Belegging van Fort Washington, 15-16 November 1776

Belegging van Fort Washington, 15-16 November 1776


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Belegging van Fort Washington, 15-16 November 1776

Een van die min beleërings tydens die Amerikaanse onafhanklikheidsoorlog. Fort Washington was een van 'n paar forte aan die oorkant van die Hudsonrivier, gebou om te voorkom dat Britse oorlogskepe toegang tot die boonste dele van die rivier verkry. Die fort is gebou op die hoogtes van Washington, 'n sterk posisie 230 voet bo die Hudson, maar die buitenste verdedigingslinies was te lank (vyf myl) en te ver van die fort. Die gewere van die Fort kon dus nie die verdedigers van die buitelyne ondersteun nie, terwyl die buitenste lyne 'n baie groot garnisoen nodig gehad het om te verdedig. In November 1776 was die Amerikaanse garnisoen drieduisend sterk en het 'n sterk kontingent van die kosbare vastelande ingesluit.

Einde Oktober was Fort Washington die enigste oorblywende Amerikaanse besitting op Manhatten -eiland, nadat Washington teruggetrek het na White Plains op die vasteland. Die Britte onder generaal Howe kon minstens drie tot een van die garnisoen wees. Erger nog, Britse oorlogskepe het gou bewys dat hulle tussen Fort Washington en Lee kon vaar sonder om ernstige skade op te doen. Washington het nou twee vrae gekonfronteer - kon sy manne Fort Washington verdedig, en indien wel?

Die gebeure wat gelei het tot die verlies van die fort werp 'n interessante lig op die leierskapstyl van Washington. Op 8 November skryf hy aan Nathanael Greene, die plaaslike bevelvoerder, en spreek sy twyfel uit dat die fort gehou kan word, maar hy het 'n vaste bevel gegee om terug te trek, maar suggereer net dat hy nie die risiko sou loop om die manne of voorrade te verloor nie die fort. Beide Greene en die bevelvoerder van die fort - kolonel Robert Magaw - was vol vertroue dat dit teen 'n Britse aanranding verdedig kon word. Washington wou altyd self 'n situasie sien voordat hy 'n besluit neem, en op 14 November besoek hy Fort Washington. Hierdie inspeksie bevestig blykbaar sy pessimisme oor die wysheid om die fort te probeer verdedig, maar hy laat hom oortuig deur Greene en Magaw. Fort Washington sou gehou word.

Die dag na die besoek van Washington het die Britte besluit. Howe het sy manne in posisie geplaas rondom die kwesbare Amerikaanse lyne en was gereed om aan al drie kante tegelyk aan te val. Howe het Magaw die kans gegee om oor te gee, maar hy verklaar dat hy bereid is om die fort tot 'die laaste uiterste' te verdedig.

Die aanval is op 16 November geloods. Uit die noorde het generaal Wilhelm von Knyphausen die Hessiërs gelei teen Maryland en Virginiese regimente onder bevel van luitenant -kolonel Moses Rawlings. Hulle sou die mees vasbeslote opposisie ontmoet en het swaar ly. Uit die weste staar generaal Edward Mathews, met Cornwallis in die reservaat, voor milisies, terwyl generaal Percy, wat die dag gered het nadat Lexington en Concord gered het, Pennsylvaniërs onder bevel van luitenant -kolonel Lambert Cadwalader in die gesig gestaar het.

Die Britte het groot slagoffers gely, met 300 sterftes, maar na drie uur se geveg het al drie aanvalle geslaag. Die oorblywende Amerikaanse troepe is terug na die fort gedwing, waar hul moraal ineengestort het. By die laaste uiterste bereik het Magaw die middag oorgegee. Amerikaanse verliese was 54 dood, 100 gewond en 2858 gevange geneem vir 'n totaal van meer as 3000 mans wat in 'n enkele dae verloor het. Washington sou binnekort bitter voel hoe hy verlore gaan, aangesien hy gedwing is om terug te trek wat eers vroeg in Desember by die Delaware -rivier geëindig het. Die Amerikaanse saak lyk kortliks in groot gevaar, aangesien Cornwallis herhaaldelik naby Washington kon kom in die strewe oor New Jersey. Dit was slegs die onverwagte oorwinnings op Trenton en Princeton wat Amerikaanse hoop aan die einde van die jaar laat herleef het.


Slag van Fort Washington

Bestryders in die Slag van Fort Washington: Britse en Duitse troepe teen die Amerikaanse kontinentale leër.

Generaals in die Slag van Fort Washington: LuitenantGeneraal William Howe was die bevelvoerder van die Britse leër.

Terwyl generaal George Washington die algemene leiding oor die Amerikaanse weermag was wat die inval van die Britte in New York betwis het, het generaal Nathan Greene die Amerikaanse troepe in Fort Lee en Fort Washington beveel. Greene voer sy bevel uit van Fort Lee, aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die Hudsonrivier vanaf Fort Washington, met kolonel McGaw in bevel van die troepe rondom Fort Washington.

Beampte van 'n hooglandregiment: Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog: beeldjie deur Pilkington Jackson

Grootte van die leërs tydens die Slag van Fort Washington: 8 000 Britse en Duitse troepe het ongeveer 2 900 Amerikaanse troepe aangeval.

Uniforms, wapens en toerusting tydens die Slag van Fort Washington: Die Britte het rooi jasse gedra, met kappies vir die grenadiers, tricorne -hoede vir die bataljonskompagnieë en kappies vir die ligte infanterie.

Die twee regimente van ligte draakone wat in Amerika gedien het, die 16de en 17de, het rooi jasse en helmskoene van leer gedra.

Die Duitse infanterie het blou jasse gedra en die grenadier -versterkingsdop van Pruisiese styl behou met voorplaat van koper.

Die Amerikaners het so goed as moontlik aangetrek. Namate die oorlog vorder, het gereelde infanterieregimente van die kontinentale leër blou uniformjasse gedra, maar die milisie het in ruwe klere aangehou.

Beide kante was gewapen met muskiete, bajonette en kanonne, meestal van klein kaliber. Die Pennsylvania -regimente en ander manne van die woud het lang, klein kaliber geweerwapens gedra.

Wenner van die Slag van Fort Washington: Die Britte en Duitsers. Toe die Amerikaners teruggestoot is in Fort Washington, is hulle gedwing om oor te gee.

Major Murray en Black Watch Highlanders tydens die Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Britse regimente tydens die Slag van Fort Washington:
Saamgestelde bataljons van grenadiers, ligte infanterie en voetwagte (1ste, 2de en 3de wagte)
4de, 10de, 15de, 23ste (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), 27e, 28e, 33e, 38e, 42e (Black Watch), 43e, 52e voet en Fraser's Highlanders.

Amerikaanse regimente in die Slag van Fort Washington:
Colonel Shee's 3rd Pennsylvania Regiment, Colonel Magaw's 5th Pennsylvania Regiment, Colonel Moses Rawling & Maryland en Virginia Riflemen en kolonel Baxter's Bucks County Militia, Pennsylvania.

Kaart van die Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog: kaart deur John Fawkes

Rekening van die Slag van Fort Washington:
In November 1776 was die laaste posisie wat die Amerikaners op Manhattan Island beklee het, die gebied rondom Fort Washington aan die noordpunt, bekend as Harlem Heights. Generaal Nathan Greene beveel die Amerikaanse posisies met diskresie om hom terug te trek as hy dit nodig ag.

Hessiese offisier en muskietier: Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Generaal Howe het drie aanvalle beplan. Brigadier lord Percy sou uit die suide van die eiland aanval. Brigadier Matthews met die ligte infanterie en wagte sou die Harlemrivier oorsteek en die Bucks County Militia onder bevel van kolonel Baxter aan die oostekant aanval, ondersteun deur generaal Cornwallis met die grenadiers en die 33ste voet.

Die belangrikste aanval sou wees op Rawlings se posisie deur Hessiese troepe onder bevel van generaal von Knyphausen. 'N Bykomende aanslag sou aan die dieselfde kant deur die 42ste onder kolonel Sterling uitgevoer word.

Vroeg op 15 November 1776 het Howe 'n beroep op Fort Washington gedoen om oor te gee. Dit is geweier. Die Britse batterye aan die ander kant van die Harlemrivier en die fregat Pearl het 'n bombardement van die Amerikaanse posisies begin.

Om 16:00 op 16 November 1776, het Lord Percy tot die aanval gevorder. Middag het Brigadier Matthews op Manhattan geland en met sy aanval begin.

Kolonel Baxter is dood en sy militia in Pennsylvania het na die fort gevlug.

Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Knyphausen het by Kingsbridge na Manhattan oorgesteek en om 10:00 begin hy suidwaarts. Die twee Hessiese kolomme het die Amerikaanse posisies aangeval en na 'n harde geveg val die gewere van Rawlings terug in die fort.

Landing on the East Side: Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Percy het Cadwallader in die Suide aangeval en die 42ste het aan die oostekant geland en die binneland ingedruk agter die posisie van Cadwallader, wat die Amerikaners gedwing het om terug te val na die fort.

Terwyl al die Amerikaanse troepe in Fort Washington onder swaar vuur vasgesteek was, moes Magaw hom oorgee aan die Hessiese generaal Knyphausen.

Slagoffers by die Slag van Fort Washington: Die Britse kant het 450 slagoffers gely, waarvan 320 Hessiërs was. Die Amerikaners het 2900 slagoffers gely, waarvan die oorwig gevangenes was.

Opvolg na die Slag van Fort Washington: Na die geveg is Fort Lee op die westelike oewer van die Hudson verlaat en Washington en die kontinentale wapen het teruggetrek na die Delaware.

Margaret Corbin tydens die Slag van Fort Washington op 17 November 1776 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Anekdotes uit die Slag van Fort Washington:

  • Van die Britse troepe was die saamgestelde bataljons van grenadiers, ligte infanterie en voetwagte en die 33ste en 42ste (Black Watch) voet die korps wat gereeld gebruik word vir veeleisende opdragte. Van die lynregimente het die 33ste 'n deurlopende hoë reputasie gedurende die 1740's en 1750's gehad en staan ​​bekend as ‘die patroon‘.
  • 'N Amerikaanse vrou, Margaret Corbin, 'n verpleegster, vergesel haar man, John Corbin, toe hy sy pos as kanonnier inneem, wat die aanval van die Hessiërs van generaal von Knyphausen op Kingsbridge in die gesig staar. By die dood van John Corbin het Margaret sy plek in die gewapende bemanning ingeneem totdat sy gewond is. Na die geveg is Margaret verruil as 'n gewonde vegter, het sy in die Amerikaanse kontinentale leër bly dien en na die oorlog 'n pensioen gekry.

Verwysings vir die Slag van Fort Washington:

Geskiedenis van die Britse leër deur Sir John Fortescue

The War of the Revolution deur Christopher Ward

Die Amerikaanse rewolusie deur Brendan Morrissey

Die vorige slag van die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog is die Slag van White Plains

Die volgende slag van die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog is die Slag van Trenton


Slag van Fort Washington

Fort Washington beklee 'n heuwelposisie ongeveer 230 voet bo die Hudsonrivier in die noordweste van Manhattan. Deur sommige beskou as die "Amerikaanse Gibraltar", het die fort en sy susterinstallasie, Fort Lee, die vooruitsig gebied om die beheer van die Hudson te weier aan die beroemde Britse vloot. Fort Washington was uit die weste onaantasbaar, maar was minder indrukwekkend vanuit die ander drie rigtings. Dit is opgebou as 'n vyfsydige erde struktuur met verskeie afgesonderde afgronde, waarvan die opvallendste Fort Tryon was. Fort Washington was gestrem deur die relatief klein omvang en die gebrek aan 'n binnenshuise watertoevoer. Tydens die bou van die naburige Fort Lee in die somer van 1776, stel generaal Israel Putnam voor dat ou skepe in die rivier in die omgewing van die forte gesink word om ekstra hindernisse vir die Britse vloot te bied. Die voorsorgmaatreël is getref en dit het die oortuiging van Nathanael Greene, bevelvoerder van beide forte, verhoog dat sy posisie basies veilig was. In die nasleep van die Amerikaanse nederlaag aan die einde van Oktober op White Plains, het majoor -generaal William Howe gekies om 'n direkte aanval op die Kontinentale Weermag af te staan ​​en eerder sy aandag op Fort Washington gevestig. Begin November het William Demont, 'n Amerikaanse woestyn, tekeninge van die fort aan Britse offisiere oorhandig, sodat hulle hul aanvalplanne kon verfyn vir maksimum effek. Op 5 November seil drie Britse skepe die Hudson op, gly deur die forte en vermy die gesinkte wrakke. Die gebeurtenis het George Washington diep ontstel, wat groot bedenkinge gehad het oor die poging om Fort Washington te hou. Washington se voorstel om die fort te laat vaar, is verwerp deur die selfversekerde Greene, wat kolonel Robert Mcgaw van Pennsylvania onder bevel van die installasie verlaat het en by die personeel by die hoofkwartier in New Jersey aangesluit het. Op 15 November is 'n Britse offisier onder 'n vlag van wapenstilstand na Fort Washington gestuur. Hy eis die onmiddellike oorgawe van die fasiliteit, en dreig dan dat as sy aanbod geweier word, geen verdediging in die komende geveg aan die verdedigers gegee sal word nie. Mcgaw het die aanbod van die hand gewys. Die volgende oggend het Britse magte in die omliggende heuwels kanonskote op die fort en sy afgeleë installasies oopgemaak. Washington, Putnam en Greene het die Hudson van Fort Lee oorgesteek om die toestande by Fort Washington te ondersoek, maar het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat hulle nie hulp kon bied nie en keer terug na New Jersey. Die Britte het toe 'n gekoördineerde drieledige aanval geloods en is aanvanklik sterk weerstand gekry. Amerikaanse soldate by Fort Tryon, waaronder Margaret Cochran Corbin, het vasberade geveg voordat hulle teruggeval of gevange geneem is. Soveel soldate uit die buiteposisies het hul toevlug gesoek in Fort Washington dat die doeltreffendheid daarvan benadeel is deur oorbevolking. Die Duitse magte onder kolonel Johann Rall het 'n belangrike bydrae gelewer tot die Britse saak toe hulle daarin kon slaag om die noordelike muur van die fort te skaal. Teen die middag was dit vir kolonel Mcgaw duidelik dat die geveg verlore was en hy aanvaar 'n aanbod om oor te gee. Die dreigende slagting van die Amerikaanse verdedigers het nie plaasgevind nie, 'n besluit wat in sommige kwartale ronduit gekritiseer is. 'N Aantal Britse offisiere het geglo dat as die soldate in Fort Washington vermoor is, die Amerikaanse vasberadenheid verswak en die oorlog vinnig sou eindig. Die Britte het 67 doodgemaak, 335 gewondes en ses vermis. Die Amerikaner verloor 54 dood en meer as 2800 gevange geneem - 'n geweldige slag vir die Patriot -saak. Verder het 43 kanonne en verskillende noodsaaklike voorrade in Britse hande beland. Baie gevange Amerikaanse offisiere is later vrygelaat, maar die gewone soldate was nie so gelukkig nie. Honderde is opgesluit op ongelooflike beskeie Britse tronkskepe waar hulle in groot getalle dood is as gevolg van ondervoeding en siektes. Die verlies van Fort Washington het 'n diep impak op die opperbevelhebber gehad. Washington was spyt dat Greene die laaste woord oor die verdediging van die fort toegelaat het. In die toekoms het die generaal minder staatgemaak op die voorstelle van ander en meer op sy eie intuïsie. 'N Ander gevolg van die verlies was die toenemend kritieke standpunt wat Charles Lee ingeneem het. Lee het nooit reggekry met lede van die kongres om sy lig onder 'n bossie te verberg nie, en het voorgestel dat die ongeskikte Washington vervang word en homself skaamteloos as 'n plaasvervanger aanbied.


Slag van Fort Washington

Die Slag van Fort Washington was 'n Britse oorwinning en 'n wrede verlies vir die Amerikaners wie se ongevalle meer as 6 keer die Britse slagoffers was.

In November 1776 was Fort Washington die enigste punt op Manhattan Island wat nog deur die Amerikaners gehou is. Die kontinentale leër was gestasioneer op Harlem Heights naby Fort Washington, onder leiding van generaal Nathanael Greene. Hulle het hier teruggetrek na die Slag van White Plains. Generaal Nathan Greene was in beheer van hul posisie teenoor die Britte, en as hy dit nodig ag, moet hy die bevel gee om terug te trek.

Die Britte, onder leiding van generaal William Howe, beplan drie aanvalstrategieë: generaal Lord Percy sou uit die suide aanval, generaal Mathews en lord Cornwallis sou Harlemrivier oorsteek en uit die Ooste aanval, terwyl die hoofaanval sou plaasvind Generaal Von Knyphausen en die Hessiese troepe aan die voorkant van die Amerikaanse posisie. Generaal Howe besluit dat hy 'n boodskap aan die Amerikaners sal stuur, wat hulle die kans sal gee om oor te gee voordat hy die aanval stuur.

Beskouing van die aanval op Fort Washington en rebelle -redouts naby New York op 16 November 1776 deur die Britse en Hessiese brigades. Deur Thomas Davies omstreeks 1776. | Beeld van die publieke domein, met vergunning van die New York Public Library op Wikimedia Commons.

In die vroeë oggend van 15 November 1776 is 'n boodskapper na die Amerikaanse fort gestuur om hulle oor te gee. Die Amerikaners, wat nie geweet het wat buite hul fortjie wag nie, het geweier. Toe breek die hel los. Om 10 uur het Percy's mans aangeval, gevolg deur Mathews en Cornwallis die middag. Hulle het 'n gat op die fort gekry, en die Britse milisie het ingestroom.

Op daardie oomblik het die Hessiërs die rivier oorgesteek en die patriotte van die kop af begin aanval. Die Amerikaners was heeltemal oorweldig en moes noodgedwonge binne die fort vlug. Terwyl al die Amerikaners in Fort Washington vasgekeer was en die Britte sonder ophou afvuur, moes die Patriotte Fort Washington oorgee en hul laaste houvas op Manhattan Island prysgee.

Dit was 'n hartseer verlies vir die Amerikaanse weermag. Hulle het 2900 soldate verloor in die stryd om Fort Washington te behou. Die Britte het slegs 450 man verloor voordat die Amerikaners hul posisie oorgegee het.


Fort Washington

Die Slag van Fort Washington, wat op 16 November 1776 op die eiland Manhattan gevoer is, was die laaste verwoestende hoofstuk in die rampspoedige veldtog van New York in die algemeen Washington.

Nadat hy in Augustus 'n groot oorwinning op Long Island behaal het, het die Britse generaal William Howe middel September teen New York begin optree. Washington was onwillig om Manhattan heeltemal te laat vaar en beveel generaal Nathanael Greene om die vesting te verdedig. Alhoewel Fort Washington vinnig gebou is, het dit Britse oorlogskepe verwoes en probeer om die Hudsonrivier op te vaar. Dit was ook suksesvol om Hessiese aanvalle vroeg in November af te weer. Hierdie vroeë suksesse het Greene en kolonel Robert Magaw, die garnisoenbevelvoerder van die fort, 'n valse gevoel van veiligheid gegee.

Nadat hy die Amerikaanse weermag op 28 Oktober nog 'n nederlaag toegedien het by die Slag van White Plains, het Howe gekies om sy aandag op Fort Washington te vestig. Terwyl generaal Washington aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die Hudson vas was, was die laaste Amerikaanse vesting in Manhattan heeltemal alleen.

Om te sien hoe onseker die Amerikaanse posisie was, het Howe 'n driepuntige aanval op Fort Washington en sy buitenste verdedigingswerke geloods. Die gesamentlike Brits-Hessiese aanrandingsmag van 8 000 mans het die fort se 3 000 verdedigers grootliks oortref. Nietemin het die Amerikaners aanvanklike sukses behaal deur groot ongevalle te berokken en twee Hessiese aanklagte af te weer.

Dié sukses het nie gehou nie. Die gety het begin draai toe 3000 man onder die Britse generaal Hugh Percy deur die buitenste verdedigingslinies na die suide van die fort gestamp het. Byna gelyktydig het generaal Edward Mathew en generaal Charles Lord Cornwallis die oostelike verdediging van die fort oorweldig en die kontinentale agteruit laat skarrel. Aangesien die buitenste werke deur 'n superieure mag aan alle kante ingebreek en ingesluit is, het Magaw besef dat die situasie hopeloos was.


Pell's Point

The Battle of Pell's Point staan ​​as een in 'n reeks verlowings in die New York -veldtog tussen Augustus en Oktober van 1776. Britse magte het die Patriotte verslaan in opeenvolgende gevegte in Brooklyn en Manhattan. Tog het die kontinentale leër vermy om heeltemal vernietig te word deur die tydsberekening van hul terugtogte en gebruik te maak van die Britse onwilligheid om te vorder. Teen Oktober 1776 was die Britse generaal William Howe van plan om Washington se mans in Harlem Heights, New York, vas te trek.

In die vroeë oggendure van 12 Oktober 1776, kom tagtig akte wat Britse troepe vervoer het uit 'n digte mis wat bo die waters van Long Island Sound sweef. Toe die bakke land, reën 'n fregat in die kus 'n kanonvuur op die Throg's Neck -skiereiland in Manhattan. Die Britse generaal William Howe het sy amfibiese aanval op New York geloods.

Howe het gehoop om die grootste deel van die kontinentale weermag en sy opperbevelhebber, George Washington, op die eiland te omring en vas te vang. Slegs vyf-en-twintig Patriot-soldate onder Pennsylvania kolonel Edward Hand was gereed om Howe se mag van 4 000 troepe, meestal Hessiane, te ontmoet toe hulle by Throg's Neck afstap. Hand se manne beweeg vinnig en verbrand die brug oor die klein beek van die skiereiland en plaas hulself agter 'n houtstapel. Vanuit hierdie uitkykpunt het Amerikaanse gewere Redcoats uit 'n bottelnek gehaal en 'n groot leër suksesvol afgehou totdat versterkings opgedaag het. Howe beveel uiteindelik 'n terugtog in plaas van aan te hou aanval. Die Britte het drie nagte op die eiland kamp opgeslaan en Washington ekstra tyd gegee om te hervorm en voor te berei.

Die manne van Howe klim uit en land weer op 'n plek drie kilometer noord van Throg's Neck, Pell's Point (nou Pelham Bay Park). By die Britse inval het die kontinentale bevelvoerder John Glover sy magte van 750 soldate, wat meestal uit Massachusetts -manne bestaan, in 'n versteurde posisie geplaas agter die formasies van natuurlike klipmure wat die landskap besaai. Toe die Redcoats vorder, het Patriot -gewere opgestaan, afgevuur en agter die volgende muur teruggetrek. Die Redcoats het vooruitgegaan omdat hulle geglo het dat hulle die voordeel behou het, net om 'n blote afstand van 'n versteekte tweede kolom Patriots agter elke muur te sien. Alhoewel dit nie 'n volslae Amerikaanse oorwinning was nie, het die taktiek wat die Patriots in die Slag van Pell's Point gebruik het, die Britse inval suksesvol vertraag, die Britte groot verliese aangerig en Washington tyd gekoop.

Na die verlowing het Washington, op aandrang van generaal Charles Lee, sy tweede in bevel, sy mag na White Plains verskuif, wat die weermag van die volgende golf van die Britse amfibiese aanval gered het, maar hulle nie verhinder het om 'n verlies te ly nie die daaropvolgende Slag van White Plains op 28 Oktober 1776.


Historiese gebeure op 16 November

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1532 Spaanse veroweraar Francisco Pizarro vang die Inka -keiser Atahualpa na 'n verrassende hinderlaag by Cajamarca in die Peruaanse Andes

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Ivan die verskriklike maak sy seun dood

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Oorwinning in Slag

1632 Slag van Lützen: Beduidende slag van dertigjarige oorlog - Sweedse en Saksiese magte verslaan die Heilige Romeinse Ryk, ten koste van die dood van die Sweedse koning Gustavus Adolphus

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1669 Franse staatsbegrafnis vir Henrietta Maria, prinses van Frankryk, weduwee van Engelse koning Charles I, in St Denis met beroemde toespraak deur biskop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet

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Histories Publikasie

1835 Extracts from Letters to Henslow, 'n versameling briewe wat Charles Darwin tydens sy reis op die Beagle geskryf het, word gepubliseer

    Nieu-Seeland word amptelik 'n Britse kolonie Lewensredders van kurk word gepatenteer deur Napoleon Guerin (NYC) Russiese hofvonnisse Fyodor Dostojevski tot die dood weens anti-regeringsaktiwiteite wat verband hou met 'n radikale intellektuele groep. Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal open Aleksandr Ostrovsky se toneelstuk "Groza" (The Storm) het première in die Slag van Campbell's Station TN in Moskou, 492 oorsake Konfederale toevlug by Lovejoy, die Spaanse parlement in Georgia, "Cortes" kies amptelik die Italiaanse prins Amedeo Ferdinando Maria as koning Amadeo I van die National Rifle Association eerste keer geoktrooieer in die Slag van Gundet in die staat New York: Ethiopiese keiser Yohannes verslaan die Egiptenare William Bonwill, patenteer tandheelkundige hamer om goud in holtes te tref Britse geweerboot HMS Flirt brande by & amp vernietig Abari -dorp in Niger 6.000 Armeniërs wat deur Turke in Koerdistan vermoor word Franse kaptein Henri Decoeurs -troepe bereik Nikki, Wes -Afr ica

Gebeurtenis van Rente

In 1916 het Eugene O'Neill se "East East for Cardiff" première in NYC

    I. Berlin, V. Herbert, H. Blossoms musikale premières in NYC Russiese La Satannaya -ammunisiefabriek ontplof, 1 000 Britse beset Tel Aviv en Jaffa Hongaarse Volksrepubliek verklaar dat admiraal Miklós Horthy, hoof van die Hongaarse nasionale leër, Boedapest in beslag neem en later word regent van die herstelde Koninkryk Hongarye, die Qantas -lugweë van Australië, gestig in Winton, Queensland, aangesien Queensland en Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited die eerste posstempelmeter in Stamford Conn geleë is

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1922 Pous Pius XI doen 'n beroep op die Belgiese volk om te verenig

Einde van die Ottomaanse Ryk

1922 Ottomaanse kalief, sultan Mehmed VI vra die Britse weermag om hulp

Die laaste Ottomaanse sultan, Mehmed VI, verlaat sy paleis in Istanbul na die afskaffing van die monargie
    Cleveland Bulldogs (voorheen Canton) verloor teen Frankford Yellowjackets, eindig die onoorwonne reeks van 31 wedstryde (NFL en sokkerrekord in die groot liga) American Association for Advancement of Atheism forms (NY)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1933 Die Brasiliaanse president, Getulio Vargas, verklaar homself as diktator

Musiek Première

1935 Richard Rodgers en Lorenz Hart se musiekblyspel & quotJumbo & quot; première in NYC

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1935 Cole Porter se musiekblyspel & quotAllthing Goes & quot sluit in 46th Street Theatre, NYC, na 420 optredes

    Duitse lugmag begin met bombardemente op Madrid K B Regiment weier tafel-konferensie in Oos-Indië LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) word eers gesintetiseer deur die Switserse chemikus dr. Albert Hofmann by die Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switserland

Gebeurtenis van Rente

    Duitse U-boot-torpedo-tenkwa Sliedrecht naby Ierland se Tweede Wêreldoorlog: In reaksie op die gelykmaking van Coventry in Engeland twee dae tevore bombardeer die Royal Air Force Hamburg. Duitse troepe verower Kertsh (waarskynlik) Aanval van Amerikaanse vliegvestings B-17 op die lughawe by Sidi Ahmed Tweede Wêreldoorlog: Amerikaanse bomwerpers slaan 'n hidro-elektriese kragaanleg en swaarwaterfabriek in Duits-beheerde Vemork, Noorweë, toe. Amerikaanse 9de afdeling en 1ste weermagaanvalle by Geilenkirchen Yeshiva College (Universiteit), geoktrooieer in NY, 1ste Amerikaanse Joodse Kollege Stigting van UNESCO, die Verenigde Nasies se Opvoedkundige, Wetenskaplike en Kulturele Organisasie Twee nuwe elemente ontdek deur Glenn Seaborg, James, Morgan en Albert Ghiorso word aangekondig: americium (atoomnommer 95) en curium (atoomnommer 96) 15 000 demonstreer in Brussel teen ligte vonnis van Nazi's

NBA Rekord

1957 Celtic Bill Russell stel 'n NBA-rekord van 49 rebounds en klop Philadelphia 111-89

Moord op Rente

1957 Die Amerikaanse moordenaar en lyfwenner Ed Gein vermoor sy laaste slagoffer

All Eyes on Birthplace van British Rock 'n 'Roll

1957 BBC se eerste popmusiekprogram, die "Six-Five Special", word uitgesaai vanaf die klein 2i's Coffee Bar in Londen

    "The Sound of Music" musical van Richard Rodgers en Oscar Hammerstein II, open in Lunt Fontanne Theatre, NYC, vir 1443 optredes NL -kolfkampioen Dick Groat wen MVP Verenigde Koninkryk beperk immigrasie uit Statebondslande

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1961 Amerikaanse president JFK besluit om militêre hulp aan Suid -Viëtnam te verhoog sonder om Amerikaanse gevegstroepe te pleeg

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1962 Wilt Chamberlain van NBA SF Warriors behaal 73 punte teenoor NY Knicks

    Toledo, OH koerantstaking begin Radio CJCX Sydney Nova Scotia (Kanada) begin kortgolfuitsending USSR voer kerntoets uit in Oos -Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1966 Pirates se buitelander Roberto Clemente word die NL MVP genoem

    "Greatest Hits" -album van The Temptations word vrygestel (Billboard -album van die jaar 1967) Die Derry Citizens Action Committee trotseer 'n verbod op optogte in Derry, Noord -Ierland, deur te marsjeer met 'n geskatte 15.000 mense in 1968, Mỹ Lai -slagting van tussen 347 en 504 ongewapende Suid Daar word eers berig dat Viëtnamese burgerlikes deur Amerikaanse soldate die eerste keer was dat die Amerikaanse president, Nixon, die eerste president is wat 'n seisoen NFL-wedstryd bygewoon het: die Dallas Cowboys klop die Washington Redskins met 41-28 Twee mans word doodgeskiet deur die Ierse Republikeinse Weermag (IRA) Suid-Viëtnamese Vise President Nguyen Cao Ky verdedig operasies in Kambodja omdat kommunistiese magte Suid-Viëtnam binne 24 uur kan oorskry as troepe wat daar opereer onttrek word. Ierland) Die VSA verhoog lugaktiwiteit om die Kambodjaanse regering te ondersteun terwyl gevegte naby Phnom Penh en quo gekom het tDear Oscar & quot open by Playhouse Theatre NYC vir 5 optredes

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1972 Britse premier Edward Heath waarsku teen 'n eensydige onafhanklikheidsverklaring


Legends of America

George Washington in die Amerikaanse rewolusie deur Junius B. Stearns, 1854.

Vir meer as 'n eeu het Engeland 13 kolonies gehad wat langs die kus tussen Kanada en Florida strek. Die Britse parlement het wette gemaak wat die Engelse handelaars bevoordeel het, en teen 1750 het baie wette aangeneem om handel met haar kolonies aan te moedig. Sommige van die wette het hulle verbied om handel te dryf met ander lande of selfs in sommige gevalle met mekaar. As al hierdie wette streng uitgevoer is, sou die groot rewolusie moontlik voor dit gekom het. Dit is 'n tydlyn van gebeure tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog, wat 'n geboorte van 'n nasie en die wêreld se baken van vryheid sou sien.

Britse hervormings en koloniale verset:

1764

Geen belasting sonder verteenwoordiging

Februarie 1764 – James Otis dring aan op 'n verenigde reaksie op die onlangse dade wat Engeland opgelê het. Die frase “Taxation without Representation is Tyranny ” word gewoonlik toegeskryf aan James Otis

Julie 1764 – James Otis publiseer “ The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved. ”

Augustus 1764 begin handelaars in Boston, Massachusetts, met 'n boikot van Britse luukse goedere.

1765

22 Maart 1765 – Die Stamp Act is deur die Britse parlement aanvaar.

24 Maart 1765 – Die Quartering Act vereis dat Amerikaanse koloniste Britse troepe huisves en voedsel voorsien.

Julie 1765 – The Sons of Liberty, 'n geheime organisasie wat gekant is teen die seëlwet, word gestig.

Desember 1765 – Meer as 200 Boston -handelaars weier om die seëlbelasting te betaal.

1766

Januarie 1766 – Die vergadering in New York weier om die kwartaalwet ten volle af te dwing.

18 Maart 1766 – Die seëlwet word herroep.

Augustus 1766 en geweld breek uit in New York tussen Britse soldate en lede van die Sons of Liberty.

1768

Julie 1768 – Handelaars in Boston en New York boikot Britse goedere

September 1768 – Engelse oorlogskepe vaar die Boston -hawe binne en laat twee regimente Engelse troepe om orde te hou.

1770

Maart 1770 – Die Boston -slagting vind plaas en vier werkers word deur Britse troepe in Boston, Massachusetts, geskiet.

1773

16 Desember 1773 – Die Boston Tea Party vind plaas wanneer patriotte van Massachusetts, geklee as Mohawk -Indiërs, teen die British Tea Act protesteer deur kratte tee in Boston Harbor te gooi.

1774

1774 – The First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

March 1774 – The Coercive Acts, called Intolerable Acts by Americans, are implemented.

The American Revolution Begins:

1775

February 9, 1775 – The English Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion.

April 14, 1775 – Massachusetts Governor Thomas Gage is ordered by the British to enforce the Coercive Acts and suppress any rebellion among colonists by using all necessary force.

April 18, 1775 – General Thomas Gage orders 700 British soldiers to Concord to destroy the colonists’ weapons depot. Paul Revere and William Dawes are sent from Boston to warn the colonists. Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who were hiding in Lexington, Massachusetts were able to escape.

April 19, 1775 – The first shots are fired at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts where the weapons depot is destroyed. “Minute Men” force British troops back to Boston. George Washington takes command of the Continental Army.

April 19, 1775 – American Militia defeated British regulars at Concord, Massachusetts.

April 23, 1775 – The Provincial Congress in Massachusetts orders 13,600 American soldiers to be mobilized. Colonial volunteers from all over New England assemble and head for Boston and begin a year-long siege of the city.

May 10, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with John Hancock elected as its president.

May 10, 1775 – American forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga and its artillery in New York.

May 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress places the colonies in a state of defense.

Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775. illustration by John H. Daniels & Son, 1903.

June 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress unanimously votes to appoint George Washington general and commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.

June 17, 1775 – The first major fight between British and American troops occurs at Boston, Massachusetts in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

July 3, 1775 – General George Washington assumes command of Continental Army, about 17,000 men, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

July 5, 1775 – The Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition which appeals directly to King George III for reconciliation.

July 6, 1775 – The Continental Congress issues a Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. It details the colonists’ reasons for fighting the British and states the Americans are “resolved to die free men rather than live as slaves.”

The American Revolution, the American War of Independence, led by George Washington begins between Great Britain and the 13 British colonies in North America.

July 26, 1775 – An American Post Office is established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with Benjamin as Postmaster General.

August 1775 – King George III refuses even to look at the petition submitted by the Continental Congress and instead issues a proclamation declaring the Americans to be in a state of open rebellion.

November 10-21, 1775 – Patriots are sieged by the British at Ninety-Six, South Carolina. The battle ended in a truce.

November 28, 1775 – The American Navy is established by Congress.

November 29, 1775- Congress appoints a secret committee to seek help from European nations.

December 1775 – Congress is informed that France may offer support in the war against Britain.

December 11, 1775 – Virginia and North Carolina patriots routed Loyalist troops and burned Norfolk.

December 22, 1775 – At Great Canebrake, South Carolina Colonel William Thomson with 1,500 rangers and militia captured a force of Loyalists.

December 23, 1775 – King George III issues a royal proclamation closing the American colonies to all commerce and trade, to take effect in March of 1776.

December 23-30, 1775 – During the Snow Campaign in South Carolina against Loyalists, the Patriot militia is impeded by 15″ of snow.

1776

February 27, 1776 – North Carolina militia defeated South Carolina Loyalists at Moore’s Creek, North Carolina inflicting heavy casualties.

View of Boston from Dorchester Heights, by Robert Havell, 1841.

March 4-17, 1776 – At Dorchester Heights, Massachusetts, American forces capture Dorchester Heights which overlooks Boston harbor. The British evacuate Boston and set sail for Halifax.

March 17, 1776 – British Navy evacuated Boston, Massachusetts and moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Washington’s Army then occupies Boston.

April 6, 1776 – The Continental Congress declares colonial shipping ports open to all traffic except the British

April 12, 1776 – The North Carolina assembly is the first to empower its delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence from Britain.

May 2, 1776 – The Continental Congress gets the much needed foreign support they had been hoping for. King Louis XVI of France commits one million dollars in arms and munitions. Spain then also promises support.

May 10, 1776 – The Continental Congress authorizes each of the 13 colonies to form provincial governments.

Leaders of the Continental Congress, John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson, by A. Tholey

June 7, 1776 – Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress, presents a formal resolution calling for America to declare its independence from Britain. Congress decides to postpone its decision on this until July.

June 8, 1776 – Patriot attempt to take British position in Three Rivers, Canada failed.

June 11, 1776 – Congress appoints a committee to draft a declaration of independence. Committee members are Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Thomas Jefferson is chosen by the committee to prepare the first draft of the declaration, which he completes in one day.

June 28, 1776 – Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence is ready and is presented to Congress, with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

June 28, 1776 – At Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina, British naval attack failed when the palmetto logs held against the bombardment.

June-July, 1776 – A massive British war fleet arrives in New York Harbor consisting of 30 battleships with 1200 cannon, 30,000 soldiers, 10,000 sailors, and 300 supply ships, under the command of General William Howe and his brother Admiral Lord Richard Howe.

July 1, 1776 – Incited by British royal agents, the Cherokee attacked along the entire southern frontier.

July 2, 1776 – Twelve of 13 colonial delegations (New York abstains) vote in support of Richard Henry Lee’s resolution for independence.

Declaration of Independence by Arthur Szyk

July 4, 1776 – The Congress formally endorses Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence, with copies to be sent to all of the colonies.

July 12, 1776 – As a show of force, two British frigates sail up the Hudson River blasting their guns. Peace feelers are then extended to the Americans. At the request of the British, General George Washington meets with General William Howe’s representatives in New York and listens to vague offers of clemency for the American rebels. Washington politely declines before he leaves.

July 15, 1776 – At Lyndley’s Fort, South Carolina, Patriots defended against attack by Indians and the British dressed as Indians.

August 1, 1776 – At Seneca, South Carolina, Americans are ambushed by Cherokee Indians. Patriot forces saved by a mounted charge.

August 10, 1776 – Cherokee Indians defeated by Andrew Pickens at Tugaloo River, South Carolina.

August 1776 – In the Ring Fight in South Carolina, 200 Cherokee Indians attacked Andrew Pickens and 25 militia. From a circle, firing in turn, the Patriots held off attackers until a rescue force arrived.

August 12, 1776 – Colonel David Williamson and Andrew Pickens defeated a large Cherokee war party and burned the Indian town near Tamassee, South Carolina.

August 27, 1776 – George Washington’s army defeated is defeated but, escaped by night in the fog at Long Island, New York.

The Battle of Long Island, New York by Virtue and Co. Click for prints & products.

August 27-29, 1776 – General William Howe leads 15,000 soldiers against Washington’s army in the Battle of Long Island, New York. Washington, outnumbered two to one, suffers a severe defeat as his army is outflanked and scatters. The Americans retreat to Brooklyn Heights, facing possible capture by the British or even total surrender.

September 11, 1776 – A peace conference is held on Staten Island, New York with British Admiral, Lord Richard Howe, meeting American representatives including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. The conference fails, however, as Howe demands the colonists revoke the Declaration of Independence.

September 16, 1776 – After evacuating New York City, Washington’s army repulses a British attack during the Battle of Harlem Heights in upper Manhattan, New York. Several days later, fire engulfs New York City and destroys over 300 buildings.

September 19, 1776 – Colonel David Williamson’s patriots were attacked by Cherokee south of Franklin, North Carolina in a gorge known as the Black Hole. Americans eventually cleared the pass.

September 22, 1776 – After he is caught spying on British troops on Long Island, New York, Nathan Hale is executed without a trial, his last words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

September 26, 1776 – Congress appoints Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Silas Deane to negotiate treaties with European governments. Franklin and Deane then travel to France seeking financial and military aid.

October 11, 1776 – With makeshift boats on Lake Champlain, Benedict Arnold engaged a British squadron. Arnold was defeated but delayed the British until it was too close to winter to continue their campaign.

Yankee Doodle, A.M. Williard, 1776.

October 28, 1776 – After evacuating his main forces from Manhattan, George Washington’s army suffers heavy casualties in the Battle of White Plains, New York from General William Howe’s forces. General George Washington then retreats westward.

November 16, 1776 – American commander surrendered Fort Washington, New York to the Hessians.

November 20, 1776 – Lord Charles Cornwallis captured Fort Lee, New Jersey. Nathanael Greene abandoned the position.

December 6, 1776 – The naval base at Newport, Rhode Island is captured by the British.

December 11, 1776 – General George Washington takes his troops across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania.

December 12, 1776 – With concerns of a possible British attack, the Continental Congress abandons Philadelphia for Baltimore, Maryland.

December 26, 1776 – General George Washington re-crosses the Delaware River and conducts a surprise raid on a Hessian brigade and defeated it. Known as the Battle of Trenton.

1777

George Washington in military uniform, by Rembrandt Peale.

January 3, 1777 – A second victory for General George Washington as his troops defeat the British at Princeton and drive them back toward New Brunswick.

Winter, 1777 – General George Washington establishes winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. During the harsh winter, Washington’s army shrinks to about a thousand men as enlistments die and deserters flee the hardships. By spring, with the arrival of recruits, Washington will have 9,000 men.

March 12, 1777 – The Continental Congress returns to Philadelphia from Baltimore after Washington’s successes against the British in New Jersey.

April 27, 1777 – American troops under Benedict Arnold defeat the British at Ridgefield, Connecticut.

May 20, 1777 – The Cherokee sued for peace and lost most of their land east of the mountains in the Treaty of DeWitt’s Corner, South Carolina.

June 14, 1777 – The flag of the United States consisting of 13 stars and 13 white and red stripes is mandated by Congress.

June 14, 1777 – John Paul Jones is chosen by Congress to captain the 18 gun vessel Ranger with a mission to raid coastal towns of England.

June 17, 1777 – A British force of 7,700 men under General John Burgoyne invades from Canada, sailing down Lake Champlain toward Albany, planning to link up with General William Howe who will come north from New York City, thus cutting off New England from the rest of the colonies.

July 6, 1777 – General John Burgoyne’s troops surprise the Americans with the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, New York on Lake Champlain. Its military supplies are greatly needed by Washington’s forces. The loss of the fort is a tremendous blow to American morale.

July 23, 1777 – British General William Howe, with 15,000 men, sets sail from New York for the Chesapeake Bay to capture Philadelphia, instead of sailing north to meet up with General John Burgoyne.

July 27, 1777 – Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French aristocrat, arrives in Philadelphia and volunteers to serve without pay. Congress appoints him as a major general in the Continental Army. Lafayette will become one of General Washington’s most trusted aides.

Continental Army by Henry Ogden

August 1, 1777 – General John Burgoyne reaches the Hudson River after a grueling month spent crossing 23 miles of wilderness separating the southern tip of Lake Champlain from the northern tip of the Hudson River.

August 6, 1777 – British column with Iroquois warriors attack Oriskany, New York from Oswego. rescue troops ambushed.

August 16, 1777 – British General John Burgoyne detached Hessians, British regulars, Loyalists and Iroquois against Bennington, Vermont. American militia attacked and defeated the British. Known as the Battle of Bennington.

August 23, 1777 – Benedict Arnold intended to siege Fort Stanwix, New York but the Indians and Loyalists deserted and the British retired.

August 25, 1777 – British General William Howe disembarks at Chesapeake Bay with his troops.

September 9-11, 1777 – At Brandywine, Pennsylvania, General George Washington and the main American Army of 10,500 men are driven back toward Philadelphia by General William Howe’s British troops. Both sides suffer heavy losses.

September 11, 1777 – Once again worried about an attack, Congress leaves Philadelphia and resettles in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

September 26, 1777- British forces under General William Howe occupied Philadelphia. Congress relocates again to York, Pennsylvania.

Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga New York

October 17, 1777 – General John Burgoyne surrendered his British Army to American Major General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York. It is the first major American victory of the Revolutionary War.

September 21, 1777 – British troops attack with bayonets and surprised Americans at Paoli, Pennsylvania. Americans called it the “Paoli Massacre.”

October 4, 1777 – At Germantown, Pennsylvania, an American attack on British positions failed.

November 15, 1777 – Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation as the government of the new United States of America. Conditions are terrible for the soldiers.

December 17, 1777 – At Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, the Continental Army led by General George Washington sets up winter quarters.

1778

February 6, 1778 – France signed a treaty with the Continental Congress which would provide troops, ships, and supplies to America.

George Washington at Valley Forge in 1777 by P. Haas

February 23, 1778 – Baron von Steuben of Prussia arrives at Valley Forge to join the Continental Army. He then begins much-needed training and drilling of Washington’s troops, now suffering from poor morale resulting from cold, hunger, disease, low supplies, and desertions over the long, harsh winter.

March 16, 1778 – A Peace Commission is created by the British Parliament to negotiate with the Americans. The commission then travels to Philadelphia where its offers granting all of the American demands, except independence, are rejected by Congress.

May 8, 1778 – British General Henry Clinton replaces General William Howe as commander of all British forces in the American colonies.

May 30, 1778 – A campaign of terror against American frontier settlements, instigated by the British, begins as 300 Iroquois Indians burn Cobleskill, New York.

June 18, 1778 – Fearing a blockade by French ships, British General Henry Clinton withdraws his troops from Philadelphia and marches across New Jersey toward New York City. Americans then re-occupy Philadelphia.

June 19, 1778 – General George Washington sends troops from Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to intercept General Henry Clinton.

June 27-28, 1778 – The Battle of Monmouth occurs in New Jersey as Washington’s troops and General Henry Clinton’s troops fight to a standoff.

July 2, 1778 – Congress returns once again to Philadelphia.

July 3, 1778 – British Loyalists and Indians massacre American settlers in the Wyoming Valley of northern Pennsylvania.

Illinois Campaign during the American Revolution.

July 4, 1778 – Kaskaskia, Illinois is captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark.

July 8, 1778 – General George Washington sets up headquarters at West Point, New York.

July 10, 1778 – France declares war against Britain.

September 14, 1778 – Benjamin Franklin is appointed to be the American diplomatic representative in France.

August 8, 1778 – American land forces and French ships attempt to conduct a combined siege against Newport, Rhode Island. But bad weather and delays of the land troops result in failure. The weather-damaged French fleet then sails to Boston for repairs.

December 29, 1778 – The British begin a major southern campaign with the capture of Savannah, Georgia, followed a month later with the capture of Augusta.

1779

Major General William Moultrie

February 3, 1779 – Major General Moultrie defeated a British detachment at Port Royal Island, South Carolina.

February 14, 1779 – At Kettle Creek, Georgia, Andrew Pickens and Elijah Clarke and their Georgia and Carolina militia defeated North Carolina Loyalist militia who were traveling to Augusta to join the British forces.

February 24, 1779 – Loyalists and Indians recaptured Vincennes, Indiana but, George Rogers Clark forced them to retreat.

March 3, 1779 – British Lieutenant Colonel Augustine Prevost defeated Americans under General John Ashe at Brier Creek, Georgia.

April 1-30, 1779 – In retaliation for Indian raids on colonial settlements, American troops from North Carolina and Virginia attack Chickamauga Indian villages in Tennessee.

May 10, 1779 – British troops burn Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia.

May 11-13, 1779 – In Charleston, South Carolina Major General Augustine Prevost had to break his siege as American forces under Major General Benjamin Lincoln approached.

British General Henry Clinton

June 1, 1779 – British General Henry Clinton takes 6,000 men up the Hudson River toward West Point, New York.

June 16, 1779 – Spain declares war on England, but does not make an alliance with the American Revolutionary forces.

June 20, 1779 – At Stono River, South Carolina Major General Benjamin Lincoln engaged a British rear guard. The indecisive battle resulted in many casualties.

July 10, 1779 – Naval ships from Massachusetts are destroyed by the British while attempting to take the Loyalist stronghold of Castine, Maine.

July 5-11, 1779 – Loyalists raid coastal towns in Connecticut, burning Fairfield, Norwalk, and ships in New Haven harbor.

July 16, 1779 – At Stony Point, New York, Americans attacked with bayonets only resulting in extensive British casualties.

July-August 1779 – American attempt to dislodge British along the Penobscot River in Maine failed.

August 13, 1779 – At Paulus Hook, New Jersey, the Americans make a successful surprise attack on British outposts.

August 14, 1779 – A peace plan is approved by Congress which stipulates independence, complete British evacuation of America and free navigation on the Mississippi River.

August 28, 1779 – After two terrible massacres, American forces moved into the Indian territory of New York and burned villages. Iroquois and Seneca power was diminished although they remained hostile.

August 29, 1779 – At Elmira, New York American forces defeat the combined Indian and Loyalist forces at Elmira, New York. Following the victory, American troops head northwest and destroy nearly 40 Cayuga and Seneca Indian villages in retaliation for the campaign of terror against American settlers.

September 16-Oct 19, 1779 – American Army under Major General Benjamin Lincoln failed to dislodge British from Savannah, Georgia.

“I have not yet begun to fight!” – John Paul Jones, painting by Charles J. Andres.

September 23, 1779 – Off the coast of England, John Paul Jones fights a desperate battle with a British frigate. When the British demand his surrender, Jones responds, “I have not yet begun to fight!” Jones then captures the frigate before his own ship sinks.

September 27, 1779 – John Adams is appointed by Congress to negotiate peace with England.

November 11, 1778 – At Cherry Valley, New York, Loyalists and Indians massacre over 40 American settlers.

December 26, 1779 – British General Henry Clinton sets sail from New York with 8,000 men and heads for Charleston, South Carolina, arriving there on February 1, 1780.

Winter 1779-1780 – Morristown, New Jersey sheltered the main encampments of the American Continental Army and served as the winter quarters of its commander-in-chief, General George Washington.


REVOLUTIONARY WAR SITES IN FORT LEE, NEW JERSEY

George Washington was named the head of the Continental (American) Army by Congress on June 15, 1775. His first task was to travel to Philadelphia from Boston, where a successful siege which drove British forces from the city was an early victory. The next chapter would prove to be much more difficult, and nearly disastrous to the Continental Army.

After British forces were driven from Boston in March 1776, General Washington headed to New York City, where he arrived on April 13, 1776. The task for him and his army was to protect New York from British invasion. The city was of great strategic importance, and New York harbor offered control of the Hudson River. The British had a large and powerful navy, and their strategy was to use their ships to gain control of the Hudson River in order to split the thirteen colonies in two.

On June 29, British ships began arriving in the New York harbor. Over the next two months, a steady stream of additional ships would arrive, carrying more and more British and Hessian troops. (Hessians were German mercenary soldiers hired by the British to fight in the war.)

While the main body of Washington's army was on Manhattan and Long Island, work began on a fort here in July 1776, which was originally called &ldquoFort Constitution.&rdquo It would later be renamed &ldquoFort Lee&rdquo in honor of General Charles Lee. Across the Hudson River, another fort called Fort Washington had already been constructed. The idea was that these two forts on opposite sides of the river could be used to stop British ships from sailing up the Hudson River.

On July 4, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, raising the stakes of the war. British ships continued to sail into New York harbor throughout the summer, bringing a total of more than 31,000 British and Hessian troops. This was the largest invading force in history up to that time. As the British and Hessian forces continued to grow on Staten Island, General Washington was uncertain as to where they would attack first. He therefore kept some of his troops on Manhattan Island and some in Brooklyn on Long Island.

The first test for the effectiveness of Fort Washington came when two British ships, the Roos en die Phoenix, sailed up the Hudson River on July 12. Cannon fire from Fort Washington made little impact the two ships suffered no serious damage, and no casualties. Despite these poor results, General Washington stuck to the plan of defending the river with the forts, and so work continued to complete Fort Lee.

The initial attack by British and Hessians came on Long Island on August 22, in which the Americans were forced to evacuate defenses they had spent months building. Over the following weeks, the Continental Army suffered a series of defeats and retreated north across Manhattan. By the end of September, British were in control of all of Manhattan, except Fort Washington.

The decision was made to defend Fort Washington, even though its effectiveness had been shown to be ineffective in its purpose of stopping British ships from sailing past it on the Hudson River.

On November 16, British and Hessian troops attacked Fort Washington, easily and quickly overrunning its defenses and capturing 2,800 American troops. Washington ordered General Nathanael Greene to manage an evacuation of Fort Lee, while Washington himself was headquartered ten miles away at the Zabriskie house in Hackensack. [2] A surprise invasion several days later would keep the evacuation from being an orderly one.

On the night of November 19-20, 5000 British and Hessian forces under General Cornwallis crossed over the Hudson River, disembarking about six miles north of Fort Lee at Lower Closter Landing. Upon learning of the invasion, the American troops at Fort Lee made a hasty evacuation, leaving behind such important items as tents, entrenching tools, heavy artillery, and a large amount of food. This began a twelve-day retreat across New Jersey, arriving on December 2 in Trenton, where they spent five days moving all the troops and supplies across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. (See the Bergen County 1776 Retreat Route Signs entry lower on this page.)

This was a desperate time for General Washington and his army, what Thomas Paine would describe as "These are the times that try men's souls." [3] Washington himself wrote in a letter to his brother John after the fall of Fort Washington, "I am wearied almost to death with the retrograde motion of things." [4]

More bad news followed. The army's second ranked General, Charles Lee, for whom Fort Lee was named, was captured by the British in Basking Ridge on the night of December 12 - 13. [5]

However, within weeks Washington and his army would turn the tide. On Christmas night, Washington's forces crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey and win a small but important victory the next morning at Trenton, followed a week later by another victory at Princeton. Having revived their chances and morale, Washington's army headed to Morristown where they spent the winter.

From this point on, New Jersey would play a major role in the Revolutionary War, and Washington would spend more time in this state than any other. Important events in New Jersey over the next six years include encampments in Morristown and Middlebrook the Battles of Monmouth, Connecticut Farms, and Springfield as well as many other major and minor events. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war. When the news of the signing reached America, Congress was meeting in Nassau Hall in Princeton, and General Washington was headquartered in Kingston. Given New Jersey's significant role in the Revolutionary War, it was fitting that both General Washington and Congress were in New Jersey at the time they received this momentous news. [6]

The Visitor Center contains two floors of exhibits which explain and interpret the historic events which occurred at Fort Lee in 1776.There is also a small gift/book shop.

One of the most helpful exhibits is a large three-dimensional map of the New York/Fort Lee area titled "The New York Campaign." The exhibit combines narration with lights on the map which represent the movement of troops across the terrain of the area. When visiting Fort Lee, I highly recommend using this exhibit to understand the geography and troop movements of events in New York and Fort Lee in 1776.

In addition to the information and exhibits available at the Visitor Center, there are signs placed throughout the park grounds to describe the history of this site. There are also soldier hut recreations, and cannons. The view from the park of the Hudson River, New York City, and the George Washington Bridge are outstanding.


Monument Park was created by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1908. At the park's dedication ceremony, the keynote speaker was General John "Black Jack" Pershing, who would go on to lead the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I . [7]

The centerpiece of Monument Park is the majestic Rebelmen statue shown above. In addition to this statue, there are historic plaques located throughout the park. Two plaques describe the use of surrounding Fort Lee roads by the troops in 1776. Others are dedicated to individual Revolutionary War Generals who played a role in the events in Fort Lee.


Bergen County 1776 Retreat Route Signs
Running from Fort Lee Historic Park
to Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington

Washington's Army 1776 Retreat Route signs are posted throughout Bergen County along the retreat route taken by the army after abandoning Fort Lee on November 20, 1776. These signs can be followed through Bergen County from Main Street in Fort Lee to Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington.

Washington's Army reached the Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington on November 21. They continued their retreat across New Jersey, through Newark, New Brunswick, and Princeton, finally reaching Trenton on December 2. The next five days were spent moving all of the troops and supplies in small boats over the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. They made their famous Crossing of the Delaware back into New Jersey several weeks later on Christmas night.


Bronnotas:

1. ^ A variety of sources were consulted in preparing this entry, including:

&bull David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005)

&bull David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

&bull Markers, signs, brochures and exhibits at Fort Lee Historic Park

&bull George Washington Edited by Jared Sparks, The Writings of George Washington Volume 4 (Boston: Russel, Odiorne and
Metcalf and Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1834) Available to be read at Google Books here

2. ^ Note that using modern roads, the distance is only eight miles from the Fort Lee encampment to Zabriskie's house site in Hackensack. However, in 1776 the journey was longer because it was necessary to use the New Bridge to cross the Hackensack River.

3. ^ "These are the times that try men's souls" is the opening sentence of Thomas Paine's Die Krisis.

4. ^ George Washington to John Augustine Washington, sent from "Hackinsac" [Hackensack] on November 19, 1776 , reprinted in:
George Washington Onder redaksie van Jared Sparks, The Writings of George Washington Volume 4 (Boston: Russel, Odiorne and Metcalf and Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1834) pages 182 - 185 Available to be read at Google Books here

5. ^ General Charles Lee was captured at Widow White's Tavern in Basking Ridge by a group of British dragoons (cavalry) under the command of twenty-two-year-old officer Banastre Tarleton.
▸ For more information, see the Basking Ridge page of this website.

6. ^ For more information and accompanying source notes about the events mentioned in these two paragraphs, see the pages linked to within the text.

7. ^ Official Website of the Borough of Fort Lee en die General John 'Black Jack' Pershing plaque in the park.

Die uiteindelike veldgids vir die historiese terreine van die Revolusionêre Oorlog in New Jersey!
Fort Lee New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites &bul Fort Lee New Jersey Historic Sites
Fort Lee Historic Park &bul Monument Park &bul Washington's Army Retreat Route 1776

Webwerf ondersoek, geskryf, gefotografeer en ontwerp deur Al Frazza
Hierdie webwerf, sy teks en foto's is © 2009 - 2021 AL Frazza. Alle regte voorbehou.


8. Battles of Trenton and Princeton (Winter of 1776-1777)

General George Washington crossed the icy Delaware River on the night of Christmas and into the morning of December 26th in 1776, leading his Continental Army against the British forces stationed at Trenton, having with him around 1,400 men. General Washington captured more than 900 men and occupied Trenton four days later. On January 3, he led a daring night match to capture Princeton after luring the British forces south. These two victories were pivotal in boosting the morale of the American troops and reassuring their cause in independence.


Demont, William

DEMONT, WILLIAM. American traitor. Pennsylvania. Born in England, Demont settled in Pennsylvania before the Revolution. Commissioned ensign in the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion on 6 January 1776, he became regimental adjunct to Colonel Robert Magaw, commander of Fort Washington, on 29 September. He deserted on the night of 2-3 November 1776 to the camp of Earl Percy at McGown's Pass in Manhattan, taking with him complete information on Fort Washington's defenses. Shortly after the fall of fort to the British, Magaw and other American officers learned of Demont's treason Washington, however, kept the incident quiet for fear of its impact on morale. Dement traveled with General William Howe's army until 1780, when he went to England to press his claims for some sort of reward. Though he had done the British great service in turning over the plans to Fort Washington, as late as 1792 Dement was still attempting to gain recompense for his losses during the Revolution. The government awarded him sixty pounds.

hersien deur Michael Bellesiles

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