Lugfoto van Guadalcanal

Lugfoto van Guadalcanal


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Lugfoto van Guadalcanal

Lugfoto van Guadalcanal.



Lugfotografie

Die National Archives bevat meer as 35,000,000 lugfoto's wat meestal deur federale agentskappe vervaardig is. Hierdie rekords dateer van 1918-2011, wat sowel plaaslike as buitelandse terreine dek. Die oorgrote meerderheid van hierdie lugfoto's word deur die kartografiese tak gehou, versprei oor verskillende rekordgroepe en reekse.

Lugfotografie het in die twintigste eeu 'n belangrike deel van die kaartmaakproses geword. Lugfoto's gee 'n duidelike voorstelling van die fisiese en kulturele landskap van 'n gebied op 'n gegewe tydstip. As dit vaardig geïnterpreteer word, bied hierdie lugfoto's geografe, historici, ekoloë, geoloë, stadsbeplanners, argeoloë en ander professionele persone 'n beeldende basis wat dikwels van kritieke belang is vir hul studies. Lede van die regsberoep gebruik al hoe meer lugfotografie vir die beslegting van sake rakende eiendomsgeskille, oewerregte en vervoerregte. Onlangs het genealoë lugfoto's gebruik om voorvaderlike plekke te identifiseer en op te spoor.

Huishoudelike fotografie

Spesiale lys 25 is die beginpunt vir toegang tot binnenshuise lugfotografie. Hierdie spesiale lys bevat inligting oor watter rekordgroepe en reekse foto's hou vir spesifieke huishoudelike plekke. Dit is digitaal ter plaatse beskikbaar of op versoek deur 'n e-pos aan die kartografiese tak te stuur na [email protected] 'N Excel -weergawe kan afgelaai word op die blog Researching Aerial Photography of the United States: RG 145 Aerial Indexes Now Digitized. Boonop is 'n papierkopie beskikbaar in die kartografiese navorsingskamer in College Park, Maryland. Die lys word volgens die staat gereël en volgens die provinsie. Sodra u die land gevind het wat u belangstellingsgebied insluit, word 'n lys met rekordgroepe met beskikbare fotografie gelys.

Spesiale lys 25, fotografie vir Franklin County, MA

Die volgende rekordgroepe sluit huishoudelike fotografie in:

Rekordgroep 57: Rekords van die Amerikaanse geologiese opname

Rekordgroep 95: Rekords van die Bosdiens

Rekordgroep 114: Rekords van die bewaringsdiens vir natuurlike hulpbronne

Rekordgroep 142: Tennessee Valley Authority

Rekordgroep 145: Rekords van die Farm Service Agency

Rekordgroep 328: Rekords van die National Capital Planning Commission

Rekordgroep 373: Rekords van die Defense Intelligence Agency (binnelandse fotografie)

Buitelandse fotografie

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het 'n vinnige versnelling in die gebruik van lugfoto's van buitelandse gebiede vir militêre operasies en kartering veroorsaak. Die kartografiese tak bevat lugfoto's uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog oor dele van die Europese, Middellandse en Stille Operasie -teaters, geneem deur eenhede van die Amerikaanse en geallieerde lugmagte. Beide sluit in vertikale kaartfotografie en skuins verkenningsfotografie. Die Cartografiese tak het ook ongeveer 1,2 miljoen afdrukke van lugfoto's wat deur die Duitse weermag geneem is. Dekking is wydverspreid. Europa (van die Britse eilande tot die Oeralberge), die Midde -Ooste en Noord -Afrika is ingesluit in hierdie versameling. Baie van die afdrukke word geannoteer om militêre installasies en verdediging aan te dui, en ander afdrukke is gemerk om moontlike bombardemente te toon. Alhoewel die omvang en kwaliteit van die foto's in hierdie versameling aansienlik wissel, bied die beelde unieke dekades van oorlogstyd van baie van die omstrede gebiede. 'N Kleiner versameling (ongeveer 37 000 beelde), wat tussen 1933 en 1945 deur die Japannese weermag geneem is, bestaan ​​uit lugfotografie van dele van China, Suidoos -Asië en die Stille Oseaan -eilande. Die volgende rekordgroepe sluit buitelandse fotografie in:

Record Group 120: Records of the American Expeditionary Forces (Eerste Wêreldoorlog)

Rekordgroep 263: Rekords van die Central Intelligence Agency

Record Group 373: Records of the Defense Intelligence Agency - US Flown Foreign Photography

Rekordgroep 373: Rekords van die Defense Intelligence Agency - German Flown Foreign Photography

Rekordgroep 537: Rekords van die National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Satellietfotografie (binne en buite)

Satellietfotografie (skakel)

Reproduksies

As u foto's wil sien of skandeer, kan u ons navorsingskamer besoek, geleë op 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, Maryland, waar u ons rekords kan sien en kopieer. Inligting oor die besoek van ons fasiliteit kan op ons webwerf hier gevind word. As u nie by ons fasiliteit uitkom nie, kan u 'n professionele navorser aanstel om namens u navorsing te doen en reproduksies te maak. Inligting oor hierdie navorsingsopsie kan hier gevind word.

Ons het ligte tafels beskikbaar in ons navorsingslokaal om gerolde lug -negatiewe film te sien.


Reproduksie van gerolde lugfilm kan gemaak word deur foto's van die rolfilm te neem met behulp van privaat kameras en driepote wat na ons fasiliteit gebring kan word. Navorsers kan ook hul eie skootrekenaar saambring om aan te sluit op 'n platskandeerder (Epson Expression 11000XL Photo Scanner of Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL Plus) met die moontlikheid om digitale skanderings van gerolde lugfilm en afdrukke te maak.

Mikrotek ScanMaker 9800XL Plus

Epson Expression 11000XL -fotoskandeerder

Let daarop dat ons slegs twee lugskandeerders beskikbaar het en dat die gebruik van hierdie skandeerders moontlik tydens u besoek beperk en onder navorsers gedeel moet word. U kan ook persoonlike skandeerders ter plaatse bring. Inligting oor hierdie opsie is hier beskikbaar. Goedgekeurde lugskandeerders benodig goedkeuring van ons bewaringspan voordat dit in ons navorsingslokaal gebruik kan word. Ons het nie die moontlikheid om enige gedrukte reproduksies van gerolde lug -negatiewe film binne ons fasiliteit te maak nie.

Die oorgrote meerderheid van ons lugfoto's is oorspronklike negatiewe (ON blikkie -nommers), geleë op 9 "by 9" gerolde asetaatfilm. Vanweë die onstabiele aard van asetaatfilm, moet dit in ons kamers in Lenexa, Kansas, in 'n klimaatbeheerde kamer gestoor word by temperature onder 40 grade Fahrenheit. Navorsers in ons College Park -navorsingslokaal kan versoek dat tot 10 spesifieke blikkies lugfilm per dag na College Park gestuur word. Die afleweringstyd vir hierdie besendings is gewoonlik drie werksdae voordat dit hier in ons navorsingskamer beskikbaar gestel kan word. 'N Klein hoeveelheid film is gedupliseer (gewoonlik DN -blikkers) op 'n meer stabiele basis van poliësterfilm en word ter plaatse geberg sodat navorsers gereeld toegang tot rekordtye gedurende die dag kan kry.


Inhoud

Vroeë geskiedenis Redigeer

Lugfotografie is die eerste keer beoefen deur die Franse fotograaf en ballonvaarder Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, bekend as "Nadar", in 1858 oor Parys, Frankryk. [2] Die foto's wat hy gemaak het, bestaan ​​egter nie meer nie en daarom word die vroegste oorlewende lugfoto getiteld 'Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It'. Geneem deur James Wallace Black en Samuel Archer King op 13 Oktober 1860, beeld Boston uit 'n hoogte van 630 m af. [3] [4]

Kite -lugfotografie is die pionier van die Britse weerkundige E.D. Archibald in 1882. Hy gebruik 'n plofbare lading op 'n timer om foto's uit die lug te neem. [5] Dieselfde jaar het Cecil Shadbolt 'n metode bedink om foto's uit die mandjie van 'n gasballon te neem, insluitend skote wat vertikaal afwaarts kyk. [6] [7] Een van sy beelde, geneem vanaf 610 m (2000 voet) oor Stamford Hill, is die vroegste lugfoto wat op die Britse eilande geneem is. [6] 'n Afdruk van dieselfde beeld, 'N Onmiddellike kaartfoto geneem uit die motor van 'n ballon, 2 000 voet hoog, is op die 1882 Photographic Society -uitstalling vertoon. [7]

Die Fransman Arthur Batut het in 1888 begin met vlieërs vir fotografie en skryf 'n boek oor sy metodes in 1890. [8] [9] Samuel Franklin Cody ontwikkel sy gevorderde 'Man-lifter War Kite' en slaag daarin om die Britse oorlogskantoor interessant te maak met sy vermoëns.

In 1908 verfilm Albert Samama Chikly die eerste lugfoto's ooit met 'n ballon tussen Hammam-Lif en Grombalia. [10] Die eerste gebruik van 'n filmkamera wat op 'n swaarder as lugvliegtuig gemonteer is, het op 24 April 1909 oor Rome plaasgevind in die kortfilm van 3:28, Wilbur Wright en seine Flugmaschine.

Eerste Wêreldoorlog Edit

Die gebruik van lugfotografie het vinnig gedurende die oorlog volwasse geword, aangesien verkenningsvliegtuie toegerus was met kameras om vyandelike bewegings en verdediging op te neem. Aan die begin van die konflik is die nut van lugfotografie nie ten volle waardeer nie, met verkenning met kaartskets uit die lug.

Duitsland het die eerste lugkamera, 'n Görz, in 1913 aangeneem. Die Franse het die oorlog begin met verskeie eskaders van Blériot -waarnemingsvliegtuie wat toegerus was met kameras vir verkenning. Die Franse leër het prosedures ontwikkel om afdrukke in rekordtyd in die hande van veldkommandante te kry.

Frederick Charles Victor Laws het in 1912 met lugfotografie -eksperimente begin met nommer 1 -eskader van die Royal Flying Corps (later nr. 1 -eskader RAF), wat foto's geneem het van die Britse dirigible Beta. Hy het ontdek dat vertikale foto's wat met 'n 60% -oorvleueling geneem is, gebruik kan word om 'n stereoskopiese effek te skep as dit in 'n stereoskoop beskou word, en sodoende 'n waarneming van diepte skep wat kan help met kartografie en intelligensie wat uit lugfoto's verkry word. Die vlieëniers van die Royal Flying Corps het in 1914 kameras begin gebruik om hul waarnemings op te neem en deur die Slag van Neuve Chapelle in 1915 word die hele stelsel van Duitse loopgrawe gefotografeer. [11] In 1916 het die Oostenryk-Hongaarse monargie lugfoto's van vertikale kameras bo Italië gemaak om kaart te maak.

Die eerste doelgeboude en praktiese lugkamera is in 1915 uitgevind deur kaptein John Moore-Brabazon met die hulp van die Thornton-Pickard-onderneming, wat die doeltreffendheid van lugfotografie aansienlik verbeter het. Die kamera is in die vloer van die vliegtuig geplaas en kan met tussenposes deur die vlieënier geaktiveer word. Moore-Brabazon was ook die pionier in die opname van stereoskopiese tegnieke in lugfotografie, waardeur die hoogte van voorwerpe op die landskap onderskei kon word deur foto's wat in verskillende hoeke geneem is, te vergelyk. [12] [13]

Teen die einde van die oorlog het lugkameras dramaties toegeneem in grootte en brandpuntkrag en is dit toenemend gereeld gebruik, aangesien dit bewys het dat hul sentrale militêre waarde teen 1918 twee keer per dag die hele voorkant afneem en sedertdien meer as 'n halfmiljoen foto's geneem het die begin van die konflik. In Januarie 1918 het generaal Allenby vyf Australiese vlieëniers van nommer 1 -eskader AFC gebruik om 'n gebied van 1,620 km2 in Palestina te fotografeer as 'n hulpmiddel vir die regstelling en verbetering van kaarte van die Turkse front. Dit was 'n baanbrekerswerk van lugfotografie as hulpmiddel vir kartografie. Luitenante Leonard Taplin, Allan Runciman Brown, H. L. Fraser, Edward Patrick Kenny en L. W. Rogers het 'n stuk grond geneem wat strek van die Turkse frontlinies tot 51 km diep in hul agterste gebiede. Vanaf 5 Januarie het hulle met 'n vegvliegtuig gevlieg om vyandelike vegters af te weer. Met die Royal Aircraft Factory BE.12- en Martinsyde -vliegtuie het hulle nie net vyandelike lugaanvalle oorkom nie, maar moes hulle ook te kampe kry met windstreke van 105 km/h, lugvuurvuur ​​en onklaar toerusting om hul taak te voltooi. [14]

Kommersiële lugfotografie Redigeer

Die eerste kommersiële lugfotografie -onderneming in die Verenigde Koninkryk was Aerofilms Ltd, gestig deur veterane van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, Francis Wills en Claude Graham White, in 1919. Die onderneming het spoedig uitgebrei tot 'n onderneming met groot kontrakte in Afrika en Asië sowel as in die Verenigde Koninkryk. Operasies begin vanaf die Stag Lane Aerodrome by Edgware, met behulp van die vliegtuie van die London Flying School. Daarna het die Aircraft Manufacturing Company (later die De Havilland Aircraft Company) 'n Airco DH.9 saam met die vlieënier -entrepreneur Alan Cobham gehuur. [15]

Vanaf 1921 het Aerofilms vertikale fotografie vir opname- en karteringdoeleindes uitgevoer. Gedurende die dertigerjare was die onderneming 'n pionier in die wetenskap van fotogrammetrie (kartering uit lugfoto's), met die Ordnance Survey onder die kliënte van die onderneming. [16] In 1920 het die Australiese Milton Kent 'n halfplaat-skuins aero-kamera begin gebruik wat hy by Carl Zeiss AG gekoop het, in sy lugfoto-onderneming. [17]

'N Ander suksesvolle pionier in die kommersiële gebruik van lugfotografie was die Amerikaanse Sherman Fairchild wat sy eie vliegtuigfirma Fairchild Aircraft begin het om gespesialiseerde vliegtuie te ontwikkel en te bou vir lugopnames op groot hoogtes. [18] Een Fairchild-lugopname-vliegtuig in 1935 het 'n eenheid gehad wat twee gesinchroniseerde kameras gekombineer het, en elke kamera met vyf sesduim-lense met 'n tien-duim-lens en foto's van 23.000 voet geneem het. Elke foto beslaan tweehonderd vyf-en-twintig vierkante myl. Een van sy eerste regeringskontrakte was 'n lugopname van New Mexico om gronderosie te bestudeer. [19] 'n Jaar later het Fairchild 'n beter kamera op hoë hoogte met nege-lens in een eenheid bekendgestel wat 'n foto van 600 vierkante myl kon neem met elke blootstelling van 30.000 voet. [20]

Tweede Wêreldoorlog Wysig

In 1939 was Sidney Cotton en die vlieënde offisier Maurice Longbottom van die RAF een van die eerstes wat voorgestel het dat verkenning in die lug 'n taak is wat beter geskik is vir vinnige, klein vliegtuie wat hul spoed en hoë diensplafon sou gebruik om opsporing en onderskepping te vermy. Alhoewel dit nou voor die hand liggend lyk, met moderne verkenningstake wat uitgevoer is deur vinnige, hoogvliegende vliegtuie, was dit destyds radikaal denke. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Hulle het voorgestel dat Spitfires gebruik word met hul bewapening en radio's verwyder en vervang met ekstra brandstof en kameras. Dit het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van die Spitfire PR -variante. Spitfires was uiters suksesvol in hul verkenningsrol, en daar is baie variante wat spesifiek vir hierdie doel gebou is. Hulle het aanvanklik gedien by wat later nommer 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (PRU) geword het. In 1928 het die RAF 'n elektriese verwarmingstelsel vir die lugkamera ontwikkel. Dit het verkenningsvliegtuie in staat gestel om foto's van baie groot hoogtes af te neem sonder dat die kameradeel vries. [21] Die versameling en interpretasie van sulke foto's, gebaseer op RAF Medmenham, het 'n groot onderneming geword. [22]

Cotton se lugfoto's was hul tyd ver vooruit. Saam met ander lede van die 1 PRU was hy die pionier in die tegnieke van stereoskopiese fotografie op hoë hoogte, wat 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die onthulling van die belangrike militêre en intelligensieteikens. Volgens R.V. Jones, is foto's gebruik om die grootte en die kenmerkende lanseermeganismes vir beide die V-1-vlieënde bom en die V-2-vuurpyl vas te stel. Cotton werk ook aan idees soos 'n prototipe spesialisverkenningsvliegtuig en verdere verfynings van fotografiese toerusting. Op die hoogtepunt vlieg die Britte meer as 100 verkenningsvlugte per dag, wat 50 000 beelde per dag oplewer om te interpreteer. Soortgelyke pogings is deur ander lande aangewend. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Vertikale lugfotografie word gebruik in kartografie [23] (veral in fotogrammetriese opnames, wat dikwels die basis is vir topografiese kaarte [24] [25]), beplanning vir grondgebruik, [23] argeologie in die lug. [23] Skuins lugfotografie word gebruik vir filmproduksie, omgewingsstudies, [26] inspeksie van kraglyne, [27] toesig, bouvordering, kommersiële advertensies, vervoer en artistieke projekte. 'N Voorbeeld van hoe lugfoto's op argeologiese gebied gebruik word, is die karteringprojek wat op die webwerf Angkor Borei in Kambodja van 1995–1996 gedoen is. Deur middel van lugfotografie kon argeoloë argeologiese kenmerke identifiseer, waaronder 112 waterpunte (reservoirs, kunsmatig geboude poele en natuurlike damme) binne die ommuurde plek van Angkor Borei. [28] In die Verenigde State word lugfoto's in baie Fase I -omgewingsterreinbeoordelings gebruik vir eiendomsanalise.

Vliegtuie wysig

In die Verenigde State, behalwe wanneer dit nodig is om op te styg en te land, is dit verbied om bemande vliegtuie van groot grootte te vlieg op hoogtes onder 1000 voet oor oorbelaste gebiede en nie nader as 500 voet van enige persoon, vaartuig, voertuig of struktuur oor nie- oorbelaste gebiede. Sekere uitsonderings word toegelaat vir helikopters, aangedrewe valskerms en gewigverskuiwingsbeheervliegtuie. [29]

Radiobeheerde modelvliegtuie Edit

Vordering in radiobeheerde modelle het dit moontlik gemaak vir modelvliegtuie om lugfoto's op lae hoogte te maak. Dit het baat gevind by eiendomsadvertensies, waar kommersiële en residensiële eiendomme die fotografiese onderwerp is. In 2014 verbied die Amerikaanse Federale Lugvaartadministrasie die gebruik van drones vir foto's in advertensies op vaste eiendom. [30] Die verbod is opgehef en kommersiële lugfotografie met behulp van drones van UAS word gereguleer onder die FAA Reauthorization Act van 2018. [31] [32] Kommersiële vlieëniers moet die vereistes vir 'n deel 107 -lisensie voltooi, [33] terwyl hulle amateur is en nie-kommersiële gebruik word beperk deur die FAA. [34]

Kleinskaalse modelvliegtuie bied groter fotografiese toegang tot hierdie voorheen beperkte gebiede. Miniatuurvoertuie vervang nie vliegtuie van groot grootte nie, aangesien vliegtuie van groot grootte langer vlugtye, hoër hoogtes en groter vragmateriaal vir toerusting kan gebruik. Hulle is egter nuttig in elke situasie waarin 'n volskaalse vliegtuig gevaarlik is om te bestuur. Voorbeelde hiervan is die inspeksie van transformators bo-op die kragoordraglyne en 'n stadige, lae vlak vlug oor landbouvelde, wat albei met 'n grootskaalse radiobeheerde helikopter gedoen kan word. Professioneel gegradeerde, gyroskopies gestabiliseerde kameraplatforms is beskikbaar vir gebruik onder so 'n model, 'n groot modelhelikopter met 'n 26cc-petrolenjin kan 'n vrag van ongeveer sewe kilogram (15 lbs) opneem. Benewens gyroskopies gestabiliseerde beeldmateriaal, het die gebruik van RC-senders as betroubare lugfotografie-instrumente toegeneem met die integrasie van FPV (first-person-view) tegnologie. Baie radiobeheerde vliegtuie is nou in staat om Wi-Fi te gebruik om lewendige video vanaf die vliegtuig se kamera na die vlieënier of bevelvoerder (PIC) se grondstasie te stroom. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Australië Redigeer

In Australië, die burgerlike lugvaartveiligheidsvoorskrif 101 (CASR 101) [35] maak kommersiële gebruik van radiobeheervliegtuie moontlik. Ingevolge hierdie regulasies word na radio-beheerde onbemande vliegtuie vir kommersiële na verwys as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), terwyl radiobeheerde vliegtuie vir ontspanningsdoeleindes na modelvliegtuie verwys word. Ingevolge CASR 101 moet ondernemings/persone wat radio-beheerde vliegtuie kommersieel bedryf, 'n operateursertifikaat hê, net soos bemande vliegtuigoperateurs. Vlieëniers van radiobeheerde vliegtuie wat kommersieel werk, moet ook deur die Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) gelisensieer word. [36] Alhoewel 'n klein UAS- en modelvliegtuig eintlik identies kan wees, kan 'n UAS in teenstelling met modelvliegtuie met goedkeuring die beheerde lugruim binnegaan en in die omgewing van 'n vliegveld werk.

As gevolg van 'n aantal onwettige operateurs in Australië wat vals beweer dat hulle goedgekeur word, hou en publiseer CASA 'n lys van goedgekeurde UAS -operateurs. [37] CASA het egter die regulasies gewysig en vanaf 29 September 2016 kan hommeltuie onder 2 kg vir kommersiële doeleindes gebruik word. [38]

Verenigde State Redigeer

2006 FAA -regulasies wat alle kommersiële RC -modelvlugte gegrond het, is opgegradeer om formele FAA -sertifisering te vereis voordat toestemming verleen word om op enige hoogte in die VSA te vlieg.

25 Junie 2014, het die FAA, in uitspraak 14 CFR Deel 91 [Dossier nr. FAA – 2014–0396] "Interpretasie van die spesiale reël vir modelvliegtuie", die kommersiële gebruik van onbemande vliegtuie in die Amerikaanse lugruim verbied. [39] Op 26 September 2014 het die FAA begin om die reg te verleen om hommeltuie te gebruik in die vervaardiging van lugfilms. Operateurs moet 'n gelisensieerde vlieënier hê en moet altyd die drone in die oog hou. Drones kan nie gebruik word om te verfilm in gebiede waar mense in gevaar gestel kan word nie. [40]

Die FAA Wet op Modernisering en Hervorming van 2012 het in Artikel 336 'n spesiale reël vir modelvliegtuie bepaal. In artikel 336 bevestig die kongres die FAA se jarelange standpunt dat modelvliegtuie vliegtuie is. Ingevolge die bepalings van die wet word 'n modelvliegtuig gedefinieer as ''n onbemande vliegtuig' 'wat' (1) in staat is om volgehoue ​​vlug in die atmosfeer te maak (2) gevlieg word binne visuele siglyn van die persoon wat die vliegtuig bestuur en (3) gevlieg vir stokperdjie of ontspanningsdoeleindes. " [41]

Omdat enigiets wat vanuit 'n openbare ruimte bekyk kan word, buite die privaatheid van die Verenigde State beskou word, kan lugfotografie moontlik eienskappe en voorvalle op privaat eiendom wettig dokumenteer. [42]

Die FAA kan handhawing doen teen persone wat modelvliegtuie bestuur wat die veiligheid van die nasionale lugruimstelsel in gevaar stel. Publiekreg 112–95, artikel 336 (b). [30]

Op 21 Junie 2016 het die FAA sy opsomming van klein onbemande vliegtuigreëls (deel 107) bekend gemaak. Die reëls het riglyne vir klein UAS -operateurs uiteengesit, insluitend slegs bedags, 'n plafon van 400 voet en vlieëniers moet die UAS binne visuele bereik hou. [43]

Verenigde Koninkryk Wysig

Lugfotografie in die Verenigde Koninkryk het streng regulasies oor waarheen 'n hommeltuig kan vlieg. [45]

Lugfotografie op ligte vliegtuie onder 20 kg. Basiese reëls vir nie -kommersiële vlieg van 'n SUA (klein onbemande vliegtuig).

Artikel 241 Stel die veiligheid van enige persoon of eiendom in gevaar. 'N Persoon mag nie roekeloos of nalatig veroorsaak dat 'n vliegtuig 'n persoon of eiendom in gevaar stel nie.

Artikel 94 klein onbemande vliegtuig 1. 'n Persoon mag nie toelaat dat enige voorwerp of dier (al dan nie aan 'n valskerm) uit 'n klein onbemande vliegtuig val om persone of eiendom in gevaar te stel nie.

2. Die persoon in beheer van 'n klein onbemande vliegtuig mag slegs met die vliegtuig vlieg as dit redelik oortuig is dat die vlug veilig kan plaasvind.

3. Die persoon wat in beheer is van 'n klein onbemande vliegtuig, moet direkte, onhulpbare visuele kontak met die vliegtuig hê om die vlugpad te monitor ten opsigte van ander vliegtuie, persone, voertuie, vaartuie en strukture om botsings te vermy. (500 meter)

4. Die persoon in beheer van 'n klein onbemande vliegtuig met 'n massa van meer as 7 kg, uitgesluit die brandstof, maar met inbegrip van voorwerpe of toerusting wat in die vliegtuig aangebring is of daaraan geheg is, mag nie die vliegtuig vlieg nie: 4.1 In die lugruim van klas A, C, D of E, tensy toestemming van die toepaslike lugverkeersbeheereenheid verkry is 4.2 Binne 'n vliegveldverkeersone gedurende die kennisgewingsure van die lugverkeersbeheereenheid (indien enige) op daardie vliegveld, tensy die toestemming van sodanige lugverkeersbeheereenheid verkry is 4.3 Op 'n hoogte van meer as 400 voet bo die oppervlak

5. Die persoon in beheer van 'n klein onbemande vliegtuig mag die vliegtuig nie vir kommersiële doeleindes vlieg nie, behalwe in ooreenstemming met 'n toestemming deur die BLO.

Artikel 95 klein onbemande toesigvliegtuie 1. U mag nie u vliegtuig oor of binne 150 meter van 'n oorbelaste gebied vlieg nie.

2. Meer as of binne 150 meter van 'n georganiseerde opelugbyeenkoms van meer as 1 000 persone.

3. Binne 50 meter van enige vaartuig, voertuig of struktuur wat nie onder die beheer van die persoon in beheer van die vliegtuig is nie.

4. Binne 50 meter van enige persoon, tydens opstyg of landing, mag 'n klein onbemande toesigvliegtuig nie binne 30 meter van enige persoon gevlieg word nie. Dit is nie van toepassing op die persoon in beheer van die klein onbemande toesigvliegtuig of 'n persoon onder die beheer van die persoon in beheer van die vliegtuig nie.

Modelvliegtuie met 'n massa van meer as 20 kg word 'Groot modelvliegtuig' genoem - binne die Verenigde Koninkryk mag groot modelvliegtuie slegs gevlieg word in ooreenstemming met 'n vrystelling van die ANO, wat deur die BLO uitgereik moet word.

Skuins wysig

Foto's wat skuins geneem word, word genoem skuins foto's. As hulle uit 'n lae hoek geneem word in verhouding tot die aardoppervlak, word dit genoem laag skuins en foto's wat uit 'n hoë hoek geneem is, word genoem hoog of steil skuins. [46]

Vertikale wysiging

Vertikale foto's word reguit geneem. [47] Hulle word hoofsaaklik gebruik in fotogrammetrie en beeldinterpretasie. Foto's wat in fotogrammetrie gebruik sal word, word tradisioneel geneem met spesiale grootformaat -kameras met geykte en gedokumenteerde meetkundige eienskappe.

Kombinasies Redigeer

Lugfoto's word dikwels gekombineer. Afhangende van hul doel, kan dit op verskillende maniere gedoen word, waarvan 'n paar hieronder gelys word.

    kan gemaak word deur verskeie foto's wat in verskillende hoeke geneem is, op een plek (byvoorbeeld met 'n handkamera) of uit verskillende plekke onder dieselfde hoek (byvoorbeeld uit 'n vliegtuig) te maak. maak dit moontlik om 3D-beelde te maak uit verskeie foto's van dieselfde gebied wat op verskillende plekke geneem is.
  • In piktometrie bied vyf stewig gemonteerde kameras een vertikale en vier lae skuins prente wat saam gebruik kan word.
  • In sommige digitale kameras vir lugfotogrammetrie word beelde van verskillende beeldelemente, soms met aparte lense, meetkundig reggestel en gekombineer tot een beeld in die kamera.

Ortofoto's wysig

Vertikale foto's word dikwels gebruik om ortofoto's te maak, alternatiewelik bekend as ortofotomaps, foto's wat meetkundig 'gekorrigeer' is om as 'n kaart bruikbaar te wees. Met ander woorde, 'n ortofoto is 'n simulasie van 'n foto wat op 'n oneindige afstand geneem is, reguit na nadir. Perspektief moet duidelik verwyder word, maar daar moet ook veranderings in terrein reggestel word. Veelvuldige meetkundige transformasies word op die beeld toegepas, afhangende van die perspektief en terreinkorreksies wat op 'n bepaalde deel van die beeld benodig word.

Ortofoto's word algemeen in geografiese inligtingstelsels gebruik, soos deur kaartagentskappe (bv. Ordnance Survey) gebruik om kaarte te skep. Sodra die beelde in lyn gebring is, of "geregistreer" is met bekende koördinate uit die regte wêreld, kan dit wyd ontplooi word.

Groot stelle ortofoto's, tipies afkomstig van verskeie bronne en verdeel in "teëls" (elk gewoonlik 256 x 256 pixels), word wyd gebruik in aanlyn kaartstelsels soos Google Maps. OpenStreetMap bied die gebruik van soortgelyke ortofoto's vir die afleiding van nuwe kaartdata. Google Earth lê ortofoto's of satellietbeelde oor op 'n digitale hoogte -model om 3D -landskappe na te boots.

Met die vordering in videotegnologie, word lugvideo meer gewild. Orthogonale video word van vliegtuigkarteringpypleidings, gewasvelde en ander besienswaardighede geneem. Deur GPS te gebruik, kan video met metadata ingebed word en later met 'n videokaartprogram gesinkroniseer word.

Hierdie "ruimtelike multimedia" is die tydige vereniging van digitale media, insluitend stilfotografie, bewegingsvideo, stereo, panoramiese beeldstelle, indrukwekkende mediakonstruksies, klank en ander data met ligging- en datum-inligting van die GPS en ander liggingsontwerpe.

Lugvideo's kom na vore Ruimtelike multimedia wat gebruik kan word vir toneelbegrip en voorwerpopsporing. Die insetvideo word vasgelê deur lae vlieënde lugplatforms en bestaan ​​tipies uit sterk parallaks van nie-grondvlak-strukture. Die integrasie van digitale video, globale posisioneringstelsels (GPS) en outomatiese beeldverwerking sal die akkuraatheid en koste-effektiwiteit van data-insameling en -vermindering verbeter. Verskeie verskillende lugplatforms word ondersoek vir die insameling van data.

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  • Price, Alfred (2003). Targeting the Reich: Allied Photographic Reconnaissance over Europe, 1939–1945. [S.l.]: Military Book Club. N.B.: First published 2003 by Greenhill Books, London. 0-7394-3496-9

Media related to Aerial photography at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of aerial photography at Wiktionary


How to use aerial photography

You can use aerial photographs in many different ways, including for:

  • Local history - see how a village, town or city has developed over time
  • Family history - you might be able to see where your ancestors once lived, even if the street has long since been demolished
  • Archaeological research - study cropmarks, soilmarks and earthworks to identify features that may not be visible today
  • Desk-based assessments - identify previous land use from traces of early agriculture to mining and heavy industry
  • Boundary disputes and other legal issues - historic aerial photos may help settle issues

You can virtually see individual window panes of a house, taken from an aeroplane which is goodness knows how many thousands of feet up!


USGS EROS Archive - Aerial Photography - Aerial Photo Mosaics

Aerial Photo Mosaics were the aerial photo finding aids during the creation and photo revision of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map series.

Photo Index (Southwestern
Pennsylvania
(Public domain)

Aerial Photo Mosaics were the aerial photo finding aids during the creation and photo revision of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map series. The film is referenced as a series of photo indexes (mosaics), each of which consists of a single-sheet composite of many individual photos. The photos date from the 1937 through 1980, and they were originally acquired by a variety of sources, such as the USGS, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and the Army Map Service. This sporadic collection does not follow any specific schedule or pattern.

Index/Mapping Photography varies in scale, size, quality, and coverage. A majority of the photos were taken from a vertical perspective. Most are in black & white (B/W), although color and color-infrared (CIR) may be available for some locations.

Individual aerial photograph from
photo index (Southwestern
Pennsylvania
(Public domain)

Coverage Maps

Coverage Maps indicating the availability of Aerial Photo Mosaics are available for download.

Bykomende inligting

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center digitized all photo mosaics in the USGS/EROS archive and the individual frames from each index. Single frame database records have also been produced for a majority of these indexes retiring the need for them. Frame level records are available from the Aerial Photo Single Frames data set.

What remains in the Aerial Photo Mosaics collection are index records that are the only search mechanism into these historical aerial projects. These can be searched on EarthExplorer in the Aerial Photographs - USGS Aerial Photo Mosaic collection. The photo indexes range in file size from 12 - 92 mb and a majority are black and white (TIFF) images.

Access Data

EarthExplorer can be used to search, preview, and download the Aerial Photo Mosaics. The collection is located under the Aerial Imagery category.


Display Images

The USGS has aerial photographs and images suitable for framing that can be ordered without custom research. In this category are satellite images and aircraft photographs of selected States, cities, regions, and features within the United States and of natural phenomena such as fires and volcanic eruptions. Some areas outside the United States are also covered. Some photographs taken on space missions by NASA astronauts are also available in this format.

Figure 32: Earthrise from Moon, Apollo 11, July 1969

Figure 33: Florida, Landsat 5 multispectral scanner satellite image mosaic, April 1979 and May 1985


Coverage Map

A Word about Our Archives

Each of our photographs is an authentic shot of rural America. We print each photograph onto an archival quality, ultra-flat, rigid board made of natural wood fiber. This process produces a print that will not yellow, fade or degrade from light exposure.

Please understand, however, that while our process is state-of-the-art, the photograph itself was taken with a film camera by a person in a small plane, up to 50 years ago. We do not retouch or sharpen the image. The art of each photo lies in part in its untouched authenticity.

Inside Vintage Aerial's film archives A few rolls of film from our archives

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Vlugte

An individual set of photographs is referred to as a flight or a mission. A flight is often just that: a single takeoff and landing. Some flights are created over the course of a few days or, less frequently, over the course of a season. On very rare occasions, a flight may refer to a multi-year project (for example, our NAPP flights). A flight may contain a single photograph or tens-of-thousands. The UCSB Library has more than 4,500 flights which add up to more than 2.4 million individual images.


Aerial photograph of Guadalcanal - History

From Marine Corps orphans to top-scoring fighter squadron, VMF-214 followed their brawling leader, “Pappy” Boyington, to fame

by Don Hollway
Appeared as “Boyington’s Bastards” in the January 󈧒 issue of AVIATION HISTORY magazine.

F4U-1 Corsairs of Marine Fighter Squadron VMF-214, late 1943. “Pacific Morning: Black Sheep on the Prowl” by Craig Kodera.
Buy the print.

Maj. Gregory Boyington, USMC

I t was one of the biggest air raids in the entire campaign for the Solomon Islands. More than a year after U.S. Marines landed on Guadalcanal, Navy TBF Avengers and SBD Dauntless dive-bombers were to hit the Japanese base on Ballale, at the far end of the island chain, on September 16, 1943. Navy F6F-3 Hellcats and Royal New Zealand Air Force P-40 Kittyhawks flew cover. And way up over 20,000 feet—either for altitude advantage or their own protection—were some two dozen Marines. VMF-214 was a newly reorganized squadron on just its third mission, and flying an ill-starred fighter to boot: the Vought F4U-1 Corsair, or “Bent-Wing Bird.”

High atop the four-mile-tall array, squadron commander Major Gregory Boyington was feeling sorry for himself. Without victories, his cobbled-together squadron of shiny new lieutenants and disbanded-unit orphans would soon be washed back into the replacement pool. He almost didn’t notice when the rest of the massive American formation suddenly dived under a layer of stratus. “What in hell goes?” he muttered. “We must be over the mission.”

Following him down, the other Corsair pilots found the bombers pounding Ballale and dozens of Japanese fighters coming up to do battle. Boyington was suddenly amazed to find, not 30 feet away, a red-balled A6M Zero practically flying on his wing…and that he had completely forgotten to switch on his gunsight and guns.

Commissioned in July 1942, Marine Fighter Squadron (VMF) 214 were originally called the “Swashbucklers.” They flew out of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, during the early Solomons campaign, but were disbanded thereafter and the squadron number reassigned.

P-40C (Hawk 81A-2) which Boyington flew for the 1st Pursuit Squadron, American Volunteer Group.

Most Americans think of “Pappy” Boyington as actor Robert Conrad portrayed him in the TV series Baa Baa Black Sheep , yet even that nickname was invented by the press. In the Solomons his pilots called the 30-year-old major “Gramps.” He had claimed six victories in China, flying P-40s for the American Volunteer Group (though the Flying Tigers only credited him with two) and arrived in the Solomons just as the Marines replaced their old Grumman F4F-4 Wildcats with new Corsairs.

An F4U touches down hot at Espiritu Santo. The Corsair’s high landing speed and unforgiving stall characteristics forced pilots into tail-high approaches to see over its 14-foot nose, causing the US Navy to ban it from carrier ops until Royal Navy pilots demonstrated a curving approach that let pilots see around, rather than over, the cowling.

Designed behind a bomber-size prop more than 13 feet across (the inverted gull wings and long nose were necessary to give it ground clearance), the F4U was the first American single-engine plane to average more than 400 mph, but it was prone to unrecoverable spins and landing stalls, and that “hose nose” blocked the pilot’s vision on straight-in carrier approaches. The Navy judged it unfit for shipboard ops, but good enough for the Marines. In Boyington’s opinion: “The Corsair was a sweet-flying baby if I ever flew one. No longer would we have to fight the Nips’ fight, for we could make our own rules.”

He made his own squadron, too. Later portrayed on TV as misfits and rejects awaiting courts-martial, the “Black Sheep” (the first choice, “Boyington’s Bastards,” was nixed: not press-friendly) were in fact among the most experienced pilots in the Pacific theater. Even the rookies had accumulated high flight hours, and several of the veterans counted more victories than Boyington. Though they had flown together only briefly before September 16, the results of that first day of combat were unequivocal.

In a famous photo, members of the newly re-formed VMF-214 “scramble” for an intercept. Except the photo was staged on Espiritu Santo, hundreds of miles from the Solomons, and taken September 11, 1943, before the Black Sheep had flown together in combat. Pilot at left, with Australian flight boots, is Bill Case.

At the post-mission debrief Lt. Bob McClurg reported getting his first kill in a head-on pass: “I just held the trigger down as we came at each other. I was scared to death.” Boyington’s wingman, Lt. Don Fisher, scored two, including one that he shot off his leader’s tail. “I was right behind [the Zero], and he blew,” Fisher recounted. “The wings went each way.” But he had lost sight of Gramps, who was hours overdue returning to base. VMF-214 had almost marked Boyington MIA when his Corsair at last arrived and he climbed out of the cockpit, claiming no fewer than five enemy kills—even discounting his AVG victories, an ace in a day.

After maneuvering the first Zero into an overshoot (and charging his guns), Boyington reported sending it down in flames and gunning down enemy fighters halfway back home, including one that “exploded completely when I was about 50 feet from him.” Too close to evade, he had flown directly through the explosion, somehow dodging the pilot, engine and still-spinning prop.

Boyington flies through his target’s explosion. “Corsair F-4u1” by Julien Lepelletier

There was no gun camera film in those days Boyington had only his word to back up his claims. But he had stopped off at the recently captured forward air base at Munda, on New Georgia, almost out of gas and ammo, with dents all over his Corsair from flying debris. His kills—almost half the squadron score of 11, plus eight probables—were confirmed. Within a few weeks, propelled by the CO’s Flying Tiger backstory and the Marine Corps press machine, the Black Sheep were a household name. And they were just getting started.

Lt. John Bolt
6 victories WWII,
6 victories Korea

Lieutenant Bill Case had only scored a probable over Ballale. One week later he held his fire to within 50 feet of a Zero’s tail—too close—and his Corsair’s six wide-set wing guns straddled its fuselage. “I spent about 2,000 rounds figuring that out,” said Case. “I finally put the pipper up above his tail and about six to eight feet to the side…and hit him with three guns at a time.”

Lieutenant John Bolt had missed his first kill over Ballale. “The first time I saw a meatball it was a full deflection shot, and he just zipped by,” he reported. “I was in a state of shock.” Over Vella Lavella, however, Bolt got behind two Zeros in succession, flaming both for a double kill.

F4U-1 Corsair
Lt. John Bolt flew BuNo 17475 No. 475 when he scored his first kill, a double, over the Russell Islands on 23 September 1943. Note early-style “birdcage” canopy

Aichi D3A1 “Val” of 582nd Kokotai, Munda, New Georgia, 1943

Despite being obsolete when the war started, the Val was the primary Japanese dive bomber throughout the war. So agile it was sometimes flown as a fighter, it also served as an interceptor and kamikaze plane. It sank more Allied warships than any other Axis aircraft.

Lieutenant Chris Magee had likewise been flummoxed by the speed of air combat: “All I could do was keep spinning my neck and looking…everything was happening so fast.” Called “Maggie” (though rarely to his face, as he was a dedicated weightlifter and fitness fanatic), Magee plunged from 13,000 feet into a pack of Aichi D3A2 “Val” dive-bombers attacking a U.S. convoy. “The Japanese were going into a straight dive, so I headed into the dive with them,” he recalled. “Of course, by then the [American] anti-aircraft was all around us, but you don’t even think of that….The [Vals] kept going down, and I kept in there, firing.” By the time they pulled out above the water, he had splashed two, and a third probable, when he heard bullets striking his plane “like a hail storm on a tin roof.” The Vals’ escort—Zeros, always slow in a dive—had caught up. Magee made it back to base with 30 bullet holes in his Corsair. He was recommended for a Navy Cross, and his nickname changed to “Wild Man.”

“Magees’s Cross” by Darby Perrin
At 1130 on 18 September 1943, Lt. Chris Magee pursued some 15 Val dive bombers already in their attack runs, through his own [the American ships] anti-aircraft fire, and caught up with them some 100 feet off the surface of the water, having splashed three. Buy the art.

Mitsubishi A6M3 Model 22 “Zeke”

The Model 32 had no folding wingtips, less range and less maneuverability than the preceding Model 21. The Model 22 corrected these deficiencies, but was still not the equal of the Corsair. Production ended in mid-1943, but the Model 22 was often encountered by the Black Sheep over the Solomons. Model 22 UI-105 was flown by Lt.j.g. Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, the “Demon of Rabaul.”

During the late 1943 island-hopping campaign up the Solomons, VMF-214 flew out of bases so far forward that they were often behind Japanese lines. (Navy Seabees had started the reconstruction of desolate, bomb-pocked Munda while the enemy still held the far end of the strip.)

After the months-long ordeal on Guadalcanal, the Allied island-hopping advance up the Solomons toward Rabaul on New Britain was complete by the end of 1943. Torokina on Bougainville was within fighter range of Rabaul, allowing the “Pearl Harbor of the South Pacific” to be hammered to inconsequence.

On their first tour, the Black Sheep suffered an almost 40 percent casualty rate, including one pilot shot down in a friendly-fire duel with Navy PT-boats. Yet they overflew Bougainville so regularly that the Japanese dared Boyington by name to come down and brave the anti-aircraft instead he taunted Zero pilots that they should come up and fight. John Bolt even flew an unauthorized one-man air raid on Tonolei Harbor, making two strafing runs on troop transports and boat traffic. “I was only taken under fire from one gun,” he reported to a furious Boyington on his return, adding that its 20mm tracers “just floated by.” Despite his CO’s ire, Bolt received a congratulatory telegram from no less than Admiral William “Bull” Halsey, and the Distinguished Flying Cross. He would eventually earn a Navy Cross as well.

“Black Sheep Squadron” by John D. Shaw
Battle-weary Corsairs and pilots of VMF-214 cool down on Vella Lavella after a mission. Left to right: Intelligence Officer Frank Walton, Flight Surgeon James Reames, pilots Chris Magee, John Bolt, Boyington, Bruce Matheson and Ed Olander.

The Black Sheep pose on the wings of Corsair #17740 in its revetment at Vella Lavella, Dec. 27th, 1943. The St. Louis Cardinals had issued them one team cap for each victory. Aces hold baseball bats.

In six weeks VMF-214 scored 57 kills, with 19 probables. Wild Man Magee claimed seven. Bill Case finished with eight. (On his last mission, for no real reason Case lowered his cockpit seat a notch when a Japanese 7.7mm bullet pierced his canopy, instead of drilling him through the skull, it merely creased his scalp.) Halsey visited VMF-214’s base to shake hands all around. Boyington was nominated for the Medal of Honor. At a November photo op on Espiritu Santo, a Corsair was dressed up with his name and 20 Japanese victory flags, though in fact it was a point of pride in the squadron that they all shared airplanes not even Boyington flew a personal mount.

F4U-1 Corsair “Lucybelle”
Used for photo shoot on Espiritu Santo, November 1943. Boyington did not fly it in combat, nor ever fly a personal mount. After the war he jilted girlfriend Lucy Malcolmson for actress Frances Baker, leading to a tabloid court case so messy that for the TV show, 30 years later, his plane’s name was changed to “Lulubelle.” Note Spitfire-style “bubble” canopy.

Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52 “Zeke”

The most-produced of the A6M series, the A6M5 entered service in October 1943. With a more powerful engine, wingtips “clipped” for better roll rate, and dive speed increased to 410 mph, the Model 52 was intended to be a match for the Corsair and F6F Hellcat. In late 1943 53-102 was flown out of Rabaul by Lt.j.g. “Tiger” T e t s u z o I w am o t o , who survived the war as possibly Japan’s highest-scoring ace.

Hero-hungry America couldn’t get enough of the Black Sheep. Neither could the Marine Corps, which boosted squadron pilot strength from 28 to 40.

On November 1, 1943, the Allies finally landed on Bougainville, capturing just enough beachhead for a staging field at Torokina. For the first time Allied fighters could reach Rabaul, the “Pearl Harbor of the Southwest Pacific.” Within shooting distance of 26 victories—the American record held since World War I by Eddie Rickenbacker, only recently tied by Captain Joe Foss—Boyington led a fighter sweep, marking the first appearance by American single-engine planes over Simpson Harbor. (When a Navy squadron commander questioned his tactics, Boyington snapped: “Tactics? Hell, you don’t need any tactics. When you see the Zeros, you just shoot ’em down, that’s all.”)

Lakunai
The Japanese airfield at the foot of the volcanoes Rabalanakaia (left) and Tavurvur. The 1994 eruption of Tavurvur destroyed the airfield and the town of Rabaul.

Nakajima A6M2-N “Rufe,” 802nd Kokutai, Solomon Islands 1943

A seaplane version of the Zero, the Rufe saw action in the Aleutians and Solomon Islands campaigns as an interceptor, fighter-bomber, and scout. Its performance suffered from the weight and drag of its large pontoons, making it easy prey for conventional Allied fighters.

Against such an armada, however, the Americans found few Zeros willing to fly. McClurg broke formation to dive after a Nakajima A6M2-N “Rufe” floatplane, his fourth kill: “He was sitting there just flying straight and level. Nothing to it….[Boyington] looked over at me shaking his fist at me for breaking formation.” But the CO himself went down alone to strafe the air base at Lakunai. “We scared them,” he declared. “We ought to send up only about 24 planes, so they’d be sure to come up and fight.”

Consolidated B-24 Liberator

Able to carry 8,000 lb of bombs, or 2,700lb for 3,000 miles, the B-24 was the prime Allied heavy bomber in the Pacific before the advent of the Boeing B-29. The Black Sheep escorted many of them to Rabaul. “Eager Beaver,” a B-24D-7-CO of the 320th BS, 90th BG USAAF, completed 77 missions in the Southwest Pacific theater.

A week later the Allies sent two dozen B-24 Liberators, backed up by nearly 100 Corsairs, Hellcats, Kittyhawks and even Army P-38 Lightnings. This time the Japanese matched them fighter for fighter. In this titanic dogfight over Rabaul the Black Sheep lost three but claimed 12, Bolt and McClurg getting doubles to become aces, Magee raising his total to eight. And Boyington got four, at one point taking on a nine-plane formation all by himself: “I came down unknown to the Zekes and picked off the tail-end man, and then ran like a son-of-a-gun.” On the way home he even made a strafing run on a Japanese sub he caught on the surface. It was his second-best day ever as a Black Sheep.

“Fly for Your Life” by Robert Taylor.

With Rabaul visible in the distance, “Pappy” Boyington and his fellow pilots of VMF-214 tear into a large formation of Japanese Zero fighters. Buy the art.

The closer he came to the record, however, the more he seemed to feel the weight of history bearing down on him. He gave reporters wave-offs and brusque replies: “I didn’t come out here to make news. I came out here to fight a war.” McClurg got his eighth, Magee his ninth and Don Fisher got a double to become an ace, but Boyington stalled. “The hunting was fine,” he said of those last days of 1943, “…but I’m doing some dumb things up there!” He scored one more Zeke over Rabaul, but the next day was so outflown by an enemy fighter he reported it as a Nakajima Ki-44 “Tojo” that got away, scored only as a probable. On a subsequent mission he had to turn back with his windscreen covered in oil at one point, as several fellow pilots attested, he undid his straps and stood up into the slipstream to wipe it off.

“Don’t worry about me,” he told his men. “If you guys ever see me going down with 30 Zeros on my tail, don’t give me up. Hell, I’ll meet you in a San Diego bar and we’ll all have a drink for old times’ sake.” They celebrated New Year’s Eve Black Sheep style, firing off so many pistol flares that the transport fleet offshore got underway, fearing an air raid.

Gunfight Over Rabaul by Jack Fellows

Boyington maneuvers for an advantageous position against a nimble A6M2 type “Zero” fighter over Rabaul on December 27, 1943. On this date Boyington shot down his 25th enemy aircraft, a Zero over Simpson Harbour.

Major Gregory “Pappy” Boyington, USMC, C.O. VMF-214 by Jack Fellows

Another view of same dogfight, Boyington’s 25th confirmed aerial victory. Enemy aircraft was most likely a Zero from IJN 253rd Kokutai, coming up from Lakunai aerodrome.

On January 3, 1944, Boyington led another sweep to Rabaul. The Japanese saw the Americans coming and sent up some 70 fighters to intercept. Boyington led the charge down into them. “I poured a long burst into the first enemy plane that approached,” he said. The Zero burst into flames, and several pilots witnessed it going down: Boyington’s record-tying 26th victory. But then they lost sight of Gramps in the low-level haze, where he found some 20 enemy fighters waiting.

Word of his record kill preceded him back to base. “There was a radio recording hookup,” remembered one Black Sheep, “and the Marine Corps and Navy photo sections had cameramen there.” Elation turned to shock and disbelief when Boyington failed to return. “In the movies it would be labeled pure corn,” wrote one correspondent. “Things like that don’t happen.” Bolt got his sixth the next day, but adding insult to grievous injury, with its tour finished VMF-214 was deactivated and its pilots reassigned to spread their expertise. A reconstituted unit did not fare so well on its return to combat.

The Black Sheep who went to war in 1945 never got the chance to live up to their legacy, but they lived up to their name. Mostly fresh out of flight school, they lost 11 Corsairs and seven airmen during training to collisions, disappearances and freak accidents. One pilot’s life raft ballooned inside the plane, shoving him out of the cockpit at 5,000 feet without his chute another had a fatal tangle with an aerial towed target banner a third’s belly tank tore loose on a carrier landing, hit his prop and exploded, immolating him in the cockpit. Even their mascot, a black lamb named Midnite, was run over by a car and killed Midnite II proved to be an ornery ram with a penchant for butting heads with squadron mates.

F4U-1D Corsair, VMF-214
Flown off USS Franklin, CV-13, in March 1945, as indicated by white-diamond tail insignia. Features underwing hardpoints for HVAR (High Velocity Air-launched) rockets. Many Corsairs were so armed and warming up on deck when Franklin took her infamous, near-fatal bomb hit.

The Corsair had changed too. Finally cleared for carrier ops, the new F4U-1D could pack 1,000 pounds of high-explosive or napalm bombs, eight five-inch HVAR (high-velocity aircraft) rockets or a centerline-mounted 11.75-inch “Tiny Tim” missile. All these weapons were stocked when VMF-214 boarded CV-13, the Essex -class carrier Franklin . Sailing as part of Task Force 58 in support of the Okinawa invasion, “Big Ben” would make the closest approach to the Japanese Home Islands of any U.S. carrier in the entire war: just 50 miles, a mere 10󈝻 minutes’ flying time, off southern Kyushu.

At dawn on March 19, Franklin had more than 30 aircraft on deck and 22 below, readying for a strike into Japan’s Inland Sea. Many VMF-214 pilots were prepping for their mission in the squadron ready room above the hangar deck when, at about 0705 hours, a single Japanese plane (usually described as a Yokosuka D4Y3 “Judy”) dropped out of the low cloud cover, crossed the ship bow to stern at mast height and pickled off its ordnance dead center. At least one 550-pounder punched through the flight deck into the crowded, busy hangar deck below and exploded.

USS Franklin, March 19, 1945
“Big Ben” pays the price for venturing too near the Japanese mainland.

In the confined space, the blast redoubled. Burst tanks and lines spattered aviation fuel. Bombs and rockets set each other off. The rippling explosion was so powerful it heaved the entire 32-ton forward aircraft elevator clear up out of its well. The flight crews in the hangar deck never knew what hit them. Concussion bucked the overhead ready room so hard the floor broke pilots’ legs where they stood or hurled them bodily against the overhead. Some jumped or were blown overboard several stories down into the icy water. Few escaped uninjured as flames ravaged the listing carrier stem to stern, punctuated by ordnance cooking off. More than 800 men died, with almost 500 wounded.

The tale of Franklin’s epic, and ultimately successful, battle for survival has passed into U.S. Navy legend, but 32 men of VMF-214 never lived to fight it, let alone fight the enemy. For both Big Ben and the Black Sheep, World War II was over.

In late 1945 Boyington (center) reunites with Black Sheep comrades, including Chris Magee (left) and Bill Case (right) in the bar at San Francisco’s St. Francis Hotel.

In August 1945, the survivors were preparing to muster out when word came that Boyington was not only alive but now considered the top-scoring Marine ace of the war, having claimed two more Zeros on his last mission before going down in the ocean. (Today official sources credit him variously with between 22 and 28 victories.) He’d been picked up by a Japanese sub, and spent the rest of the war as a POW. That October, President Harry S. Truman awarded Boyington his “posthumous” Medal of Honor on the White House lawn, but not before Pappy had his promised reunion with the Black Sheep—one so legendary that it’s said to be the first bender to rate a photo feature in Life magazine.

What America knows as the Black Sheep Squadron flew together as a unit for only about three months—less than one 13-week television season—but destroyed 97 enemy aircraft, with 35 probables and 50 damaged, plus almost 30 ships sunk. Of the 28 pilots on their first tour, no less than nine became aces. Bolt went on to score six kills in Korea for 12 total—the Marine Corps’ only jet ace and only ace in two wars—while Magee flew Messerschmitts for the Israelis, bootlegged booze and robbed banks. One of the few WWII-vintage squadrons still serving today, VMF-214 flew Corsairs in Korea, A-4 Skyhawks in Vietnam and AV-8B Harrier jump jets in Iraq and Afghanistan. Over the years the forlorn black sheep on the squadron insignia, which a bunch of orphan flyboys first scribbled up on Guadalcanal, has become a proud, foot-stamping ram. And no matter what they fly, their crest still bears a Bent-Wing Bird.

Oor die skrywer

Author/illustrator/historian Don Hollway has been published in Aviation History, Excellence, History Magazine, Military Heritage, Military History, Military Heritage, Civil War Quarterly, Muzzleloader, Porsche Panorama, Renaissance Magazine, Scientific American, Vietnam, Wild West, and World War II magazines. His work is also available in paperback, hardcover and across the internet, a number of which rank extremely high in global search rankings.


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