Howard Kullberg

Howard Kullberg


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Howard Kullberg is gebore in Somerville, Massachusetts, op 10 September 1896. Kullberg is deur die United States Air Service verwerp as te kort. Hy het dus by die Royal Flying Corps in Kanada aangesluit.

In Mei 1918 kom Kullberg aan die Wesfront aan, maar nadat 19 oorwinnings op 16 September 1918 neergeskiet is. Ernstig gewond het Kullberg die res van die oorlog in die hospitaal deurgebring.


Howard Kullberg - Geskiedenis

Die enigste aas uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog wat uit die staat Illinois kom, is geprofileer in 'n goed gedokumenteerde nuwe weergawe wat die opwindende verhaal vertel van 'n man wat later een van die staat se eerste lugvaartkundiges geword het.

Howard Knotts: Aas van die Prairie (lys: $ 5,99) is 'n geïllustreerde blik op die lewe van Knotts (1895-1942), een van Amerika se mees versierde flyers van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, wat in 1918 ses vliegtuie in 'n geveg neergeskiet het. Uittreksels uit amptelike rekords van sy militêre geveg, insluitend sy logboek, word in Ace of the Prairie gebruik om sy militêre sukses in detail aan te toon. Hy is daarna self neergeskiet en het weke in gevangenskap voor sy vrylating deurgebring. Vir sy verdienste is Knotts bekroon met die Distinguished Service Cross uit die Verenigde State en die Distinguished Flying Cross uit die Verenigde Koninkryk.

"Sy dapperheid in die geveg is onbetwisbaar," sê Tom Emery, 'n Carlinville -skrywer wat Ace of the Prairie geskryf het. Maar hy het nooit opgehou baklei nie. Toe Knotts die eerste keer gevang word, vermoor hy die Duitser wat hom met die man se eie geweer opgespoor het. Daarna het hy dit reggekry om verskeie Duitse Fokker -vliegtuie wat op dieselfde troeptrein vervoer is, te vernietig wat hom na 'n vyandelike gevangenis geneem het.

'As dit nie genoeg was nie, ontsnap hy toe uit die gevangenis, net om weer gevange geneem te word,' vervolg Emery. 'Sy gretigheid en vasberadenheid was ongelooflik, en dit dra net by tot sy verhaal.'

Knotts, gebore in Girard en grootgeword in Carlinville, keer na die oorlog terug na Sentraal -Illinois en het 'n vooraanstaande kenner geword in lugvaartwetgewing, wat beide staats- en nasionale lugregulering beïnvloed het. Hy was meer as twee dekades lank inwoner van Springfield en het in die voormalige advokaatgebou in Lincoln-Herndon advokate bedryf. Onder sy vriende was Charles Lindbergh en Amelia Earhart, twee van die ikoniese name van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

'Sommige mense in Springfield wou die lughawens van die stad na hom vernoem, waaronder Capital Airport,' het Emery gesê. 'Hy het 'n onuitwisbare afdruk gelaat op die lugvaart in Illinois, en het in talle rade en komitees gedien wat verband hou met lugwetgewing en regulasies in die land sowel as nasionaal.'

Howard Knotts: Aas van die prairie was die idee van Lindell Loveless, 'n toonaangewende varkprodusent uit Illinois van Gillespie wat 'n lang liefde vir die Amerikaanse geskiedenis het. Emery, wat veertien boek- en boekie -titels vervaardig het, was maar te bly om die uitdaging te aanvaar.

'Ek geniet dit om navorsing te doen oor mense en gebeure wat nie goed behandel is nie,' het Emery gesê, en Howard Knotts pas perfek by die vorm. Daar is nie veel oor hom geskryf nie, en hy het 'n groot invloed op lugreise gehad. Hy is 'n fassinerende karakter wat sy prestasies in die Groot Oorlog te bowe gaan

Benewens amptelike verslae, gebruik Emery baie Knotts -briewe, waaronder een wat hy in die gevangenskap in Duitsland geskryf het, om 'n man uit te beeld wat 'n navorser '100 persent held' genoem het.


Howard Gardner

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Howard Gardner, (gebore 11 Julie 1943, Scranton, Pennsylvania, VS), Amerikaanse kognitiewe sielkundige en skrywer, veral bekend vir sy teorie oor veelvuldige intelligensies. Die eerste keer aangebied in Denkraamwerke: Die teorie van veelvuldige intelligensies (1983) en daarna verfyn en uitgebrei Veelvuldige intelligensies: die teorie in die praktyk (1993), Intelligensie herontwerp: veelvuldige intelligensies vir die 21ste eeu (1999), en Veelvuldige intelligensies: nuwe horisonne (2006), het Gardner se teorie onderwysers, skoolleiers en spesiale opvoeders geïnspireer om die idee te aanvaar dat daar baie maniere is om intelligent te wees.

Gardner was die seun van Joodse vlugtelinge uit Nazi -Duitsland. Hy was 'n leergierige kind wat graag gelees het, en het ontwikkel tot 'n begaafde pianis. Hy het 'n lewenslange passie vir musiek behou wat bygedra het tot sy nie -eenvormige opvatting van menslike kognitiewe kapasiteit.

Gardner het die meeste van sy formele opleiding en nagraadse werk aan die Harvard Universiteit onderneem, waar hy in 1965 'n baccalaureusgraad in sosiale betrekkinge en 'n doktorsgraad in ontwikkelingsielkunde in 1971 behaal het. (1984–2005) en 'n professoraat in onderwys aan die Harvard Graduate School of Education (1986–98), waar hy in 1998 as John H. en Elisabeth A. Hobbs professor in kognisie en onderwys aangestel is.

In Rame van die gees, Het Gardner vroeër 'n eenheidsmodel van intellektuele vermoë beskuldig, waarin intelligensie gewoonlik as 'n enkele IQ (intelligensie -kwosiënt) -telling aangegee is. Hy beskryf in plaas daarvan 'n meer komplekse paradigma waarin menslike intelligensie agt of meer relatief outonome intellektuele vermoëns bevat: logiese-wiskundige intelligensie, musikale intelligensie, taalkundige intelligensie, liggaamlik-kinestetiese intelligensie, ruimtelike intelligensie, interpersoonlike intelligensie, intrapersoonlike intelligensie (die vermoë om jouself te verstaan ) en naturalistiese intelligensie (die vermoë om sekere aspekte van die omgewing te herken en te gebruik).

Die teorie van veelvuldige intelligensies het baie pogings tot skoolverbetering in die Verenigde State beïnvloed. Gardner en ander het pogings aangewend om uiteenlopende studentevermoëns te verstaan ​​en beklemtoon die behoefte aan persoonlike opvoedkundige omgewings, verbeterde interdissiplinêre kurrikulêre programme en die gebruik van prestasiegebaseerde assesserings.

Ander werke van Gardner ingesluit The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (1985) en Waarheid, skoonheid en goedheid herontwerp: Opvoeding vir die deugde in die 21ste eeu (2011).


Westonka Historical Society

Verkennende toelae -projek begin

Westonka Historical Society, met Deephaven, Excelsior-Lake Mtka, Mtka, Museum of Lake Mtka en Wayzata Historical Societies, het 'n Erfenisbeurs van die MN Historical Society ontvang. Saam gebruik die genootskappe hierdie toelae om die Arts Consulting Group (ACG) te betrek om 'n verskeidenheid alliansiegeleenthede te evalueer. Die konsultantrol sal opsies in die strategiese belyningsspektrum hersien en aanbeveel - van samewerking tot gedeelde dienste tot konsolidasie. ACG werk saam met 'n wye verskeidenheid organisasies in die kreatiewe bedrywe. Hulle sal alle aspekte van ons organisasies (missies, programme, versamelings en amp -bestanddele) ontleed, data en opinies van belanghebbendes versamel deur middel van aanlynopnames en gemeenskapsgeleenthede wat aangekondig moet word. Uiteindelik sal 'n finale verslag teen die somer van 2021 afgehandel wees, sodat deelnemende organisasierade die beste aksie kan bepaal om die bewaring, interpretasie en toegang tot die geskiedenis van die Lake Mtka te verbeter. As geskiedenisondersteuner het WHS u insette in opnames, vraelyste en verwante aktiwiteite baie nodig en verwelkom. Hou u e -pos en posbus dop om die toekoms van die bewaring, interpretasie en deel van die geskiedenis van Lake Minnetonka te bepaal.

Museum -artefakte nou aanlyn

Westonka Historical Society het onlangs Fase 1 van ons museumvoorraadpoging voltooi. As gevolg van die sagteware wat ons nou vir ons voorraad gebruik, kan ons artefakte nou aanlyn vertoon word. Ons gee 'n kort beskrywing en 'n foto van elke artefak.

Fase 1 -inventaris behels die stoorkamer van die museum, wat nou uitgevind is. Ons is van plan om die hoofmuseumkamer op Vlak 4 van ons museum op te slaan. Die res sal in die daaropvolgende maande voltooi word.

Die artefakte wat uitgevind is, kan onmiddellik aanlyn besigtig word. Die res sal van tyd tot tyd beskikbaar wees, namate ons met ons voorraadpogings voortgaan.

Ons artefakte word vertoon op 'n gedeelde webblad wat deur die hele staat getiteld is: MN COLLECTIONS, geborg deur die Minnesota Alliance of Local History museums (MALHM).


Vermomming van haat: hoe radikale evangeliste anti-Islamitiese Vitriol op Facebook versprei

Redakteursnota

Groot joernalistieke ondersoeke veroorsaak dikwels meer ondersoeke, dikwels deur nuwe leidrade en perspektiewe van lesers. Dit is in wese wat hier gebeur het. Na die publikasie van Snopes.com se uiteensetting van faux koerantwebwerwe in sleutelstate van die slagveld in 2020, het 'n tipster ons daarop gewaarsku dat 'n reaksie op die artikel op 'n gekoördineerde netwerk van Facebook -bladsye gedeel is. Die gevolg van die leiding is die ondersoek van Alex Kasprak na 'n webblad van Facebook-bladsye gevul met anti-moslim, anti-immigrant vitriol. Die bladsye, wat ons skakel na 'n evangeliese aktivis in Columbus, Ohio, blyk gedeeltelik daarop gemik te wees om die Amerikaanse president Donald Trump te herkies. Ons hoop dat u hierdie nuutste ondersoek insiggewend vind. Hou die wenke en terugvoer hier.

—Doreen Marchionni, besturende redakteur Snopes.com.

'N Gekoördineerde netwerk van evangeliese Christelike Facebook-bladsye wat openlik Islamofobiese, sameswerende inhoud publiseer, skilder ekstreme, verdelende regse retoriek met breë Amerikaanse steun, maar is eintlik gekoppel aan een individu, toon 'n ondersoek van Snopes.

Hierdie bladsye beweer dat Islam 'nie 'n godsdiens' is nie, dat Moslems gewelddadig en dubbelsinnig is, en dat die hervestiging van Islamitiese vlugtelinge 'kulturele vernietiging en onderwerping' is. Slegs ure na die ineenstorting van die Notre Dame in April 2019 in 'n katastrofale brand, het hierdie netwerk te veel geraak en twyfel ontstaan ​​oor die moontlike rol wat Moslems in sy ineenstorting speel. Verskeie bladsye in hierdie netwerk het gesê dat hul doel 'boodskapversterking en doelgerigtheid' is. Tien van die bladsye in die netwerk ondersteun die Amerikaanse president Donald Trump uitdruklik in hul titels en behoort aan 'n koepelorganisasie wat '[praat] vir 'n Trump-Pence-agenda. 'N Plasing wat op verskeie van hierdie bladsye gedeel word, nooi lesers uit om' ons blad te like en laat ons 2020 rol! '

Hierdie bladsye bevat egter fantastiese idees van 'globalistiese' sameswerings wat Islam, sosialisme en multimiljardêr filantroop en ondersteuner van die Demokratiese Party, George Soros, verbind met die agteruitgang van die Westerse beskawing. Sommige van hierdie bladsye beweer ook dat oorlewendes van die slagting by die Parkland High School in die VSA byvoorbeeld op 'n "links-islamistiese betaalstaat" deur Soros gefinansier word. In ten minste een geval het hierdie bladsye óf finansiële steun ontvang van, óf is dit uitgebuit deur 'n opspraakwekkende GOP-skenker wat as fondsinsameling en lid van die veldtog vir die 2016 GOP-presidentskandidaat Ben Carson gedien het.

Alhoewel die werklike outeurskap van die poste op hierdie bladsye ondeursigtig is, impliseer hul titels uiteenlopende verteenwoordiging van 'n wye reeks Amerikaanse demografiese groepe, waaronder 'Jode en Christene vir Amerika' en 'Swart vir Trump'. In werklikheid is die bladsye in hierdie netwerk egter almal verbind met die evangeliese aktivis Kelly Monroe Kullberg. Maar sy is nie swart of Joods nie, en dit lyk asof haar sienings 'n uiterste deel van die breër evangeliese beweging in Amerika verteenwoordig. Alhoewel ons nie seker weet watter individu of individue elkeen van hierdie bladsye geskep het nie, of as Kullberg, haar familielede of verskillende 'interns' hul plasings skryf, blyk dit dat almal nou finansieel gekoppel is aan Kullberg of organisasies wat sy het geskep. Sover ons kon vasstel, het Facebook geen probleem met die bestaan ​​van hierdie gekoördineerde netwerk, waarna ons hier sal verwys as die 'Kullberg -netwerk'.

Hierdie netwerk, en ander wat soortgelyke taktieke gebruik, kan die aanlyn diskoers op verskeie maniere beïnvloed. Eerstens dien die netwerk die openbare mening deur die standpunte van 'n klein groepie aktiviste voor te stel as verteenwoordigend van 'n veel groter deel van die Amerikaanse bevolking. Tweedens versterk so 'n strategie in hierdie geval en bied dit 'n sluier van legitimiteit vir haat en samesweringsteorieë. Ten derde, ondanks hierdie strategieë wat oorval is in verkeerde inligting, het die bladsye in die netwerk die finansiële steun van goedgesinde politieke skenkers gelok wat hierdie bladsye en groepe gebruik om die oorsprong van politieke Facebook-advertensies te verdoesel.

Die Kullberg -netwerk

Christene vir Trump

  • Al hierdie bladsye is gelys op die webwerf “Christians for Trump.”
  • Vanlyn skenkingsgaan op die webwerf na 'n P.O. Box gedeel met die "American Association of Evangelicals."
  • Die American Association of Evangelicals was gestig deur Kelly Monroe Kullberg.

Amerikaanse bewarea

  • Al hierdie bladsye is eens gelys as " projekte”Van, of sosiale media bladsye behoort aan die "America Conservancy."
  • Kelly Monroe Kullberg is die stigter en president van The America Conservancy.

Ondanks die magdom bladsye, is die 'Kullberg -netwerk' aan een persoon vasgemaak

Facebook definieer oortredings van sy diensvoorwaardes of gemeenskapsstandaarde op talle maniere. 'Gekoördineerde ongemagtigde gedrag' is in teorie een van hierdie maniere. Soos verduidelik deur Facebook se hoof van kuberveiligheidsbeleid Nathaniel Gleicher in 'n video van 6 Desember 2018, definieer die sosiale netwerk hierdie aktiwiteit breedweg as 'groepe bladsye of mense wat saamwerk om ander te mislei oor wie hulle is of wat hulle doen. ” Die term word algemeen geassosieer met regerings- of buitelandse ingryping by verkiesings, soos Facebook -bladsye wat deur die Internet Research Agency (IRA) geskep is, en die Russiese trolplaas het die Amerikaanse presidentsverkiesing in 2016 beïnvloed. Meer onlangs, as nog 'n voorbeeld, het Facebook 'n netwerk van bladsye verwyder deur die bestuurder van die sosiale media van die outoritêre president van die Filippyne, Rodrigo Duterte.

Die Kullberg -netwerk is nie 'n buitelandse entiteit nie. Dit is 'n versameling van ten minste 24 Facebook -bladsye wat blykbaar bestuur word deur 'n klein groepie mense uit Columbus, Ohio, wat die mening van 'n uiteenlopende groep Amerikaners verteenwoordig. In baie ander opsigte is die netwerk baie soortgelyk aan hierdie voorbeelde van manipulasie van buitelandse sosiale media. Volgens Joshua Tucker, 'n professor in politiek en datawetenskap aan die NYU, bemoeilik die feit dat hierdie aktiwiteite voortspruit uit binnelandse, eerder as buitelandse, akteurs. 'Ek dink as u op Facebook sou kom en sê:' Hey, die Russe doen dit ', sou hulle die bladsye afgehaal het,' het hy in 'n telefoononderhoud aan ons gesê. Tot dusver het Facebook nie gereageer op ons vrae of verskeie opvolgings oor die praktyke van die Kullberg-netwerk nie, en die netwerk bly aanlyn.

Tucker, wat ook mede-stigter en mede-direkteur is van die laboratorium van die NYU Social Media and Political Participation (SMaPP), het navorsing gedoen oor aanlyn haatspraak en die manipulasie van die voorgenoemde IRA, 'n belangrike speler in die invloed van die Russiese regering op die aanlyn-invloed operasie ter ondersteuning van die destydse presidentskandidaat Donald Trump. Tucker het ons vertel dat hy al lank aangevoer het dat terwyl buitelandse sosiale media -pogings baie aandag trek, "die mense wat altyd die meeste aansporing sal hê om hierdie soort dinge te doen, die plaaslike akteurs is."

Die Kullberg -netwerk, hoewel dit blykbaar geheel en al in die VSA bedryf word, stel homself ongetwyfeld voor as 'n voorstelling van die standpunte van Amerikaners met verskillende rasse- en godsdienstige agtergronde, wat wissel van ouderdom van studente tot seniors. Tog is die inhoud en boodskappe op hierdie bladsye grootliks, indien nie letterlik nie, identies, wat daarop dui dat die inhoud in hierdie 'diverse' netwerk nie deur lede van die groepe, maar deur Kullberg en/of haar klein aantal medewerkers, geskryf is nie.

In sommige gevalle "interaksie" hierdie bladsye selfs met mekaar:

Elkeen van die bladsye in hierdie netwerk is direk gekoppel aan Kullberg, 'n evangeliese skrywer en aktivis, wie se sienings blykbaar wegbeweeg het van meer algemene evangelisasie in die 1990's na 'n meer gekonspiratoriese gedagtegang in die 2010's. Amerikaanse evangelisasie verwys in die algemeen na 'n koalisie van protestantse Christelike tradisies wat verenig is deur die oortuiging dat redding nie net 'n transformasie vereis wat geïnspireer is deur die ervaring van 'wedergebore' nie, maar ook die aktiewe verspreiding van die evangelie. Kullberg se sienings is nie noodwendig verteenwoordigend van hierdie breër beweging nie.

Kullberg beskryf haarself as president en medestigter van "Christians for a Sustainable Economy", 'n organisasie wat die Skrif aanhaal om teenkanting teen federale hulp aan armes te regverdig. Boonop word sy beskryf as '' 'n bewegende krag agter '' en 'n woordvoerder van 'n organisasie genaamd 'Evangelicals for Biblical Immigration', wat 'n Bybelse begronding vir die uitsluiting van immigrante en vlugtelinge uit Amerika bevorder. Die inhoud van Evangelicals for Biblical Immigration is op wit nasionalistiese afsetpunte soos VDARE gepromoveer. Kullberg het ook 'n organisasie gestig genaamd die "American Association of Evangelicals", wie se boodskap soortgelyk is aan Evangelicals for Biblical Immigration, maar dit argumenteer ook "ryk, anti-Christelike stigtings, na aanleiding van die miljardêr George Soros se Open Society Foundation, fonds en ' huur 'Christenbedienaars as' gelukbringers 'en dien as verrassende bekragtigaars vir hul redes. ”

Hierdie organisasies, sowel as 'n magdom ander Facebook -bladsye, is eens gelys as 'projekte' of sosiale media -bladsye van 'n organisasie wat blykbaar in 2015 gestalte gekry het, genaamd 'The America Conservancy', wat in 'n herhalende tema verskyn Kullberg as stigter en president. Die oorblywende bladsye in Kullberg se netwerk behoort aan "Christians for Trump." Laasgenoemde organisasie ondersteun bladsye wat insluit: Evangelicals for Trump, Women for Trump, Swacks for Trump, Veterans for Trump, Seniors for Trump, Teachers for Trump, Unions for Trump, Catholics for Trump, and Students for Trump-Pence.

Skenkings aan "Christene vir Trump" gaan tans aan 'n entiteit wat op verskillende maniere beskryf word as "ACA Inc." of “AC Action”. Die posadres wat gebruik word om 'n fisiese tjek na "AC Action" te stuur, is identies aan die posadres van die Kullberg-gestigte American Association of Evangelicals:

Hierdie finansiële skakel, saam met hul gedeelde inhoud, sluit aan by die 14 bladsye wat deur die "America Conservancy" geëis word, en die tien bladsye wat deel uitmaak van die "Christians for Trump" -portefeulje onder een Kullberg -dak. Volgens Brendan Fischer, die direkteur van federale hervorming by die nie-partydige Campaign Legal Center, kan die 'aksie'-entiteite soos' ACA Inc 'en' AC Action 'die politieke aksie-arm van America Conservancy verteenwoordig. Alhoewel Kullberg's America Conservancy in Ohio geregistreer is as 'n 501 (c) (3) organisasie wat wettiglik uitgesluit is van die meeste politieke aktiwiteite, het Fischer ons vertel dat baie liefdadigheidsorganisasies 'n politieke arm onder 'n soortgelyke naam het. Ter ondersteuning van hierdie idee, word in 'n plasing op die 'ongeveer' gedeelte van die 'Christians for Trump' Facebook -blad gesê dat 'ACA 'n 501 (c) (4)' groep is, wat wettiglik toegelaat word om lobbywerk te doen.

In 'n verdere voorbeeld van moontlik bedrieglike praktyke, blyk dit dat die America Conservancy eens bestaan ​​het as 'n Politieke Aksiekomitee (PAC) wat die Republikeinse genomineerde Mitt Romney in die presidensiële verkiesing in 2012 ondersteun het. Hierdie PAC, genaamd "The American Conservancy" (let op die letter "n" in "American", wat hierdie groep van die latere "America Conservancy" onderskei) het sy bedrywighede in 2013 beëindig. Beide Kullberg se organisasie en hierdie voormalige Romney PAC het dieselfde gelys Columbus, Ohio, PO Box as hul posadres. Baie van die Facebook-bladsye in die Kullberg-netwerk het eens Romney-spesifieke name gehad wat verander is. 'Mammas vir Amerika', byvoorbeeld, was vroeër 'mammas vir Mitt Romney':

Dit is onduidelik watter voordeel America Conservancy ontvang het om die bedrywighede van 'n afgedankte PAC oor te neem, terwyl sy naam slegs effens verander is, buite die moontlikheid om beheer oor ou Facebook -bladsye van Romney te verkry. Ons het Paul Kilgore, die FEC-geregistreerde tesourier vir American Conservancy in 2012-2013, verskeie kere per e-pos en stemboodskap gekontak om hierdie kwessies op te klaar, maar ons het geen reaksie gekry nie. Hierdie raaisels opsy, die hergebruik van Facebook -bladsye waarvan die oorspronklike bedoeling was om Mitt Romney in 2012 te bevorder tot 'n instrument wat gebruik word om Islamofobie en samesweringsteorieë bekend te maak, is inherent misleidend. Hierdie hermerking dien, net soos ander aksies wat Kullberg onderneem het, die vermeende steun vir haar meer ekstreme posisies op te blaas deur te impliseer dat Romney -ondersteuners wat nie die bladsye verlaat het nie, ook ondersteuners is van Kullberg se spesifieke vorm van aktivisme.

Die Kullberg-netwerk voldoen dus moontlik op verskeie maniere aan die op Facebook gedefinieerde skending van 'groepe bladsye of mense wat saamwerk om ander te mislei oor wie hulle is of wat hulle doen'. Dit mislei ander deur die siening van een persoon en haar naaste metgeselle voor te stel as die sienings van verskeie verskillende demografieë, en dit bied 'n versameling "informele" organisasies as veelvuldige, onafhanklike organisasies en nie 'n netwerk wat finansieel gekoppel is aan 'n klein groepie mense, indien nie 'n enkele persoon nie, soos eintlik die geval is.

Die Kullberg -netwerk mag inderdaad nie tot 'n skending van Facebook se reëls styg nie, soos dit tans bestaan. 'Ek weet nie eens wat dit oortree nie,' het Tucker vir ons gesê. Maar in sy geheel gesien: 'Dit [die netwerk] slaag regtig nie in die reuktoets nie,' het hy gesê. Hoe dan ook, dit is moeilik om te dink hoe die Kullberg -netwerk alles behalwe bedrieglik sou wees vir potensiële skenkers en vir Facebook -gebruikers wat hierdie organisasies op Facebook teëkom en dink dat dit unieke entiteite is wat hartlik met mekaar saamstem.

Ons het verskeie kere probeer om Kullberg te bereik via verskeie metodes, insluitend Facebook- en webvormboodskappe aan America Conservancy en American Association of Evangelicals na Kullberg se persoonlike Facebook -rekening en na verskeie van haar persoonlike e -posadresse. Na hierdie onsuksesvolle pogings het ons ook 'n telefoonnommer gebel wat in die openbare rekords van Kullberg behoort, wat ook in die openbaar as die kontaknommer van die America Conservancy verskyn het, sowel as 'n tweede groep wat verband hou met Kulberg.

Nadat hierdie verslaggewer homself geïdentifiseer het, beweer 'n vrou wat die telefoon beantwoord het dat ons die verkeerde nommer het. Opvolgoproepe van hierdie verslaggewer en 'n ander Snopes-verslaggewer het na 'n stempos gegaan. Geen stemposboodskap is teruggestuur nie. Die tuisblad van die America Conservancy -webwerf het kortliks verdwyn en toon nou 'n boodskap dat die webwerf 'opgradeer' word. Op 28 Mei 2019, na die aanvanklike publikasie van hierdie verhaal, is die Kullberg -netwerk blykbaar van Facebook verwyder en baie van Kullberg se verskillende webwerwe is verwyder, hoewel ons nie seker weet wie hierdie bewegings vergemaklik het nie en waarom.

Islamofobie in die Kullberg -netwerk

"Evangeliese organisasies is die primêre befondsers van anti-Moslem animus," het Abbas Barzegar, die direkteur van die departement van navorsing en voorspraak by die Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), per e-pos aan ons gesê. CAIR, 'n gereelde doelwit van die Kullberg-netwerk, het in Mei 2019 'n verslag gepubliseer, "Hijacked by Hate: American Philanthropy and the Islamophobia Network", waarin die geldelike vloei van anonieme skenkers na liefdadigheidsorganisasies na anti-Moslem-groepe uiteengesit word. 'Evangeliese groepe verskyn deurgaans as toonaangewende befondsers,' het hy vir ons gesê.

Die sienings oor Moslems wat deur die Kullberg-netwerk uitgespreek word, val blykbaar in 'n "civilization jihad" -merk van Islamofobie wat in sommige regse kringe in sterkte toeneem, volgens Jonathon O'Donnell, wat die politiek van demonisering ondersoek as 'n postdoktorale genoot aan die UCD Clinton Institute for American Studies in Dublin, Ierland. Sy akademiese werk het die retoriek van die Sentrum vir Veiligheidsbeleid ondersoek, waarvan die inhoud gereeld op die Kullberg -netwerk gepromoveer word en deur die Southern Poverty Law Center as 'n haatgroep beskou word.

'Civilization jihad verwys in wese na die idee dat Moslem -migrasie 'n ... doelbewuste beleid van beskawingsvervanging is,' verduidelik O'Donnell via 'n Skype -oproep. Terroristiese dade, het hy vir ons gesê, is “nie die ware Jihad vir hierdie mense nie. Die ware Jihad is hierdie meer subtiele vorm van kulturele infiltrasie en transformasie. ” In ooreenstemming met hierdie temas het verskeie Kullberg -netwerkbladsye 'n plasing van 21 Maart 2019 gedeel wat die hervestiging van vlugtelinge beskryf as 'kulturele vernietiging en onderwerping', terwyl 'n ander post wat wyd gedeel is, beweer dat 'immigrasie vernietig ... gemeenskappe'.

'N Konsekwente boodskap in die Kullberg -netwerk is dat Moslems nie in die Amerikaanse kultuur kan assimileer nie. Die bladsye deel gereeld inhoud waarin beweer word dat Moslems, insluitend diegene wat verkose posisies in die Amerikaanse regering beklee, nie die grondwet van die land kan aanvaar nie weens hul lojaliteit aan die sharia -wet. Hierdie sienings is uitdruklik verwoord in 'n plasing van 28 April 2019 wat op verskeie Kullberg -bladsye gedeel is wat beweer dat ''n normale Moslem se lojaliteit teenoor Sharia -wet en oppergesag' is. Volgens die netwerk is hierdie lojaliteit vooraf bepaal. 'Dit is hul lens. Dit moet wees. Dit is en sal wees. Maar dit is nie verenigbaar met ons Amerikaanse eed van burgerskap wat ons voorouers afgelê het nie. ”

Moslems, beweer die Kullberg -netwerk, is ook gewelddadig en dubbelsinnig. In een pos van Mei 2017, waarin 'n verkeerde prentjie van 'n Moslemseun met 'n speelgoedgeweer gebruik word, word gesê dat 'Moslems beveel word om Mohammed na te volg. Mohammed het duisende gesteel, verkrag en vermoor. Dit is wat Islam bedoel met vrede. Laat ons die Islamitiese oppergesag stop. #ItsNotAReligion. " 'N Pos van 1 Januarie 2018 wat op ten minste agt bladsye in die Kullberg -netwerk gedeel is, verklaar "ons sal ons NIE onderwerp aan die Islamitiese ideologie van verowering wat ons onderwerping dwing nie." Hierdie plasing bevorder die hutsmerk "#ShariaKills."

Moslems, beweer die Kullberg -netwerk, sterk en onophoudelik, werk saam met progressiewe mense soos Soros om “Christelike leerstellings te benut om diegene wat die Christelike beskawing wil afbreek, te bemagtig”. Soros, beweer hierdie Facebook-bladsye, staan ​​agter 'n wêreldwye massa-migrasiebeweging wat slegs dien om hom aan bewind te hou terwyl hy Amerika probeer "demoraliseer en vernietig". 'As u natuurlik glo dat die Westerse beskawing as 'n konsep beskaafd is, moet u rekenskap gee van hoe hierdie' minderwaardige 'beskawing daarin slaag om dit so suksesvol te infiltreer,' het O'Donnell gesê. 'Een van die maniere waarop hulle dit kan regkry, is deur figure soos George Soros voor te stel as hierdie verraderlike insiders wat die superioriteit van die Weste benut in 'n poging om dit te ondermyn en te vernietig.

Die Kullberg -netwerk neem hierdie samesweringsteorie tot die uiterste. Byvoorbeeld, plasings wat in die netwerk gedeel word, het daarop gedui dat die oorlewendes van die Parkland -skoolmoord deur Soros beheer word en dus duidelik billike teikens is vir aanlyn teistering. In 'n pos van 20 Augustus 2018 word hierdie oorlewendes daarvan beskuldig dat hulle 'betaal word om vir Soros en kamerade te lieg en te spin', en voeg by dat 'die linkses en die Islamiete saamwerk - teen Amerika.'

Die retoriek van die Kullberg -netwerk slaag blykbaar daarin om 'n menigte mentaliteit van haat wat nie aan die werklikheid gekoppel is nie, aan te wakker. In reaksie op 'n ander berig wat twyfel oor die oorsaak van die Notre Dame -brand veroorsaak het, het kommentators op die Christene vir Trump -bladsy hul fokus na die VSA verskuif, wat daarop dui dat Amerikaanse Moslems probeer om hierdie land op 'n soortgelyke manier te vernietig. 'Dit is wat Omar teen Amerika doen,' het een kommentator gesê met verwysing na die Amerikaanse rep. Ilhan Omar, een van twee Moslems wat tans in die Amerikaanse kongres dien en 'n algemene doelwit van die Kullberg -netwerk is. 'Sy gaan af, wag net,' het die persoon gesê. "Kan nie gou genoeg vir my gebeur nie!" 'n ander antwoord. Omar was 'n toenemende aantal doodsdreigemente na aanvalle van president Trump en ander.

Hierdie soort retoriek bly nie noodwendig geïsoleerd op Facebook -bladsye nie. 'Soos ander elemente van Islamofobie', het Barzegar ons vertel, 'styg hierdie trope en retoriek deurgaans in ons openbare en politieke ruimtes.'

In 'n verhaal van 9 Junie 2019 gepubliseer in die plaaslike Columbus, Ohio, Versending na die oorspronklike publikasie van hierdie verhaal, het Kullberg haar eerste openbare kommentaar hieroor gelewer. In 'n e -posverklaring aan die koerant, het Kullberg gesê dat die doel van haar werk was om "die waarheid te onderskei" en bygevoeg dat "enige foute in die plasing met spyt gemaak is":

'Publieke sosiale media -bladsye word dikwels gebruik om kundiges oor nasionale veiligheid, geloof en 'n magdom ander onderwerpe te help om die vervolging van beide Christene en Moslems te laat skyn, soos die feit dat 3 miljoen Moslem -Oeigoere nou in Chinese konsentrasiekampe is, die afgryse van die slagting in Christchurch (Nieu -Seeland) en dat 500 000 meisies in Amerika die risiko loop om vroulike genitale verminking te ondergaan, ”het Kullberg geskryf. 'Enige fout met die plasing is met spyt gemaak,' het sy geskryf. "Die doel van hierdie werk is om die waarheid en die aard van liefde te onderskei in verband met die uitdagende kwessies van ons tyd."

GOP -skenkers benut die Kullberg -netwerk vir politieke advertensies

Ondanks die ekstremistiese inhoud word die Kullberg -netwerk bygestaan ​​deur ten minste een opvallende politieke figuur van die GOP. In 2016, volgens 'n plasing op hul Facebook -blad, "Christians for Trump was managed by the LibertyT.us PAC."

Op grond van die Facebook-vereiste handelsmerkinhoud-etiket op sommige plasings in die Kullberg-netwerk, blyk dit dat 'Liberty T, LLC' die korporatiewe entiteit was wat ten minste tot einde 2018 betaal het vir 'boodskapversterking en -gerigtheid' binne die netwerk. Terselfdertyd, in 'n wedersyds voordelige verhouding, het hierdie PAC Kullberg se netwerk van Facebook -bladsye gebruik, wat vanweë hul name en profielbesonderhede die belangrikste kiesafdelings verteenwoordig, om doelgerigte politieke advertensies op die Facebook -platform te plaas.

Maar om die presiese meganika van hierdie korporatiewe reëlings uit te vind, is uitdagend. Niemand verbonde aan America Conservancy het op ons vrae geantwoord nie, en slegs Anne Peterson, wat haarself beskryf het as 'net die FEC -nakomingsmeisie' vir Liberty T, het op enige van ons navrae gereageer. Maar sy kon of wou nie verduidelik wat Liberty T se rol speel in verband met die Facebook -bladsye "Christene vir Trump", sy bedrywighede in die algemeen of die verband met Kullberg nie.

Maar ons weet wel dat tydens die verkiesingsiklus van 2018 'n man met die naam William Millis die grootste deel van die befondsing aan Liberty T. Millis, 'n welgestelde sokkerspeler uit Noord -Carolina en voormalige Ben Carson -geldinsameling en lid van die veldtogbestuur, $ 50,000 bygedra het tot die PAC op 26 Oktober 2018, volgens FEC onthullings. Hierdie bedrag verteenwoordig meer as 50% van die fondse wat die organisasie in die verkiesingsiklus van 2018 ingesamel het. Die geregistreerde adres van Liberty T is dieselfde adres wat gebruik word deur 'n tans onaktiewe liefdadigheidsorganisasie genaamd "Wounded Warrior Corporation", wat Millis as 'n direkteur genoteer het. Another person, listed as the treasurer for Liberty T, was injured in a bike accident and is medically unable to run the organization. As a result, Liberty T is shutting down operations completely, Peterson said.

Chatting with my dear friend Bill Millis before speaking to the masses gathered at the High Point Theater tonight. pic.twitter.com/Dre3SRPpLa

— Ben & Candy Carson (@RealBenCarson) May 9, 2014

But Liberty T’s past involvement in the Kullberg network is illustrative of how such coordinated Facebook networks can be exploited to disguise the source of political messaging. If Liberty T’s primary objective was to distribute political ads as representative of the views of various people that they do not authentically represent, the Kullberg network may have allowed them to achieve that goal.

As an example, Liberty T paid Facebook for a post purporting to come from the Facebook page “Blacks for Trump” in support of then-Kansas gubernatorial candidate Kris Kobach to be “boosted” onto the timelines of up to 50,000 Kansans between 2 November and 5 November 2018. This post, however, never actually appeared on the Blacks for Trump timeline. Instead, based on these ads’ absences from their respective pages’ timelines, Liberty T appears to have paid for what Facebook calls an “Unpublished Page Post.” Such a post is capable, as this one was, of being shared on the timelines of individuals who are not members of the Blacks for Trump while seemingly being endorsed by that page:

On the flip side, Liberty T’s funding enabled the messages, interests, and donation pages of Kullberg’s various organizations and Facebook groups to see a wider audience, like those tens of thousands of Kansans targeted by Liberty T. Indeed, “American Conservancy Action, Inc.” (which listed in FEC filings the same P.O. Box once displayed on Kullberg’s America Conservancy website) donated $25,000 to Liberty T on 17 October 2018. Following those payments, many of the posts “boosted” by Liberty T were general announcements about various Kullberg organizations:

In at least one instance, Liberty T appears to have funded the promotion of products created by Kelly Kullberg’s family members. Between 5 November and 6 November 2018, the PAC paid for the promotion of an Amazon link to a work of fiction written by David Kullberg, Kelly’s husband, titled Breaking Babel. According to the American Association of Evangelicals, the book “accurately predicted George Soros funding fake ministers to split the faith vote to swing the U.S. presidency, crippling the church & nation”:

While the way that Liberty T promotes the interests of the Kullbergs as it uses pages under Kelly Kullberg’s control for political-messaging purposes may be apparent, the reason for the shifting money between multiple corporate entities is less obvious. “It seems hard to imagine why the American Conservancy would pay Liberty T and then disclaim that Liberty T was paying for the ads,” Fischer, from the Campaign Legal Center, said. “It’s entirely possible that this is just a handful of people who are wearing different hats at any given time.”

One benefit of the approach used by the Kullberg network and further enabled by Facebook’s ad products and policies is that it makes answering such questions with any certainty challenging.

Nobody Wants to Talk About the Kullberg Network

A striking pattern that emerged in Snopes’ reporting on the Kullberg network was that nobody — from the people or person creating these messages and the political operatives funding them to the digital platform that allows messages to be transmitted to millions of people — seemed to want anything to do with this story. Multiple inquiries to Kullberg and to the accounts of several of the organizations she runs went unanswered. Multiple inquiries to Liberty T’s Millis, including one passed on via registered agent Peterson, also received no response.

The same can be said of Facebook, whose press office we contacted three times by email (and which has been responsive to our inquiries in the past). None of those inquiries was returned, but following either our first or our second email to the company, two of the posts we specifically linked to as examples in our email to Facebook (and to no other parties) were deleted: a post targeting the Parkland school shooting survivors, as well as a post arguing the Muslims are violent and that Islam “isn’t a religion.” A third inquiry to Facebook, which reiterated our first two emails, also asked if Facebook had taken action on those posts. Facebook did not respond to that inquiry, either.

On the one hand, the Kullberg network is both literally and figuratively small change. In addition to being a modest-sized network of up to 1.4 million followers, the corporate entities behind it are not trafficking in huge amounts of money. CAIR’s Barzegar told us they had never heard of Kullberg or any of the organizations she is associated with. Similarly, a spokesperson for Soros told us he had never heard of Kullberg or her sites, despite the fact that all of these pages or organizations directly target Soros on a near-daily basis.

On the other hand, the Kullberg network is representative of the effects stemming from Facebook’s lack of clarity concerning the nature and enforcement of its own policies and terms of service. For several years, Kullberg has been able to build up a network of discarded political Facebook pages that may serve to add unfounded legitimacy to hateful Islamophobic views. Facebook, meanwhile, has apparently allowed these pages to benefit from the undisclosed or disguised interests of wealthy GOP donors.

The potential harm from something like the Kullberg network is hard to quantify, NYU’s Tucker said. While many of these pages state or imply by their titles to be efforts in support of Trump for president in 2020, it is unclear how effective online influence from a network like this would actually be. “In 2016, the election was super close,” he said, so targeted ads that boosted the turnout of evangelicals in certain areas could in theory be significant. But, he added, “We can’t randomly run an experiment during the election … you wouldn’t want to do this ethically.”

While proving harm on this level may be challenging, it does not take a significant number of radicalized Facebook members to cause harm. Asking if Facebook networks can influence the polls and if they could cause harm by radicalizing people toward violence “are two different questions,” Tucker said. “Unfortunately for these horrendous [hate] crimes that are taking place now, you don’t need a large number of people.”

Social media companies, Barzegar argued, need to be “more transparent and collaborative to help create social media spaces that are both robust and promote dialogue, but at the same time guard against the spread of dangerous and potentially violent ideas.” Though silence seems to have been their strategy leading to the publication of this story, Facebook’s determination to ignore requests for policy clarification could signify an increasingly dangerous approach. “Hate groups tend to mushroom in the social media and non-profit sector as they are easy to exploit due to lack of regulation,” Barzegar told us.

The Kullberg network appears to exist in a gray area. Its content is frequently inflammatory, conspiratorial, and dangerously misleading. But such attributes may not be enough to constitute a violation of the platform’s rules. The network may not be a significant player from an electoral standpoint, either — not that many people have been reached by the efforts of Liberty T.

Two things are clear, however: Social media platforms like Facebook have allowed hateful Islamaphobic, conspiratorial rhetoric to be amplified and boosted inauthentically on their platforms, and these platforms continue to benefit from the revenue and reach of political operatives who exploit the networks.


The Recluse

After a terrible plane crash in 1946, Hughes began to retreat from the world. He bought part of RKO Pictures in 1948, but he never visited the studio. In the 1960s, he lived on the top floor of the Desert Inn in Las Vegas, Nevada, and conducted all of his business from his hotel suite. Few people ever saw him, which led to much public speculation and rumors about his activities. It was thought that he suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder and had a drug problem. Hughes eventually left Las Vegas and began living abroad. In 1972 an allegedly authorized biography of famed recluse was announced, but it turned out to be a scam. The author, Clifford Irving, was later imprisoned for fraud.


A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States: The Black Lives Matter Movement

In 2013, three female Black organizers &mdash Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi &mdash created a Black-centered political will and movement building project called Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter began with a social media hashtag, #BlackLivesMatter, after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of Trayvon Martin back in 2012. The movement grew nationally in 2014 after the deaths of Michael Brown in Missouri and Eric Garner in New York. Since then it has established itself as a worldwide movement, particularly after the death of George Floyd at the hands of police in Minneapolis, MN. Most recently, #Black Lives Matter has spearheaded demonstrations worldwide protesting police brutality and systematic racism that overwhelmingly effects the Black community.

According to the Black Lives Matter website they were "founded in 2013 in response to the acquittal of Trayvon Martin&rsquos murderer. Black Lives Matter Foundation, Inc is a global organization in the US, UK, and Canada, whose mission is to eradicate white supremacy and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes. By combating and countering acts of violence, creating space for Black imagination and innovation, and centering Black joy, we are winning immediate improvements in our lives."

Selected Library Resources

  • Barbara Ransby, Making All Black Lives Matter: Reimagining Freedom in the Twenty-First Century,E185.615 .R26 2018
  • Charlene A. Carruthers, Unapologetic: A Black, Queer, and Feminist Mandate for Radical Movements, HQ75.6.U5 C36 2018
  • Christopher J Lebron, The Making of Black Lives Matter: A Brief History of an Idea, E185.615 .L393 2017
  • DeRay Mckesson, On the Other Side of Freedom: The Case for Hope, E185.615 .M3535 2018
  • Maria del Guadalupe Davidson et al., eds, Our Black Sons Matter: Mothers Talk About Fears, Sorrows, and Hopes,E185.86 .O85
  • David Wallace McIvor, Mourning in America: Race and the Politics of Loss, E-Book
  • Laurie Collier Hillstrom, Black Lives Matter : From a Moment to a Movement, E-Book
  • Jessica Watters, Pink Hats and Black Fists: The Role of Women in the Black Lives Matter Movement,24 Wm. & Mary J. Women & L. 199 (2017-2018)
  • Linda S. Greene, et al., Talking About Black Lives Matter and #MeToo, 34 Wis. J. L. Gender, &Soc'y 109 (2019).

Bykomende hulpbronne

  • Learn more about the Black Lives Matter movement
  • Black Lives Matter Syllabus
  • Free Black Lives Matter Resources from the Free Library of Philadelphia
  • Civil Rights Directory created and maintained by HUSL students
  • Roper Center for Public Opinion Research: 80 Years of Black Americans&rsquo Public Opinion and How the U.S. Public Views Black America
  • Rutgers Center for Security, Race and Rights, Race and Racism in Higher Education: Annotated Bibliography of Articles and Reports (2020).
  • Amnesty International report, USA: THE WORLD IS WATCHING MASS VIOLATIONS BY U.S. POLICE OF BLACK LIVES MATTER PROTESTERS&rsquo RIGHTS
  • Racial Disparities in Police Arrests Map: This map show county by county the extent to which Black Americans are arrested at a higher rate than White Americans, as well as data on the arrests of Asian Americans and American Indians.

Take Action

BLM's #WhatMatters2020 Campaign: This 2020 Election-focused campaign focuses on promoting voter registration "among Millennials, Generation Z, the Black community, and allies" and education voters about a wide range of issues including "racial injustice, police brutality, criminal justice reform, Black immigration, economic injustice, LGBTQIA+ and human rights, environmental injustice, access to healthcare, access to quality education, and voting rights and suppression."

Local BLM Chapters: Local chapters of BLM in many areas of the country, including the DMV, have their own social media accounts to facilitate engagement in civil action close to home.


Inhoud

    [12][32][33][12][34][35][12][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][19] : 148 [43][44][45][7] : 195 [46][7] : 194 [47][19] : 152 [48][49][38][50][12][12][51][52][47][19] : 138 [12][53][12][54][55][56][19] : 153 [57][58][7] : 170 [12][19] : 153 [59][60][19] : 153 [4][47][61][62][19] : 144 [63][64][65][19] : 148 [66][12][67][19] : 143 [68][69][70][71][72][19] : 148 [73][12][19] : 148 [19] : 138 [74][75][76][19] : 149 [12][19] : 149 [7] : 200 [19] : 143 [77][7] : 195 [38][12][12][78][79][7] : 201 [12][19] : 153
    [7] : 172 [12][12][19] : 153 [19] : 153 [19] : 145 [136][137][19] : 150 [138][27][12][129][139][12][12][140][12][19] : 145 [19] : 150 [141][142][143][19] : 150 [12][144][19] : 156 [145][146][147][7] : 186 [19] : 154 [19] : 154 [89][25] : 25 [148][64][149][12][19] : 154 [150][19] : 150 [19] : 154 [12][38][151][12][12][19] : 145 [12][7] : 161 [19] : 145 [152]
    [299][12][300][301][47][47][302][303][304][25] : 26 [19] : 157 [12][305][306][307][307][12][12][308][129][12][309][310][19] : 151 [12][19] : 147 [25] : 26 [158][12][19] : 147 [311][76][312][313][314][89][315][12][316][317][318][19] : 142 [319][320][19] : 147 [321][19] : 151 [322][12][19] : 155 [323][12][2][324][12][38][47][7] : 338–339 [7] : 181 [12][12][19] : 151 [325][7] : 161 [7] : 32 [326][4][76][327][328][329][12][330][331][12][7] : 175 [19] : 151 [12][7] : 167 [332][19] : 151 [19] : 151 [12][333][19] : 151 [334][64][65]

Ilya Bolotowsky's WPA mural for the Hall of Medical Sciences at the 1939 New York World's Fair — destroyed, like all of the art, when the fair closed

Louise Brann painting frescos for the Mount Vernon Public Library (1936), inspired by the 15th-century tapestry series, The Lady and the Unicorn

Federal Art Project sculptor Selma Burke with portrait bust of Booker T. Washington (1935)

Waylande Gregory working on one of the six ceramic figures comprised in the WPA sculptural fountain, Light Dispelling Darkness (1937), at Roosevelt Park in Edison, New Jersey

WPA muralist Axel Horn demonstrates how to make a fresco in the main gallery of the American Art Today Building at the 1939 New York World's Fair (1940)

Jeno Juszko with his bronze sculpture of General George Henry Thomas, one of five busts of Civil War generals commissioned for the crypt of Grant's Tomb as part of the WPA restoration (1939)

Nat Karson designed settings and costumes for Orson Welles's productions of Macbeth en Horse Eats Hat, sponsored by the Federal Theatre Project and Federal Art Project

Eric Mose at work on his fresco, Krag (1936), in the library of Samuel Gompers Industrial High School for Boys in the Bronx, New York

Alice Selinkoff prepares designs for silkscreen at the Federal Art Project poster workshop in New York City

Poster for William DuBois' Haïti (1938) designed by Vera Bock

Poster for Theodore Pratt's The Big Blow (1938) designed by Richard Halls

Poster for an exhibition at New York's Federal Art Gallery (1937) designed by Richard Floethe


Historiese noot Keer terug na Bo

The Oregon State Medical Society was founded in Salem, Oregon, in September 1874. On July 10, 1943, the Council of the Oregon State Medical Society adopted a resolution to publish a Service Bulletin in the interest of Oregon physicians serving with the armed forces during World War II. It was to contain news of medical activities at home and of the physicians in service. The editor was G.B. McLean, chosen because of her interest in the publication and medical affairs, with Lois Douglas and Jerrine Haslinger as assistants. The Service Bulletin was published from August 1943 through September 1946, financed entirely by a voluntary special assessment on civilian members of the society. The final issue, September 1946, contained a complete list of Oregon doctors who were or had been in service during World War II. The Service Bulletin went out without subscription fee to all members, both civilians and servicemen.

Inhoudbeskrywing Keer terug na Bo

The Oregon State Medical Society Records contain bulletins, letters, correspondence, newspaper articles, U.S. Post Office forwarding address cards, telegrams, and V-mail primarily relating to the publication of the Service Bulletin. The material, dating from 1943-1948, is arranged by type, then chronologically.

I. Publications The Service Bulletin, 1943-1946.

II. Subject Files Index files consist of excerpts from the Service Bulletin. Committee, miscellaneous, news, and record files consist of correspondence, clippings, documents, and miscellaneous notes regarding the war effort and the return of military physicians to civilian practice.

III. Physician Correspondence Files These files include changes of address and rank information, reports of medals and citations, newspaper clippings, and personal correspondence of physicians from 1943-1946. Some of the correspondence includes personal reflections on war, descriptions of areas visited, racial repression/relocation camps, first testing of DDT, and prisoner of war experiences. There is also information on the U.S.S. Comfort (hospital ship), Forty-first Division, Forty-sixth General Hospital, Ninety-first Evacuation Hospital, One Hundred First Airborne Division, and One Hundred Fourth Infantry Division.

IV. Physician Card Files Accumulation file: The purpose of the file was to avoid keeping unnecessary notes on subjects that would not be repeatedly tabulated, and also to avoid overloading the regular address cards (see the Address and Military Status Cards below). Information, such as voter registration data, new addresses, etc., was listed on the cards as it came in on the physicians.

Address & Military Status: Includes current addresses and status of the Oregon military physicians, information on military rank and honors, addresses of various boards and committees, names and addresses of people willing to help on the Service Bulletin ("foreign correspondents"), and reestablishment information.

Non-Current Address & Military Status: Includes physicians given honors, awards, or citations continued cards for non-current addresses and status and status of prisoners of war, missing in action, and wounded in action.

Gebruik van die versameling Keer terug na Bo

Aanbevole aanhaling

Oregon State Medical Society records, Collection Number 1997-003, Oregon Health & Science University, Historical Collections & Archives

Beperkings op gebruik

OHSU Historical Collections & Archives (HC&A) is the owner of the original materials and digitized images in our collections, however, the collection may contain materials for which copyright is not held. Patrons are responsible for determining the appropriate use or reuse of materials. Consult with HC&A to determine if we can provide permission for use.

Administratiewe inligting Keer terug na Bo

Verwante materiaal

Bylaws of Oregon State Medical Society: a non-profit corporation / Oregon State Medical Society.

Transactions of the Oregon State Medical Society.

Medical Education in Oregon/Oregon State Medical Society.

The Service bulletin : published by the Oregon State Medical Society during the second world war, G.B. McLean, editor / bound and presented to the Oregon Medical Historical Museum, by Courtland L. Booth, M.D., and Mrs. Booth, Portland, 10 July 1948.

Rod and serpent: official bulletin of the Oregon State Medical Society and affiliated organizations.

The Oregon medical blue book : the official blue book of the medical profession of Oregon / Oregon State Medical Society.

Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Medical Society of the State of Oregon. Portland, Or.: G. H. Himes, 1876.

Verkrygingsinligting

The original files of the Service Bulletin (except letters in which men asked for information to assist them in the solution of personal problems, which were reportedly destroyed) were turned over to the Oregon State Archives. The files were later deposited with the University of Oregon Medical School Library in 1962. An overlooked, separate box in storage with Merle Evans at her home was sent directly to the University of Oregon Medical School Library (now OHSU) in February of 1962. It contained 182 physicians' correspondence files that were in use to the last moment. These materials were processed by OHSU Library staff in October-November 1997.


Kullberg wind indicator

Hi Graham. appreciated thanks. I’d like to solicit your help with the below case. The earliest as per the awards on the back plate would be 1873 and we have a London S with the same date ? Also if you would please explain the 2 sets of initials . I’m assuming one set is the case maker ?

In reference to your comments on English watchmaking circa 1900 and steep decline . 100% acknowledged. However, in my thoughts, they did produce some exceptional timekeepers 1900-1910 . reading the Kew results, and the top 50 placements during those years.

always the best, thanks again for your help ..John

Gmorse

As this is a different watch, I suggest that you ask a moderator to start it in a new thread for you, otherwise it could become confusing.

'PW' in an oval cartouche is for Philip Woodman & Sons, first registered in March 1872, and 'JM' in an oval is probably for John Martin that 's' on the Woodman doesn't look like the 1873/4 style, but more like the 1893/4 and I can't see a date letter on the Martin. What hallmarks are inside the front lid? All this suggests that one of the back lids has been replaced, possibly because of damage.

So they did, at the top end of the trade as these watches were, especially the Bonniksen karrusels, but the bulk of the business wasn't in this tiny sector and that's what was declining.

Travler1

Travler1

PS to my last . total agreement on your thoughts of the general demise of the industry while the top end seemed to pass away later . however the best of the best we’re really something ! I consider the time trial movements, of that general time, to be akin to formula 1 racing.

The S.Smith & Sons rotating escapements, the Bonniksen Karrusels, the Andrew Taylor annular tourbillon’s . all were definitely race car stuff grabbing some pole position for the England side !!

Dr. Jon

Moderator

Travler1

Hi Dr. John thank you for the input . I was not aware that this movement was a fuse rather than a going barrel Unfortunately the case does not have a movement stamp. The movement number is marked 3193 the address is 105 Liverpool rd London . I do not believe the rear or front lid have been replaced . 99% sure as the match is perfect for gold color and architecture . they are perfect match front to back. The rear covers both snap hard when closing . pictures might explain.

Grant I have misled you on case markings . the front cover is clearly stamped K&D the rear cover is stamped PW . the dust cover is stamped JM . on the dust cover at the bottom toward the hinges I found a micro stamp of a W or a V1 small small small . hope this helps pictures soon come. John

Gmorse

The craftsmen who made these cases were certainly capable of creating perfect matches if a replacement part was ever required. Looking forward to seeing some pictures.

'K&D' was the mark of Kendal & Dent, listed as gold and silver workers, but was not registered until 1921 at the earliest the shape of the cartouche is, as always, significant. Whilst subsidiary parts such as pendants were commonly made by specialists and bought in by the principal case makers, hence bearing different hallmarks, this practice was not common for the major case parts, so to find different marks on the various lids does strongly suggest that some modification has been carried out.

Travler1


Hi Grant . I would never argue with you on a replacement cover ! Only attempt to supply photos and info, the present 4 shots are all front cover. I consider the engraving to be 30-35% worn . the bottom marks on case are very week strike . I would guess 18 for one mark and lions head for the second. More photos to follow

Travler1

Hello again . 4 shots of hinge detail . the back cover appears to have much less of a hidden hinge?

Travler1

Travler1

Inside marks dust cover The micro W mark I mentioned can be seen in the first photo . above and left of watchmakers service (in green felt tip)

Dr. Jon

Moderator

Replacement may not have been what occurred. The may have had work done on the case but it was enough that the the parts had to be reassayed and as such marked with the sponsor mark.

As Graham wrote, the goldsmiths then could have made a perfect match if they decided that making anew part was less effort than a modification or repair, but a major repair would have required re marking

Travler1

Hope these help . any chance of dating the movement via serial number ? Any Kulberg serial numbers available from viewers ? did they run true or play hopscotch ? Thanks to all for your help with this watch . John

Travler1

Gmorse

Those two marks together would usually be a crown and the 18 for gold.

The third picture in your post #10 shows very clearly that the date letter is for 1893/4 all the other 's' marks are in very different fonts.

John Matthews

Graham is definitely correct - you need to check gold hallmarks in Jackson not Bradbury. While the date letters are the same for both gold and silver, the shape of the cartouche differs. For silver the cartouche is a shield with a pointed base (as shown in Bradbury), for gold it is a square with cut corners, as the stamp in the photograph that Graham refers to.

Travler1

Please don’t consider me argumentative as I have utmost respect for the both of you and your generous sharing of knowledge . However I’m having a problem with ascribing an 1890-1900 date on this watch.

I would very much appreciate your further comments once I lay out my research. The earliest serial number I captured in my notes is. #2075 1872 JM , # 2875 1875. JM. # 3262 1877 JM #3282 1876 JM # 3415 1877 JM # 3453 1879 JM . those are the JM case maker watches I found record of

Moving on I found #4323 - 5048 ( 6 watches date stamped 1886-1888) next I found. #6063 - 6288 ( 4 watches date stamped 1894 - 1899 )
I found #6474 date stamped 1905. # 7143 date stamped 1910

Enclosed are photos of one of the watch’s I found
Seems to me my watch dates to around 1878 via serial numbers . am I tripping

Dr. Jon

Moderator

The Kullberg records are at the Guildhall Library in London and some who look at this board have a copy of them.

The Vaudrey Mercer book on the Frodshams has a short table to Kullberg watches sold by Charles Frodsham.

Frodsham sold Kullberg #3881 in 1880 and #2021 in 1871 which bracket your watch. This supports but does not prove an earlier date. Keyless fusee watches with up down indication were top of the line items and may have stayed in inventory for years before being sold.

I have an extract of fifteen numbers in the 2300 range with sale dates from 1872 to 1876.

You can get a copy of the actual records of your watch from David Penney for a modest fee. If has it, it will tell when the was sold,who did the various specialty work and when

Gmorse

As Dr. Jon suggests, serial numbers aren't necessarily a reliable guide to the date of a movement, especially in the case of high end examples. When a watch was made by one company and sold by another, (as was almost always the case), there can be some doubt as to whose serial number is on there. Jonathan Betts has commented on this subject:

"Finally a point that needs to be emphasised when interpreting these series, and the series of many other watch and chronometer makers, is that the numbering was rarely perfectly chronological. Numbers were applied at the outset of an instrument's life, and by its completion, possibly two or three years later, its place in the series could be considerably adrift. We should also remember that serial numbers are not always what they seem. Parts of a number, sometimes the first digit(s) but possibly sometimes the last digit(s), can represent a category rather than part of a numerical sequence and creating a 'number against date' list is often too simplistic an analysis."

However, what really needs to be established here, if any meaningful dating is to be arrived at, is which set of hallmarks, if any, are those on the original case, because we appear to have three at the moment, only one of which is reliably dated.

John Matthews

There is a difference between the dates derived from a case and that of the movement - cases as well as movements can record work being undertaken across many decades - which is the situation here .

My summary - spelling out what Graham means by .

All we can say with certainty from the photographs that you have posted is that the dome (dust cover) carries the maker's mark (JM) in an oval cartouche and no date letter. The back carries a different set of initials (PW) again in an oval cartouche. To reliably assign a name to a maker's mark you MUST have a full set of genuine hallmarks. In this case you do appear to have such and both Graham & I believe those marks to be for London 18K gold cases assayed in the assay year 1893/94. Given that information we can, with a degree of certainty, say that (PW) is the mark of Philip Woodman & Sons who continued in business until at least 1907, even after Philip's son John died in 1903. With less certainty, it is possible that (JM) could be the mark of John Martin who registered marks in 1866 and 1875.

The front cover has the mark (K&D) a mark which again we have to try and assign in the absence of a full set of hallmarks. However, this mark is not recorded in Culme who records the London goldsmith marks up to 1914. It is recorded in Priestley, who records marks up to 1970. We can therefore be fairly certain that this element of the case is the latest - the mark is that of Kendal & Dent, I believe their earliest registered 18 May, 1921.

So to conclude in my (our) opinion you have a Kullberg movement in a case that has elements made at three different times and only one can be reliably dated.

Edit - here is a link to David's services mentioned by Jon .

Gmorse

I think this image is revealing:

It shows that the plugs in both the visible joints are a different colour from the covers and the band and are not a very close fit. Since these plugs would have been perfectly colour matched and practically invisible as originally made, this strongly suggests that both covers have been removed and replaced at some point, and as all the plugs are a very similar colour, possibly by the same case maker. These plugs are destroyed in order to remove them, so that the joint pin can be pushed out and the cover taken off once removed, new ones must be made.

It's also apparent that the left-hand cover, (the front), in this picture is very slightly larger than that on the right, that its raised rings are slightly more prominent and that its fit with the band is not as tight.

Travler1

Thank you Dr Jon, Graham & John,

In my thoughts all three of you are correct . Graham started with, I think you have a cover replaced, Dr John then said covers aren’t the best for dating a movements build/ the lid might have been repaired/restamped and John M sums up the present debacle of three makers mark . What a journey this watch must have gone through .

Case markings in my thoughts are an aid used to determine age of the watch . I asked for hallmark assistance and I have received it !! Dankie ouens.
You have been very detailed with you responses . Graham . I 100% agree with you , As a result of your thoughts I see the case lid changes that you suggested and then later pointed out via photos

Emmm where to go ? I’m thinking that the JM makers mark on the cuvette is a correct mark for the watch and an original cover to the watch. As born out by the serial number on the movement and the fact that 6 watches in my survey, hovering around 1872-1879, were date stamped with JM . my serial number falling in the midst of those watches . obviously the front cover was seriously repaired/re stamped or replaced . as K&D is a non player and obviously much later than the JM dust cover and serial number info. The PW mark is a tad more difficult to understand on the rear cover . I assume it was replaced/repaired also . as u can’t have 2 case makers? Or can you ? Seems like I do .

That’s it for me . I’m done . I’m satisfied with this blast into the past . I thank you all for your time and assistance with the watch. John


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