wat saam met An Shigao gewerk het, vertaal ook 'n vroeë Mahāyāna Boeddhistiese teks op die bodhisattva -pad.

Die Mahāyāna -boeddhisme is die eerste keer wyd in China gepropageer deur die Kushan -monnik Lokakṣema (Ch. 支 婁 迦 讖, aktief ongeveer 164–186 nC), wat afkomstig was uit die ou Boeddhistiese koninkryk Gandhāra. Lokakṣema vertaal belangrike Mahāyāna -sūtras soos die Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtrasowel as seldsame, vroeë Mahāyāna -sūtras oor onderwerpe soos samādhi en meditasie oor die Boeddha Akṣobhya. Hierdie vertalings uit Lokakṣema gee steeds insig in die vroeë tydperk van Mahāyāna Boeddhisme. Hierdie korpus van tekste bevat dikwels klem op asketiese praktyke en boswoning, en absorpsie in toestande van meditatiewe konsentrasie: [10]

Paul Harrison het gewerk aan sommige van die tekste wat waarskynlik die vroegste weergawes is van die Mahāyāna sūtras, dié wat in die laaste helfte van die tweede eeu nC vertaal is deur die Indo-Skytiese vertaler Lokakṣema. Harrison wys op die entoesiasme in die Lokakṣema sūtra corpus vir die ekstra asketiese praktyke, om in die bos te woon en veral vir toestande van meditatiewe absorpsie (samādhi). Meditasie en meditatiewe state het blykbaar 'n sentrale plek in die vroeë Mahāyāna beklee, beslis vanweë hul geestelike doeltreffendheid, maar ook omdat hulle moontlik toegang tot nuwe onthullings en inspirasie verleen het.

Vroeë Boeddhistiese skole Redigeer

Gedurende die vroeë periode van die Chinese Boeddhisme was die Indiese vroeë Boeddhistiese skole wat as belangrik beskou is, en waarvan die tekste bestudeer is, die Dharmaguptakas, Mahīśāsakas, Kāśyapīyas, Sarvāstivādins en die Mahāsāṃghikas. [12]

Die Dharmaguptakas het meer pogings aangewend as enige ander sekte om Boeddhisme buite Indië na gebiede soos Afghanistan, Sentraal -Asië en China te versprei, en hulle het groot sukses behaal. [13] Daarom het die meeste lande wat Boeddhisme uit China aangeneem het, ook die Dharmaguptaka vinaya- en ordinasie -afstamming vir bhikṣus en bhikṣuṇīs aangeneem. Volgens A.K. Bewaarder, op sommige maniere in die Oos -Asiatiese lande, kan die Dharmaguptaka -sekte beskou word as tot op hede. [14] Warder skryf verder dat die Dharmaguptakas toegeskryf kan word aan die effektiewe vestiging van die Chinese Boeddhisme gedurende die vroeë tydperk: [15]

Dit was die Dharmaguptakas wat die eerste Boeddhiste was wat hulself in Sentraal -Asië gevestig het. Dit lyk asof hulle 'n groot sirkelbeweging langs die handelsroetes van Aparānta noordwes na Iran en terselfdertyd na Oḍḍiyāna (die Suvastu-vallei, noord van Gandhāra, wat een van hul belangrikste sentrums geword het) uitgevoer het. Nadat hulle hul tot so ver wes as Parthia gevestig het, volg hulle die "syroete", die oos-wes-as van Asië, ooswaarts oor Sentraal-Asië en verder na China, waar hulle Boeddhisme in die tweede en derde eeu nC effektief gevestig het. Die Mahīśāsakas en Kāśyapīyas verskyn om hulle deur Asië tot in China te volg. [. ] Vir die vroeëre tydperk van die Chinese Boeddhisme was dit die Dharmaguptakas wat die belangrikste en invloedrykste skool was, en selfs later hul Vinaya die basis van die dissipline daar gebly.

Ses dinastieë (220–589) Redigeer

Vroeë vertaalmetodes Redigeer

Aanvanklik het Boeddhisme in China 'n aantal probleme ondervind om gevestig te word. Die konsep van monastiek en die afkeer van sosiale aangeleenthede weerspreek die ou norme en standaarde wat in die Chinese samelewing vasgestel is, in stryd. Sommige het selfs verklaar dat Boeddhisme skadelik was vir die gesag van die staat, dat Boeddhistiese kloosters niks bygedra het tot die ekonomiese welvaart van China nie, dat Boeddhisme barbaars was en die Chinese kulturele tradisies nie verdien nie. [16] Boeddhisme was egter dikwels geassosieer met Taoïsme in sy asketiese meditatiewe tradisie, en daarom het sommige vroeë Indiese vertalers 'n konsep-ooreenstemmende stelsel gebruik om inheemse Boeddhistiese idees aan te pas by Daoïstiese idees en terminologie. [17] [18]

Boeddhisme het 'n beroep op Chinese intellektuele en elites gedoen, en die ontwikkeling van boedisme was 'n alternatief vir Confucianisme en Daoïsme, aangesien die klem van Boeddhisme op moraliteit en ritueel 'n beroep op Confucianiste gehad het en die begeerte om innerlike wysheid te kweek, 'n beroep op Daoïste gehad het. Heidense Boeddhisme was 'n inleiding tot die begin van Boeddhisme in China, dit het keiserlike en hoflike steun gekry. Teen die vroeë 5de eeu is Boeddhisme in Suid -China gevestig. [19] Gedurende hierdie tyd het Indiese monnike voortgegaan om langs die sypad te reis om Boeddhisme te onderrig, en vertaalwerk is hoofsaaklik deur buitelandse monnike eerder as Chinese gedoen.

Die koms van Kumārajīva (334–413 CE) Redigeer

Toe die beroemde monnik Kumārajīva gevange geneem word tydens die Chinese verowering van die Boeddhistiese koninkryk Kucha, was hy jare lank in die tronk. Toe hy in 401 nC vrygelaat word, neem hy onmiddellik 'n hoë plek in die Chinese Boeddhisme in en word hy as 'n groot meester uit die Weste beoordeel. Hy is veral waardeer deur keiser Yao Xing van die staat Later Qin, wat hom 'n eretitel gegee het en hom soos 'n god behandel het. Kumārajīva het 'n omwenteling in die Chinese Boeddhisme gemaak met sy hoë kwaliteit vertalings (van 402–413 nC), wat steeds geprys word vir hul vloeiende gladheid, betekenishelderheid, subtiliteit en literêre vaardigheid. As gevolg van die pogings van Kumārajīva, word Boeddhisme in China nie net erken vir sy praktykmetodes nie, maar ook as hoë filosofie en godsdiens. Die koms van Kumārajīva het ook 'n standaard gestel vir Chinese vertalings van Boeddhistiese tekste, wat die vorige konsep-ooreenstemmende stelsels effektief weggedoen het.

Die vertalings van Kumārajīva het dikwels meer gewild gebly as dié van ander vertalers. Onder die bekendste is sy vertalings van die Diamant Sutra, die Amitabha Sutra, die Lotus Sutra, die Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra, die Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, en die Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra.

'N Voltooide Sūtra Piṭaka Edit

Rondom die tyd van Kumārajīva is die vier groot Sanskrit -āgamas ook in Chinees vertaal. Elkeen van die āgamas is onafhanklik vertaal deur 'n ander Indiese monnik. Hierdie āgamas vorm die enigste ander volledige Sūtra Piṭaka wat nog oorleef het, wat oor die algemeen vergelykbaar is met die Pali Sutta Pitaka van Theravada Boeddhisme. Die leer van die Sūtra Piṭaka word gewoonlik beskou as een van die vroegste leerstellings oor Boeddhisme en 'n kernteks van die vroeë Boeddhistiese skole in China. Dit is opmerklik dat hierdie āgama voor die moderne tyd selde as ooit deur Boeddhistiese gemeenskappe gebruik is, vanweë hul Hīnayāna -toekenning, aangesien Chinese Boeddhisme alreeds met opset Mahāyāna in oortuiging was.

Vroeë Chinese Boeddhistiese tradisies Wysig

As gevolg van die groot verspreiding van Boeddhistiese tekste wat in Chinees beskikbaar was en die groot aantal buitelandse monnike wat Boeddhisme in China kom leer het, net soos nuwe takke wat uit 'n hoofboomstam groei, het verskillende spesifieke fokustradisies ontstaan. Een van die invloedrykste hiervan was die beoefening van suiwer land -boeddhisme wat deur Hui Yuan ingestel is, wat fokus op Amitābha Boeddha en sy suiwer westelike Sukhāvatī. Ander vroeë tradisies was die Tiantai, Huayan en die Vinaya -skool. [20] Sulke skole was gebaseer op die voorrang van die Lotus Sūtra, die Avataṃsaka Sūtra, en die Dharmaguptaka Vinayaonderskeidelik, saam met aanvullende sūtras en kommentare. Die stigter van Tiantai, Zhiyi, het verskeie werke geskryf wat belangrike en wyd geleesde meditasiehandleidings in China geword het, soos die 'Concise samatha-vipasyana' en 'Great Samatha-vipasyana'.

Die daaglikse lewe van nonne Redigeer

'N Belangrike aspek van 'n non was die praktyk van 'n vegetariër, aangesien dit baie sterk beklemtoon is in die Boeddhistiese godsdiens om geen lewende wesens te benadeel om dit te eet nie. Daar was ook 'n paar nonne wat nie gereeld geëet het nie, as 'n poging om te vas. 'N Ander dieet van die nonne was die gebruik daarvan om geurige olie of wierook te gebruik as 'n' voorbereiding vir selfverbranding deur vuur '. [21]

Sommige daaglikse aktiwiteite van nonne sluit in die lees, memorisering en voordrag van Boeddhistiese geskrifte en godsdienstige teks. 'N Ander is meditasie, aangesien dit beskou word as die' hart van die Boeddhistiese kloosterlewe '. Daar is biograwe wat verduidelik dat wanneer nonne mediteer, hulle 'n toestand betree waar hul liggaam hard, styf en klipagtig word, waar hulle dikwels as leweloos beskou word. [22]

Suidelike en Noordelike Dinastieë (420–589) en Sui -dinastie (589–618 nC)

Chán: wys direk na die verstand Edit

In die 5de eeu het die leer van Chán (Zen) in China begin, tradisioneel toegeskryf aan die Boeddhistiese monnik Bodhidharma, 'n legendariese figuur. [nota 1] Die skool het die beginsels in die Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, 'n sūtra wat die leer van Yogācāra en die van Tathāgatagarbha gebruik, en wat die Een Voertuig (Skt. Ekayāna) tot boeddhahood leer. In die beginjare is derhalwe na die leerstellings van Chán verwys as die 'Een voertuigskool'. [34] Die vroegste meesters van die Chán -skool is 'Laṅkāvatāra Masters' genoem, vanweë hul bemeestering van die praktyk volgens die beginsels van die Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.

Die belangrikste leerstellings van Chán was later dikwels bekend vir die gebruik van sogenaamde stories teëkom en koans, en die onderrigmetodes wat daarin gebruik word. Nan Huai-Chin identifiseer die Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra en die Diamond Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) as die belangrikste tekste van die Chán -skool, en die beginsels bondig saamvat:

Die Zen -lering was 'n aparte oordrag buite die skriftuurlike leerstellings wat geen geskrewe tekste as heilig beskou het nie. Zen wys direk op die menslike verstand om mense in staat te stel om hul werklike aard te sien en Boeddha's te word. [35]

Tang -dinastie (618–907 CE) Redigeer

Xuanzang se reis na die weste Redigeer

Gedurende die vroeë Tang -dinastie, tussen 629 en 645, het die monnik Xuanzang na Indië gereis en meer as honderd koninkryke besoek, en uitgebreide en gedetailleerde verslae van sy bevindings geskryf, wat daarna belangrik geword het vir die studie van Indië gedurende hierdie tydperk. Tydens sy reise het hy heilige plekke besoek, die kennis van sy geloof geleer en by baie beroemde Boeddhistiese meesters gestudeer, veral in die beroemde sentrum van Boeddhistiese leer aan die Nālanda Universiteit. Toe hy terugkom, het hy ongeveer 657 Sanskrit -tekste saamgebring. Xuanzang het ook teruggekeer met oorblyfsels, standbeelde en Boeddhistiese toebehore wat op twee en twintig perde gelaai is. [36] Met die steun van die keiser, stig hy 'n groot vertaalburo in Chang'an (die huidige Xi'an), wat studente en medewerkers uit die hele Oos-Asië lok. Hy word toegeskryf aan die vertaling van ongeveer 1 330 skrifgedeeltes in Chinees. Sy sterkste persoonlike belangstelling in Boeddhisme was op die gebied van Yogācāra, oftewel "slegs bewussyn".

Die krag van sy eie studie, vertaling en kommentaar op die tekste van hierdie tradisies het begin met die ontwikkeling van die Faxiang -skool in Oos -Asië. Alhoewel die skool self nie lank gedy het nie, het sy teorieë oor persepsie, bewussyn, karma, wedergeboorte, ens. Hul weg gevind in die leerstellings van ander meer suksesvolle skole. Xuanzang se naaste en mees prominente student was Kuiji, wat erken word as die eerste aartsvader van die Faxiang -skool. Xuanzang se logika, soos beskryf deur Kuiji, is dikwels verkeerd verstaan ​​deur geleerdes van die Chinese Boeddhisme omdat hulle nie die nodige agtergrond in die Indiese logika het nie. [37] 'n Ander belangrike dissipel was die Koreaanse monnik Woncheuk.

Die vertalings van Xuanzang was veral belangrik vir die oordrag van Indiese tekste wat verband hou met die Yogācāra -skool. Hy vertaal sentrale Yogācāra -tekste soos die Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra en die Yogācārabhūmi Śāstra, asook belangrike tekste soos die Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra en die Bhaiṣajyaguruvaidūryaprabharāja Sūtra (Medicine Buddha Sūtra). Hy word toegeskryf aan die skryf of opstel van die Cheng Weishi Lun (Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi Śāstra), soos saamgestel uit verskeie kommentare op Vasubandhu's Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā. Sy vertaling van die Hart Sūtra geword en bly die standaard in alle Oos -Asiatiese Boeddhistiese sektes. Die verspreiding van hierdie tekste het die Chinese Boeddhistiese kanon aansienlik uitgebrei met hoë kwaliteit vertalings van sommige van die belangrikste Indiese Boeddhistiese tekste.

Grotte, kuns en tegnologie Redigeer

Die gewildheid van Boeddhisme in hierdie tydperk blyk duidelik uit die vele grotte en strukture wat uit hierdie tydperk oorleef het. Die Mogao -grotte naby Dunhuang in die provinsie Gansu, die Longmen -grotte naby Luoyang in Henan en die Yungang -grotte naby Datong in Shanxi is die bekendste voorbeelde uit die noordelike Wei-, Sui- en Tang -dinastieë. Die Leshan Giant Buddha, wat tydens die Tang -dinastie in die 8ste eeu uit 'n heuwel gekerf is en op die samevloeiing van drie riviere kyk, is steeds die grootste Boeddhabeeld in die wêreld.

By die Longmen-grotkompleks het Wu Zetian (r. 690-705) –– 'n noemenswaardige voorstander van Boeddhisme tydens die Tang-dinastie (regeer as Zhou)-reëlmatige klipbeelde van Vaircōcana Buddha met Bodhisattvas gerig. [38] [39] As die eerste selfsittende vroulike keiser het hierdie beeldhouwerke verskeie doeleindes gedien, insluitend die projeksie van Boeddhistiese idees wat haar magsmag sou bevestig. [38]

Monnike en vrome leke versprei Boeddhistiese konsepte deur middel van storievertelling en prediking vanuit sutra-tekste. Hierdie mondelinge aanbiedings is opgeteken as bianwen (transformasieverhale) wat die skryf van fiksie beïnvloed het deur hul nuwe maniere om stories te vertel wat prosa en poësie kombineer. Gewilde legendes in hierdie styl sluit in Mulian Rescues His Mother, waarin 'n monnik in die hel neerdaal in 'n vertoning van vroomheid.

Dit word beskou as 'n verdienstelike karma om dubbele Boeddhistiese tekste te maak. Drukwerk van individueel gekerfde houtblokke en van klei of metaal beweegbare tipe was baie doeltreffender as met die hand kopieer, en het dit uiteindelik verduister. Die Diamond Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) van 868 CE, 'n Boeddhistiese skrif wat in 1907 in die Mogao -grotte ontdek is, is die eerste gedateerde voorbeeld van blokdruk. [40]

Aankoms van Esoteriese Boeddhisme Redigeer

Die drie groot verligte meesters van die Kaiyuan, Śubhakarasiṃha, Vajrabodhi en Amoghavajra, vestig die esoteriese boeddhisme in China van 716 tot 720 nC tydens die bewind van keiser Xuanzong. Hulle kom na Daxing Shansi (大興 善 寺, Groot voortplantende goedheidstempel), wat die voorganger van die Temple of the Great Enlightener Mahavairocana was. Daxing Shansi is gestig in die ou hoofstad Chang'an, vandag se Xi'an, en het een van die vier groot sentrums geword van die vertaling van die Skrif wat deur die keiserlike hof ondersteun word. Hulle het baie Boeddhistiese geskrifte, sutra en tantra, van Sanskrit na Chinees vertaal. Hulle het ook die heersende leerstellings van China geassimileer: Daoïsme en Confucianisme, met Boeddhisme, en het die praktyk van die Chinese Esoteriese Boeddhistiese tradisie verder ontwikkel.

Hulle het 'n geheimsinnige, dinamiese en magiese leer aan die Chinese gebring, wat mantraformule en gedetailleerde rituele insluit om 'n persoon of 'n ryk te beskerm, om die lot van 'n persoon na die dood te beïnvloed, en veral gewild om reën te bring in tye van droogte. Dit is dus nie verbasend dat al drie meesters goed ontvang is deur die keiser Tang Xuanzong nie, en hulle leerstellings is vinnig opgeneem by die Tang -hof en onder die elite. Mantrayana -altare is in tempels in die hoofstad geïnstalleer, en teen die tyd van keiser Tang Daizong (r. 762–779) oortref die invloed daarvan onder die hoër klasse dié van Daoïsme. Verhoudings tussen Amoghavajra en Daizong was egter veral goed. In die lewe begunstig die keiser Amoghavajra met titels en geskenke, en toe die meester in 774 sterf, vereer hy sy nagedagtenis met 'n stupa of begrafnismonument. Meester Huiguo, 'n leerling van Amoghavajra, het 'n paar esoteriese Boeddhistiese leerstellings aan Kūkai oorgedra, een van die vele Japannese monnike wat na Tang China gekom het om Boeddhisme te bestudeer, insluitend die Mandala van die twee ryke, die baarmoederyk en die diamantryk. Meester Kukai is terug na Japan om die Japanese Esoteriese boeddhisme -skool te stig, later bekend as Shingon -boeddhisme. Die Esoteriese Boeddhistiese geslagte wat na Japan oorgedra is onder die vaandel van die monnike Kūkai en Saicho, het later die leerstellings geformuleer om die Shingon -sekte en die Tendai -sekte te skep.

Anders as in Japan, word Esoteriese Boeddhisme in China nie as 'n aparte en afsonderlike 'skool' van Boeddhisme beskou nie, maar eerder verstaan ​​as 'n stel gepaardgaande praktyke en leerstellings wat saam met die ander Chinese Boeddhistiese tradisies soos Chan geïntegreer kan word. [41]

Onderdrukking van Tang -staat van 845 Wysig

Teenstand teen Boeddhisme het mettertyd gedurende die Tang-dinastie opgehoop, wat saamgesmelt het in die Groot Anti-Boeddhistiese vervolging onder keiser Tang Wuzong.

Daar was verskeie komponente wat gelei het tot die opposisie van Boeddhisme. Een faktor is die buitelandse oorsprong van Boeddhisme, anders as Taoïsme en Confucianisme. Han Yu het geskryf, "Boeddha was 'n man van die barbare wat nie die taal van China praat nie en ander klere gedra het. Sy uitsprake het nie betrekking gehad op die weë van ons ou konings nie, en sy kleredrag was nie in ooreenstemming met hul wette nie. Hy het nie verstaan ​​nie die pligte wat soewerein en onderwerp is, en ook nie die liefde van vader en seun nie. "

Ander komponente sluit in die onttrekking van die Boeddhiste uit die samelewing, aangesien die Chinese geglo het dat Chinese mense betrokke moet wees by die gesinslewe. Rykdom, belastingvrystellingstatus en mag van die Boeddhistiese tempels en kloosters het ook baie kritici geïrriteer. [45]

Soos vroeër genoem, het vervolging gekom tydens die bewind van keiser Wuzong in die Tang -dinastie. Daar word gesê dat Wuzong die gesig van Boeddhistiese monnike, wat volgens hom belastingontduikers was, haat. In 845 beveel hy die vernietiging van 4600 Boeddhistiese kloosters en 40 000 tempels. Meer as 400 000 Boeddhistiese monnike en nonne het toe boere geword wat aanspreeklik was vir die twee belasting (graan en lap). [46] Wuzong noem dat Boeddhisme 'n uitheemse godsdiens is, en daarom het hy ook die Christene in China vervolg. David Graeber voer aan dat Boeddhistiese instellings soveel edelmetale opgebou het wat die regering nodig gehad het om die geldvoorraad te beveilig. [47]

Tydperk van vyf dinastieë en tien koninkryke (907–960/979) Wysig

Die periode van die vyf dinastieë en tien koninkryke (五代 十 国 五代 十 國 Wǔdài Shíguó ) was 'n era van politieke omwenteling in China, tussen die val van die Tang -dinastie en die stigting van die Song -dinastie. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het vyf dinastieë mekaar vinnig in die noorde opgevolg, en meer as 12 onafhanklike state is gestig, hoofsaaklik in die suide. Slegs tien word egter tradisioneel gelys, vandaar die naam van die era, "Tien koninkryke". Sommige historici, soos Bo Yang, tel elf, waaronder Yan en Qi, maar nie Noord -Han nie, en beskou dit bloot as 'n voortsetting van Later Han. Hierdie era het ook gelei tot die stigting van die Liao -dinastie.

Na die val van die Tang -dinastie was China gedurende die vyf dinastieë en tien koninkryke sonder effektiewe sentrale beheer. China was verdeel in verskeie outonome streke. Ondersteuning vir Boeddhisme was beperk tot 'n paar gebiede. Die skole Hua-yen en T'ien-t'ai het gebuk gegaan onder die veranderende omstandighede, aangesien dit van keiserlike steun afhanklik was. Die ineenstorting van die T'ang -samelewing het ook die aristokratiese klasse van rykdom en invloed ontneem, wat 'n verdere nadeel vir Boeddhisme beteken het. Shenxiu se Northern Chán School en Henshui's Southern Chán School het die veranderende omstandighede nie oorleef nie. Nietemin het Chán as die dominante stroom in die Chinese Boeddhisme na vore getree, maar met verskillende skole het verskillende klempunte in hul leerstellings ontwikkel as gevolg van die streeksoriëntasie van die tydperk. Die Fayan-skool, vernoem na Fa-yen Wen-i (885–958), word die dominante skool in die suidelike koninkryke Nan-T'ang (Jiangxi, Chiang-hsi) en Wuyue (Che-chiang). [48]

Song -dinastie (960–1279) Redigeer

Die Song -dinastie is verdeel in twee verskillende periodes: die Northern Song en Southern Song. Tydens die Northern Song (北宋, 960–1127) was die Song -hoofstad in die noordelike stad Bianjing (nou Kaifeng) en die dinastie beheer die grootste deel van die binneste China. Die Southern Song (南宋, 1127–1279) verwys na die tydperk nadat die Song beheer oor die noorde van China aan die Jin -dinastie verloor het. Gedurende hierdie tyd het die Song -hof suid van die Yangtze -rivier teruggetrek en hul hoofstad in Lin'an (nou Hangzhou) gevestig. Hoewel die Song -dinastie beheer oor die tradisionele geboorteplek van die Chinese beskawing langs die Geelrivier verloor het, was die Song -ekonomie nie in puin nie, aangesien die Suidelike Song -ryk 60 persent van die bevolking van China en 'n meerderheid van die produktiefste landbougrond bevat. [49]

Tydens die Song -dinastie is Chán (禪) deur die regering gebruik om sy beheer oor die land te versterk, en Chán het die grootste sekte in die Chinese Boeddhisme geword. 'N Ideale prentjie van die Chán van die Tang -tydperk is geproduseer, wat die erfenis van hierdie nuut verworwe status gedien het. [50]

In die vroeë Song-dinastie het "Chán-Pure Land syncretism 'n dominante beweging geword." [51] Boeddhistiese ideologie het begin saamsmelt met Confucianisme en Daoïsme, deels as gevolg van die gebruik van bestaande Chinese filosofiese terme in die vertaling van Boeddhistiese geskrifte. Verskeie konfuciaanse geleerdes van die Song-dinastie, waaronder Zhu Xi (wg: Chu Hsi), wou Confucianisme herdefinieer as Neo-Confucianisme.

Tydens die Song -dinastie, in 1021 nC, word aangeteken dat daar 458 855 Boeddhistiese monnike en nonne aktief in kloosters gewoon het. [46] Die totale aantal monnike was 397,615, terwyl die totale aantal nonne as 61,240 aangeteken is. [46]

Mongoolse Yuan -bewind (1279–1368) Redigeer

Tydens die Mongoolse Yuan -oorheersing het die Mongoolse keisers Esoteriese Boeddhisme 'n amptelike godsdiens van hul ryk gemaak, waarvan China deel was, en Tibetaanse lama's het die hof beskerm. [52] 'n Algemene opvatting was dat hierdie beskerming van lamas veroorsaak dat korrupte vorme van tantra wydverspreid geword het. [52] Toe die Mongoolse Yuan -dinastie omvergewerp word en die Ming -dinastie tot stand gekom het, is die Tibetaanse lama's uit die hof gesit, en hierdie vorm van Boeddhisme is veroordeel as 'n ortodokse weg. [52]

Ming -dinastie (1368–1644) Redigeer

Tydens die Ming -dinastie het die verskillende Chinese Boeddhistiese tradisies, soos Chan, Tiantai, Pure Land en Chinese Esoteriese Boeddhisme, in 'n groter mate as voorheen saamgesmelt. Volgens Weinstein, deur die Ming -dinastie, was die Chan -skool so stewig gevestig dat alle monnike by die Linji -skool of die Caodong -skool verbonde was. [53]

Eminent Monks Edit

Tydens die Ming -dinastie was Hanshan Deqing een van die groot hervormers van die Chinese Boeddhisme. [54] Soos baie van sy tydgenote, bepleit hy die dubbele praktyk van die Chán- en Suiwer Land -metodes, en pleit hy vir die gebruik van die nianfo ("Mindfulness of the Buddha") tegniek om die gees te suiwer vir die bereiking van selfverwesenliking. [54] Hy het ook praktisyns gerig op die gebruik van mantras sowel as die lees van die skrif. Hy was ook bekend as dosent en kommentator en bewonder vir sy streng nakoming van die voorskrifte. [54]

Volgens Jiang Wu, vir Chan-meesters in hierdie tydperk, soos Hanshan Deqing, is opleiding deur selfkweek aangemoedig en is clichéistiese of formule-instruksies geminag. [55] Bekende monnike wat meditasie en asketisme beoefen het sonder behoorlike Dharma -oordrag, word bekroon omdat hulle 'wysheid sonder 'n leraar' opgedoen het. [55]

Vooraanstaande nonne wysig

Tydens die Ming -dinastie kon vroue van verskillende ouderdomme die kloosterlewe betree van so jonk as vyf of ses jaar oud tot sewentig jaar oud. [56] Daar was verskillende redes waarom 'n Ming -vrou die godsdienstige lewe betree het om 'n non te word. Sommige vroue het siek geword en geglo dat hulle in die godsdienstige lewe hul lyding kon verlig. [57] Daar was ander vroue wat weduwee geword het weens die dood van haar man of verloof was, sodat hulle uit eie keuse gekies het om by 'n klooster aan te sluit. [58] Baie vroue wat weduwee agtergelaat is, is finansieel geraak, aangesien hulle gereeld hul skoonfamilie moes onderhou, en daarom was dit nie 'n slegte opsie om by 'n klooster aan te sluit nie. By devoting themselves to religion, they received less social criticism from society because during the Ming time women were expected to remain faithful to their husband. An example of this is Xia Shuji. Xia's husband Hou Xun, (1591-1645), had led a resistance in Jiading which arrested the Qing troops who later on beheaded him. [59] Xia Shuji who secluded herself from the outside life to devote herself to religion and took on the religious name of Shengyin. [60]

During the time of late Ming, a period of social upheaval, the monastery or convent provided shelter for these women who no longer had protection from a male in their family: husband, son or father due to death, financial constraint and other situations. [56] However, in most circumstances, a woman who wanted to join a nunnery was because they wanted to escape a marriage or they felt isolated as her husband has died- she also had to overcome many difficulties that arose socially from this decision. For most of these women, a convent was seen as a haven to escape their family or an unwanted marriage. Such difficulties were due to the social expectation of the women as it was considered unfilial to leave their duty as a wife, daughter, mother or daughter in law. [61] There were also some cases where some individuals were sold by their family to earn money in a convent by reciting sutras, and performing Buddhist services because they weren't able to financially support them. [62] Jixing entered into a religious life as a young girl due to the fact that her family had no money to raise her. [63]

Lastly, there were some who became part of the Buddhist convent because of a spiritual calling where they found comfort to the religious life, an example would be Zhang Ruyu. [64] Zhang took the religious name, Miaohui, and just before she entered the religious life she wrote the poem below:

Through her poetry, Miaohui (Zhang Ruyu) she conveys the emotions of fully understanding and concluding the difference in the life outside without devotion to religion and the life in a monastery, known as the Buddhist terms between “form and emptiness.” [66] Women like Miaohui, Zhang, had found happiness and fulfillment in the convent that they could not seek in the outside world. Despite the many reasons for entering the religious life, most women had to obtain permission from a male in their life (father, husband, or son). [67] Most of the nuns who have entered the religious life seclude themselves from the outside life away from their family and relatives.

Worshipped Edit

Most nuns participated in religious practices with devotions to many different bodhisattva and Buddha. Some examples of bodhisattvas are Guan Yin, Amitabha Buddha, Maitreya, and Pindola.

One of the most prominent bodhisattvas in Chinese Buddhism is Guanyin, known as Goddess of Compassion, Mercy and Love is also a protector and savior for those who worship and needs Guanyin's aid. [68]

Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Edit

The Qing court endorsed the Gelukpa School of Tibetan Buddhism. [69] Early in the Taiping rebellion, the Taiping rebels targeted Buddhism. In the Battle of Nanjing (1853), the Taiping army butchered thousands of monks in Nanjing [ aanhaling nodig ]. But from the middle of the Taiping rebellion, Taiping leaders took a more moderate approach, demanding that monks should have licences. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Around 1900, Buddhists from other Asian countries showed a growing interest in Chinese Buddhism. Anagarika Dharmapala visited Shanghai in 1893, [70] intending "to make a tour of China, to arouse the Chinese Buddhists to send missionaries to India to restore Buddhism there, and then to start a propaganda throughout the whole world", but eventually limiting his stay to Shanghai. [70] Japanese Buddhist missionaries were active in China in the beginning of the 20th century. [70]

Republic of China (established 1912) Edit

The modernisation of China led to the end of the Chinese Empire, and the installation of the Republic of China, which lasted on the mainland until the Communist Revolution and the installation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 which also led to the ROC government's exodus to Taiwan.

Under influence of the western culture, attempts were being made to revitalize Chinese Buddhism. [71] Most notable were the Humanistic Buddhism of Taixu, and the revival of Chinese Chán by Hsu Yun. [71] Hsu Yun is generally regarded as one of the most influential Buddhist teachers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Other influential teachers in the early 20th century included Pure land Buddhist Yin Guang ( 印光 ) [72] and artist Hong Yi. Layman Zhao Puchu worked much on the revival.

Until 1949, monasteries were built in the Southeast Asian countries, for example by monks of Guanghua Monastery, to spread Chinese Buddhism. Presently, Guanghua Monastery has seven branches in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia. [73] Several Chinese Buddhist teachers left mainland China during the Communist Revolution, and settled in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Master Hsing Yun (1927–present) is the founder of Fo Guang Shan monastery and lay organization the Buddha's Light International Association. Born in Jiangsu Province in mainland China, he entered the Sangha at the age of 12, and came to Taiwan in 1949. He founded Fo Guang Shan monastery in 1967, and the Buddha's Light International Association in 1992. These are among the largest monastic and lay Buddhist organizations in Taiwan from the late 20th to early 21st centuries. He advocates Humanistic Buddhism, which the broad modern Chinese Buddhist progressive attitude towards the religion.

Master Sheng Yen (1930–2009) was the founder of the Dharma Drum Mountain, a Buddhist organization based in Taiwan. During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world.

Master Wei Chueh was born in 1928 in Sichuan, mainland China, and ordained in Taiwan. In 1982, he founded Lin Quan Temple in Taipei County and became known for his teaching on Ch'an practices by offering many lectures and seven-day Ch'an retreats.

People's Republic of China (established 1949) Edit

Chinese Buddhist Association Edit

Unlike Catholicism and other branches of Christianity, there was no organization in China that embraced all monastics in China, nor even all monastics within the same sect. Traditionally each monastery was autonomous, with authority resting on each respective abbot. In 1953, the Chinese Buddhist Association was established at a meeting with 121 delegates in Beijing. The meeting also elected a chairman, 4 honorary chairmen, 7 vice-chairmen, a secretary general, 3 deputy secretaries-general, 18 members of a standing committee, and 93 directors. The 4 elected honorary chairmen were the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama, the Grand Lama of Inner Mongolia, and Venerable Master Hsu Yun. [74]

Reform and opening up – Second Buddhist Revival Edit

Since the reform and opening up period in the 1970s, a new revival of Chinese Buddhism has been taking place. [75] [76] [77] [78] Ancient Buddhist temples are being restored and new Buddhist temples are being built.

Chinese Buddhist temples, administrated by local governments, have become increasingly commercialized by sales of tickets, incense, or other religious items soliciting donations and even the listing of temples on the stock market and local governments obtain large incomes. In October 2012, the State Administration for Religious Affairs announced a crackdown on religious profiteering. [79] Many sites have done enough repairs and have already cancelled ticket fares and are receiving voluntary donation instead. [80] [81]

The 108-metre-high Guan Yin of the South Sea of Sanya statue was enshrined on April 24, 2005 with the participation of 108 eminent monks from various Buddhist groups from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and tens of thousands of pilgrims. The delegation also included monks from the Theravada and Tibetan Buddhist traditions. [82] [83] China is one of the countries with the most of the world's highest statues, many of which are Buddhist statues.

In April 2006 China organized the World Buddhist Forum, an event now held every two years, and in March 2007 the government banned mining on Buddhist sacred mountains. [84] In May of the same year, in Changzhou, the world's tallest pagoda was built and opened. [85] [86] [87] In March 2008 the Taiwan-based organizations Tzu Chi Foundation and Fo Guang Shan were approved to open a branch in mainland China. [88] [89]

Currently, there are about 1.3 billion Chinese living in the People's Republic. Surveys have found that around 18.2% to 20% of this population adheres to Buddhism. [90] Furthermore, PEW found that another 21% of the Chinese population followed Chinese folk religions that incorporated elements of Buddhism. [91]

Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia Edit

Chinese Buddhism is mainly practiced by ethnic Han-Chinese in Southeast Asia.

Chinese Buddhism in the West Edit

The first Chinese master to teach Westerners in North America was Hsuan Hua, who taught Chán and other traditions of Chinese Buddhism in San Francisco during the early 1960s. He went on to found the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, a monastery and retreat center located on a 237-acre (959,000 m 2 ) property near Ukiah, California. Chuang Yen Monastery and Hsi Lai Temple are also large centers.

Sheng Yen also founded dharma centers in the USA.

With the rapid increase of immigrants from mainland China to Western countries in the 1980s, the landscape of the Chinese Buddhism in local societies has also changed over time. Based on fieldwork research conducted in France, some scholars categorize three patterns in the collective Buddhism practice among Chinese Buddhists in France: An ethnolinguistic immigrant group, a transnational organizational system, and information technology. These distinctions are made according to the linkages of globalization.

In the first pattern, religious globalization is a product of immigrants’ transplantation of local cultural traditions. For example, people of similar immigration experiences establish a Buddha hall (佛堂) within the framework of their associations for collective religious activities.

The second pattern features the transnational expansion of a large institutionalized organization centered on a charismatic leader, such as Fo Guang Shan (佛光山), Tzu Chi (慈濟) and Amitabha Buddhist Society (淨宗學會).

In the third pattern, religious globalization features the use of information technology such as websites, blogs, Emails and social media to ensure direct interaction between members in different places and between members and their leader. The Buddhist organization led by Jun Hong Lu is a typical example of this kind of group. [92]

Esoteric Buddhism Edit

In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore, Esoteric Buddhism is most commonly referred to as the Chinese term Mìzōng ( 密宗 ), or "Esoteric School." Traditions of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism are most commonly referred to as Tángmì ( 唐密 ), "Tang Dynasty Esoterica," or Hànchuán Mìzōng ( 漢傳密宗 ), "Han Transmission Esoteric School" (Hànmì 漢密 for short), or Dōngmì ( 東密 ), "Eastern Esoterica," separating itself from Tibetan and Newar traditions. These schools more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon, and in some cases, Chinese monks have traveled to Japan to train and to be given esoteric transmission at Mount Kōya and Mount Hiei.

Unrecognised sects Edit

There are many sects and organisations proclaiming a Buddhist identity and pursuit (fo of fu: "awakening", "enlightenment") that are not recognised as legitimate Buddhism by the Chinese Buddhist Association and the government of the People's Republic of China. This group includes:

    Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] ( 观音佛教 Guānyīn Fójiào) or Guanyin Church ( 观音会 Guānyīn Huì) [93] ( 真佛宗 Zhēnfó Zōng)
  • Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] of the Lord of Heaven of Infinite Thriving of the Mountain of Longevity ( 寿山万隆天主佛教 Shòushān Wànlóng Tiānzhǔ Fójiào)
  • Wulian Jingang Dadao ("Great Way of the Innumerable Attendants of Awakening")

Basic concepts Edit

Chinese Buddhism incorporates elements of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism.

  • paying homage to Triple Gems
  • veneration of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
  • through offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.
  • offerings to Devas who reside in the heavenly realm
  • paying respect to one's own ancestors during Qingming and Zhong Yuan Festival
  • conducting or participate religious services to pray for one's own ancestors and the souls of deceased to attain peace and liberation ( 超渡 )
  • creating positive affinities with other people, through gifts of Dharma books and acts of charity or social service ( 結緣 ) : monastics are required to be vegetarian, devout laity are also often vegetarian on certain sacred days or festivals.
  • compassion towards all living beings through activities such as "life release"
  • existence of gods, ghosts and hell realm
  • reincarnation ( 超生 ), or more technically, rebirth, according to one's karma
  • karmic retribution ( 報應 ), ethically cause and effect

Incense burning Edit

Burning incense, translated to “shaoxiang” in Chinese, is a traditional and ubiquitous religious practice for almost all prayers, and other forms of worship. During the Zhou dynasty, Chinese believed that smoke resulting from burning of sandalwood would act as a bridge between the human world and the spirits. [94]

The philosophy behind incense burning is to sacrifice oneself for the benefit of others, the true spirit of Buddhism. The specific knowledge of incense as a healing tool was assimilated into the religious practices of the time from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

It can be seen that incense burning as it is known today is a merger between Chinese folk religious, Taoist, Confucian, ancestral worship and Chinese Buddhist practice and traditions.

Laypeople in Chinese Buddhism Edit

In Chinese Buddhism, lay practitioners have traditionally played an important role, and lay practice of Buddhism has had similar tendencies to those of monastic Buddhism in China. [95] Many historical biographies of lay Buddhists are available, which give a clear picture of their practices and role in Chinese Buddhism. In addition to these numerous biographies, there are accounts from Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci which provide extensive and revealing accounts to the degree Buddhism penetrated elite and popular culture in China. [95]

Traditional practices such as meditation, mantra recitation, mindfulness of Amitābha Buddha, asceticism, and vegetarianism were all integrated into the belief systems of ordinary people. [95] It is known from accounts in the Ming Dynasty that lay practitioners often engaged in practices from both the Pure Land and Chán traditions, as well as the study of the Buddhist sūtras. Die Hart Sūtra en die Diamond Sūtra were the most popular, followed by the Lotus Sūtra en die Avataṃsaka Sūtra. [95]

Laypeople are also commonly devoted to the practice of mantras, and mantras such as the Mahā Karuṇā Dhāraṇī and the Cundī Dhāraṇī are very popular. [95] Robert Gimello has also observed that in Chinese Buddhist communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī enjoyed popularity among both the populace and the elite. [96]

Mahāyāna figures such as Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva, Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva, Amitābha Buddha, and the Medicine Buddha, are all widely known and revered. Beliefs in karma and rebirth are held at all levels of Chinese society, and pilgrimages to well-known monasteries and the four holy mountains of China are undertaken by monastics and lay practitioners alike. [95]

Feeste Redigeer

These are the holy days that Chinese Buddhists celebrate by visiting temples to make offerings of prayers, incense, fruits, flowers and donations. On such days they observe the moral precepts very strictly as well as a full day's vegetarian diet, a practice originally from China.

The dates given are based on the Chinese calendar system so that 8.4 means the Eighth day of the fourth month in Chinese calendar en so aan. [97]


Welcome

James Miller is the inaugural Professor of Humanities, Co-Director of the Humanities Research Center, and Associate Dean for Interdisciplinary Strategy at Duke Kunshan University. He is also Editor-in-chief of Worldviews: Global Religions, Cultures, and Ecology.

Duke Kunshan University is a new joint venture university created by Duke University (USA) and Wuhan University (China) with an innovative, interdisciplinary liberal arts and science curriculum. Its first undergraduates will graduate in 2022.

Professor Miller’s academic career began with the study of Chinese language and culture at Durham University in the UK. He has become a leading interpreter of Daoist religion, through his study of the medieval Chinese religious movement known as The Way of Highest Clarity. Over the past eighteen years, he has published six books on Chinese religions, including most recently China’s Green Religion (May 2017). Professor Miller’s has given lectures around the world in English, Chinese and Spanish, and his work has been translated into Italian, Chinese and Farsi.

Professor Miller is widely known as a key scholar of religion and ecology in China. China is now the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases and will eclipse the US as the world’s leading economy within a decade. China is experiencing massive economic change and unprecedent environmental devastation. Professor Miller’s research illuminates how China’s religious and cultural traditions, especially Daoism, continue to influence Chinese social imagination about nature and environment and can help develop a Chinese ethic of ecological sustainability.

In addition to scholarly publishing, Professor Miller regularly speaks at academic conferences, and gives public lectures and media interviews on a wide variety of topics related to religion and culture in China. Media outlets have included the Washington Post, CTV Newsworld, CTV Canada AM, and the Christian Science Monitor. He has given guest lectures all over the world, in multiple languages, from China’s Fudan University, to the Australian National University and even the United States Naval War College. He has also consulted on legal matters related to Chinese religions in North American society, including preparing expert witness testimony for civil court proceedings.

As well as conducting research and teaching, Professor Miller is respected as a senior academic administrator with professional competencies related to curriculum design, program development, recruitment, and vision for higher education. He has consulted for senior administration in issues related to international education and imagining new strategies for higher education.

Prior to joining Duke Kunshan University he served as director of Queen’s interdisciplinary graduate program in Cultural Studies, co-chair of the Religion and Ecology group at the American Academy of Religion, and director of Queen’s School of Religion.


Die kunste

Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country's rich spiritual and mystical history. Many sculptures and paintings depict spiritual figures of Buddhism, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture, including the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither family.

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in China, and it is the birthplace of kung fu. This fighting technique is based on animal movements and was created in the mid-1600s, according to Black Belt Magazine.

Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers — especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in the country's rich liturgical history.

Recently, archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-year-old tomb in China. "The murals of this tomb had diversified motifs and rich connotations, many of which cannot be found in other tombs of the same period," a team of archaeologists wrote in an article recently published in a 2017 issue of the journal Chinese Archaeology. [Ancient Tomb with 'Blue Monster' Mural Discovered in China]


Aspect 5: Goal — Harmony or Truth

Chinees have a strong system of respect. Much of this comes from the Confucian system of hierarchy. Harmony is considered more important than pointing out faults, so, when a fault must be mentioned, great care is taken to avoid giving offense.

Westerners have a strong sense of what is right and wrong, and want to know what the "truth" of a situation is. While in the East respect is taken for granted, in the West respect is earned, and criticism is typically direct and unveiled.

I n China, b e more generous with respect and tactful with criticism.


5. Impact of the School of Names

One stark difference between the two main texts of Daoism is the relation to the School of Names. Die Laozi, though clearly having a theory of the pragmatics of naming, betrays neither exposure to the doctrines nor the analytical terminology developed by the dialectical Mohists for dealing with theory of language. Die Zhuangzi clearly does reveal that exposure. To understand this phase in the development of Daoism, we note briefly what the outstanding linguistic issues were and how they were formulated, then we will look at the implications of Daoist responses&mdashparticularly those found in the Zhuangzi.

The focus on ming words:names grows from recognizing the interpretive problem concerning acting on some guide. The disputes about dao are intimately tied to issues about words&mdashin particular, what is to count as a correct use and what action or objects count as following the guidance.

The early Mohists advocated using a utilitarian standard to determine both the correct application of words to actions and the choice of word order in social guiding discourse. &ldquoWhich dao should we follow&rdquo became &ldquowhich words shall we use to socialize people and how should we interpret the words of social guiding discourse in guiding our behavior?&rdquo In effect, the early Mohist answer to both questions is settled by making allegedly &ldquonatural&rdquo distinctions between benefit and harm. Thus language content and conventions of interpretation should be governed by the utility principle.

Later Mohists formulated a more &ldquorealistic&rdquo theory of what counts as the normatively correct way to use names. We should mark the distinctions that underlie names in ways that trace patterns of objective similarity and difference in things. This realism governs the correct ways both to use terms and to interpret them. We rely on utility to determine how we structure terms into strings in guidance&mdashin discourse dao . So, for example, a thief is a man&mdashis governed by the rules of similarity. Still, we allow guidance that includes both the guiding strings &ldquodon&rsquot kill men&rdquo and &ldquoyou may kill thieves.&rdquo

This realism led the later Mohists to linguistic conclusions that challenged any anti-language attitude&mdashincluding those expressed by early Daoists. First, the later Mohists argued that in any disagreement about how to distinguish realities with names, there was a right answer. It may, however, be hard to know or prove. So, for example, if we are disputing about whether to use &ldquoox&rdquo or &ldquonon-ox&rdquo of some obscure object, one of the answers will be correct. This undermines both the nihilistic and the anti-language options to understanding Laozi. Second, Mohists argued that any attempt to formulate the anti-language position was self condemning. &ldquoAll language is bad&rdquo must be a &ldquobad&rdquo thing to say.

Other figures classified in the School of Names responded to the Mohist realists. Gongsun Long (mentioned sporadically in the Zhuangzi) took himself to be defending Confucian accounts of rectifying names and Hui Shi constructs what looks like a relativist challenge to Later Mohist accounts. We will look only at Hui Shi&rsquos account here because he plays such a significant role in the text of the Zhuangzi .

Hui Shi implicitly addressed the claim that the correct use of words depends on objective patterns of similarity and difference. What we know of his writings (which the Zhuangzi history suggests were prodigious) is mainly a sequence of theses cited at the end of the Zhuangzi geskiedenis. These focused on propositions about comparative &ldquonames&rdquo&mdashe.g., large and small. Clearly some things properly termed &lsquolarge&rsquo are objectively smaller than other things properly called &lsquosmall&rsquo. A small elephant is considerably larger than a huge ant! So correct naming must not be based on objective distinctions in the world, but on our projections from a point of view or purpose in using them. Similarly, &lsquotall&rsquo, &lsquoshort&rsquo, and time words (e.g., &lsquobefore&rsquo and &lsquoafter&rsquo, &lsquotoday&rsquo and &lsquotomorrow&rsquo) are implausibly attributed to objective distinctions

From this, according to the list of propositions in the Zhuangzi history, Hui Shi apparently concluded that we can cluster things in arbitrary ways. This insight is not taken to be about sets and members, but about divisions into parts and wholes. So we can speak of a great &ldquoone&rdquo that is a kind of everything concept&mdashnothing lies outside it and of a small &ldquoone&rdquo which cannot be further distinguished or divided. Objectively there are no distinctions&mdashthe cosmos is one, and we should direct the same guiding attitudes toward the whole&mdash&ldquolove all things equally.&rdquo


China's Grand Strategy in the Western Hemisphere

The importance of Latin America and the Caribbean to China is multifold, but two issues predominate: Taiwan and access to raw materials, especially energy.

Taiwan

The PRC will not feel its rise to power is complete without returning Taiwan to the Mainland's political control. Taiwan and China have been separated since the 1949 civil war, and it is Beijing's view that Taiwan is a "renegade province" that must be "reunified" with the PRC.

To the tremendous frustration of the PRC, the Chinese view of Taiwan's sovereignty is increasingly in the minority of public opinion on Taiwan. As a result, China is employing every instrument of its national power to effect unification with Taiwan, including an unwillingness to renounce the use of force to resolve Taiwan's future.

One of China's tactics is an effort to politically isolate Taiwan internationally by enticing countries that currently diplomatically recognize Taiwan to shift allegiances to the PRC. The majority of the countries that recognize Taiwan are in Latin America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.

At present, six nations in Central America--Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala--retain full diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Beginning with Chile in 1970, all but one South American state--Paraguay--have moved to recognize Beijing. In the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines have relations with Taiwan. Dominica switched allegiances to the PRC last year.

For Taiwan, the states of Central America and the Caribbean, and Paraguay, represent a relatively solid regional commitment to its status as a state separate from China. These states represent nearly half of Taiwan's diplomatic recognition around the world, now totaling 25 nations.

Taiwan pays dearly to retain this diplomatic recognition, and if these states were to switch recognition from Taipei to Beijing, the damage to Taiwan's political confidence and its claims of legitimacy as a state would be seriously undermined in Taipei's estimation.

Hulpbronne

China's other interest, not surprisingly, is access to natural resources, especially energy. China is scouring the planet for resources to feed its economy's insatiable appetite for raw materials. Since China's government is not popularly elected, its claim to legitimacy has been its ability to improve the standard of living of the 1.3 billion Chinese people.

Stoking the economic furnaces also allows China to continue its unprecedented military buildup, supported primarily by Russian arms sales, and to provide overseas aid--often without conditions--to countries of interest in an effort to spread its influence.

China is broadly diversifying its energy sources. It is trying to reduce its reliance on coal, which has made China the world's second largest polluter. In its effort to ensure consistent energy supplies, China is expected to divert its overseas investments outside the Middle East to Russia Southeast Asia (e.g., Indonesia, Burma) Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) Africa (e.g., Angola, Sudan) and Latin America (e.g., Colombia, Venezuela).

Petroleum leads the list of resources South American states have to offer China. Venezuela is the world's fifth largest producer of petroleum that produces 2.5 million barrels per day, providing the United States with 13-15 percent of its oil imports. China has invested over $1 billion in petroleum projects in Venezuela and is positioning itself to invest nearly $350 million to extract oil from eastern Venezuelan oil fields, as well as an additional $60 million in natural gas wells. China is also seeking to purchase petroleum from Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico.

Latin America is an important source of a variety of minerals and food items as well. Aluminum, copper, iron, and soybeans constitute a large part of China's imports from Latin America. For commercial purposes, China also obviously has a strong interest in the Panama Canal and access to good port facilities in the Caribbean.

During his visits to Brazil and Argentina in November 2004, Chinese President Hu Jintao announced plans to invest $100 billion in Latin America over the next decade, primarily for infrastructure and energy projects. These investments made by the Chinese government will undoubtedly bring political influence as well.


The Revolution Spins out of Control

By February of 1967, China had descended into chaos. The purges had reached the level of army generals who dared to speak out against the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, and Red Guards were turning against one another and fighting in the streets. Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, encouraged the Red Guards to raid arms from the People's Liberation Army (PLA), and even to replace the army entirely if necessary.

By December of 1968, even Mao realized that the Cultural Revolution was spinning out of control. China's economy, already weakened by the Great Leap Forward, was faltering badly. Industrial production fell by 12% in just two years. In reaction, Mao issued a call for the "Down to the Countryside Movement," in which young cadres from the city were sent to live on farms and learn from the peasants. Although he spun this idea as a tool for leveling society, in fact, Mao sought to disperse the Red Guards across the country, so that they could not cause so much trouble anymore.


The religion of ancient Egypt was polytheistic and centered around the divinity of the ruler and the eternity of the soul. The Chinese were polytheistic with the addition of ancestor worship. Over time, these beliefs were sometimes blended with Taoism, Buddhism or Confucianism.

In Egypt, people were buried with thought to preservation, as they believed that the dead would be able to use their bodies in the afterlife. Chinese burial style depended on the province as well as the main religion of the person. People would be buried in the ground, in water, put in a hanging coffin or cremated.


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