William Parker

William Parker


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William Parker is gebore in Liverpool op 27 Mei 1915. Hy was 'n linker-agterspeler en het in 1937 by Hull City aangesluit. dit sluit in Stan Cullis, Gordon Clayton, Bill Morris, Dennis Westcott, George Ashall, Alex Scott, Jack Taylor, Tom Galley, Dicky Dorsett, Bryn Jones, Joe Gardiner en Teddy Maguire.

In die seisoen 1938-39 het Wolves tweede geëindig met Everton. Parker het egter net in drie wedstryde gespeel en hy het die klub aan die einde van die seisoen verlaat.

William Parker is in 1980 oorlede.


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William Parker se oupagrootjie was John Boteler William Parker se oupagrootjie was Hyde Parker William Parker se ouma was Sarah Parker   William Parker se oupagrootjie was Hugh Smithson William Parker se oupagrootjie was Hyde Parker William Parker se oumagrootjie was Mary Parker &# 160 William Parker se 3x oupagrootjie was Henry Parker William Parker se 3x oumagrootjie was Margaret Parker   William Parker se 4x oupagrootjie was Alexander Hyde   William Parker se 5x oupagrootjie was Lawrence Hyde William Parker se 5x oumagrootjie was Barbara Hyde   William Parker se 6x oupagrootjie was Lawrence Hyde William Parker se 6x oumagrootjie was Anne Hyde

William Parker se kleinkinders:

William Parker se kleindogter was Amy Shearer

William Parker se groot ooms en tantes:

Die groot oom van William Parker was Harry Parker

Voormalige skoonouers van William Parker:

Die voormalige skoonseun van William Parker was Arthur Hext


William Parker

William Parker, gevestig in New York, is die vooraanstaande baskitaarspeler in moderne gratis jazz en een van die belangrikste katalisators van die toneel. Benewens meer as 50 titels onder sy eie naam - en meer as 100 as sideman en medewerker - is hy ook 'n bekwame digter, skilder en kultuurkritikus. Parker het saam met sy vrou, die bekende danser, choreograaf en digter Patricia Nicholson, die Improvisers Collective gestig. Parker was die steunpunt van die kollektief wat hy in byna al sy verskillende ad hoc -groepe gespeel het en was die leier van die Collective se groot groep, wat later onder sy naam opgeneem is as die Little Huey Creative Music Ensemble. 'N Belangrike dokument van hulle begin was die Black Saint -aanbod in 1995 om te oorleef. As baskitaarspeler het Parker 'n formidabele tegniek, alhoewel dit onkonvensioneel is, maar dit kan as 'n hoofinstrument in trio's saam met Carter en Hamid Drake (Painter's Spring), duo's met die drummer (Piercing the Veil), tientalle opnames met David S. Ware (insluitend Flight of I en Shakti) en Matthew Shipp, waaronder The Flow of X, Strata en Our Lady of the Flowers. Terwyl hy verskeie ensembles gelei het, het Parker groot kunstenaars uit die Great Black Music -tradisie ondersoek en hulde gebring, waaronder Curtis Mayfield (I Plan to Stay a Believer: The Inside Music of Curtis Mayfield) en Duke Ellington (Essence of Ellington), met Little Huey Kreatiewe musiekorkes. Hy het ook jazz-subgenres ondersoek, soos soul-jazz (Uncle Joe's Spirit House, met sy orrelkwartet), die vereniging van gesproke woord en jazz (Zen Mountains/Zen Streets: A Duet for Poet & amp Improvised Bass), vokale musiek via die boksstel Voices Fall from the Sky, en grootskaalse konseptuele jazzwerke soos Alphaville Suite.

Parker het in New York grootgeword. Reeds vroeg in sy loopbaan het hy 'n vereniging met Cecil Taylor gevorm, en hy speel Carnegie Hall saam met die pianis in die vroeë 70's. Parker het sy eerste album as leier in 1979 vrygestel. Through the Acceptance of the Mystery Peace (op Parker se eie Centering Records) het die saxofoniste Charles Brackeen en Jemeel Moondoc en die violis Billy Bang verskyn. Parker het Taylor se gereelde baskitaarspeler in die 80's geword. Hy het op verskeie van die Europese pianiste se plate gespeel, en op Taylor se binnelandse vrystelling in 1989 in Florescence op A&M. Parker het Taylor in die vroeë 90's verlaat en meer gereeld as leier begin werk. Hy het 'n groot band-plaat vir sy eie etiket uitgereik, en daarna 'n reeks CD's vir ander maatskappye begin uitreik, aansienlik Black Saint. Benewens sy aktiwiteite as leier en gemeenskapsorganiseerder, sou Parker deur middel van die negentigerjare as byspeler bly werk. Hy was steeds die beste baskitaarspeler vir gratis spelers soos David S. Ware, Matthew Shipp en Rob Brown. Die jaar 2000 was besonder besig vir Parker, want hy het drie van sy eie datums opgeneem, waaronder Painter's Spring en O'Neal's Porch, en verskyn op talle opnames as 'n kantman. Die volgende jaar, in die nasleep van die terreuraanvalle van die World Trade Center, het Parker se Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra Distillation of Souls uitgevoer, gewy aan sy slagoffers, en die lewendige Raincoat in the River, Vol. 1: ICA -konsert. Hy en drummer Hamid Drake het die duet met Piercing the Veil through AUM Fidelity uitgereik, en sy Song Cycle (met sangeres Lisa Sokolov, Ellen Christi en pianis Yuko Fujiyama) is deur Boxholder aangebied. In 2002 verskyn Parker op nie minder nie as 15 albums, waaronder Shipp's Nu Bop, Ware's Freedom Suite en Rob Brown's Round the Bend, asook vier van sy eie trio- en kwintetdatums. Laasgenoemde, Raining on the Moon, het die sanger Leena Conquest aangebied, en hy het ook Corn Meal Dance vrygestel.

In 2003 toer hy deur Engeland saam met Spring Heel Jack, Evan Parker, Han Bennink, Shipp en J. Spaceman. Die album Live verskyn van Thirsty Ear. Parker het 'n groot deel van die jaar getoer en verskeie konsertopnames uitgereik, waarvan sommige 'n paar jaar vroeër gesny is. Hulle het ingesluit Spontaneous met Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra by CBGB van die jaar tevore, en Never Too Late But Always Too Early met Drake en Peter Brötzmann, gevang in 2001. Die William Parker Viooltrio het Scrapbook uitgereik, en hy verskyn op Shipp's Equilibrium en talle ander opnames.

Parker se produktiewe pas het onverpoos voortgegaan. Die breedte en diepte van sy verskillende projekte as leier, medewerker en sideman was onuitputlik. In 2005 het Thirsty Ear 'n duet vrygestel met Shipp getiteld Luc's Lantern (vernoem na die Franse filmregisseur Jean Luc Godard), terwyl Eremite Fred Anderson se Blue Winter saam met Parker en Drake in die ritmeseksie uitgereik het. Die volgende jaar speel Parker op Kidd Jordan se Palm of Soul. Hy stel ook 'n duetopname vry met Drake getiteld Beans, Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra se For Percy Heath, en Requiem deur die William Parker Bass Quartet met Charles Gayle.

In 2007 het Rai Trade The Inside Songs of Curtis Mayfield vrygestel terwyl Parker (wat in 2001 met die projek begin het en dit in die daaropvolgende jare ontwikkel het) die musiek van Fats Waller en Duke Ellington uitvoer in 'n dansstuk genaamd "On Their Shoulders We 're still Dancing', gechoreografeer deur Patricia Nicholson. Sy eie kwartet het die Petit Oiseux-album vrygestel terwyl Tamarindo, 'n triogroep met Tony Malaby en Nasheet Waits, verskyn in 'n self-getitelde aanbod van Clean Feed en Rogue Art Alphaville Suite: Music Inspired by the Jean Luc Godard Film deur die William Parker dubbelkwartet. Die baskitaarspeler is deur Time Out New York aangewys as een van die "50 grootste New Yorkse musikante van alle tye", ontvang 'n kommissie van die New York State Music Fund vir die langvorm Double Sunrise Over Neptune en tree in Augustus op by Vision Festival XII . Dit is vrygestel deur AUM Fidelity in 2008. Dieselfde jaar is Beyond Quantum met Anthony Braxton en Milford Graves deur Tzadik vrygestel, en die argief CT: The Dance Project met Cecil Taylor en Masashi Harada is deur FMP uitgereik. Onder die Parker-verwante opnames wat in 2009 verskyn het, was Farmers by Nature met Gerald Cleaver en Craig Taborn, Washed Away, Live at the Sunside met Drake en Sophia Domancich, die volledige Munt Recordings-boksstel van Moondoc, en die David S. Ware Quartet Live in Vilnius.

Toe die tweede dekade van die nuwe eeu begin, het Parker I Plan to Stay a Believer: The Inside Songs of Curtis Mayfield vrygestel, 'n uitgebreide dubbelskyf-samestelling van opnames vanaf 2001-2010, via AUM Fidelity. Die album het baie jazzkritici se beste lysies aan die einde van die jaar behaal. Centering Records het sy Orgelkwartet se Uncle Joe's Spirit House vrygestel, en Parker verskyn op meer as 'n dosyn albums. Die jaar 2011 het baie hoogtepunte gehad, onder meer die sentrering van die drie-skyf solo-baskissie Crumbling in the Shadows Is Fraulein Miller se ou koek en gesprekke uit Rogue Art, wat die soliste van die baskitaar en onderhoude met ander musikante bevat. Farmers by Nature het ook hul tweede poging, Out of This World's Distortions, uitgereik. No Business het die argiefkasstel Centering: Unreleased Early Recordings 1976-1987 in 2012 vrygestel, terwyl Altitude, 'n nuwe opname, verskyn het van die baskitaarspeler, Cleaver en Joe Morris. Die dubbel-skyf Essence of Ellington (gefaktureer aan die William Parker-orkes) is uitgereik deur Centering. Die kritieke lof vir laasgenoemde was universeel.

In 2013 ontvang Parker 'n Doris Duke Artist Award. Sy kwartet het Live in Wroclove opgeneem en hy het die trio sessie Tender Exploration gelei. AUM Fidelity het die stel Wood Flute Songs: Anthology Live 2006-2012 met agt skyfies vrygestel, waarin sy verskillende ensembles ten toon gestel is. Parker verskyn op baie argiefopnames in 2014 sowel as in nuwe trio -instellings onder leiding van James Brandon Lewis (Divine Travels) en Ivo Perelman (Book of Sound). Die Farmers by Nature -band het ook sy derde album, Love and Ghosts, uitgereik.

Parker het Raining on the Moon herleef vir The Great Spirit van 2015. AUM Fidelity het die argiefkas met drie skyfies vrygestel vir die wat nog steeds is. Conversations II: Dialogues & amp Monologues is uitgegee deur Rogue Art, en het duetopvoerings versamel met Jordanië afgewissel met meer fragmente van kunstenaarsonderhoude. Live at NHKM, in samewerking met Konstruct, was nog een van die meer as 15 opnames waaraan die baskitaar se naam geheg is. In die lente van 2016 het Centering Stan's Hat Flapping in the Wind uitgebring, 'n reeks liedjies met die pianis Cooper-Moore en Sokolov op die koor. In Julie verskyn Song Sentimentale uit Otoroku. Dit is saamgestel uit drie aande se konserte in Cafe Oto deur Brötzmann, Parker en Drake, en is vrygestel as twee afsonderlike volumes in verskillende formate. Elkeen bevat 'n unieke snitlys. Die jaar daarna was Parker 'n integrale deel van twee belangrike opnames op soveel etikette: Art of the Improv Trio, Vol. 4 saam met die saksofonis Ivo Perelman en die tromspeler Cleaver on Leo, en Toxic: This Is Beautiful Want We Are Beautiful People met die Poolse saxofonis Mat Walerian en die pianis Matthew Shipp op ESP-Disk. Parker het ook die mede-geleide Bass Duo uitgereik saam met die Italiaanse klassieke baskitaarspeler Stefano Scodanibbio vir Aum Fidelity. In 2018 het Parker via sy Centering-etiket die boksstel met drie skyfies Voices Fall from the Sky vrygestel, 'n premier van twee langvormswerke vir sangers (die titelsnit en 'Essence'), sowel as 'n skyf van voorheen uitgereikte liedjies. Hy het dit gevolg met 'n dubbele skyf metgesel wat die albums Flower In a Loodglasvenster en The Blinking of The Ear bevat.

'N Jaar later het Parker en sy oudste vlagskipgroep, In Order to Survive, die Live/ Shapeshifter met 'n dubbele lengte uitgereik, 'n program wat die prestasie in Shapeshifter Lab in Brooklyn, New York, regstreeks laat optree het. Dit is 'n mede-vervaardiger van Parker en die etiketbaas Steven Joerg en bevat nuwe komposisies, insluitend die uitgebreide suite "Eternal Is the Voice of Love" en "Newark" (opgedra aan die vroeë lid van die groeptrombonis Grachan Moncur III), sowel as 'n nuwe herhaling van die band se tema. Die groep bestaan ​​uit die oorspronklike lede pianis Cooper Moore en altsaksofonis Rob Brown, asook drummer Hamid Drake, wat in 2012 aangesluit het. Die stel is vrygestel in Junie 2019. Die volgende jaar het Parker, kitaarspeler Nels Cline en pianis Thollem McDonas die kollektiewe konfyt Gowanus Sessions II vir ESP-Disk.

In Januarie 2021 het Aum Fidelity Parker's Migration of Silence Into and Out of The Tone World vrygestel. Die tien-skyf-boks bestaan ​​uit heeltemal onuitgereikte instrumentale en vokale suites (almal vir vrouestemme) wat tussen 2018 en begin 2020 gekomponeer en opgeneem is. Sy musiek put inspirasie uit nie net jazz en gratis improvisasie nie, maar musikale tradisies uit Afrika, Asië en Europese bronne. Die instellings, van soloklavier tot stem- en klavierduette tot werke vir kamersnare en vol orkes-jazz-ensembles, gepaarde moderne en ou instrumente. Sangers op hierdie sessies was Raina Sokolov-Gonzalez, Lisa Sokolov, Ellen Christi, Kyoko Kitamura en Andrea Wolper. Die pianis Eri Yamamoto het Parker se "Child of Sound" solo uitgevoer.


William N. Parker

William N. Parker was 'n vroeë innoveerder in die ontwikkeling van televisie -uitsendings.

In 1926 het Parker pas sy tweede jaar as student in elektriese ingenieurswese aan die Universiteit van Illinois-Urbana voltooi en deeltyds by GM Scientific Company gewerk. GM Scientific is bestuur deur twee nagraadse studente, A.J. McMaster en Lloyd P. Garner, en dit het foto -elektriese selle verskaf aan Ulysses Sanabria, 'n uitvinder wat skaars uit sy tienerjare was, maar tog met televisiesilhouette in Chicago geëksperimenteer het.

Parker is ook blootgestel aan Ray D. Kell se navorsing in televisie in 1927 toe hy 'n somer werk by General Electric aangeneem het. Kell en sy kollegas demonstreer 'n meganiese televisiestelsel gebaseer op 'n skyf met 'n spiraal van vier-en-twintig gate voor 'n neonlig.

Parker het gedurende sy universiteitsjare met Garner en Sanabria saamgewerk en 'n demonstrasie van meganiese televisie op sy kampus aangebied.

Hy het van 1928 tot 1933 algemene hoofuitsaaikundige vir Western Television in Chicago geword. Hy het die eerste kommersiële stelsel van televisie-uitsaaitoerusting en ontvangerstelle gebou en dit in 1930 in Chicago geïnstalleer. Hierdie meganiese televisie gebruik 'n skyfskyf met vyf of veertig of negentig klein gaatjies om beelde op te neem en na plaaslike stelle te stuur. Die beelde is vergesel van klank wat oor 'n radiofrekwensie oorgedra is.

Hierdie tegnologie is tydens die 1933 Century of Progress Exhibition aan die publiek bewys, maar dit het die ekonomiese gevolge van die Groot Depressie nie oorleef nie. Nietemin het Parker aan die einde van die dertigerjare voortgegaan met die ontwikkeling van televisie, en het hy gehelp met die ontwerp van sommige van die eerste elektroniese televisies by die Philco -televisiegroep wat in 1934 begin is.

In die Tweede Wêreldoorlog werk hy aan geklassifiseerde navorsing vir die weermag en vloot oor elektroniese buise. Daarna verdien hy meer as twintig patente by RCA Corporation vir innovasies in stroombane en buise. Sy projekte het gewissel van mikrogolfoestelle tot vriesdroogtegnologieë tot rekenaars.

Hy is op 27 Februarie 1997 oorlede.


William Parker

Na samewerking met Shipp, Peter Broetzmann, Derek Bailey en Charles Gayle, het Parker die regstreeks opgeneem Om te oorleef (Junie 1993), met Rob Brown (altsaks), Denis Charles en Jackson Krall (tromme), Cooper-Moore (klavier), Grachan Moncur III (tromboon) en Lewis Barnes (trompet).

Getuienis (Desember 1994), met die improvisasie van 23 minute Soniese animasie, en Die opheffing van die sanksies (November 1997) was solo -albums.

Die lewendige Blomme groei in my kamer (Julie 1994), toegeskryf aan die Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra, het Billy Bang (tjello en viool), sewe saxofoniste, twee bassiste, nog 'n tjellis, drie tromboniste, drie trompetiste, plus tromme, tuba en vibrafoon. Dieselfde orkes het opgeneem Sonopkoms in die toonwêreld (Februarie 1995) met Vinny Golia op riete en Roy Campbell op trompet en flugelhorn Reënjas In Die Rivier Vol.1 (Februarie 2001) Massa vir die genesing van die wêreld (Mei 1998) Spontaan (Mei 2002) en Vir Percy Heath (Oktober 2006).

Sy kwartet saam met Cooper-Moore (klavier), Rob Brown (altsaks) en Susie Ibarra (tromme) het begin om In Order To Survive te begin. Medelye gryp Bed-Stuy aan (Desember 1995), gevolg deur Die perskeboord (Augustus 1998), wat die 25 minute insluit Blaardans, en Posium Pendasem (April 1998).

Parker werk saam met Joe Morris, Ivo Perelman, Hamid Drake, Peter Kowald, Cecil Taylor, Anthony Braxton en vele ander, en neem duette op met Joelle Leandre op Kontrabasse (Januarie 1996) sowel as duette met Hamid Drake.

Liedsiklus (sessies van Oktober 1991 en Maart 1993) verskyn Yuko Fujiyama op klavier en twee sangers.

Die Kosmosamatiek (Februarie 2001) was Sonny Simmons, Michael Marcus, William Parker en Jay Rosen.

Die lewendige Emancipation Suite #1 (Mei 1999) was 'n trio met Alan Silva (sintetiseerder) en Kidd Jordan (tenorsaks).

Die All-Star-speletjie (Desember 2000) was Marshall Allen (altsaks), Alan Silva (bas), Hamid Drake (tromme) en Kidd Jordan (tenorsax).

Gebroke afmetings (November 1999) verskyn Daniel Carter op altsaks, trompet, klarinet en fluit, Alan Silva (sintetiseerder en klavier) en Roy Campbell (trompet en flugelhorn).

Luc's Lantern (opgeneem in 2004) was 'n trio met Eri Yamamoto (klavier) en Michael Thompson (tromme).

Mieliemeel Dans (Januarie 2007), is uitgevoer deur Hamid Drake (tromme), Eri Yamamoto (klavier), Rob Brown (altsaks), Lewis Barnes (trompet) en Leena Conquest (sang).

Dubbel sonsopkoms oor Neptunus (in première in Junie 2007) verskyn Rob Brown (altsaks), Dave Sewelson (barytonsaks), Shayna Dulberger (bas), Shiau-Shu Yu (tjello), Gerald Cleaver en Hamid Drake (tromme), Joe Morris (kitaar en banjo) ), Brahim Frigbane (oud), Bill Cole (riete), Sabir Mateen (tenorsaks en klarinet), Lewis Barnes (trompet), Jessica Pavone (altviool), Jason Kao Hwang en Mazz Swift (viool), en Sangeeta Bandyopadhyay (koor) ).

Farmers By Nature, dit wil sê die trio van die tromspeler Gerald Cleaver, baskitaarspeler William Parker en pianis Craig Taborn, het die regstreeks opgeneem Boere van nature (Junie 2008), Uit hierdie wêreld se verdraaiings (Junie 2010), bevat Tait se opgespoorde eienskappe, en die dubbel-skyf Liefde en spoke (Junie 2011), met die lang Bisanz, Liefde en spoke en Comte.

Billy Bang en William Parker opgeneem Geneeskunde Boeddha (Mei 2009), wat die 22 minute bevat Geneeskunde Boeddha en die 14 minute Ewige Planeet.

Hy het akoestiese bas, kora en dubbele fluit gespeel Op êrens daar (Julie 2008), veral die 48 minute Cathedral Wisdom Light.

Gesprekke (Maart 2011) versamel solo -optredes.

Winterson huil (Desember 2009) het die ICI Ensemble verskyn.

Die stel met drie skyfies Verkrummel in die skaduwees is die ou koek van Fraulein Miller (Augustus 2010) versamel solo basoptredes soos Loodglashemel met dansende lig (21:23), Verkrummel in die skaduwees is die ou koek van Fraulein Miller (19:18), Equador/Resolusie (24:54), Nagdigtheid (13:19), en Dubbele raaisel (17:35), sowel as heruitreiking Getuienis.

Book Of Sound (Oktober 2013) was 'n trio met die saksofonis Ivo Perelman en die pianis Matthew Shipp.

Parker het kontrabasviool, sintir en bas -shakuhachi gespeel Granaatjie (Maart 2013) deur Parrhesia, die trio wat deur die kornetis Stephen Haynes saam met kitaarspeler Joe Morris en perkussiespeler Warren Smith geskep is.

Die William Parker Bass Quartet, wat ook die gasheer Charles Gayle bevat, het opgetree Requiem (Mei 2004), die finale stel van die 2004 Visiefees.

Die Sonoluminescence Trio (David Mott op barytonsaks, William Parker op kontrabas en Jesse Stewart op tromme) debuteer met Vertel stories (Maart 2014).

Die triple-disc Vir die wat nog is bevat materiaal wat oor 'n dosyn jaar opgeneem is, veral die 28 minute Vir Fannie Lou Hamer (Oktober 2000) en die 20 minute Die kameelperd danse (Januarie 2012) vir klein ensembles, die suite in tien dele Seremonies vir diegene wat stil is (November 2013) vir jazztrio en simfonieorkes en die trio-improvisasie van 25 minute Escapade Vir Sonny (November 2013).

Liedjie vir 'n nuwe dekade (opgeneem in Januarie 2010 en Junie 2012) dokumenteer die trio van Parker, Andrew Cyrille (tromme) en die Finse saxofonis en komponis Mikko Innanen (alt- en barytonsakses, Indiese klarinet, Uilleann -gesang, neusfluit, fluitjies, perkussie).

Raining on the Moon, met Rob Brown op altsaks, Lewis Barnes op trompet, Eri Yamamoto op klavier, Hamid Drake op tromme en sang van Leena Conquest debuteer met Mieliemeel Dans (Januarie 2007) en Groot Gees (Januarie 2007), beide tydens dieselfde sessies opgeneem.

William Parker Quartet se lewendige stuk van 75 minute Ao Vivo Na Fabrica (Augustus 2015) was Rob Brown op altsaks, Lewis Barnes op trompet en Hamid Drake op tromme.

Die stel met dubbele skyfies Song Sentimentale (Januarie 2015) versamel drie lewendige improvisasies deur die trio van Peter Broetzmann (tenorsaks, klarinet, tarogato), William Parker (kontrabas, guembri, shakuhachi, shenai) en Hamid Drake (tromme, raamtrommel, stem): Skud-'n-traan (11:40), Steendood (26:17) en Bewoners in 'n dooie land (24:58).

Die trio Eloping With The Sun, met Joe Morris (kitaar, banjouke, banjo, kontrabas, viool, saktrompet en fluitjies) en Hamid Drake (dromstel, raamtrommel, simbale, gongs), debuteer op Werk hierdie onrus soos bome en voëls teen (Januarie 2015).

Toxic, bestaande uit die Poolse rietspeler Mat Walerian (altsaks, bas en sopraanklarinette, fluit), Matthew Shipp (klavier, orrel) en William Parker (kontrabas, shakuhachi), debuteer met Dit is pragtig omdat ons pragtige mense is (Desember 2015), veral die 20 minute Die ontbytklubdag.

Die dubbel-skyf Meditasie/opstanding (Desember 2016) dokumenteer kwartette met Hamid Drake (tromme, gongs) Rob Brown (altsaks), Jalalu-Kalvert Nelson (trompet, kalimba) en Cooper-Moore (klavier).

Die stel met vier skyfies Frode Gjerstad Met Hamid Drake En William Parker (Junie 2017) bevat vier lang improvisasies.

William Parker (bas), Steve Swell (tromboon), tromspeler Muhammad Ali (broer van Rashied Ali), Dave Burrel (klavier) en Diane Monroe (viool) het bygedra tot Ter viering van William Parker @ 65 (Januarie 2017).

Serafiese lig (April 2017) dokumenteer 'n lewendige improvisasie met Daniel Carter (saxe, trompet, fluit en klarinet) en Matthew Shipp (klavier).

Lake Of Light: komposisies vir AquaSonics (Februarie 2017) is 'n musiek vir watertelefone (gespeel deur Jeff Schlanger, Anne Humanfeld en Leonid Galaganov), veral die lang Meer van Lig.

Die triple-disc Stemme val uit die lug (Januarie 2018) is opgeneem deur 'n groot ensemble en 17 sangers.

Musiek vir 'n vrye wêreld (September 2017) was Dave Sewelson op die bariton en sopraan sax, Steve Swell op trombone, William Parker op kontrabas en Marvin Bugaloo Smith op tromme.

Die dubbel-skyf Blom in 'n loodglasvenster en die knipper van die oor versamel 17 komposisies. aangeteken in Maart 2017 en in Junie 2018.

In Between the Tumbling A Stillness (Februarie 2015), met die 36 minute Tussenin, dokumenteer improvisasies deur die trio van William Parker (bas), Hamid Drake (tromme) en die Israeliese reedis Assif Tsahar.

In Order To Survive (Rob Brown op altsaks, Cooper-Moore op klavier en Hamid Drake op tromme) keer terug na 21 jaar met Live/ Shapeshifter (Julie 2017), veral Ewig is die stem van liefde.

Wat as? (Junie 2019) dokumenteer 'n samewerking met Nate Wooley.

Die trio van Matthew Shipp, William Parker (bas) en Mat Maneri (altviool) het opgeneem Simboliese werklikheid (Augustus 2019).

Tuinpartytjie (Junie 2018) debuteer die Dopolarians met Alvin Fielder (perkussie), Kidd Jordan (tenorsaks), Christopher Parker (klavier, stem) en Chad Fowler (altsaks, saxello).

Parker speel ook op die saksofonis van die bariton Dave Sewelson Meer musiek vir 'n vrye wêreld met Steve Swell (tromboon) en Marvin Bugalu Smith (tromme).


Chief Parker se tyd is verby

William H. Parker was 'n monumentale figuur in die geskiedenis van Los Angeles en die moderne wetstoepassing. Hy het in 1950 as hoof van die Los Angeles -polisiekantoor oorgeneem nadat skandale die reputasie daarvan beskadig het. Hy het sy gevoel van missie verhoog, die handleiding opgestel en gespeen van die korrupte invloede van stadspolitiek. Hy was ook 'n arrogante rassis wat so sterk op die onafhanklikheid van die LAPD aangedring het dat hy kollegas en mede -wetstoepassers van kus tot kus teëgestaan ​​het, veral vir meer as 'n dekade lank met die FBI -direkteur J. Edgar Hoover.

Sy plek in die geskiedenis van Kalifornië is veilig, en sy nalatenskap is groot en kompleks. Die stad se polisiehoofkwartier, Parker Center, dra al dekades lank sy naam. Maar hierdie dekades is genoeg, en Parker staan ​​nie voor dat soortgelyke herdenking by die nuwe hoofkwartier, wat teen die einde van die jaar geopen sal word nie. Die stadsraad moet die wanvoorstel om die gebou vir hom te noem, verwerp. Dit het glad nie 'n naam nodig nie, en beslis nie dié van hierdie ingewikkelde en gebrekkige hoof nie.

Elke eerlike beoordeling van Parker se ampstermyn moet sy dualiteite erken - sy rigiede professionaliteit saam met sy vulgêre opmerkings oor rasseverhoudinge, sy geregverdigde trots op sy medebeamptes, tesame met sy absurde weiering om die bestaan ​​van polisiebrutaliteit te erken, sy grootliks suksesvolle loopbaan in die skaduwee van sy finale maande, wat hy kragtig bestee het om die indrukwekkende prestasie van die LAPD tydens die onluste in 1965 Watts te verdedig. Parker is skaars die enigste groot openbare figuur wat sulke teenstrydighede omvat-Hoover kom self in gedagte-maar sy vurigste ondersteuners en sy mees kranige kritici het hom eendimensioneel uitgebeeld en sy rekord verdraai om by hul belange te pas.

'N Venster na Parker se kompleksiteite kom uit 'n onwaarskynlike en grootliks onondersoekde bron: die langdurige lêer van die Federale Buro vir Ondersoek oor hom (uittreksels verskyn vandag op die Op-Ed-bladsye). Die dokumente beskryf die omstrede verhouding tussen Parker en Hoover, 'n professionele waaksaamheid wat soms tot woede en uitstoot gelei het. Die lêer bevat die verslae van veldagente en die spesiale agent in beheer van die kantoor in Los Angeles, wat kort na die aanstelling van Parker begin en tot sy dood in 1966 voortduur.

In 'n inskrywing van 1953 het die hoofagent die kommentaar van 'n ander polisiehoof wat 'n byeenkoms met Parker bygewoon het, na die hoofkwartier oorgedra en gesê dat hy ''n volledige bewys van ongeregverdigde egoïsme gegee het'. Die buro het hierdie siening gedeel, en Hoover self het ongebreidelde minagting vir die opperhoof. Vir 'n geruime tyd het Hoover al sy agente beveel om Parker te vermy, maar eers in die somer van 1954, en dan net met wrok. Hy het af en toe professionele kontakte goedgekeur, maar het agente in Los Angeles gewaarsku dat 'u altyd uiters waaksaam en waaksaam moet wees in alle omgang met Chief Parker.' Selfs na daardie stadium sou die FBI nie help met die opleiding van LAPD -beamptes nie, omdat hy die hoof wantrou dat die kontakte eers na Parker se dood hervat is.

Deur die jare het Parker se af en toe uitbarstings deur die buro ondersoek. In 1955 het sommige staatshowe byvoorbeeld begin met die uitsluiting van onwettige beslag gelê uit verhore na 'n saak waarin die Hooggeregshof 'n memorandum bygevoeg het by een van sy besluite waarin die prokureur -generaal versoek word om polisiebeamptes wat onwettig by 'n huis ingebreek het, te vervolg om 'n afluister. Parker het hard gekla en aangevoer dat die polisie groter wetgewing sou hê om die wet te oortree sonder die gevolge van die sake wat hulle vervolg. By die FBI het een amptenaar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'wat Parker eintlik bepleit (miskien onbewustelik) is dat die sogenaamde' polisiestaat 'ingestel word dat die polisie bo die wet is, dat die doel die middele regverdig. Dit is ryklik ironiese insigte uit Hoover se FBI, maar dit weerspieël hoe ver van die hoofstroom Parker se sienings afgedwaal het.

Oor ras onthul die lêer minder klagtes by Parker, miskien omdat die buro self - beslis Hoover - ten minste net so onverdraagsaam soos Parker was teenoor die toenemende oproepe tot rasse -geregtigheid. Die FBI het nietemin pligsgetrou 'n paar van Parker se minder gematigde opmerkings versamel, soos toe hy die voorstanders van burgerlike ongehoorsaamheid, wat toe gelei is deur Martin Luther King Jr. Hy het eens die Mexikaanse Amerikaanse gemeenskap van LA woedend gemaak deur voor te stel dat sommige immigrante 'nie ver van die wilde stamme van Mexiko' was nie, en het Afro -Amerikaners woedend gemaak deur die Watts -onluste so te beskryf: 'Een persoon gooi 'n rots en dan, soos ape, in 'n dieretuin het ander klippe begin gooi. ”

Parker het 16 jaar lank die LAPD gelei. Gedurende daardie tyd herstel hy sy reputasie gedeeltelik deur aan te dring op streng skeiding tussen offisiere en die gemeenskappe wat hulle bedien. Die polisie het in motors gepatrolleer, gearresteer, verdagtes bespreek en teruggekeer na hul motors om te gaan patrolleer. Die afstand het die polisie van die gemeenskap geïsoleer en sodoende geleenthede om korrupsie te beëindig, afgesny. Parker het ook toesig gehou oor die skryf van die LAPD -handleiding en dring daarop aan dat trots en plig die amptenare van die departement lei. Dit alles het gehelp om die departement se jarelange kultuur van korrupsie te verbreek, en daarvoor is hierdie stad Parker skuld. Dieselfde vernuwings het egter 'n LAPD veroorsaak wat van sy burgers verwyder is, 'n byna geheel-wit legioen wat sy eie beskerm, geneig is tot geweld en rassisme. Vir die ongelukkige verwikkelinge het Los Angeles 'n duur prys betaal in Parker se tyd en vir die komende generasies.

In 1965 het Watts uitgebars nadat 'n stop van die California Highway Patrol lelik geword het, en die daaropvolgende onluste het die grootste deel van 'n week gestrek en talle sterf. Parker het die res van sy lewe probeer om die optrede van sy offisiere tydens die woedende dae te verduidelik en te verdedig. Hy het sy laaste openbare verskyning op 16 Julie 1966 in die Statler Hilton in die middestad gemaak. Namate die geleentheid afgehandel is, het lede van die Tweede Mariene Afdeling Assn. opgestaan ​​om Parker 'n staande toejuiging te gee. Hy sak terug in sy stoel en snak na sy asem. Parker is 35 minute later dood.

Parker se liggaam lê in rus in die rotonde van die stadsaal, en die uitstorting van rouklaers weerspieël die verdeeldheid wat hy lankal geïnspireer het. Duisende het hom kom sien, het polisiehoof, Ed Davis, later gesê-die meeste om hulde te bring, 'n paar "om seker te maak dat 'n teef dood is."


William Parker (? — –?)

William Parker was 'n voormalige slaaf en 'n afskaffer. As die hoofleier in die voorval in 1851 in Christiana, Pennsylvania, bekend as die Christiana Riot, het Parker gehelp om meer aandag aan die probleem van slawerny te bring in die lang jare voor die burgeroorlog. Die Christiana Riot sou lig werp op die vlugtige slawewet van 1850.

Volgens sy memoires, The Freedman's Story, is William Parker gebore in slawerny in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, op die Rowdown Plantation. Sy ma, Louisa Simms, is op 'n vroeë ouderdom oorlede en hy is grootgemaak deur ouma. Die datum van Parker se geboorte is onbekend. Parker het sy vroeë jare op die plantasie deurgebring, maar toe hy in sy laat tienerjare was, het hy aan slawerny ontsnap en noordwaarts getrek om vryheid te vind. Parker vestig hom in Christiana, Pennsylvania, en trou met Eliza Ann Elizabeth Howard, met wie hy drie kinders gehad het.

After his move to the north William Parker had the opportunity to see Frederick Douglass, former slave himself and abolitionist, and the prominent abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison speak. Inspired by both of these men, and galvanized by his own experiences, Parker decided to devote himself to the cause of abolishing slavery.

As a part of the Lancaster Black Self-Protection Society, Parker occasionally secretly housed slaves on the run in his farmhouse. On the morning of September 11, 1851 Parker was giving refuge to Noah Buley, Nelson Ford, George Ford, and Joshua Hammond, all fugitive slaves from Maryland belonging to wealthy slaveholder Edward Gorsuch.

The Christiana Incident began when Gorsuch, along with a U.S. marshal and a posse, arrived at Parker’s door with a warrant for his slaves. Under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Parker could be arrested and prosecuted for harboring the runaway slaves. William Parker, however, stood his ground and refused to give up the fugitives. His wife used a predetermined signal to call on other black and white anti-slavery people in the area who quickly arrived armed at the Parker house. In the ensuing confrontation Gorsuch was shot dead and one posse member was wounded.

Although the Christiana Incident would eventually prove to be a strong blow against slavery and specifically the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, it was immediately problematic for Parker himself. Following the incident Parker and his family fled to Canada via the Underground Railroad. With encouragement from Frederick Douglass, Parker became the Canadian correspondent for Douglass’ paper, the Noord ster. Both Douglass and Parker used the incident to rally support for the anti-slavery cause. After the Civil War, in February and March of 1866, the Atlantic Monthly magazine published Parker’s memoir, The Freedman’s Story, which presented among other things, his version of events at Christiana. It is unknown when or where William Parker died.


William Parker - History

Parker Genealogy

Parker Genealogy of Western North Carolina to 1750 A.D.

PARKER England to VA. to N.C.

Note: For additional detailed family history, please RIGHT CLICK on links to open in NEW WINDOW .

An American Patriot
Birth: BET. 1740 - 1750 Virginia?

American Revolutionary War Facts:

William Parker was one of the " Overmountain men" that fought the British at two critical battles: " Battle of Kings Mountain " and " Battle of Cowpens ." Most Revolutionary War Records do not record or reflect Overmountain men by name, since they were considered Militia . However, you will find Continental Army (Regulars) in Official Revolutionary War Muster and Pension Records. Furthermore, Official Revolutionary War Archives, at best, often reflect only a partial listing of veterans and patriots.

( Militia strengths and weaknesses are portrayed in the Movie "The Patriot," starring Mel Gibson)

William Parker received the American Revolutionary War L and Grant - No. 2566 of 580 acres in 1788 - on the North side of Clinch River in Hawkins County, TN. He also received land grant No. 398 of 640 acres in 1783, in Davidson County, N.C. - now in TN. - on Station Camp Creek. Instead of currency for their patriotic war service, the government compensated or paid them with land grants. Sources: Jackson County Heritage Book, Land Grants, and American Revolutionary War Pension Records.

Clark, Elizabeth ( Clark, Elizabeth )
Birth: ABT. 1750
Death: Unknown
Gender: Female


All People

Born in Onslow, North Carolina, and served in the state militia of North Carolina during the Revolutionary War. He migrated to South Caro­lina after the war. His first wife was the daughter of Little­berry Walker of Colleton County, South Carolina. Their one child was John Parker, who married Rhoda Strickland, and their daughter, Nancy, married Arthur T. Albritton of Tattnall County, Georgia. He had two children by his second marriage, and they were Richard Hall Parker, who married Hannah Flowers, and Littleberry Parker, who married Mary Ann Wilson.

His third wife was Anna S. Hiers of Colleton County, South Carolina, and their children were Solomon Parker, who married (1) Harriet Baxter (see Baxter Families in the appendix), and (2) Jane Baxter William Hall Parker Jr., who married Jane Carter George Washington Parker, who married Sena Baxter (see Baxter Families in the ap­pendix) Anna Susannah Parker, who married Hendley Fox­worth Horne (see Henley Foxworth Horne in the appendix) Thomas Parker, who died a child Catherine Parker, who married William Brewer Jacob Parker who died a child, and Hampton Cling Parker, who married Catherine Baggs (see Archibald Baggs in the appendix).

William Hall Parker Sr. and his family migrated from South Carolina to Liberty County in 1811, and in 1817 he was granted 500 acres of land near Jones Creek Baptist Church (see Appendix Number 31). He was buried on his plantation, later owned by his grandson, Joseph H. Parker, and his wife was buried beside him when she died in 1857. William Hall Parker Jr. had 11 children and survived all but two of them. He was ordained a Baptist minister in 1844, and resided on a plantation in Liberty County. He was the first station agent at the Savan­nah, Albany & Gulf Railroad depot when it was established in 1857 at Johnstons Station (Ludowici).

When federal troops invaded Liberty County in December 1864, he was beaten by the troops on the front porch of his home for refusing to divulge information they sought. He was one of the organizers in 1866 of the New Sunbury Association, and a member of Altamaha Lodge No. 227, Free and Accepted Masons.

From "Sweet Land of Liberty, A History of Liberty County, Georgia" by Robert Long Groover Appendix Number 39, Page(s) 228-229 Used by the permission of the Liberty County Commissioners Office


Geskiedenis

From design to final shipment, from simple brackets to multifaceted assemblies, Noble Industries has been leading the way since 1968 by offering unprecedented flexibility and creativity in metal fabrication of seemingly impossible jobs. Our superior product quality has been the cornerstone to our growth and our history. Noble Industries was founded by William and Anita Parker. The Noble Industries family business that started in a barn with less than 300 sq ft has grown to 110,000 square feet facility on the north side of Indianapolis, Indiana in the town of Noblesville. We have 60+ employees that we consider our most valuable asset. Many have been employed by Noble Industries for over 20 years.

William Parker's philosophy is that "Every Day is Great" and it shows in the success we share with our employees & clients.

Although every year new customers and additional equipment is added, some Noble Industries Milestones are worth document:

1968 - Started making metal aquarium stands in the barn on a part-time basis.

1969 - Began full-time production of aquarium stands. Produced metal fabricated molds for rubber products, designed and produced tooling and dies. Success had started and Noble Industries was created.

1970 - Noble Industries is Incorporated

1972 - Moved from the barn to a new 5000 sq ft building at 3333 E. Conner St, Noblesville, IN

1974 - Expanded to 15,000 square feet, Roll forming and a 450 feet Powder Coating line is added to our metal fabrication operation.

1978 - The Noblesville facility was expanded to 30,000 square feet and Noble Industries designed and marketed its second captive product the Noble Pyramid auto ramp. Consumer Reports rated it the top rated auto ramp in the country.

1980 - The CNC era for Noble Industries started with the purchase of a new CNC Brake Press and a CNC turret press. The production of military shipping containers begins. These sealed and pressurized containers are to be used by United States Department of Defense to protecting the expensive M1 Tank transmissions as well as Jet engine during shipment.

1985 - Noble Industries announced its third product, the Noble Nitro Chiller. This cryogenic freeze is used in the heat treating industry to capture and use the extreme cold properties of liquid nitrogen to cool a chamber to -120 degrees Fahrenheit without consuming or contaminating the N2.

1994 - Our first Mazak CNC Laser and second Amada CNC Turret Press were purchased

1997 - Installation of a new state-of-the-art powder coating system is completed. This line places Noble Industries at the forefront in powder coating technology with a 6 state pretreatment system culminating with a DI water final rinse, Gema powder application booth with 8 automated and 2 manual powder application guns. Our line capable of handling parts up to 38" wide x 72" high x 150" in length.

1999 - The purchase and installation of our second Mazak CNC laser with load/unload automation.

2003 - Our Mazak 4000 Watt Space Gear was added bringing us to Three CNC Lasers. This machine adds the capability for flat or 3D Laser processing including tube and pipe laser cutting. The picture above shows both laser cutting additions.

2004 - Noble Industries reaffirms a commitment to tube and pipe fabrication with the addition of a Dutch Saw High Speed CNC Tube processing system with inline deburring as well as a adding CNC tube bending to the long list of capabilities.

2005 - Welding is given an technology upgrade with the purchase of our Genesis Robotic Weld Cell with Twin Fanuc Welding Heads.

2006 - Noble Industries achieves its ISO 2001 Certification and expanded our CNC Laser load/unload cell with our fourth Mazak CNC Laser with load/unload automation.

2010 - Noble Industries added a Salvagnini S4P4 panel punch & bending FMS Line, an EdgeMaster M100 Corner Former and our Virtek LaserQC

2012 - January 1st, Noble Industries owners Greg Parker and Brenda Parker Snyder stategically purchased Madsen Wire Products so that Noble Industries and Madsen Wire Products could offer full service metal fabrication services to their customers. By June, the growth at Noble Industries brought a need to add additional laser cutting capacity and metal forming equipment . Two (2) new Mazak 4000 Watt lasers were added in July and 2 Amada Press Brakes. In October the addition of a Mazak FMS system was added with a 10 sheet metal tower.

2013 - Highlights of equipment purchases in 2013 include a Chevalier Vertical Machining Center and a 350 ton CINCINNATI PRESS BRAKE 350MX10.

2014 - HIghlights of 2014 included new equipment for our powder coating line and GEMA OPTI FLEX AUTO & MANUAL GUNS.

2015 - Noble Industries added our 7th Laser , a 4000 Watt Mazak Space Gear

2016 - Our 40,000 square foot building expansion was started and competed in the first quarter of 2017.

2017 - With the building expansion complete, our metal fabrication management team started the new sheet metal processing flow. Plans were established to move the 7 Mazak lasers and purchase 1 more Mazak Space gear by the beginning of 2018. The 5S Program was initiated on the shop floor as well in 2017.

2019 - Noble Industries created OmniWall, the home, garage and commercial wall organization system. OmniWallUSA, the best tool organizer

Noble Industries: Professionalism and Flawless Execution

At Noble Industries we aim to handle all metal fabrication jobs with the most professional and flawless manner possible. This allows our customers the freedom to focus on their core competencies, fostering customer growth without the restriction of manufacturing constraints and large capital investment. You can count on us to deliver fabricated sheet metal products when you need them, how you need them.

Contact a knowledgeable Noble Industries professional at 800-466-1926 and let us know how we can meet your design, custom metal fabrication, powder coating and fulfillment needs.


In 1851, a Maryland Farmer Tried to Kidnap Free Blacks in Pennsylvania. He Wasn’t Expecting the Neighborhood to Fight Back

The muse for this story is a humble piece of stone, no more than an inch square. Sometime in the mid-19th century, it had been fashioned into a gunflint—an object that, when triggered to strike a piece of steel, could spark a small explosion of black powder and propel a lead ball from the muzzle of a gun with mortal velocity.

Archaeologists often come across gunflints. That’s because during the 19th century, firearms were considered mundane items, owned by rich and poor alike. Gunflints, like shell casings now, were their disposable remnants.

But this gunflint is special.

In 2008, my students and I, working with nearby residents, unearthed this unassuming little artifact during an archaeological dig in a little Pennsylvania village known as Christiana. We found it located in what today is a nondescript corn field, where a small stone house once stood.

For a few hours in 1851, that modest residence served as a flashpoint in America’s struggle over slavery. There, an African American tenant farmer named William Parker led a skirmish that became a crucial flareup in the nation’s long-smoldering conflict over slavery.

The Archaeology of Northern Slavery and Freedom (The American Experience in Archaeological Perspective)

Investigating what life was like for African Americans north of the Mason-Dixon Line during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, James Delle presents the first overview of archaeological research on the topic in this book, debunking the notion that the “free” states of the Northeast truly offered freedom and safety for African Americans.

It’s been 160 years since the uprising, which for most of its history was known as the Christiana Riot, but is now more often referred to as the Christiana Resistance, Christiana Tragedy, or Christiana Incident. In taking up arms, Parker and the small band of men and women he led proved that African Americans were willing to fight for their liberation and challenge the federal government’s position on slavery. Finding a broken and discarded flint offers a tangible piece of evidence of their struggle, evoking memories of a time when the end of slavery was still but a hope, and the guarantee of individual liberty for all people merely a dream.

The events at Christiana were a consequence of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, federal legislation passed in the wake of the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848. California, a key part of territory seized by the U.S. following that conflict, had rejected slavery in its constitutional convention in 1849 and sought entry to the Union as a free state. To placate white Southerners who wanted to establish a slave state in Southern California, Congress forged the Compromise of 1850. The Fugitive Slave Act, its cornerstone legislation, forced all citizens to assist in the capture of anyone accused of being a fugitive in any state or territory. A person could be arrested merely on the strength of a signed affidavit and could not even testify in their own defense. Any person found guilty of harboring or supporting an accused fugitive could be imprisoned for up to six months and fined $1,000, nearly 100 times the average monthly wage of a Pennsylvania farm hand in 1850.

In some places, alarmed citizens began pushing back against what they perceived to be an overreach of federal power. In Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, however, the new law began fanning racial tension. Many whites in the area resented the movement of formerly enslaved people across the southern border, perceiving it as an invasion of destitute illegals that would depress wages in factory and field. Others were simply “negro haters,” as William Parker himself put it, all too happy to assist federal agents in sending African Americans back across the border. Some unscrupulous Pennsylvanians profited from illegally trafficking free African American men, women, and children south into slavery. A new and insidious slave trade blossomed in the border states. The price of an enslaved person in nearby Maryland, for instance, jumped an estimated 35 percent following the passage of the law, which made kidnapping free people increasingly profitable and common. One infamous Philadelphia kidnapper named George Alberti was indicted twice for selling free people into slavery, and eventually admitted to kidnapping some 100 people over the course of his notorious career. The governor of Pennsylvania would pardon Alberti after he served less than a year of a 10-year sentence for kidnapping an infant.

With white Pennsylvania ambivalent at best about the fate of African Americans, it wasn’t shocking that someone decided to tell Maryland farmer Edward Gorsuch that two men who had escaped from his land two years before, Samuel Thompson and Joshua Kite, were hiding in William Parker’s rented house near Christiana.

William Parker, a 30-year-old tenant farmer born in Maryland, had escaped slavery just a few years prior, and had found refuge, if not full acceptance, in this quiet corner of Pennsylvania. Despite encountering sympathy from the Quaker community, Parker still feared for his safety. He joined other African Americans in the area to form mutual aid societies to defend against kidnapping, and established networks of lookouts to keep track of the movements of known kidnappers and their allies. One such network tipped off Parker that Gorsuch and a small band of relatives and supporters, accompanied by a notorious Philadelphia constable named Henry Kline who had been deputized as a U.S. marshal for the occasion, were hunting for Thompson and Kite. The black community of Christiana was on high alert.

Gorsuch’s armed posse crept through the rising mist at dawn on the morning of September 11, 1851, as Parker and his men waited at the house. Informed that kidnappers were about, but not knowing where they would strike, black neighbors for several miles around nervously waited for a distress signal calling out for help against the intruders.

Not knowing they had lost the element of surprise, Gorsuch and Kline attempted to storm the Parkers’ small stone house, only to be driven back down a narrow, winding stairway by armed defenders. Next they tried to reason with Parker, who, barricaded in on the second floor, spoke for the group. Parker refused to acknowledge Kline’s right to apprehend the men, dismissing his federal warrant as a meaningless piece of paper. As tensions mounted, Eliza Parker, William’s wife, took up a trumpet-like horn, and blasted a note out of an upstairs window. Startled by the piercing sound, the Gorsuch party opened fire at the window, hoping either to incapacitate Eliza with a bullet wound or frighten her into silence. Despite the danger, she continued sounding the alarm, which reportedly could be heard for several miles around.

Within half an hour, at least two dozen African American men and women, armed with pistols, shotguns, corn cutters and scythes, arrived to assist the Parkers. Several white Quaker neighbors also appeared at the scene, hoping to prevent a violent confrontation. Favored now by the strength of numbers, Parker, Kite, and Thompson emerged from the house to convince Gorsuch and Kline to withdraw. Kline, recognizing the futility of the situation, quickly abandoned his comrades and retreated. But an enraged Gorsuch confronted Thompson—who struck Gorsuch over the head with the butt of his gun. Shots rang out. Within minutes, Gorsuch lay dead on the ground, his body riddled with bullets and lacerated by corn knives. His posse did their best to flee. Son Dickinson Gorsuch had taken a shotgun blast to the chest at close range, barely had the strength to crawl from the scene, and was coughing up blood. Thomas Pearce, a nephew, was shot at least five times. Joshua Gorsuch, an aging cousin, had been beaten on the head, and stumbled away, dazed. Gorsuch’s body was carried to a local tavern, where it became the object of a coroner’s inquest. Despite their serious wounds, the rest of his party survived.

Retribution was swift. In the days that followed, every black man in the environs of Christiana was arrested on treason charges, as were the three white bystanders who had tried to convince Gorsuch to withdraw. The subsequent treason trial of Castner Hanway, one of the white bystanders, resulted in an acquittal. Despite the fury of both pro-slavery and compromise-favoring politicians, the prosecution, led by U.S. Attorney John Ashmead, moved to dismiss all charges against the other defendants, who were soon released. No one was ever arrested or tried on murder charges for the death of Edward Gorsuch, including the known principles at the Parker House—Kite, Thompson, Parker, Eliza and their family—who fled north to Canada and remained free men.

Over time, the black community of Lancaster County grew to remember the Christiana Riot as a tragic victory. The event’s significance was more complicated for the white community. In the short term, many Lancastrians followed the pro-slavery lead of James Buchanan, who lived in the community and was elected U.S. president in 1856. Thaddeus Stevens, an abolitionist politician who represented Lancaster in the U.S. House of Representatives and had assisted in the defense of the accused, lost his seat to a member of his own Whig party in 1852, spurned by constituents who could not tolerate his liberal views on racial justice. But after Buchanan’s election, Stevens was soon buoyed by growing anti-slavery sentiment and returned to Congress, and with the outbreak of the Civil War, Lancastrians both black and white rallied fully to the Union cause.

The Parker House, abandoned after the family fled for Canada, became a place of pilgrimage after the Union victory. Curious visitors from around the region sought out the abandoned “Riot House” and took pieces of it away with them as souvenirs. By the late 1890s the farmer who owned the land perceived the Parker House as a dangerous nuisance, and had it knocked down and plowed over. In the years to come, it became hidden in time, presenting as nothing more than a scatter of stone and debris in an otherwise unremarkable field.

That was how we found it when we visited the cornfield at the invitation of a group of community volunteers who were interested in rebuilding the house as a memorial to William Parker’s struggle. Black and white descendants of the participants in the uprising joined us at the excavation, spellbound when we uncovered the first fragment of foundation wall, a remnant of a place that resonated with the power of ancestors who had risked their lives to prevent neighbors from being kidnapped into slavery.

Archaeologists know that communities create and preserve deep knowledge of their local history. Often, stories of the past help communities create an identity of which they can be proud. This was certainly the case at Christiana.

We can say with some confidence that the small, square piece of stone recovered during the excavation is an artifact of the famous conflict. The gunflint was discovered nestled into the cellar stairs, right below the window where Eliza Parker sounded her alarm. We know that Gorsuch’s men fired at her from virtually this same spot, and that men in the house returned fire. By 1851, flintlocks were old-fashioned weapons, widely replaced by more modern and efficient firearms, but we know from records of the treason trial that the weapons William Parker and his associates wielded were “old muskets.” That suggests the flint we found may have fallen from one of their outdated guns.

The artifact gives us pause. The gunflint reminds us of the progress we have made in overcoming racial injustice in the United States, but also that the work to reconcile with the violent legacies of slavery is far from over. It reminds us that the cost of liberty is often steep, and that the events that have secured that liberty are often quickly forgotten. American stories like this one lie everywhere around us. They wait, mute, to be reconsidered, pointing to the past, and prodding us to tackle what yet is left to do.

James Delle is an archaeologist at Millersville University, in Millersville, Pennsylvania. Hy is die skrywer van The Archaeology of Northern Slavery and Freedom.


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