Cornelius Vanderbilt - Biografie, kinders en feite

Cornelius Vanderbilt - Biografie, kinders en feite


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Die skeeps- en spoorwegmagnaat Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) was 'n selfgemaakte multi-miljoenêr wat een van die rykste Amerikaners van die 19de eeu geword het. As seun werk hy saam met sy pa, wat 'n boot bestuur het wat vrag tussen Staten Island, New York, waar hulle gewoon het, en Manhattan vervoer het. Nadat hy as kaptein van 'n stoomskip gewerk het, het hy aan die einde van die 1820's vir homself sake gedoen en uiteindelik een van die land se grootste stoomskipoperateurs geword. In die proses het die Commodore, soos hy in die openbaar die bynaam gekry het, 'n reputasie verwerf dat hy baie mededingend en genadeloos was. In die 1860's het hy sy fokus verskuif na die spoorwegbedryf, waar hy 'n ander ryk gebou het en gehelp het om spoorwegvervoer doeltreffender te maak. Toe Vanderbilt sterf, was hy meer as $ 100 miljoen werd.

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Vroeë jare

Cornelius Vanderbilt, 'n afstammeling van Nederlandse setlaars wat in die middel van die 1600's na Amerika gekom het, is in nederige omstandighede gebore op 27 Mei 1794 op Staten Island, New York. Sy ouers was boere en sy pa het ook geld verdien deur produkte en handelsware tussen Staten Island en Manhattan te vervoer in sy tweemastige seilskip, bekend as 'n periauger. As 'n seuntjie het die jonger Vanderbilt saam met sy pa aan die water gewerk en kort skoolgegaan. Toe Vanderbilt 'n tiener was, het hy vrag in sy eie periuger om die hawe van New York vervoer. Uiteindelik het hy 'n vloot klein bote aangeskaf en geleer oor skeepsontwerp.

In 1813 trou Vanderbilt met sy neef Sophia Johnson, en die egpaar het uiteindelik 13 kinders gehad. ('N Jaar nadat sy eerste vrou in 1868 gesterf het, trou Vanderbilt met 'n ander neef, Frank Armstrong Crawford, wat meer as vier dekades jonger was.)

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Stoomskepe

Cornelius Vanderbilt het aanvanklik geld verdien in die stoomskeepsbedryf voordat hy in spoorweë belê het. In 1817 werk Vanderbilt as veerkaptein by 'n welgestelde sakeman, Thomas Gibbons, wat 'n kommersiële stoombootdiens besit het tussen New Jersey en New York. Die werk het Vanderbilt die geleentheid gebied om meer te wete te kom oor die ontluikende stoomskipbedryf. Aan die einde van die 1820's het hy op sy eie besigheid begin, stoomskepe gebou en veerbootlyne in die New York -streek bedryf. Slim en aggressief het hy 'n oorheersende krag in die bedryf geword deur hewige tariefoorloë met sy mededingers te voer. In sommige gevalle het sy mededingers hom stewige bedrae betaal om nie daarmee te ding nie. (Gedurende sy lewe sou Vanderbilt se genadelose benadering tot sake hom talle vyande besorg.)

In die 1840's bou Vanderbilt 'n groot baksteenhuis vir sy gesin op 10 Washington Place, in die huidige Greenwich Village-woonbuurt in Manhattan. Ten spyte van sy groeiende welvaart, het die stad se elite -inwoners traag om Vanderbilt te aanvaar, aangesien hy hom as onbuigsaam en onbewerk beskou.

In die vroeë 1850's, tydens die California Gold Rush, 'n tyd voor transkontinentale spoorweë, het Vanderbilt 'n stoomskipdiens geloods wat prospekteerders van New York na San Francisco vervoer het via 'n roete oor Nicaragua. Sy roete was vinniger as 'n gevestigde roete oor Panama, en baie vinniger as die ander alternatief, om Kaap Horn aan die suidpunt van Suid -Amerika, wat maande kan duur. Vanderbilt se nuwe reeks was 'n onmiddellike sukses en verdien meer as $ 1 miljoen (ongeveer $ 26 miljoen in vandag se geld) per jaar.

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Spoorweë

Hy was berug betrokke by die Erie Railroad War van 1868, toe hy die Wall Street -handelaars Jim Fisk en Jay Gould vir finansiële beheer oor die Erie Railroad beveg het. Die Erie is beheer deur Daniel Drew, wat saam met Vanderbilt saamgespan het om die meerderheid aandele in die spoorweg op te koop. In reaksie hierop het Gould en Fisk ekstra, afgewaterde aandele uitgereik, wat Vanderbilt bly koop het. Koerante van die era het verlustig in die stryd tussen die rowerbaronne. Die Erie -spoorwegoorlog het tot 'n bisarre einde gekom toe Gould en Fisk die uiteindelike beheer oor die spoorlyn verkry het, en Drew gedwing het om af te tree terwyl hy Vanderbilt terugbetaal vir sy afgewaterde aandele.

Vanderbilt het sonder omgee ander pogings aangegaan en was die dryfveer agter die bou van die Grand Central Depot in Manhattan, wat in 1871 geopen het. Die stasie is uiteindelik afgebreek en vervang deur die huidige Grand Central Terminal, wat in 1913 geopen is.

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Laaste jare

Anders as die titane van die Gilded Age wat hom gevolg het, soos die staalmagnaat Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) en die stigter van Standard Oil John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), het Vanderbilt nie groot huise besit of baie van sy groot rykdom aan liefdadigheid weggegee nie oorsake. Trouens, die enigste aansienlike filantropiese skenking wat hy gemaak het, was in 1873, teen die einde van sy lewe, toe hy $ 1 miljoen gegee het om die Vanderbilt -universiteit in Nashville, Tennessee, te bou en te skenk. (Met 'n knipoog na die bynaam van die stigter, word die atletiekspanne van die skool die Commodores genoem.)

Die Vanderbilt -herehuise wat verband hou met die Gilded Age, insluitend die Breakers in Newport, Rhode Island en die Biltmore in Asheville, Noord -Carolina, is gebou deur Cornelius Vanderbilt se afstammelinge. (Die landgoed Biltmore met 250 kamers, wat aan die einde van die 19de eeu deur een van die kleinseuns van Vanderbilt gebou is, is vandag die grootste huis in privaat besit in die Verenigde State.)

Vanderbilt is op 4 Januarie 1877 in die ouderdom van 82 oorlede in sy huis in Manhattan en is begrawe in die Morawiese begraafplaas in New Dorp, Staten Island. Hy het die grootste deel van sy fortuin, wat op meer as $ 100 miljoen geraam word, aan sy seun William (1821-1885) oorgelaat.

Bron

Die Wall Street -oorlog om die Erie -spoorweg te beheer. GedagteCo.


Cornelius Vanderbilt feite vir kinders

Cornelius Vanderbilt (27 Mei 1794 - 4 Januarie 1877), ook informeel bekend as "Commodore Vanderbilt", was 'n Amerikaanse sakemagnaat en filantroop wat sy rykdom in spoorweë en skeepvaart gebou het. Hy is arm gebore en het slegs 'n matige opleiding, en het deursettingsvermoë, intelligensie en geluk gebruik om leiersposisies in die binnelandse waterhandel in te werk en te belê in die vinnig groeiende spoorwegbedryf. Hy is veral bekend daarvoor dat hy die New York Central Railroad gebou het.

As een van die rykste Amerikaners in die geskiedenis en rykste figure in die algemeen, was Vanderbilt die aartsvader van 'n welgestelde, invloedryke gesin. Hy het die eerste geskenk gegee om die Vanderbilt -universiteit in Nashville, Tennessee, te stig.


Cornelius Vanderbilt Biografie: "The Commodore"

Selfs vandag nog, meer as 140 jaar sedert sy heengaan, roep Cornelius Vanderbilt se naam steeds krag, aansien en roem op. xa0

Vir die grootste deel van sy lewe het hierdie selfgeleerde Staten Islander, met byna geen formele opleiding nie, miljoene in die mariene/veerboothandel gemaak.  

INHOUDSOPGAWE

Vanderbilt is dekades voor die wydverspreide gebruik van die stoommasjien gebore.Commodore.    

Hy was 'n beroemdheid en legende in sy eie tyd en het een van die rykste individue in Amerika geword danksy sy meedoënlose mededingendheid.    

Vanderbilt het vurig geglo in  laissez-faire-ekonomie en dit tot groot voordeel gebruik om sy mededingers te verpletter.   Na 'n leeftyd op die see het hy in 1863 alle fokus na spoorweë verskuif.

Alhoewel Vanderbilt met reg aangevoer kan word as 'n winsgewer met min belangstelling in die openbare belang, was hy tog regverdig in sake. Teen sy dood in 1877 het hy die grondslag gelê vir wat die moderne New York Central System sou word.  

'N AB -stel New York Central F3's het 'n manifes in die westelike rigting terwyl die trein gedurende Januarie 1951 die oostelike "New England States" (Chicago - Cleveland - Boston) naby U.S. Steel's South Works in 87th Street (Chicago) verbygaan.

Agtergrond en vroeë lewe

Die vroeë lewe en kinderjare van Cornelius Vanderbilt is nie besonder opmerklik nie. Alhoewel dit kortliks hier bespreek sal word, fokus hierdie artikel hoofsaaklik op die Commodore's spoorwegloopbaan.  

As u belangstel in 'n volledige biografie van Vanderbilt, kan u 'n afskrif van T.J. Stiles '"Die eerste magnaat: die epiese lewe van Cornelius Vanderbilt. " 

Dit is die belangrikste boek oor sy lewe.   Cornelius Vanderbilt is gebore op 27 Mei 1794, die vierde kind van Phebe Hand en ਌ornelius Van Der Bilt (oorspronklike spelling).  

Sy ouers was Nederlanders, alhoewel hul familie se geskiedenis teruggevoer kan word na immigrante wat die kolonie "New Netherlands" in 1650 gevestig het.  

Deur handel was vader Cornelius 'n boer en sou hy so naby aan New York (destyds 'n stad van slegs 33 000) woon, sy produkte in die stad verkoop. In Der Bilt se geval het hy 'n tweemastervaartuig geloods, bekend as 'n periauger.  

Hierdie bootjie was 'n Nederlandse uitvinding wat spesifiek bedoel was om mense en/of goedere oor die baai te vervoer.

As gevolg van hul beperkte middele was hy en sy vrou redelik spaarsaam en het hulle altyd die besteebare inkomste gespaar.

Nywerheid en feite

Hierdie agtergrond het die weg gebaan vir jong Cornelius se toekomstige pogings.   As kind het hy baie ure op sy vader se plaas ingesit en vanaf hierdie indrukwekkende ouderdom die waarde van harde werk geleer.   familieplaas.  

Om hierdie rede het die seuntjie nooit 'n groot belangstelling in formele skoolopleiding gehad nie en het hy op 11 -jarige ouderdom opgehou om uitsluitlik op boerdery te fokus. skryf behoorlik Engels en skryf eerder woorde foneties.  

Hierdie gestremdheid het Vanderbilt deur sy hele lewe geteister, dit was nie net 'n verleentheid nie, maar veroorsaak ook dat hy baie jare lank deur die sosiale elite vermy word.

Teen die ouderdom van 12 jaar het hy die veerbootbedryf redelik goed begryp, tesame met sy ma se leerstellings oor spaargeld, lenings en onderpand waarmee hy die sakewêreld wou betree.  

Dit kom op 16 -jarige ouderdom toe hy 'n  periauger aan die werk sit, wat tegnies die eiendom van sy ouers was. dieselfde jaar, op 19 Desember, trou hy met die eerste neef, Sophia Johnson).

'N Publisiteitsfoto van New York Central met die vlagskipdiens van die spoorweg, die "20th Century Limited", in Cold Spring, New York, in Junie 1947.

Gedurende die oorlog van 1812 het Vanderbilt 'n regeringskontrak verkry vir die vervoer van militêre voorrade na forte en ander projekte wat in aanbou rondom die hawe van New York is.  

Alhoewel die geldigheid van die verhaal nie bevestig kan word nie, word gesê dat hy hierdie onderneming toegeken is vanweë sy groeiende reputasie as 'n bekwame en bekwame veerman wat billike pryse aangebied het.  

Vanderbilt se aandag aan koste, spaarsaamheid, kliënte en sy hardnekkige mededingendheid het hom toenemend meer geld verdien.   Sy aggressie het voortdurend sy mededingers uit die sak gejaag.

Sy gewone taktiek het behels dat pryse so laag was dat die opposisie sou kapituleer.   Hy verloor gewoonlik self geld op kort termyn, maar behaal byna altyd 'n oorwinning op die lang termyn.  

Vanderbilt het voortdurend harde kapitaal opgedoen deur middel van direkte kontantbesparing, vaste eiendom of rente wat op lenings verdien word.

Op 24 November 1817, op 23 -jarige ouderdom, neem hy die bevel oor die stoomboot Muis, 'n vaartuig wat besit word deur die welgestelde Thomas Gibbons, toe een van die land se suksesvolste handelaars.  

New York Central E7A #4002 trek op 21 April 1965 in Chicago se Englewood Union Station in. Roger Puta -foto.

Stoom was natuurlik die toekoms in vervoer, aangesien 'n mens nie meer die winde of strome vir kragvaartuie nodig gehad het nie.

Op 16 Mei 1826 is die jare lange mentor van Vanderbilt oorlede en die landgoed het sy seun oorgedra.  Commodore haat.  

Vroeg in 1828 het die stygende seevaarder sy eie stoomboot, die  , gelanseerBurger 'n sywiel van 145 voet, 145 ton.   Namate sy middele groei, word Vanderbilt 'n krag in die maritieme bedryf.  

Hy het al meer stoomskepe aangeskaf en was ewe vaardig in die ontwerp van sy eie bote met 'n konstante blik op koste en spoed.  Hy het nooit 'n skuld gehad nie en het nooit iets op krediet gekoop nie.   Hy was ekonomies tot by uiterste. " 

Daar word vermoed dat Vanderbilt teen 1834 'n halfmiljoen dollar werd is en ses jaar later sy voet in sy nuwe herehuis op Staten Island gesit het. (Interessant genoeg sou hy slegs 13 jaar in hierdie huis woon.   In 1846 verhuis hy na 'n nuwe huis op 10 Washington Place in Manhattan.)

Verdien die titel van "Commodore"

Tot aan die laat 1840's het Vanderbilt grotendeels uitsluitlik konsentreer op vrag- en passasiersverkeer (beide veerboot en maritiem) tussen New York-Boston, en veral Long Island Sound.  

Dit het verander met die California Gold Rush van 1849.   Hy het ook op hierdie tydstip by spoorweë betrokke geraak, en nam sy beroemdheid ook toe sy prestige gegroei het.  

Die New York Herald berig op 6 Maart 1851:Commodore Vanderbilt se karakter vir energie en vooruitgang is bekend in hierdie gemeenskap.

Hy is 'n man wie se resolusie onwankelbaar is, en voor wie se vasberadenheid hindernisse, hoe groot ook al, verdwyn soos die oggendauw voor 'n Julie -son.

Die gevolg van die Gold Rush het duisende setlaars na Kalifornië gebring, veral in die destydse klein gemeenskap van San Francisco.  

Aangesien 'n toenemende aantal Europeërs weswaarts gestroom het, hoofsaaklik via 'n stoomboot om Kaap Horn, het Kalifornië op 9 September 1850 staatskaping bereik met so 'n sterk behoefte aan reis, het baie ondernemings na vore gekom om miljoene dollars in die water te stort.  

Op 19 April 1849 sou 226 stoomskepe alleen uit New York na Kalifornië vertrek en ongeveer 20 000 reisigers vervoer. Benewens mense was die federale regering ook geïnteresseerd in die versending van pos na en van die weskus.   Die mees praktiese weg was die oseaan en Suid -Amerika se Kaapse Hoorn.  

Met die erkenning van hierdie enorme geldelike geleentheid, het Vanderbilt en 'n paar medewerkers geglo dat 'n kanaal dwarsdeur Nicaragua nie net prakties is nie, maar ook dae van die reis kan skeer.  

Dit was 'n moeilike, hoewel oorwegend natuurlike deurgang, wat die San Juan -rivier en die Nicaragua -meer tussen die Stille Oseaan en die Karibiese See sou benut.

Die enigste mensgemaakte deel was 'n komponent van 12 myl langs die westelike rand. #xa0Prometheus op pad na Greytown, Nicaragua, op 'n paadjie vanaf New York.  

Nadat hulle by sy bestemming aangekom het, is die goedere en passasiers op kleiner vaartuie afgelaai om die binnelandse reis te voltooi.

Op 14 Julie 1851 het die Prometheus het weer die hawe van New York vertrek, hierdie keer op die eerste opening van die ਊmerican Atlantic & Pacific Ship Canal Company.   Accessory Transit Company.    

'N ABA -reeks waens in New York -sentrale onder leiding van F7A #1707 word met 'n westwaartse vrag in St. Baie van hierdie tweespoorroete, 'n baie belangrike gang onder die Sentraal, is sedertdien laat vaar. David Sweetland se foto.

Ongelukkig was sy belangstelling in die Nicaraguaanse onderneming altyd 'n onstuimige saak, grootliks as gevolg van 'n inmengende medewerker, ene Joseph L. White.  

Die operasie was nietemin baie suksesvol en teen die 1850's was sy bynaam as die਌ommodore, tipies gereserveer vir die hoogste posisie van 'n vlootoffisier, was goed gevestig.

Hy het later die transatlantiese stoomskipmark (laat 1854) gebruik, 'n onderneming wat ook suksesvol geblyk het. Vir sy vele prestasies in die buiteland en in die buiteland het Vanderbilt se gesogte Amerikaanse poskontrak hom altyd gesinspeel.   In die volgende dekade het hy voortgegaan om fokus op sy verskillende maritieme transaksies.  

Met 'n groot gevoel van patriotisme het hy selfs 'n sleutelrol gespeel tydens die Burgeroorlog. Vanderbilt het meer as een keer topposisies in president Abraham Lincoln se personeel gebied.  .  

Sy primêre bydrae tot die oorlogspoging was die leen van sy maritieme kundigheid en die gee van die Verenigde State sy mees gewaardeerde stoomskip, die vyfdekbed  Vanderbilt.  

Hierdie enorme boot is op 5 Mei 1857 in gebruik geneem waar dit in die transatlantiese arena meegeding het.   Dit was nie net groot nie, maar ook vinnig en kon die New York-Liverpool-ren van agtien dae tot nege verminder.   Eers het die vloot sy aanbod van die hand gewys.CSS Virginia  op 8 Maart 1862 het alles verander.

- Die  CSS VirginiaDaar is altyd na   verwys as die  Merrimack  deur Unie -magte toe die oorlogskip herbou is uit die geredde  USS Merrimack. -Met 'n byna ondeurdringbare wapenrusting kon die vaartuig die vloot van die Unie, wat bestaan ​​uit tradisionele houtgetrekde ontwerpe, op sy eie vermorsel.

Gedurende daardie dag het dit die   gesinkUSS Cumberlandਊnd USS Kongres  terwyl die   ernstig beskadig isUSS Minnesota.   Op 9 Maart is dit ontmoet deur die Amerikaanse nuwe ysterjas, die  USS Monitor.   Die twee sukkel tot 'n dooiepunt binne die James River by Hampton Roads, Virginia.  

As 'n ekstra beskerming teen die nuwe skepping van die rebelle, verkry president Lincoln en die oorlogsdepartement die  Vanderbilt.   Alhoewel dit nooit die  CSS VirginiaDirek die titaniese sywiel het haar nietemin verhinder om verder verwoesting te veroorsaak.    

Op 10 Mei 1862 verower die Unie -magte Norfolk en ontken die  Virginia port -fasiliteite.   Omdat hulle nêrens kon opknap en weer toegerus is nie, het die Konfederale magte die skip op 11 Mei gestamp om te verhoed dat dit gevang word.  

Die  Vanderbiltlater sou hy lof kry vir nog 'n berugte Konfederale oorlogskip, die  CSS Alabama.   Hierdie sloep-of-war verdien erkenning as een van die suksesvolste stropers van die oorlog.   Weer eens het die  Vanderbilt  het nooit die   betrek nieAlabamaAlhoewel sy verhoed het dat die vaartuig verdere probleme langs die Amerikaanse kus skep.

਍ieਊlabama  is uiteindelik gesink deur die  USS Kearsarge  by die Slag van Cherbourg buite die hawe van Cherbourg, Frankryk op 19 Junie 1864. Vir die diens aan sy land het Vanderbilt 'n spesiale goue medalje ontvang na 'n resolusie wat die kongres op 28 Januarie 1864 aangeneem het.

'N Nuwe era, die spoorweë

Terwyl die Commodore's direkte betrokkenheid by spoorweë het eers op 70 -jarige ouderdom begin, maar hy het nietemin 'n lang geskiedenis in die bedryf gehandhaaf. Spoorweg.  

Destyds was die nuwe tegnologie weinig meer as 'n nuwigheid, alhoewel dit binnekort sou verander. In 'n besluit wat hom amper doodgemaak het, het Vanderbilt die dag die nuwe toerusting gery.  

Die trein ontspoor onderweg en ondanks die traumatiese gebeurtenis het hy geen ernstige wrok teen die ysterperd gehad nie.

Op 10 November 1837 het die New York, Providence & Boston Railroad (NYP & B) sy eerste 50 myl suidwes van Providence, Rhode Island, geopen.#Xa0 Beter bekend as die "Stonington Railroad" ('n toekomstige komponent van die moderne New York, New Haven & Hartford) Vanderbilt ry ook op hierdie lyn en het oortuig geword van die potensiaal daarvan.  

Hy het gesê dit is die vinnigste manier om na Boston (van New York) af te kom, en later, gedurende die somer van 1845, aansienlike aandele in die NYP & B te koop. voorloper van die moderne New Haven).  

Teen 1847 het hy opgevaar na die presidentskap van die Stonington. Terwyl die stelsel onder sy leiding goed bestuur is, het die Commodore's die belangstelling in spoorweë het gedemp gebly toe hy die Nicaragua -kanaalprojek gevolg het. Dit het daartoe gelei dat hy op 14 Mei 1849 uit die Stonington bedank het.

Dit was in 1854 dat hy die eerste keer betrokke geraak het by die spoorlyn wat hy later sou beheer, die New York & Harlem Railroad (NY&H).

Eers na Vanderbilt se betrokkenheid (OOp 18 Mei 1863 verower hy 'n direkteurskap en word die volgende dag tot president verkies.), wat die potensiaal van die spoorweg erken het, het dit gedy.  

Voorheen was die NY&H 'n swak bestuurde, winsgewende operasie.

'N A-B-A stel New York Central E7 se drukte in die oostelike "20th Century Limited" langs die Hudsonrivier noord van New York City in Julie 1947. Storm King Mountain kan op die agtergrond aan die linkerkant gesien word. Ed Nowak foto.

Interessant genoeg, soos mnr. Stiles opgemerk het, het die saketaktiek van Vanderbilt verander namate sy spoorwegbetrokkenheid verdiep het. Miskien het hy, weens sy toenemende ouderdom, dikwels diplomasie gekies bo openlike vyandigheid.  

'N Ander rede was 'n gevolg van die aard van die spoorweë, anders as stoomskepe, waar 'n mens eenvoudig 'n koers tussen twee punte kon bepaal, en spoorweë het vaste infrastruktuur bedryf. saam.

Die kinders van Cornelius en Sophia Vanderbilt

Phebe Jane Vanderbilt (1814–1878)

Ethelinda Vanderbilt (1817–1889)

Eliza Vanderbilt (1819–1890)

William Henry "Billy" Vanderbilt (1821–1885)

Emily Almira Vanderbilt (1823–1896)

Sophia Johnson Vanderbilt (1825–1912)

Maria Louisa Vanderbilt (1827–1896)

Frances Lavinia Vanderbilt (1828–1868)

Cornelius Jeremiah Vanderbilt (1830–1882)

George Washington Vanderbilt I (1832-1836)

Mary Alicia Vanderbilt (1834–1902)

Catherine Juliette Vanderbilt (1836–1881)

George Washington Vanderbilt II (1839–1864)

Ondernemings -Amerika van die 19de eeu was 'n afbrekende saak met spekulante en Wall Street -magmanne wat mekaar voortdurend onderbreek in 'n poging om hul eie sak te trek.   Dit was veral die geval met spoorweë, die grootste ondernemings in die land.

Ongelukkig, met min toesig van die regering, plaas bestuurders soos Jay Gould, Daniel Drew en Collis Huntington dikwels wins bo die openbare diens.  

Selfs Vanderbilt kan tereg hiervan beskuldig word, alhoewel sy ryk nie die gevolg was van direkte verowerings nie.

Nadat hy by die Harlem betrokke geraak het, verkry hy die mededingende Hudson River Railroad (via voorraadbeheer) om die NY&H te beskerm. 'N Plot deur Leonard Jerome in 1864 om die oorspronklike New York Central Railroad (NYC) oor te neem, sou in wese die NY&H oortollig.  

Jerome beheer ook die Hudsonrivier en sy toevoeging van die NYC sou hom 'n direkte roete van New York na Buffalo via Albany gegee het.  

Na die verowering van Vanderbilt in die Hudsonrivier, het hy gesê: "Ek het gesê dit is verkeerd, hierdie paaie moet nie bots nie.   Toe stap ek stap-vir-stap die Hudsonrivier binne.

Tipies vir Vanderbilt was hy bondig en tot die punt, hoewel die werklike proses om die stelsel te bekom 'n skaakspel was, waarin hy 'n meester geword het.  

New York Sentraal se oostelike "Missourian" (St. Louis - New York) loop gedurende Julie 1952 om die Mohawkrivier tussen Utica en Albany, New York.

Interessant genoeg was sy spoorwegloopbaan hoofsaaklik van leiersvlak. neem inspeksieritte.  

Volgens die boek van mnr. Stiles, "Vanderbilt. stel algemene beleide, sowel as die algemene bestuurstoon. Die Commodore het 'n atmosfeer van doeltreffendheid, spaarsaamheid en ywer geskep, sowel as vinnige vergelding vir oneerlikheid of luiaard."  Die  Commodore'sDie grootste enkele verkryging was die oorspronklike New York Central Railroad.  

Jare lank is die NYC beheer deur Erastus Corning, 'n man wat na 'n geruime tyd 'n bondgenoot van Vanderbilt geword het.  

Gedurende sy ampstermyn het hulle vriendelike, onderlinge verkeersverbindings geniet.   Helaas, hy is onverwags aan die einde van 1866 oorlede en is daarna op 12 Desember 1866 deur Henry Keep vervang.  

Keep het geen belangstelling gehad om met die   saam te werk nieCommodore  en het uiters vyandig geword teenoor Vanderbilt se spoorweë.  

Soveel so dat die NYC geweier het om versendings van die Harlem- en Hudsonrivier na die westelike rigting te hanteer.

New York Central E8A's bestaan ​​uit 'n passasier by die Englewood Union Station in Chicago op 21 April 1965. Foto van Roger Puta.

As die grootste Amerikaanse stad was New York 'n belangrike mark en het Vanderbilt die enigste direkte toegang beheer. sy medewerkers verkoop groot blokke van hul NYC -aandele, wat Vanderbilt verkry het.  

Minder as 'n jaar later word hy aangewys as president van New York (11 Desember 1867).   Nou onder beheer van alle lyne tussen New York en Buffalo, is die  CommodoreIn 1869 gevorm die New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, is die HRRR en NYC saamgevoeg in die nuwe operasie terwyl die Harlem gehuur is.  

Soos Brian Solomon en Mike Schafer in hul boek opmerk:New York Central Railroad, "'n ander belangrike toevoeging was die Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway.  

Hierdie baie groot Midde -Weste het tot in die 1830's 'n geskiedenis teruggevoer en het gegroei deur 'n kombinasie van oornames en samesmeltings. Op sy hoogtepunt het die LS&MS Buffalo met Chicago verbind via Toledo, Cleveland en Elkhart.  

Dit het ook Detroit, suidelike dele van Michigan, en Oil City, Pennsylvania, bereik. sy leierskap, het die onderneming binne 'n jaar sy skuld afbetaal.

Vanderbilt se laaste groot verkryging het op 1 Januarie 1876 plaasgevind toe hy die Canada Southern Railway deur voorraadbeheer bygevoeg het. Dit het gedurende die 20ste eeu 'n integrale deel van die New York -sentraal gebly.    

Na die  Commodore's򠷪th die New York Central het uitgebrei na Boston Pittsburgh (deur die Pittsburgh & Lake Erie) Wheeling (West Virginia) die steenkoolvelde van die suide van West Virginia (via die Toledo & Ohio Central) Columbus Cincinnati Cleveland St. Louis oor die Groot Vier Route (Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago & St. Louis Railway) Detroit (via die Michigan Central) en selfs Montreal, Quebec.

Boonop het die Indiana Harbour Belt die NYC -terminale en skakeldienste in Chicago verskaf. Erie Railroad.

'N A-B-A stel New York Central "C-Liners" (CFA/B-16-4's) help om die spoorweg se "Pacemaker" hoë spoed diens te wys, omstreeks 1952. Ed Nowak foto.

Gedurende hierdie tyd was die Erie een van die grootste Amerikaanse spoorweë.   Die stryd was 'n stryd om testamente tussen Gould en Vanderbilt.  

Soos die Commodore toenemend meer aandele gekry het, het Gould en sy geassosieerdes steeds meer aandele uitgereik om die Erie -aandeelwaarde (ook bekend as 'natgemaakte voorraad') op te blaas en te verhoed dat Vanderbilt meerderheidsbeheer verkry.  

Gould sou uiteindelik die kantlyn wen deur omkoopgeld aan die wetgewer in die staat New York, wat die aandeel as wettig gemagtig het.

Sy rusies was byna nooit persoonlik nie, en hy het vriende geword met die meeste later in die lewe, maar Gould en Jim Fisk was egter 'n uitsondering.  

Netto waarde en boedel

Die  CommodoreHy het op 4 Januarie 1877 op 82 -jarige ouderdom 'n fortuin van byna $ 100 miljoen bymekaargemaak, wat meer as $ 233 miljard in vandag se dollars werd sou wees, wat hom een ​​van die rykste Amerikaners in die geskiedenis maak.

In sy testament het Vanderbilt $ 95 miljoen direk aan sy seun, William, oorgelaat en sy agt dogters ontvang tussen $ 250,000 en $ 500,000 elk.

Anders as James Hill en 'n aantal ander beroemde spoorwegmagnaate, was Vanderbilt nie opmerklik vir filantropie nie. hoër onderwysinstelling het vandag die gesogte Vanderbilt -universiteit geword.    


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Verwysings

  1. Commodore Vanderbilt's Life. January 5, 1877 . https://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9E01E2D7133AE63BBC4D53DFB766838C669FDE .  
  2. ↑ 2.02.1"Cornelius Vanderbilt. A Long And Useful Life Ended. The Renowned Commodore Dies After Eight Months' Illness His Remarkable Career As A Man Of The World His Wealth Estimated At $100,000,000 Particulars Of His Illness And Death". Die New York Times. January 5, 1877 . https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1877/01/05/80358540.pdf .  
  3. Commodore Vanderbilt's Life. January 5, 1877 . https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1877/01/05/80358542.pdf .  
  4. ↑ Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996). The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN𧓒-0-8065-1800-8 . OCLC� .  

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Cornelius Vanderbilt - Biography, Children and Facts - HISTORY

Upon his death in 1877, at age 82, Cornelius Vanderbilt, also known as Commodore Vanderbilt, was the wealthiest man in the United States and probably the greatest of the nineteenth century railroad barons. Earlier in his business career he probably was the greatest shipping tycoon in the United States. His estate was worth 100 million dollars, a sum unheard of in those days. He left the bulk of his estate to his son William Henry Vanderbilt, because he was the only child who had been actively involved in the business that produced the Vanderbilt fortune. William Henry also had been instrumental in building and expanding the railroad business since he joined his father in the management of the organization upon becoming an adult.

Cornelius was born in Port Richmond, Staten Island, New York on May 27, 1794. His parents were poor and his father earned his living by providing low level transportation services. As was usual for the common people in those days, Cornelius went to work at age 11, and was employed by his father. We know little of his parents but his ancestors came from the town of De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht in the Netherlands. His great great great grandfather was Jan Aertsen who came to New Netherland as an indentured worker in 1650, at the time of the early Dutch settlements including New Amsterdam. Cornelius married his first cousin, Sophia Johnson [1795-1868] on December 19, 1813 when he was only 19 and she was only 18 years old. They had their first child, Phebe Jane Vanderbilt [1814-1878] the following year in 1814. Eleven more surviving children followed until the last one, George Washington Vanderbilt [1839-1864], was born twenty five years later.

Between the years 1805 and 1810 Cornelius worked for his father and for the ferry services serving Staten Island. In 1810 when he was sixteen years old he convinced his parents to lend him $100 so he could buy a sailboat to start his own ferry and freight business. They provided him with the money but with the understanding that he would share the profits from the business with his parents. He used the money to start a passenger and freight service between Staten Island and New York City. There was a lot of competition in the ferry service business, but Vanderbilt competed on the basis of lower fares, asking as little as 18 cents per trip. He was quite successful and apparently was able to repay the $100 loan to his parents within one year. According to local lore, he was even able to earn a $1,000 for his parents during the first year of operations as part of their share in the profits.

The war of 1812 provided new opportunities for growth. The forts around New York City expanded and Vanderbilt obtained a government contract to supply them. Between 1814 and 1818 he expanded with additional schooners for freight and passenger services in Long Island Sound and in the coastal trade from New England to Charleston, South Carolina.

In 1818 he sold all his sailing vessels and became a steamboat captain and partner with Thomas Gibbons who operated a ferry service between New Brunswick, New Jersey and New York City. The Vanderbilt-Gibbons partnership charged only a quarter of the competitive fares. It soon became the dominant ferry service on the busy Philadelphia-New York City route. During the 1818-1829 time period the partnership made a fortune.

In 1829 Vanderbilt decided to go on his own and began passenger and freight service on the New York City-Peekskill Hudson River route. Again he competed on the basis of price and quickly eliminated the competition. He then expanded his service to Albany, New York. He also opened passenger and freight service to the Long Island Sound, Providence and Connecticut areas. By the 1840s Vanderbilt had a fleet of 100 steamships and he had become the biggest employer in the United States. At that point he not only competed on the basis of price but also on the basis of comfort, size, speed, luxury and elegance in the steamship passenger transportation industry.

During the California gold rush in 1849, Vanderbilt began steamship service to San Francisco by way of Nicaraqua. His competitors used the Panama route which was longer. Vanderbilt was able to cut two days off the length of the trip to San Francisco, and it was 600 miles shorter. This part of his transportation business netted him over one million dollars per year. As a result he became the principal transportation service provider on the East Coast to San Francisco route.

In the 1850s he did two possibly foolish things. In 1853 he decided to take his first vacation ever. He had a steam yacht built and made a triumphant tour of Europe. While on his trip he had left the management of the business to contract managers. They tried to fraudulently take over the business while he was away in Europe. Although they were not successful, his temporary absence from his business proved to be costly, but he quickly recovered. Another not so successful business attempt was trying to compete against the British Cunard Steamship Line, a line subsidized by the British government, on the North Atlantic passenger service route. This also proved to be a failure. So the old fox discovered that not all his ventures were automatically successful.

In the 1860s he became aware that the big growth in the future for the transportation industry was not by way of water but by way of rail. So he became interested in railroad transportation, which was then still in its infancy. But instead of building new railroads, he took the easier route of buying existing railroads. He acquired the Long Island Railroad followed by the New York and Harlem Railroad and the Hudson River Railroad. In 1867 he also acquired the Central Railroad and merged it with the other railroads he already owned. As he had done with his shipping ventures, he focused on improving service and on upgrading capital equipment while maintaining low fares. He eventually merged all his initial acquisitions into what became known as the New York Central Railroad. It is estimated that he made $ 25 million in the first five years from his railroad ventures.

The eventual main heir to his empire, his son William Henry Vanderbilt, influenced his father to expand rail service into the direction of Chicago. To do so they acquired the Lakeshore and Michigan Railway, the Michigan Southern, the Canadian Southern and the Michigan Central Railroad, creating for that time the largest American system of railway transportation.

In 1868 Cornelius lost his wife Sophia. This was a great loss to him. She had provided him with ten still living children and apparently was a good business woman herself, supporting and advising him in many of his business decisions. One of the things that is not widely known is the fact that Cornelius was a meticulous planner and analyst. Before he entered into any deal or venture he would meticulously analyze it and have it evaluated by others before making a decision. Many people attribute his success to luck. In reality Cornelius was a super smart and astute business man and hands-on manager of his many businesses. Although he may have made some mistakes along the way, he was always able to either cut his losses or extract himself from the occasional debacle. And undoubtedly, he often involved his wife Sophia in many if not most of his business decisions.

A year after the death of his wife Sophia, Vanderbilt now 73 years old, married a distant cousin named Frances Armstrong Crawford, and known as Frank. She was 34 years his junior. The marriage was probably a good one because it gave him a new outlook on life. It is doubtful if his children approved of it. After all, his new wife was younger than seven of his twelve children. It appears that the marriage to a younger woman gave him an imagined extension to his life.

Allthough Vanderbilt had not engaged in philanthropy at all until that point in his life, through his new wife's influence, he perpetuated his name through a gift of one million dollars to Nashville's Central University. One million dollars may not sound like a lot of money, but in the 1870's it was. Using a conversion ratio of 260, based on the gross domestic product per capita then and now, the one million dollars was essentially equal to $260 million in today's terms. The Nashville Central University would become, and to this day still is, the prestigious Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.

During the last years of his life, his son William H. Vanderbilt became the senior manager of the business, and continued the path his father had set. Cornelius passed away in 1877 at the age of 83. He had left the bulk of his estate to his son William H. Vanderbilt and only gave modest amounts of half a million dollars to each of his other nine surviving children. Needless to say his will was contested but the suit was thrown out. He also donated $50,000 to the Church of the Strangers in New York City. Following his death the offspring did not suffer. Even half a million dollars, equal to 130 million dollars today, was also a substantial amount in 1877. The value of the Vanderbilt estate in today's terms would have been about $26 billion.

Cornelius and Sophia Vanderbilt had 12 children, but only 11 survived to adulthood.

  1. Phebe Jane Vanderbilt Cross [1814-1878]
  2. Ethelinda Vanderbilt Allen [1817-1889]
  3. Eliza Vanderbilt Osgood [1819-1890]
  4. William Henry Vanderbilt [1821-1885]
  5. Emily A. Vanderbilt Thorn [1823-1896]
  6. Maria L. Vanderbilt Clark Niven [1827-1896]
  7. Francis L. Vanderbilt [1828-1868]
  8. Cornelius J. Vanderbilt [1830-1882]
  9. Maria A. Vanderbilt La Beau Berger [1834-1902]
  10. Catherine J. Vanderbilt Barker La Fitte [1836-1881]
  11. George W. Vanderbilt [1839-1864]

FAMILY TREE BRANCHES FOR THE ELEVEN VANDERBILTS DESCRIBED IN THE INDIVIDUAL BIO PROFILES INCLUDED IN THE COLLECTION OF “PROMINENT DUTCH AMERICANS”

THE ELEVEN VANDERBILTS ARE HEADED UP BY THE MOST PROMINENT ONE WHO IS THE FOUNDER OF THE VANDERBILT FAMILY TREE PRESENTED BELOW: CORNELIUS VANDERBILT (1794-1877).

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT IS KNOWN AS THE COMMODORE AND FOUNDER OF THE VANDERBILT NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM AND THE VANDERBILT FAMILY.

There will be three family tree branches shown below to indicate the relationship between the eleven Vanderbilts whose bio profiles are included in the New Netherland Institute collection of Prominent Dutch Americans. All of those included have a common ancestor: Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt.

The eleven Vanderbilts and their respective family tree branches will be listed below. This will allow you to determine where each one of the ten Vanderbilts fits in the overall Vanderbilt family tree. The first Vanderbilt to appear is the founder of the Vanderbilt family clan.

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT (1794 -1877) WAS THE FOUNDER OF THE VANDERBILT FAMILY AND THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM. HE WAS KNOWN AS THE COMMODORE, OR COMMODORE CORNELIUS VANDERBILT.

His son William Henry Vanderbilt was the sole individual in the family who continued the operation and control of the transportation empire represented by the New York Central Railroad and to a large extent the Vanderbilt family. His name is listed below.

WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT (1821-1885) HE WAS THE SON, MAIN HEIR AND SUCCESSOR TO THE COMMODORE. HE BECAME THE CENTRAL PERSON WHO EXPANDED THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEMHICH HIS FATHER DEVELOPED.

William Henry Vanderbilt had two sons consisting of Cornelius Vanderbilt II [1843-1899] and William Kissam Vanderbilt [1849-1920]. Each one of the two sons is the head of their own respective Vanderbilt family branch. Below follow the three branches of the two sons.

THE FIRST FAMILY BRANCH OF THE VANDERBILTS

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT II (1843-1899) WAS THE OLDER SON OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT AND ONE OF THE COMMODORE’S GRANDSONS. AFTER HIS FATHER’S DEATH HE BECAME THE SUCCESSOR AND MANAGER OF THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM.

Below follows Cornelius Vanderbilt III, the next member in this branch. He was the son of Cornelius Vanderbilt II.

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT III (1873-1942) WAS ONE OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT’S GRANDSONS.

The next person is Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney [1875-1942]. She was a daughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt II [1843-1899]. She was involved in the founding of the Whitney Museum of American Arts, named after her husband’s family name.

GERTRUDE VANDERBILT WHITNEY [1875-1942] GRANDDAUGHTER OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT

Below follows Cornelius Vanderbilt IV, the next member in this branch. He was the son of Cornelius Vanderbilt III.

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT IV (1898-1974) WAS ONE OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT’S GREAT GRANDSONS.

THE SECOND FAMILY BRANCH OF THE VANDERBILTS

WILLIAM KISSAM VANDERBILT (1849-1920) WAS THE YOUNGER SON OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT AND ONE OF THE GRANDSONS OF COMMODORE CORNELIUS VANDERBILT. HE BECAME THE LEADER OF THE VANDERBILT FAMILY CLAN FOLLOWING THE DEATH OF HIS OLDER BROTHER CORNELIUS VANDERBILT II.

Below follows the next member of the William Kissam Vanderbilt branch. His name is Harold Sterling Vanderbilt.

HAROLD STIRLING VANDERBILT (1884-1970) WAS THE SON OF WILLIAM KISSAM VANDERBILT (1849-1920) AND THE LAST VANDERBILT TO HAVE SOME CONTROL OVER THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM. HE WAS A BOARD MEMBER UNTIL 1954.

Below follows the third family tree branch of Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt. His branch shows how the two youngest members, Gloria Vanderbilt and her son Anderson Cooper fit into the overall Vanderbilt family tree.

THE THIRD FAMILY BRANCH OF THE VANDERBILTS

This branch is headed up by Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt.

REGINALD CLAYPOOLE VANDERBILT [1880-1925] WAS THE SON OF CORNELIUS VANDERBILT II.

Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt and Gloria Morgan were the parents of Gloria Vanderbilt [1924].

GLORIA VANDERBILT [1924] WAS THE DAUGHTER OF REGINALD CLAYPOOLE VANDERBILT.

Gloria Vanderbilt is the mother of Anderson Cooper. His father was Wyatt Cooper.

ANDERSON COOPER [1967] IS THE ONLY SURVIVING SON OF GLORIA VANDERBILT.

Anderson Cooper was the grandson of Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt and the great great great grandson of the Commodore, Cornelius Vanderbilt [1794-1877].

Final Note: Collectively there are bio profiles for 11 members of the Vanderbilt family. Nine members are Vanderbilts, and the other two are Anderson Cooper, the surviving son of Gloria Vanderbilt and Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney.

The eleven members of the Vanderbilt family listed above are only a small portion of all the descendants of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt [1794-1877]. But they are the most prominent and are included to show how they are related to each other. In the 1990’s there was a family reunion of the Vanderbilt descendants and close to 200 people showed up. And they were only representative of a still larger group of descendants.

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Cornelius Vanderbilt

Cornelius was born in 1794 on Staten Island among the harbours that would make his first fortune. Aged 11, he started work with his father, a poor illiterate seaman, but by 16, he’s bought his first small ferry boat with a $100 loan. Even at this early age few could best him, in business, or on the street.

“He was a tough guy. Getting into scraps with other men, beating the hell out of them and knocking them unconscious.”
TJ Stiles, Vanderbilt Biographer

At 19, he marries his first cousin who will bear him 13 children. A cutthroat entrepreneur, he moves from sailboat to steamships, always undercutting, and then overcoming the competition.

FIRST FORTUNE
His single island-hopping ferry expands to an ocean going fleet and he becomes synonymous with shipping earning the nickname ‘Commodore’. Defeating many monopolies along the way, he creates the largest shipping empire in the world. But before the Civil War, he sells nearly everything to invest in the new railways believing they’ll unite America.

By war’s end, he’s the richest man in America with a net worth of over $65 million equivalent to nearly $75 billion today. But the war costs him his favourite son and heir apparent and he dives into a drink fuelled depression. He relies on his less able son, William and makes him operations director of the Hudson Railroad.

By 1866, he’s 72, and 30 years past the average age expectancy. His railroad rivals think he’s weak and ready to fall. But he owns the only rail bridge into New York City, and it is both the gateway to country’s largest and busiest port and, in his hands, a weapon.

SECOND FORTUNE
He orders his son to close Albany Bridge effectively blockading the millions of dollars of cargo of other rival railroads. Before their stocks become worthless, the rival rail road presidents try to sell their shares. When Wall Street realises, there’s a massive sell off. And when the price falls, Vanderbilt buys up. In just days, he creates the largest single railroad company in America.

Chicago is America’s fastest growing city and the Erie Line, the rail road connecting it to New York, the most profitable: And Vanderbilt doesn’t own it. So in 1867, Vanderbilt tries to buy up its shares demanding majority control by the end of the week, a move now known as a hostile takeover.

But middle managers, Jay Gould and Jim Fisk see a chance to cash in on the Commodore. They print over 100,000 new shares in a basement, diluting Vanderbilt’s ownership. This now illegal manoeuvre costs the equivalent of a billion dollars in today’s money.

But by 1871, his supremacy’s undisputed. Marking his conquest, he opens the Grand Central Depot, the biggest train station in the country. It covers 22 acres. He also gives the largest charitable donation in American history with a $1m gift to a university that still bears his name.

And Vanderbilt realises the rail network has been overbuilt and future profits will come from transporting new cargo, not from building new lines. He believes the demand for the kerosene that lights the lamps of the newly industrialising America will be explosive.

ENTER ROCKEFELLER
Vanderbilt homes in on Eastern Ohio, the Middle East of its day, and begins negotiations with a struggling oil man, John D Rockefeller. Vanderbilt wants the exclusive contract to transport his kerosene so his freight’s always full.
Initially, the deal suits Vanderbilt. But Rockefeller’s rise is meteoric enough to make Vanderbilt ally himself with railroad rivals. He hopes to control the Ohio oilman who seeks lower and lower rates for transportation.

Then, in 1877, in the depths of the economic depression, and holding the largest fortune in the US, Vanderbilt dies, aged 82. He leaves his $100m empire to his son William. And he leaves a template for the other robber barons to follow.


The Vanderbilt Family

Today, Biltmore House is known as America’s Largest Home® and a National Historic Landmark. But before it became one of North Carolina’s most popular tourist destinations, it was simply “home” to the Vanderbilt family.

George Vanderbilt visited Asheville, NC, in 1888 and was captivated by the area’s natural beauty. He slowly began purchasing land and ended up with 125,000 acres for his country estate. Determined to make this a self-sustaining home, Vanderbilt enlisted architect Richard Morris Hunt to design and build a 250-room château. Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted was also hired to create formal gardens and transform the former farmland into a beautiful pastoral landscape.

A Legendary Romance

Edith Dresser’s formal engagement photo, 1898

That all changed on April 28, 1898, when Vanderbilt proposed to Edith Stuyvesant Dresser. A family friend, Edith was 10 years younger than Vanderbilt and admired for her beauty and personality. She was hailed as cosmopolitan and cultured yet humble and down to earth. The pair shared a passion for learning and travel that they enjoyed throughout their marriage.

On June 1, 1898, the pair was joined as husband and wife in a private 15-minute civil ceremony in a town hall in Paris, France. The next day, they followed French tradition with a religious ceremony at the American Church of the Holy Trinity in Paris. Close friends and family were invited to this ceremony, which was surprisingly simple and modest considering the media fanfare that surrounded the event.

A quiet Italian honeymoon followed, and then George brought his bride to Biltmore House. Estate employees welcomed Edith to her new home by lining up along the Approach Road. A giant horseshoe made out of goldenrod flowers with the phrase “Welcome Home” spelled out in more flowers greeted the couple as they arrived at Biltmore House.

Biltmore House Becomes a Family Home

The happy couple added to their family on August 22, 1900, with the birth of their daughter Cornelia. It was a joyous occasion celebrated among the family and recorded by local newspapers. Die Spartanburg Journal wrote, “A new star has appeared at famous Biltmore, and the charming mistress of this most gorgeous home is smiling upon her first born, a tiny girl called Cornelia Stuyvesant Vanderbilt, and the world shares in her new found happiness.”

Cornelia spent her childhood on the estate, and often played with the local children whose families lived and worked on the estate. When Cornelia was 13, tragedy struck when George Vanderbilt unexpectedly died following an emergency appendectomy in Washington, D.C., in March 1914. Mrs. Vanderbilt returned to the estate after her husband’s death, but eventually consolidated the family businesses and properties.

The Arrival of a New Generation

Cornelia Vanderbilt’s formal wedding portrait, 1924

A decade later, wedding bells rang as Cornelia married the Honorable John Francis Amherst Cecil at All Souls Church in Biltmore Village on April 27, 1924. It was a joyous occasion as guests from around the world descended upon the quiet little town of Asheville. Mr. Cecil was a British diplomat and a descendant of Lord Burghley, who was High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth I.

A second generation arrived at Biltmore House a year later. George Henry Vanderbilt Cecil was born in Biltmore House in 1925. Three years later in 1928, William Amherst Vanderbilt Cecil was born in Biltmore House. George and William were educated abroad in Switzerland and England, but always returned home to Biltmore for holidays and summer vacations.

The brothers were instrumental in caring for the estate as adults. William especially was involved in overseeing the care of Biltmore House, the estate and The Biltmore Company. Today, Biltmore remains a family business, with the fourth and fifth generations of George Vanderbilt’s descendants involved in day-to-day operations. Along with more than 2,400 employees, they continue Biltmore’s mission to preserve this national treasure.


Who is Cornelius Vanderbilt dating?

According to our records, Cornelius Vanderbilt is possibily enkellopend & has not been previously engaged. As of June 2021, Cornelius Vanderbilt’s is not dating anyone.

Relationships Record

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Facts & Trivia

Cornelius Ranked on the list of most popular Entrepreneur. Also ranked in the elit list of famous celebrity born in Verenigde State. He dropped out of school at age 11 to work for his father’s ferry business.


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