Was slawe roeiers ooit aan die skip vasgeketting?

Was slawe roeiers ooit aan die skip vasgeketting?


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OPDATEER

Ek wil weet of daar is enige bewys dat roeiers ooit in die antieke Griekeland en Rome aan die skepe of roeispane vasgeketting was. Na my mening kan dit te duur wees om mense op daardie tydstip te kett, selfs al was die bemanning slawe.

In baie historiese skilderye kan 'n mens slawroeiers aan die skepe sien vasgeketting sien.

  • Ek wonder of hierdie praktyk inderdaad wydverspreid was?

  • Was die kettings permanent of kon hulle vinnig ontkoppel word?

  • Mag die roeiers in 'n hawe loop terwyl die skip lank bly of herlaai word? Of is hulle gebruik om te help herlaai?

  • Hoe sou hulle toilet toe gaan as die kettings permanent was?

  • Was diens op 'n skip 'n normale slawerny of was dit 'n soort straf?


Rodgers, William Ledyard, vise -admiraal, USN, ret. Griekse en Romeinse vlootoorlog. 'N Studie van strategie, taktiek en skeepsontwerp van Salamis (480 v.C.) tot Actium (31 v.C.) (1934, 1964)

Gardiner, Robert, red. Vroegste skepe: Die evolusie van bote in skepe (1996)

Warry, John. Oorlogvoering in die klassieke wêreld: 'n Geïllustreerde ensiklopedie van wapens, krygers en oorlogvoering in die antieke beskawings van Griekeland en Rome (1980) (Goed vir die beginner.)

In die klassieke, hellenistiese en keiserlike vloot was roeiers vrye manne. Hulle was nie vasgeketting nie en het, indien nodig, teen instapaksies geveg. Die uitsondering was in Griekeland, toe slawe-eienaars tydens hul oorlog sommige van hul slawe na die vloot kon stuur, maar hulle is dieselfde behandel as die vrye manne, insluitend die betaling per dag. Een manier om geld te verdien om u vryheid te koop!

So die tonele in Ben Hur is net 'n slegte geskiedenis. Dit sal sinvol wees om 1400 jaar later in 'n Venesiese kombuis te sit.

Dit is aan die einde van die Middeleeue/Renaissance dat die veroordeling aan die galeie 'n skrikwekkende straf word wat lande met Middellandse See -kus uitdeel. Op daardie tydstip, die misdadigers is vasgeketting aan die banke (goedkoop yster, net 'n deel van die kombuis), woon, slaap, eet en kak daar, waarskynlik vir 'n kort lewe. Jy kan reuk 'n kombuis of galeas wat teen die wind verbygaan, en hulle was beperk in die plek waar hulle in 'n hawe kon dok of anker kon gaan. Hulle het gestink met hul slawe. Gaan die galeislaaf dood aan sere? Niemand gee om nie. Hy is weggooi en moet 'n stadige, aaklige dood sterf. Slawe roei goed in die stryd om hul eie lewens te red, want as die skip sak, sak hulle daarmee. Niemand het hulle om hierdie rede vrygelaat nie.

Soos hierbo genoem, kan hulle, afhangende van die plig van die skip, in die hawe vrygelaat word vir herlaai of uitmergelende take aan wal (steeds vasgeketting).

Adm. Rogers weer: Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4de tot 16de eeu. 'N Studie van strategie, taktiek en skeepsontwerp (1940, 1967) Sy inligting oor vikingskepe is swak; sy langboogballistiek stink (omdat hy dit op die vroeë 20ste C Amerikaanse amateurkompetisies baseer), maar hy gee jou alles oor galeie en galeasse.


Nie alle roeiers was slawe nie, vrymanne sou onwaarskynlik aan hul roeispane vasgeketting wees.
Galei -slawerny was die moeilikste vorm van slawerny wat 'n man kon ondergaan, afgesien van sommige myne, en kon dus 'n vorm van straf gewees het vir diegene wat skuldig is aan ernstige misdade, net om teregstelling te regverdig (al sou ek raai dat baie sou wou hê dat hulle uitgevoer na 'n geruime tyd op die roeispane).
http://www.romanarmytalk.com/17-roman-military-history-a-archaeology/176707-ancient-galley-slaves-myth-and-reality.html is 'n ou forumdraad wat oor die onderwerp en die idee praat dat kombuisslawe nie die norm was nie en waarom. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galley_slave bevestig dit en gee 'n lys van bronne.
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/1995/issue46/lifeasagalleyslave.html praat oor 'n 16de (ja, daardie laat) Franse kombuisroer, wat klaarblyklik die heeltyd aan die roeispane vasgeketting was (tensy dit nodig was vir ander pligte). http://melita4historica.x90x.net/20011.html is 'n ander bron vir die Franse galeie. Dit was nie tegnies slawe nie; dit was veroordeelde wat gewoonlik vir 'n bepaalde tydperk gestuur is (alhoewel die Franse 'geregtigheid' dikwels so was dat mense boetes opgelê het wat byna seker was om hulle dood te maak, selfs al was dit tyd vir klein misdade).
http://www.spainvia.com/Christianslaves.htm praat oor die ellendige lot van miljoene Europeërs wat as slawe van die Moslems in Noord -Afrika beland het (en so ver as Arabië, hoewel dit nie eksplisiet is nie) Dit beantwoord u vrae, alhoewel dit gebeur het duisend jaar na die Romeinse ryk waarna u verwys.

Die meeste van hierdie openbare slawe het die res van hul lewens as kombuisslawe deurgebring, en dit is moeilik om 'n meer ellendige bestaan ​​voor te stel. Mans was drie, vier of vyf aan 'n roei vasgeketting, met hul enkels ook aan mekaar vasgeketting. Roeiers het nooit hul roeispane gelos nie, en in die mate dat hulle hoegenaamd geslaap het, het hulle op hul banke geslaap. Slawe kon by mekaar verbystoot om hulself te verlig by 'n opening in die romp, maar hulle was dikwels te uitgeput of moedeloos om te beweeg, en het hulself beskadig waar hulle gesit het ... Toe die seerower -vloot in die hawe was, het galeislawe in die bagno gewoon en het watter vuil, gevaarlike of uitputtende werk ook al, waarna die pasha hulle gedwing het. Dit was gewoonlik klip-sny en sleep, hawe-baggerwerk of swaar konstruksie. Die slawe in die Turkse sultan se vloot het nie eens hierdie verskeidenheid gehad nie. Hulle was dikwels maande aaneen op see en het selfs in die hawe vasgeketting aan hul roeispane gebly. Hulle skepe was lewenslange tronke.


Dit het eeue lank aangegaan, verby die einde van slawerny in Europa en Amerika.


Vir Athene behandel Wikipedia die vraag breedvoerig:

In teenstelling met die algemene opvatting, was die spanne in die ou vloot nie saamgestel uit galeislawe nie, maar uit vrye manne. Veral in die Atheense geval was diens in die skepe 'n integrale deel van die militêre diens wat deur die laer klasse gelewer is, die thētai, hoewel metiek en gehuurde buitelanders ook aanvaar is. [36] [37] Alhoewel daar aangevoer is dat slawe deel was van die roeispanne in die Siciliaanse ekspedisie, het [38] 'n tipiese Atheense trireme -bemanning tydens die Peloponnesiese oorlog bestaan ​​uit 80 burgers, 60 metics en 60 buitelandse hande. [39] Inderdaad, in die paar noodgevalle waar slawe gebruik is om skepe te beman, is dit doelbewus vrygelaat, gewoonlik voordat dit in diens geneem is. [40] Byvoorbeeld, die tiran Dionysius I van Syracuse het eens alle slawe van Syracuse vrygelaat om sy galeie te beman en sodoende vrymanne in diens te neem, maar andersins staatgemaak op burgers en buitelanders as roeiers. [41]

Verder het hierdie feit die groot politieke mag van die gewone mense in Athene as gevolg daarvan gehad. 'N Mens word amper versoek om te sê dat Athene demokraties was omdat dit so 'n groot vloot gehad het, deur vrye burgers geroei. (Dit is natuurlik meer kompleks as dit, maar daar is 'n aansienlike kern van waarheid in hierdie stelling). 'N Ou skrywer het dit reeds uitgewys (hier aangehaal):

My eerste punt is dat dit reg is dat die armes en die gewone mense daar meer mag het as die edele en die rykes, want dit is die gewone mense wat die vloot beman en die stad haar mag gee; hulle voorsien die stuurmanne, die bote, die junior offisiere, die uitkykpunte en die skeepsrywers; dit is hierdie mense wat die stad baie magtiger maak as die hopliete en die edele en agbare burgers. As dit so is, wil dit voorkom asof almal deur loting en verkiesing in die openbare amp moet deelneem, en dat elke burger wat wil, in die vergadering kan praat. ("Xenophon," Grondwet van die Atheners 1.1-2)

'N Moderne historikus brei hierdie punt verder uit - kyk hier.


RE. Is galeislawe vasgeketting?

Daar is 'n skildery van die Italiaanse kunstenaar Alessandro Magnasco, gedateer omstreeks 1710, getiteld "Manning the Galleys", wat duidelik toon hoe kombuisslawe aan die nek vasgeketting is en hul koppe geskeer en gebrandmerk is. Die kunstenaar was 'n Italiaanse hofskilder in Milaan en Genua. Sy skilderye kan op Google -beelde gevind word. Hy het 'n aantal skilderye van die laer klasse en die onderwêreld gemaak wat baie interessant is. Op grond van hierdie skildery en geskrewe verslae, sou ek sê dat die Italiaanse stadstate in die algemeen hul kombuisslawe van die 16de eeu tot die einde van die 18de eeu vasgeketting het.

Hoop dit help.

Redigeer: Die skildery blyk eintlik "The Embarkation of the Galley Slaves", 1730, te wees.

  • Pieter Geerkens

Die skilderye wat u sien, is waarskynlik gebaseer op middeleeuse of latere galeie, soos dié wat Vencie, Genua en Turkye bedryf het, wat in sommige gevalle deur kettingslawe beman is. Kettings sal slegs in spesifieke omstandighede gebruik word.

In die ou tyd is dit onwaarskynlik dat roeiers om verskeie redes vasgeketting was. Eerstens was metaal in die ou tyd baie meer waardevol. Selfs die bou van eenvoudige ysterborde sou 2000 jaar gelede 'n duur voorstel gewees het.

Die ander rede is dat wanneer kettings vir 'n lang tyd gedra word, gewoonlik sere ontstaan ​​waar die metaal teen die vlees vryf. Sulke sere kan binne 'n paar dae ontwikkel. Sulke sere sal nie net baie pynlik wees nie, dit sal uiteindelik besmet raak en die persoon doodmaak as die sere nie behandel word nie.


Soos ek dit verstaan, het 'n doeltreffende roei van 'n groot skip vaardigheid sowel as sterkte vereis, en 'n skip wat in 'n geveg betrokke is, kan maklik verloor as die roeiers nie saamwerk nie. Slawe kan die stryd as 'n moontlikheid van vryheid beskou deur na die ander kant te gaan. Dit lyk dus vir my redelik dat skepe wat vir gevegte gebou is, beman moes word deur bekwame en gemotiveerde roeiers, terwyl skepe wat uitsluitlik vir die vervoer van goedere gebruik is, met slawe -arbeid kon klaarkom.


Dit is moeilik om te dink dat die Romeine nie slawe gebruik het om hul skepe te roei nie, veral militêre galeie. 'N Ander ding wat nog nie genoem is nie, is dat slawe en veroordeelde misdadigers wat roeiskepe was, om praktiese redes gewoonlik heeltemal naak was. Klere sou 'n belemmering vir hierdie moeisame werk wees; hulle kon hulself verlig terwyl hulle nog roei sonder om hul klere uit te trek, klere wat vuil word, veroorsaak ook siektes en daar is geen nut vir beskeidenheid in so 'n omgewing nie. Die roeiers en die vloer is ook gereeld met water oorstroom om hulle skoon en gesond te hou om die verspreiding van siektes op die skip te voorkom.

Ek het eenkeer 'n verslag gelees wat sê dat meisies en vroue wat op sulke skepe reis, dikwels onder die dek sou gaan kyk hoe die naakte mans roei. Oor die Ben Hur -verslag, of dit nou op die feit gebaseer is of nie, beskryf die roman die roeiers as heeltemal naak, terwyl die fliek hulle van voor die hand liggende redes van sensuur laat sien om lendedoeke te dra.


Sal Amerika ooit vergewe word vir slawerny?

Toe ek in die Suide grootgeword het, was die verhaal oor slawerny wat ek gehoor het dat die Afrikaners rondloop vry in hul eie land, omgee vir hul eie sake wanneer wit mans in skepe kom. Die wit mans het die Afrikaners aangeval, vasgeketting, ontvoer en aan boord van skepe gedwing. Hierdie storielyn is op skool sowel as in die swart kerke herhaal. Die ketting van gebeure het my egter nooit heeltemal opgelos nie. Ek onthou die eerste keer dat ek 'n vraag oor hierdie verhaal aan my onderwyser in die sesde graad gestel het. Ek het haar gevra hoe dit moontlik was dat hierdie wit mans 'n vreemde land kon binnedring en die inboorlinge van die land kon oorheers. Sy het nie 'n antwoord nie. Ek het my pa dieselfde vraag gevra en hy het verwys na die film Roots (wat ek later geleer het dat dit geplagieer en vervaardig is).

Jare later, terwyl ek in die weermag was, het ek gehoor hoe my eerste sersant ('n wit mannetjie) vir ander manlike soldate vertel dat hy moeg was vir swart Amerikaners wat slawerny gebruik as 'n manier om te herstel. Ek hoor hom toe sê: & ldquo Hulle eie mense verkoop dit as slawerny & rdquo. Dit was die eerste keer dat ek ooit iets gehoor het van Afrikane wat ander Afrikane in slawerny verkoop. Ek kon skaars wag totdat die werksdag eindig, sodat ek huis toe kon gaan en hierdie onderwerp op die internet kon ondersoek (die internet was in die beginfase). Toe ek by die huis kom, skakel ek my opgeknapte tafelrekenaar vinnig aan en tik & ldquoAfrikaners wat Afrikaners in slawerny verkoop, en die Transatlantiese slawehandel verskyn. Toe leer ek die feitelike geskiedenis van hoe slawe in Amerika aangekom het.

Ek was so opgewonde om die ware geskiedenis van slawerny in Amerika te leer dat ek dwaas gedink my jare lange vriende sou net so opgewonde wees. Dit gebeur net so dat my vriende eerder die mite sou hou dat die bose blanke mans na Afrika gegaan het en die inboorlinge ontvoer en hulle in die slaweskepe gedwing het. Eintlik het my vriende woedend geword vir my omdat hulle hulle geleer het.

Liberale en rasers lok nog steeds die skuld aan slawerny vir omtrent alles wat swart Amerikaners teister. Dit maak nie saak dat slawerny amper honderd -en -vyftig jaar gelede geëindig het nie. Dit maak ook nie saak nie niemand vandag lewendig deelgeneem aan enige vorm van slawerny (slawe -eienaar of slaaf). As iemand die verhaal dat wit mans die enigste skuld vir slawerny in Amerika is, uitdaag deur te verklaar dat Afrikaanse slawehandelaars aandadig was, verskyn nog 'n ander verhaal.

Ek het onlangs met vurige debatte met ander swart Amerikaners geraak oor die feit dat Afrikaanse slawehandelaars ander Afrikane tot slawe gemaak het en dit dan in die Trans -Atlantiese slawehandel verkoop het. Wat ek in hierdie besprekings opgedoen het, is die nuwe verhaal rondom Afrikaanse slawehandelaars. Ek het die volgende geleer beweer verskille tussen wit Amerikaanse slawe -eienaars en Afrikaanse slawe -eienaars:

  • Die Afrikaanse slawehandelaars het nie hul eie mense tot slawe gemaak nie; die mense wat slawe was, was vermoedelik hulle eie vyande.
  • Die African Slave -eienaars het 'n ander soort slawerny as die blanke slawe -eienaars in Amerika beoefen.
  • Die Afrikaanse slawe -eienaars was vriendelik teenoor hulle slawe. (Het hulle hulle snags ingesteek en hul kussings geslaan?). Die slawe kon uiteindelik hul vryheid koop.
  • Amerikaanse slawe -eienaars beoefen 'n onmenslike vorm van slawerny genaamd & ldquochattel & rdquo slawerny. (Amerikaanse blanke slawe -eienaars het wreedheid na 'n nuwe vlak geneem).

'N Kasteelslaaf is 'n eiendom, sonder regte. Slawerny in Afrika was anders as 'n slaaf om 'n skuld te betaal of vir 'n misdaad te betaal. Alhoewel slawe in Afrika die beskerming van hul gesin en hul plek in die samelewing deur middel van slawerny verloor het, kan hulle of hul kinders uiteindelik deel word van hul meester- en rsquos -gesin en vry word. Dit was anders as die slawerny en die slawerny wat in Amerika beoefen is, waar verslaafde Afrikaners lewenslank slawe was, net soos hul kinders.

Ek het geluister na die teenargumente van my mede -swart Amerikaners oor watter slawe -eienaars die ergste was (alhoewel daar geen manier is om dit te bewys nie) en ek het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom. In die woorde van Hillary Rodham Clinton, en watter verskil maak dit op hierdie stadium? & Rdquo Maak dit nie saak dat na raming 700 000 lewens verlore gegaan het tydens die burgeroorlog om slawerny te beëindig nie? Wat kan die liberale en rasaasmakers hoop om te verdien deur voortdurend slawerny te midde van elke bespreking te werp? Laastens, as 'n Heilige God die sondige mens kan vergewe vir sy sondes in die verlede, hoe is dit dan moontlik dat 'n sondige mens ander sondige mense nooit kan vergewe vir vorige sondes nie? Sal Amerika almal vergewe word vir sy rol in slawerny?

Patricia L. Dickson blogs byChristelike kommentaar kontak die skrywer [email protected]

Toe ek in die Suide grootgeword het, was die verhaal oor slawerny wat ek gehoor het dat die Afrikaners rondloop vry in hul eie land, omgee vir hul eie sake toe wit mans in skepe kom. Die wit mans het die Afrikaners aangeval, vasgeketting, ontvoer en aan boord van skepe gedwing. Hierdie storielyn is op skool sowel as in die swart kerke herhaal. Die ketting van gebeure het my egter nooit heeltemal opgelos nie. Ek onthou die eerste keer dat ek 'n vraag oor hierdie verhaal aan my onderwyser in die sesde graad gestel het. Ek het haar gevra hoe dit moontlik was dat hierdie wit mans 'n vreemde land kon binnedring en die inboorlinge van die land kon oorheers. Sy het nie 'n antwoord nie. Ek het my pa dieselfde vraag gevra en hy het verwys na die film Roots (wat ek later geleer het dat dit geplagieer en vervaardig is).

Jare later, terwyl ek in die weermag was, het ek gehoor hoe my eerste sersant ('n wit mannetjie) vir ander manlike soldate vertel dat hy moeg was vir swart Amerikaners wat slawerny gebruik as 'n manier om te herstel. Ek hoor hom toe sê: & ldquo Hulle eie mense verkoop dit as slawerny & rdquo. Dit was die eerste keer dat ek ooit iets gehoor het van Afrikane wat ander Afrikane in slawerny verkoop. Ek kon skaars wag totdat die werksdag eindig, sodat ek huis toe kan gaan en hierdie onderwerp op die internet kan ondersoek (die internet was in die beginfase). Toe ek by die huis kom, skakel ek my opgeknapte tafelrekenaar vinnig aan en tik & ldquoAfrikaners wat Afrikaners in slawerny verkoop, en die Transatlantiese slawehandel verskyn. Toe leer ek die feitelike geskiedenis van hoe slawe in Amerika aangekom het.

Ek was so opgewonde om die ware geskiedenis van slawerny in Amerika te leer ken dwaas gedink my jare lange vriende sou net so opgewonde wees. Dit gebeur net so dat my vriende eerder die mite sou hou dat die bose blanke mans na Afrika gegaan het en die inboorlinge ontvoer en hulle in die slaweskepe gedwing het. Eintlik het my vriende woedend geword vir my omdat hulle hulle geleer het.

Liberale en rasers lok nog steeds die skuld aan slawerny vir omtrent alles wat swart Amerikaners teister. Dit maak nie saak dat slawerny amper honderd -en -vyftig jaar gelede geëindig het nie. Dit maak ook nie saak nie niemand vandag lewendig deelgeneem aan enige vorm van slawerny (slawe -eienaar of slaaf). As iemand die verhaal dat blanke mans die enigste skuld aan slawerny in Amerika is, uitdaag deur te sê dat Afrikaanse slawehandelaars aandadig was, kom nog 'n ander verhaal na vore.

Ek het onlangs met vurige debatte met ander swart Amerikaners geraak oor die feit dat Afrikaanse slawehandelaars ander Afrikane tot slawe gemaak het en dit dan in die Trans -Atlantiese slawehandel verkoop het. Wat ek in hierdie besprekings opgedoen het, is die nuwe verhaal rondom Afrikaanse slawehandelaars. Ek het die volgende geleer beweer verskille tussen wit Amerikaanse slawe -eienaars en Afrikaanse slawe -eienaars:

  • Die Afrikaanse slawehandelaars het nie hul eie mense tot slawe gemaak nie; die mense wat slawe was, was vermoedelik hulle eie vyande.
  • Die African Slave -eienaars het 'n ander soort slawerny as die blanke slawe -eienaars in Amerika beoefen.
  • Die Afrikaanse slawe -eienaars was vriendelik teenoor hulle slawe. (Het hulle dit snags ingesteek en hul kussings geslaan?). Die slawe kon uiteindelik hul vryheid koop.
  • Amerikaanse slawe -eienaars beoefen 'n onmenslike vorm van slawerny genaamd & ldquochattel & rdquo slawerny. (Amerikaanse blanke slawe -eienaars het wreedheid na 'n nuwe vlak geneem).

'N Kasteelslaaf is 'n eiendom, sonder regte. Slawerny in Afrika was anders as 'n slaaf om 'n skuld te betaal of vir 'n misdaad te betaal. Alhoewel slawe in Afrika die beskerming van hul gesin en hul plek in die samelewing deur middel van slawerny verloor het, kan hulle of hul kinders uiteindelik deel word van hul meester- en rsquos -gesin en vry word. Dit was anders as die slawerny en die slawerny wat in Amerika beoefen is, waar verslaafde Afrikaners lewenslank slawe was, net soos hul kinders.

Ek het geluister na die teenargumente van my mede -swart Amerikaners oor watter slawe -eienaars die ergste was (alhoewel daar geen manier is om dit te bewys nie) en ek het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom. In die woorde van Hillary Rodham Clinton, en watter verskil maak dit op hierdie stadium? & Rdquo Maak dit nie saak dat na raming 700 000 lewens verlore gegaan het tydens die burgeroorlog om slawerny te beëindig nie? Wat kan die liberale en rasaasmakers hoop om te kry deur voortdurend slawerny te midde van elke bespreking te werp? Laastens, as 'n Heilige God die sondige mens kan vergewe vir sy sondes in die verlede, hoe is dit dan moontlik dat 'n sondige mens ander sondige mense nooit kan vergewe vir die sondes van die verlede nie? Sal Amerika almal vergewe word vir sy rol in slawerny?


Is slawe in die winkelsentrum gekoop en verkoop?

Voor die burgeroorlog was die District of Columbia 'n aktiewe en winsgewende slawe -depot. Die Geel Huis oorkant die Smithsonian -kasteel, die Amerikaanse hotel in die straat van die Capitol, en talle nabygeleë tavernes was slaweveilings. Hotelle wat aan die Mall grens, het kelderkamers gehuur om slawe wat pas aangekoop is, te bewaar voordat hulle uit Washington geneem is.

Groepe kettingslawe het daagliks die Capitol en die Withuis verbygesteek. Slawe wag op verkoop en verhuising in stampvol penne en selle naby en in die winkelsentrum. Die meeste Washington -inwoners was bekend met Robey se slawehok, geleë in 8th Street en B Street (nou Independence Avenue). Besoekers soos ES Abdy wat in 1835 uit Engeland gereis het, was geskok oor die teenwoordigheid van slawerny naby die Capitol en die omstandighede van die slawe wat by Robey's gehou word.

Dit was bekend dat slawehandelaars gratis Afro -Amerikaners in beslag geneem het en dit op 'n veiling verkoop het. Solomon Northrup was 'n vry man uit New York wat in 1841 naby die winkelsentrum ontvoer, geslaan en opgesluit is. Hy is as slaaf verkoop en na New Orleans gestuur waar hy 12 jaar lank gewerk het. Met die hulp van prominente politici en prokureurs het sy familie hom geëmansipeer. Nadat Northrup vrygelaat is, het hy sy ervarings gepubliseer, vir afskaffingsdoeleindes gedoseer en vlugtende slawe gehelp.

In 1848 het 77 verslaafde Afro -Amerikaners probeer om aan boord van die skoener te ontsnap, Pêrel, geanker in die Potomac. Om by die Pêrel Op die beskuldigdebank in die 7de straat het die meeste vlugtelinge waarskynlik gevaarlik naby slawehokke verby die winkelsentrum gegaan. Ondanks groot inspanning was daar nie genoeg wind om die seil te vaar nie Pêrel teen die rivier op en dit het 'n half kilometer van die beskuldigdebank af gestop. Hulle ontsnappingspoging het misluk, en almal aan boord is gevange geneem en na die stad se gevangenis opgeruk. Die meeste ontsnaptes is verkoop aan plantasie arbeid verder suid, en die paar blanke deelnemers is tronk toe gestuur.

Na die vaslegging van die Pêrel, ondersteuners van slawerny het drie dae lank oproer in die stad en die debatte oor slawerny in die hoofstad van die land hervat in die kongres. Twee jaar later het een bepaling van die kompromie van 1850 die slawehandel in Washington, DC beëindig, maar het nie die slawerny beëindig nie. Uiteindelik in 1862 het die District of Columbia Emancipation Act alle slawe in die hoofstad van die land bevry.

Ontdek ander vrae oor & hellip

Geskiedenis van die National Mall is ontwikkel deur die Roy Rosenzweig Sentrum vir Geskiedenis en Nuwe Media, George Mason Universiteit met ruim befondsing van die National Endowment from the Humanities. Inhoud gelisensieer onder CC-BY.


Die laaste Amerikaanse slaweskip

Op 4 Julie 1858 vertrek een van Amerika se vinnigste seiljagte in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, na 'n koor van groetende kanonne. Menigtes langs die waterkant wapper vlae en sakdoeke toe Wanderer van die kus af wegglip met die driehoekige wimpel van die gesogte New York Yacht Club wat trots in die wind waai. Ondanks die uitstuur was die vinnige skoenertjie nie bestem vir nog 'n regatta nie. In plaas daarvan, op 'n dag toe die Verenigde State hul onafhanklikheid vier, was die Wanderer op reis oor die Atlantiese Oseaan om honderde vryheid te ontneem.

Bietjie meer as twee maande later loer William Bowden, bevelvoerder van die Britse oorlogskip HMS Medusa, deur sy spieglas en sien die slanke Amerikaanse seiljag in die mond van die Kongorivier. Op patrollie langs die Afrikaanse kuslyn op soek na onwettige slaweskepe, klim Bowden aan boord van Wanderer en word getref deur sy weelderige vergulde spieëls, palissandermeubels, satynhoutkaste, sierkoperwerk en 𠇊ll wat verlang kan word vir gemak en luukse, ” soos die New York Times berig het. Op uitnodiging van die Amerikaners het Britse offisiere met fyn damast linne in die salon geëet en aan sjampanje gedrink en sigare op die dek gerook, terwyl kaptein John Egbert Farnum hulle herhaal het met verhale oor sy avonture in die Meksikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog en as guerrillavevegter gedien het. in Nicaragua en Kuba.

Teen die einde van die aand het Farnum grappenderwys aan sy gaste gevra of hulle die seiljag wil inspekteer om te verseker dat dit nie 'n slaweskip is nie. Die Britse offisiere het gelag oor wat 'n belaglike idee was, want beslis geen vaartuig wat uitspattig in die slawehandel sou wees nie. Die aansien van die New York Yacht Club -vaandel wat steeds van die hoofmas van Wanderer af gevlieg het, het egter sy afskuwelike missie gehul, want dit was weggesteek, voorrade wat Wanderer in Charleston, kettings, boeie en genoeg Georgië -denneboom aangeneem het om 'n geheim te bou slawe dek.

(Van links na regs) Romeo, Ward Lee, Tucker Henderson, is gevange geneem en na Wanderer na Amerika gebring. Hierdie foto is geneem nadat hulle bevry is.

Sodra die Britte vertrek het, hervat die Amerikaners hul onheilspellende en onwettige bouhokke om menslike vrag weg te werp. Die kongres het gestem om die slawehandel in 1807 af te skaf en dit 'n misdaad te maak wat met die dood strafbaar is in 1820. Wanderer se suidelike eienaars het egter min agting vir die federale wette gehad. William Corrie, lid van die New York Yacht Club, en Charles Lamar, lid van 'n prominente suidelike familie, het die eenjarige skip in die lente van 1858 by die suikermagnaat John D. Johnson van Louisiana gekoop en dadelik begin om een ​​van die vinnigste seiljagte aan te pas. van sy dag in 'n slaweskip.

Verken die Mapping Slave Voyages-interaktiewe om meer te wete te kom oor die 350-jarige geskiedenis van die trans-Atlantiese handel.

Onder 'n groep pro-slawerny-radikale bekend as 𠇏ire-eters, ondersteun Corrie en Lamar die suidelike afstigting en wou hê dat die internasionale slawehandel heropen moet word. Selfs al het die Amerikaanse wet die invoer van slawe verbied, wou die vuurvreter die onmag van die federale regering bewys om dit te stop. Soos die New York Times beskryf het, het die radikale geglo dat as hulle gearresteer word, hulle kan vertrou op die laksheid van amptenare, die gebreke van die bewys, die tegniese aspekte van die wet, en veral die simpatie van regters, vir ontsnapping uit straf. ”

Namate Wanderer se uitgebreide opknapping in Port Jefferson, New York, vorder, het 'n doeanebeampte al hoe meer agterdogtig geword, veral toe ekstra groot watertenks aan boord van 15.000 liter gehaal is en Farnum, 'n bekende moeilikheidmaker, in die stad opgemerk is. The New York Times wonder hardop of die seiljag in 'n slaweskip omskep kan word, maar erken hoe absurd die idee is dat 'n vaartuig so duur en so goed aangepas is vir 'n heer om sy elegante ontspanning deur te bring, as 'n slawer. ” Regeringsamptenare het die skip na New York City beveel vir 'n deeglike inspeksie. Alhoewel daar so 'n groot hoeveelheid voorrade was dat dit kon bewys dat 'n buitengewone reis van een of ander aard beoog word, kon niks die vaartuig spesifiek as 'n slaweskip impliseer nie. Die doeanebeamptes het geen ander keuse gehad as om dit na Charleston en na Afrika te laat gaan nie, waar die Suidlanders in ruil vir rum, kruit, bril, muskiete en ander goedere in die geheim bykans 500 slawe gekoop het, baie van hulle tienerseuns en hulle met warm ysters gebrandmerk .

Amerikaanse vlootskoener USS Wanderer. (Krediet: Public Domain)

Nadat Wanderer wind en golwe oor die Atlantiese Oseaan gery het, het Wanderer op 28 November 1858 met 400 Afrikaanse slawe op Jekyll -eiland voor die kus van Georgië anker neergesit. Ongeveer 70 van die mense wat in slawerny aangehou is, is tydens die reis van ses weke dood tydens die wrede toestande en vuil lug van die skip. Die slawe het hul menslike vrag vinnig in klein bootjies aan wal gesmokkel en in plantasies en slawemarkte oor die suide versprei, waar dit vir meer as $ 700 per kop verkoop is.

Berigte het egter vinnig verskyn oor die teenwoordigheid van pas ingevoerde slawe uit Wes -Afrika. Binne enkele weke het die owerhede die hoofde van die kriminele onderneming, insluitend Corrie en Lamar, in hegtenis geneem en hulle aangekla van slawehandel, seerowery en ander oortredings. Die beskuldigdes het in die somer van 1860 in die federale hof in Savannah, Georgia, tereggestaan, maar die resultaat was baie soos die vuurvreters gedink het. Die suidelike jurie het geweier om hul eweknieë skuldig te bevind, 'n uitspraak wat die spanning wat die volgende jaar in die burgeroorlog uitgebreek het, verder aangevuur het. Uiteindelik was die strengste sanksie wat die samesweerders opgelê het, die uitsetting van Corrie uit die New York Yacht Club.

Lamar het die skip teen 'n kwart van sy waarde teruggekoop, maar die Verenigde State het dit in Mei 1861 as 'n vyandelike vaartuig aangeneem en dit omskep in 'n geweerboot van die Unie wat aan vlootblokkades van die Konfederale hawens deelgeneem het voordat dit in 1871 aan die kus van Kuba gesink het nadat 'n terugkeer na kommersiële gebruik.

Kyk na die baanbrekerreeks wat herontwerp is. Kyk ROOTS nou op GESKIEDENIS.


Die lewens van Amerikaanse slawe soos gesien deur historiese beelde

'N Groep slawe wat ontsnap het, sit buite 'n kajuit. Ontsnappings het as smokkel bekend gestaan ​​nadat die Unie-generaal Benjamin Butler (1818-1893) aangekondig het dat enige slawe in grond wat deur die Unie-leër beheer word, as smokkelgoed beskou sal word. (TRT Wêreld en agentskappe)

1. Ontvoer en tot slawerny gedwing

Honderdduisende mense uit Sentraal- en Wes -Afrika is tussen die middel van die 17de eeu en 1860 onder vragtoestande in vragskepe verslaaf en na die nuwe wêreld vervoer.

Slawehandelondernemings het mense uit hul geboorteland ontvoer. Die meeste slawe is in vragskepe vervoer en vasgeketting aan plankbeddens met min beweegruimte. Winste kom eerste, sodat die handelaars die skepe na die kieue gepak het, en selfs basiese benodigdhede nie voorsien het nie.

Volgens die New York Public Library het ongeveer 388 000 Afrikane gedurende die tydperk in die Verenigde State aangekom.

Maar meer as 83 000 het die reis nie oorleef nie. Hulle sterf tydens die middelpaadjie, of die kruising van Afrika na die Amerikas deur die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Litografie getiteld 'THE LOWER DECK OF A GUINEA MAN IN THE LAST CENTURY', wat 'n slaweskip voorstel wat tussen Afrika en Amerika vaar voor die burgeroorlog. (TRT Wêreld en agentskappe)

2. Beskou as eiendom

Oorgekende Afrikaners is gehuur, verkoop en gekoop soos beeste, ongeag hul ouderdom, geslag of huwelikstatus.

'N Plakkaat wat 'n slaweverkoping adverteer. John Carter was die naam van die slawe -eienaar wat die advertensie geplaas het toe hy na Indiana verhuis het, wat destyds 'n vrystaat was. (TRT Wêreld en agentskappe)

3. Gesinne uitmekaar geskeur

Verslaafde gesinne is nie noodwendig aan dieselfde eienaar verkoop nie. Die dood van 'n eienaar of veral bankrotskap kan daartoe lei dat gesinne geskei word en aan verskillende meesters verkoop word.

Ek het nooit 'n hele gesin geken om saam te woon voordat almal in my lewe groot geword het nie. Daar is byna altyd, in elke gesin, iemand of meer gretig en helder, of andersins nors en hardkoppige slaaf, vir wie die invloed van die res van die gesin bang is, en so iemand moet 'n stapkaartjie na die suide neem, & quot 'n eks-slaaf Lewis Clarke het in sy boek geskryf Vertelling oor die lyding van Lewis Clarke.

Ongedateerde koerantadvertensie wat slawe te koop aanbied. Verslaafde gesinne is nie noodwendig aan dieselfde eienaar verkoop nie. (TRT Wêreld en agentskappe)

4. Wreed straf opgelê

The treatment of slaves was generally brutal and degrading, and designed to break their spirit and enforce obedience. Literacy was discouraged or banned to stop any possible escape or rebellion attempts.

Wilson Chinn, a freed slave from Louisiana, poses with equipment used to punish slaves. Anti-slavery activists used such images to raise awareness against the practice.during the American Civil War. (Getty Images)

Slave owners would punish slaves by whipping, raping and sexually assaulting their victims. As punishment, slave owners would use iron muzzles to prevent their slaves from eating. They were often barred from eating the produce from the plantations they farmed.

Illustration of a slave wearing an iron muzzle. (Wikicommons)

5. Mulatto children

Historians and ex-slaves documented that rape of slave women was common. Laws classified the children of slave mothers as slaves, irrespective of their father's race or status.

In her autobiography Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Harriet Jacobs, an African-American writer who escaped from slavery, wrote that her master was "to my knowledge, the father of eleven slaves."

Rebecca, Charley and Rosa, slave children from New Orleans, photographed by G.W. Hope, 477 Broadway, NY. (TRT World and Agencies)

6. Pro-slave states vs free states

As many Northern states had abolished slavery, Southern, pro-slavery politicians became aware that their slaves were escaping to the free states. To stop this, in 1793 and 1850, Congress passed laws that called for the return of slaves who had escaped from their owners, mostly to another state.

The Fugitive Slave Act led to the capture of many free blacks who were then sold into slavery. Hence some black people took out adverts to warn their fellow blacks about possible threats.

Some black people were posting warnings about possible threats. (TRT World and Agencies)

7. Adverts for missing relatives

Blacks freed after the emancipation in 1865 used newspaper adverts to find their loved ones, friends and family, from whom they were separated when sold to other plantation owners.

Excerpt from Southwestern Christian Advocate dated July 22, 1880. (Historic New Orleans Collection) Excerpt from Southwestern Christian Advocate dated Jan 1, 1880. (Historic New Orleans Collection)


Slavery in Medieval Italy

In the late 1360s, Francesco Petrarch was living in Venice where he could see the unloading of cargo from Venetian merchant galleys and commented (with unfortunate racism):

‘Whereas huge shipments of grain used to arrive by ship annually in this city, now they arrive laden with slaves, sold by their wretched families to alleviate their hunger. An unusually large and countless crowd of slaves of both sexes has afflicted this city with deformed Scythian faces, just like when a muddy current destroys the brilliance of a clear one.’

Most people associate slavery with the ancient world, or with the African slave trade of the modern era. However, between those two periods slavery did not disappear from Europe but persisted and even flourished right around the Mediterranean.

The chaos brought about by the Barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire did not entirely disrupt the Roman way of life and in many parts of the former empire Roman law and practices continued, including the keeping of slaves. The laws of the invading Germanic tribes allowed for slavery as a form of punishment, while in England, at the time of the Norman Conquest, 10% of the population was counted as slaves, though it is not possible to distinguish between domestic slaves and those tied to the land as serfs.

Even in the early Middle Ages in Christian Europe, stories of slaves being owned, traded, given as gifts and bought to be freed can be found. Most likely these slaves were prisoners of war, sold by their families to pay off debts, or captured in raids on non-Christian settlements. Records show that the Venetians were supplying Italy with Muslim slaves as early as the eighth century. Although the Church did nothing to abolish slavery, they passed laws to ensure slaves were well-treated and to prohibit the enslaving of Christians.

A flourishing slave trade continued amongst the non-Christian Slavonic people as well as the Muslim world and as the Venetian and Genoese traders secured footholds in the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea ports they took an active role in this lucrative trade. The slaves they traded came mostly from Eastern Europe and Central Asia and were acquired from slave markets or by raiding the unprotected coastlines of the Black Sea and the disintegrating Byzantine Empire. While Western Christians were nominally protected, Christians of the Eastern Rite were still considered fair game and slaves also came from the Greek islands which were under the control of the Venetians and Genoese.

While most of these slaves were sold into the Muslim world where they were in high demand, thousands were brought back to Italy for the domestic market. Little is recorded about slavery in Medieval Italy and historians have had to piece together its history and prevalence from scant documents. However, while Italians like Petrarch may have felt overwhelmed by the influx of foreign slaves, slave labour never played the significant role in the Italian economy that it did in Ancient Rome or the Americas. The numbers of slaves in Italy were never high. While the proportion of slaves in Palermo in Sicily is estimated to have been as high as 12% of the population, in Genoa it was never more than 2–5%. In Florence there were about 1000 slaves at the end of the fourteenth century, and numbers in the low hundreds in other Tuscan cities.

At the same time, however, the slave trade was lucrative, both to the city states which exacted custom duties on the trade, and the merchants who could expect profits of up to 150% despite the risks of transporting the slaves by sea, such as shipwreck, disease and rebellion. Christian merchants were obliged by canon law not to purchase Christian slaves, but unscrupulous traders might obfuscate the slaves’ origins to avoid such strictures.

The slaves sold in Italy were Russians, Circassians, Tartars, Abkhazi, Mingrelli, Geti, Vlachs, Turkish, and others from the Balkan, Caucasus, and Central Asian regions. Genoese traders sold Greek Orthodox Christians until the late fourteenth century, when the Genoese government finally banned the practice. So prevalent were the slaves from Central Asia that Tartar became the generic term for slave. Sub-Saharan Africans were only a small proportion of the slave population until the fifteenth century when the eastern ports were closed to Italian merchants and were much more numerous in Sicily, with its close ties to the Muslim world, than in northern Italy.

Slaves commanded a high price, but despite the cost, people from all levels of society owned slaves including nobles, priests, notaries, master craftsmen, spice merchants, sailors, and textile workers. By far the majority of slaves were women and the high prices paid for them indicate that they were largely forced to undergo sexual servitude. Records show they were often sold off by their masters’ widows. The Church seemed to turn a blind eye to such concubinage and its social acceptability is shown by the fact that over time the children of slave women could inherit their fathers’ social status. However, not all such children were accepted by their fathers and most were unacknowledged and even abandoned.

Though it was not common, slaves could be freed by the outright granting of manumission, usually late in life, or as a condition of their master’s will. However, even after they were freed, they might still be obliged to remain in the family’s service for a set term in a form of reciprocal patronage. Eventually the slaves and their descendants were absorbed into Italian society, but it is hard to tell how successfully they were assimilated. As Petrarch’s comments show, medieval Italians were as prone to racism as at any other time. It can be imagined that the lighter skinned slaves were more easily accepted than the darker skinned, but this is a subject on which the records are silent.

With the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century, the ports of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea were closed to Venetian and Genoese merchants. They had to turn to Africa and the Balkans, though slaves from such sources may well have become scarce. While the slave trade in the Eastern Mediterranean was closing out European merchants, the demand for labour in the New World shifted the focus of the slave trade on to the Atlantic and the infamous mass trade in African slaves.

The growing scarcity of slaves in Italy and the consequent rise in prices made it easier to employ cheap free labour or indentured workers than to buy slaves, causing a decline in domestic slavery. By 1427 there were only 400 slaves in Florence and they would soon almost disappear from Tuscany. However, slaves continued to be traded in Genoa and the South. Over the next two hundred years, while domestic slavery waned, state ownership of galley slaves took its place. At the same time, Venetians and Genoese merchants found themselves losing their pre-eminence in the trade to their Spanish and Portuguese rivals.


Slave Ship Captains of the Atlantic Slave Trade

A painting c.1830 by the German artist Johann Moritz Rugendas depicts a scene below deck of a slave ship headed to Brazil Rugendas had been an eyewitness to the scene

Who were the men who commanded the slave ships on the Middle Passage and what exactly did they do?

On the slave ship, the captain was King. He held absolute power over every individual on his ship. His responsibilities were extensive and his friendships few. He could not afford to appear vulnerable to his officers, crew, or the enslaved Africans his ship carried.

How to Become a Slave-Ship Captain

Most slave-ship captains were “bred to the sea”. This meant they were apprenticed out at around 11 years of age to be taught necessary sailing skills and often came from a lineage of sailors. It was their connection to financiers that provided their opportunities, however. Their commands came from a group of investors who needed someone to captain their ships, and they obviously looked for captains they could trust.

The payment for commanding a slaver provided plenty of incentive for experienced captains to try their hand at it. Negotiated contracts outlined not just wages, but also commissions and bonuses. A common form of payment was in the slaves themselves, allowing the captain the “privilege” to select a certain number of slaves for himself — for example, four slaves for him to every 100 slaves that arrived alive at their destination. This gave the captain incentive to transport as many as possible, but also to work hard to keep them alive.

Duties of the Slave Ship Captain

The duties of a slave-ship captain began upon his appointment. He first had to select his officers and find a crew. This was, perhaps, his most important task as the skill and loyalty of the men aboard would be tantamount to its success. Captains obviously preferred to work with men who had proven these requirements on previous voyages.

Supervising the loading of the ship also fell under the captain’s duties. In fact, supervising every aspect of the ship’s functioning, both in port and on the seas, was his primary function. His knowledge of all aspects of ship life is what qualified him as captain. He managed supplies, crew members, bookkeeping, navigation, and more and he documented it all in his log. He was the representative of the merchants who backed him, and once upon the seas became the sole decision-maker for the ship and all aboard.

Aside from the sailing-related duties, he took on the role of negotiator in purchasing enslaved Africans. Most merchants provided explicit instructions on what to look for when making the purchases. For example, most were instructed to purchase more males than females and to ensure that females were not “long-breasted”. They were instructed to avoid “smooth negroes”, those who were not used to hard physical labor.

On a slave ship, a captain also served as warden of a floating prison. He had to maintain the discipline of his crew and follow strict protocols when loading and moving slaves to avoid escape attempts. The majority of slave captains never personally entered the hold where the slaves were housed as this would give them the opportunity to kill him. However, he was still responsible for their care during the voyage and gave the orders for how they would be treated. The real and constant fear of insurrections, led most to be aloof, cruel, and arbitrary in their treatment of both sailors and slaves.

Famous Slave Ship Captains

By far the most well-known slave-ship captain is John Newton, but his fame is derived more from his famous hymn “Amazing Grace” than from his time as a slave-ship captain. Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake made their first voyages to the New World on slave ships, but are better known for their privateer days. The famous pirate “Black Bart” Roberts started his pirating days after being kidnapped from a slave ship by pirates in 1719.

According to The Slave Ship: A Human History, the average slave-ship captain made 2.2 slaving voyages, but more than 50 captains documented five or more runs. These captains created a network, sharing information on African traders, slaving methods, crew members, and more. Although they were competing with each other, they also shared a common interest in improving their methods and increasing their profits.


Agtergrond

Die Amerikaanse grondwet het nie direk melding gemaak van slawerny of slawehandel nie, maar slegs deur middel van skuins verwysings. Een van die bepalings was artikel I, afdeling 9, wat lui dat:

Hierdie bepaling is gebore uit die deelstryd in die Grondwetlike Konvensie tussen die noordelike en suidelike afgevaardigdes oor drie afsonderlike kwessies wat geen logiese verband gehad het nie. South Carolina delegate Gen. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney insisted that his state and Georgia could not "do without slaves," and John Rutledge of South Carolina threatened that the three states of the lower South would secede unless permitted to continue this traffic. Die suidelike state het ook daarop aangedring dat uitvoerbelasting verbied word en dat 'n navigasiewet wat die verskeping na Amerikaanse vaartuie beperk, slegs deur 'n tweederde meerderheid van die kongres uitgevaardig kan word. Die afgevaardigdes het 'n kompromis bereik wat federale inmenging met die slawehandel vir 20 jaar verbied het, federale belasting op uitvoere verbied het, maar het toegelaat dat 'n navigasiehandeling met 'n eenvoudige meerderheid soos alle ander wet goedgekeur word. [Sien Samuel Eliot Morison, Die Oxford History of the American People, vol. 1, voorgeskiedenis tot 1789, bl. 400 (New York: The New American Library, Inc., 1972)].

In 1807 verbied die Kongres die Afrika-slawehandel van krag op 1 Januarie 1808 (2 Stat. 426), en verklaar dit in 1820 as seerowery wat met die dood strafbaar is (3 Stat. 600-601). Die regte om slawe te koop en te verkoop en om van die een slawestaat na die ander te vervoer, was egter onbelemmerd.

Katoenproduksie het in ekonomiese belang gegroei na die uitvinding van die watte in 1793. Die Suide het sy jaarlikse produksie byna verdubbel van 1820 tot 1830, verdubbel dit teen 1840 en verdriedubbel dit teen 1860. Teen die uitbreek van die Burgeroorlog was die helfte van die waarde van Amerikaanse goedere wat na die buiteland gestuur is, was in katoen. 'N Breë gordel van suidelike land, wat in breedte wissel van ongeveer 500 myl in die Carolinas en Georgia tot 600 of 700 myl in die Mississippi -vallei, is hoofsaaklik gewy aan katoenkultuur. Die rykdom van die laer suide was hoofsaaklik afkomstig van katoen wat deur slawe vervaardig is, hoewel 'n kleiner aantal slawe ook winsgewend gebruik is in die rysvelde Carolina-Georgia langs die kus en in die produksie van Lousiana-suikerriet. [Sien John D. Hicks, Die Federale Unie: 'n Geskiedenis van die Verenigde State tot 1865, bl. 493 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937)].

Namate katoen verbouing van Alabama na Texas uitgebrei het, het die behoefte aan slawe in die laer suide ook toegeneem. Terselfdertyd het die planters van die Bo -Suid 'n ooraanbod van slawe -arbeid gehad. Tabakverhogers in lande soos Maryland, Virginia en Kentucky het gebuk gegaan onder die volgehoue ​​uitputting van die grond en agteruitgang in hul uitvoerhandel. As gevolg hiervan is oortollige slawe deur slawehandelaars van die een streek na die ander vervoer. In 1836, die piekjaar van hierdie verkeer, is meer as 120 000 slawe van Virginia alleen in die onderste suide verkoop. In die 1840's en 1850's het die huishoudelike slawehandel ietwat verlangsaam as gevolg van 'n herlewing van die landbou in die bo -suide, deels as gevolg van die ontdekking van beter metodes om tabak te genees en die bekendstelling van nuwe en voortreflike variëteite. [Sien John D. Hicks, Die Federale Unie: 'n Geskiedenis van die Verenigde State tot 1865, bl. 497 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937)].


Were slave rowers ever chained to the ship? - Geskiedenis

Preparing to teach the Gospel of Luke this month, I was reminded of the marvelous way Luke opens his gospel, attesting to the historically accurate eye-witness accounts he had thoroughly researched in compiling his gospel:

"Inasmuch as many have taken in hand to set in order a narrative of those things which have been fulfilled among us, just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us, it seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write to you an orderly account, most excellent Theophilus, that you may know the certainty of those things in which you were instructed." (Luke 1:1-4 NKJV)

Since the Greek of these four verses is said to be the very best in the New Testament I dug out my lexicons right away. Immediately I was struck by the fact that Luke uses an unusual word for "ministers." Ray Stedman once said that since Luke was evidently a medical doctor, the Greek word here translated "ministers" could well be translated "physician's assistants."

It has been probably two decades since I have anyone mention the Greek word huperetes . It is a truly great word for us Christians--because all of us are called to carry on "the work of the ministry" together. Huperetes (van hupo , under, and eretes , a rower) came to mean any subordinate acting under another's direction. But the literal meaning of the word is quite instructive. I could not help but feel that a whole new generation of Christians needs to be fully informed of our calling to be under rowers in the service of our Captain Jesus. In a wonderful classic series of messages on expository teaching Ray Stedman remarked,

" I want to go back to the passage, which as I said has been to me a great guideline on the ministry. In the 4th chapter of 1 Corinthians the apostle is describing his own ministry. Now you could hardly ask for a better model of a preacher and teacher than the apostle Paul. The impact of that remarkable ministry is with us yet today. This is the man who in the providence of God and in the grace of God has changed history in every generation since he lived. And he did it by the power of the message that he spoke. This is that secret and hidden wisdom of God, which contains within it the lost secrets of our humanity. These truths when known by and practiced by men and women will bring them out of their brokenness and fragmentation and hurt and emptiness, into wholeness of life, and fulfill or produce the intended glory of humanity. Now I believe that with all my heart. I believe this is the business of the church -- to instruct the minds of the people, first of all by the preaching and teaching of the word as to what these secrets are -- God's view of life -- because God's view is reality. And when you begin live Biblically, you may for the first time begin to deal with life realistically. It is the world that is confused and following pipe dreams and illusions, and not even knowing their illusions. And it is the business of the preacher to so understand the scriptures under the illumination of the Holy Spirit and by diligent effort in his own study to be able to impart to the people the truths that will dispel the illusions and produce fruitful humanity.



This is a confused age in which we live, you know that. Somebody has well said, "If you're not confused today, then you're not thinking clearly." And how do you get people to thinking clearly? Well, by getting them to think like God thinks! He is the ultimate realist he never deceives himself or anyone else. He always deals absolutely realistically with everything. That's why therefore the business of preaching is such an important calling -- because it is correcting all the confusion and the illusion around about us.

Now we [previously] looked in the passage at two words the apostle uses to describe the ministry: servants of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God. And in our first study we tried to explore what is meant by a steward of the mysteries of God. I've just briefly reviewed what we said along that line. Now I'd like to turn to the first of the words which I will handle secondly in order, as the apostle himself does in this passage: servants of Christ. If the steward, and what the apostle says about that is discussing the responsibility of a preacher or teacher, then the word "servant" which he employs is discussing the accountability of a preacher or teacher: whom does he answer to? Who is responsible for him?



Now as many of you know I'm sure, the word that is employed here is a rather infrequently used word, it is not doulos (of douloi in the plural), a bondslave, but it is the word huperetes , the under-rower. It derives its meaning from the military life of the Roman empire, notably the warships, the war galleys of the Romans, which as we're told in that ancient world had a low deck just a foot or so above the water, and there were the seats of the rowers, the slaves, who were for the most part chained to their seats. They were impressed into servitude, many of them educated people, captives who had been taken by the Roman armies. If you've seen the picture -- isn't it Die kleed ? -- you have a vivid description of Ben Hur who served as such an oarsman. And then in a slightly raised deck at the prow of the ship where every rower could see him was the director, or the captain. And it was he who gave orders to the rowers. And they had to instantly obey his orders because this was a warship. They couldn't depend on the winds to maneuver the ship in battle -- they were too uncertain, they didn't blow in the right direction, it took too long to change the sails -- and so in battle they used the oarsmen. And the ship had to stop suddenly, back up even, turn to the right or left, and be very maneuverable. And therefore the duty of the oarsmen was to instantly obey the word of the captain.



Now that is the word that describes a servant of Christ, a preacher or teacher of the word of God. He is to take his orders from the captain, who of course is clearly stated to be Christ, the Lord Jesus himself. He tells us what we are to say. We are not to get it from Tyd magazine, although we can use that as illustrative material, we are not to get it from any other source, especially we are not to take it from the secular convictions around us, because they are the very thing we are warned against, the wisdom of the world. Human knowledge, as we saw before, is perfectly acceptable to the believer, and we are encouraged to explore every dimension and every channel of human thought these days, and use it as we will. But how is it put to practical work?

That is where wisdom comes in, and human wisdom does not lead men to God. In fact, it leads him to make, as we have ample demonstration on every side today, the most atrocious blunders that result in human misery and degradation and dehumanization and the glutting of our city streets and the polluting of our atmosphere and our rivers and all these things, and the failure to properly distribute food throughout the earth -- that's all the result of human wisdom. And everywhere the word of God challenges the wisdom of the world. It is the business of preaching, you see, to set forth the wisdom of God.



Now, we are to keep our eyes, therefore, upon the captain. And the figure which is employed here is particularly emphasizing the singleness of purpose of a preacher, the one from whom alone he takes his orders. And the apostle now goes on to develop this in the passage that follows. He is writing to these Corinthians who, like everyone else, were anxious to tell him how he should conduct his ministry. When you are dealing with the accountability of a preacher, every one of us has discovered that there are hundreds of volunteers who offer themselves in this capacity. And we have to be aware of that fact, and the apostle even suffered from this phenomenon. And he writes to them these rather startling words: "But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you." I imagine that was a very popular verse in Corinth. I imagine that they printed it on little cards and put it up on their refrigerator to remember. Memorize. It is a very small thing, said the apostle, that I should ever be judged by you. No, they must have felt very offended when he wrote this. But he wrote it nevertheless. "Or by any human court." Literally, it is "by man's day." I do not even judge myself, he says. I am not aware of anything against myself, but I am not thereby acquitted. It is the Lord who judges me. Therefore do not pronounce judgment before the time, before the Lord comes, who will bring to light the things now hidden in darkness and will disclose the purposes of the heart. And then every man will receive his commendation from God." (http://raystedman.org/expository/0044.html)

Commenting further on 1 Corinthians 4:1-2 on another occasion, Ray wrote,

This is how one should regard us, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. Moreover it is required of stewards that they be found trustworthy [or faithful]. (1 Corinthians 4:1-2 RSV)

That verse describes the responsibilities of ministers. In Verses 3 through 5 Paul is going to give us the proper evaluation of ministers, and in Verses 6 and 7 the freedom which they are to exercise when the congregation sees them in the proper light. (I give you those divisions so that if you drowse off while I am preaching you will know where to pick it up.) When I use the term "minister of Christ," I am not speaking of the traditional concept of a full-time employee of a church who is kept around to do the preaching, the teaching, the counseling and to run the mimeograph machine. Unfortunately that is a widespread concept of what the pastor ought to be and I run into it in many places. This concept, of course, is totally unknown in the New Testament. The idea of having a single pastor, die pastor, is an unbiblical imposition that has come into the church within the past 250 years. A minister of Christ in the New Testament churches was anyone, anyone, who by virtue of a gift of the Spirit was a preacher or a teacher of the Word of God. That is what Paul is talking about here.

There is a sense in which we are all ministers of Christ. Every Christian is in the ministry -- I have said that many times. But there is a special sense -- Paul is dealing with it here -- of those who have the gift of teaching or preaching ("prophesying" as it is called in Scripture), and their function within the body of Christ. There are dozens of ministers like that in every church. In fact, here at PBC, since we have stressed some of these things for a long time, there are probably scores, if not hundreds, of people who fulfill the qualifications and the characterization of ministers of Christ as Paul is speaking of them in this particular passage. Well, how are we to look at people like that, and what are we to think about them? Paul deals with this first. Wie is hierdie mense? Should we call them bishops? Are they wardens, as the Episcopalians call them? Are they doctors, rabbis, popes or even senior pastors? Well, you do not find those titles in the Scriptures. (Bishops are referred to, but not in the usual sense that we think of them today. Bishops were not in oversight over more than one church. They were the equivalent of elders and overseers.) The word the apostle uses here is a very remarkable one. He says, "We want you to look at us as servants of Christ." The word for servant is the Greek word huperetes, which literally means "an under-rower."

Now everyone in Corinth understood what that word meant. Corinth was where the war galleys of the Roman Empire crossed through the isthmus that separated the Ionian Sea from the Aegean Sea, and the Corinthians knew that the lowest deck of a war galley was made of single rows of benches on both sides of the ship where the rowers sat. Then on a little deck raised up above them all, so that each rower could see him, was the captain of the ship. It was the rowers' task to row according to what he said. If he wanted the ship to move then they were to row if he wanted them to stop they had to stop instantly. Their whole business was to obey his orders. Now, that is the word that Paul chooses to describe those who are teachers, preachers and ministers of the Word of God within the congregation of the Church. They are "under-rowers" of Christ.

This is a word that is used in other places in Scripture also. When our Lord stood before Pontius Pilate and Pilate asked him if he were a king, Jesus said, "My kingship is not of this world if my kingship were of this world, my servants (huperetes) would fight," John 18:36 RSV). That is, "If my kingdom were an earthly kingdom and I told my servants to fight that is what they would do. They would obey what I said." This word is used again in the account of Paul and Barnabas as they go out on the first missionary journey. Luke tells us that they took with them a young man named John Mark to be their "minister" (huperetes ). Did that mean that he was to be in charge of the devotions every morning? No, it meant that he was the one who got the airline tickets, checked their baggage, and made hotel reservations, ran the errands, and did what they told him.

Paul says, "That is what we want you to think about us. We are not big shots, we are not among you as domineering leaders with the last word to utter. We are servants of Christ, under-rowers with our eyes fixed on him." What he tells us to say that is what we are to say, and what he tells us not to do that is where our limits are. That is what we want you to think about us as you see us ministering among you.

From this flows what I think is a biblical independence of ministers of Christ, using that term in its widest sense. They are not to be servants of the Board, for the members of the Board themselves, the elders, are joint ministers of Christ with them. Ministers are not to be servants of the congregation, and least of all the denomination. They are servants of Christ. Paul says in Galatians, Chapter 1, "If I were still pleasing men, I should not be a servant of Christ," (Galatians 1:10 RSV). There he draws a sharp contrast. They are not to be paying heed to what the congregation, or any one group within the congregation, wants to hear, but they are to say what the Lord tells them to say. That is what the servant of Christ, the under-rower of Christ, must do. I tell you I have never valued anything more in my whole life than the fact that I belong with that crowd. I see myself as an huperetes , an under-rower, of Christ, and it is my responsibility to say and do what he says and tells me to do. (http://raystedman.org/1corinthians/3581.html)

We are now living a quarter-century later in history since Ray called his congregation to be faithful under rowers of Christ. If the church is like a galley (or even a barge) the only possible way or going anywhere is for every rower to listen to and obey the rowing captain.

Today I know many fine Christians who truly want to serve God. Perhaps we have all fallen victim to the rugged individualism which dominates our secular culture? There is not much interest in "rowing together" as far as I can detect. What I miss is the team spirit of pulling together with vision from God and a clear sense of a very high calling. These motivations were much more common among Christians a few decades ago. No matter how diligently we may be rowing for Christ as individuals if we are not all marching to the clear beat of our Captain's drum, we row in vain.

Die woord doulos also seems to have lost its meaning for many Christians in the past few decades. Under rowers are also slaves. Romans Chapter 6 reminds me that if I choose not to be a bond-slave of Jesus I will automatically default to being a slave to sin.

"Do you not know that to whom you present yourselves slaves to obey, you are that one's slaves whom you obey, whether of sin leading to death, or of obedience leading to righteousness? But God be thanked that though you were slaves of sin, yet you obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine to which you were delivered. And having been set free from sin, you became slaves of righteousness. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you presented your members as slaves of uncleanness, and of lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves of righteousness for holiness. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. What fruit did you have then in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. But now having been set free from sin, and having become slaves of God, you have your fruit to holiness, and the end, everlasting life. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord." (Romans 6:16-23)

Our Lord knows how to steer his ship and how to revive his languishing church. My prayer for 2006 is that God would move all of us into serious obedience, willing self-sacrifice, a clear renunciation of the world, and a regular reminder, "You are not you own, you are bought with a price. therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's." (1 Corinthians 6:20)

Praying for Servant-Hearted Children , by John Barnett. (A study of huperetes ), http://www.discoverthebook.org/message_detail.asp?fileid=452

Ray C. Stedman's newly completed independent web site, http://raystedman.org/, features all of Ray's books, a weekly Podcast, and more than 800 sermons in printed and audio formats.

News: I appreciate the privilege and opportunity given me to teach through Luke's gospel in the Forum Class at my home church, PBC of Palo Alto, starting Sunday, January 8. As usual I'll put notes and mp3 files on my web site. See http://ldolphin.org/luke/

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Living in the San Francisco Bay Area is high-stressville for all of us these days. Your prayers are greatly valued.