Antieke Persiese/Iraanse kuns

Antieke Persiese/Iraanse kuns


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'N Uitstekende versameling Persies-Iraanse kuns van 'n kort besoek aan die Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, VSA. Insluitend 'n paar Sumeriese stukke.


Epiese Iran

★★★★★ Verken vyf oorweldigende millennia van kulturele geskiedenis.

Nou tot Sondag, 12 September 2021

Galery 39 en die Noordhof

Toegewings geld.
Lede en kinders jonger as 12 gaan gratis. Bespreking is noodsaaklik.

Epic Iran, wat 5000 jaar kuns, ontwerp en kultuur verken, skyn die lig op een van die grootste historiese beskawings, sy reis na die 21ste eeu en sy monumentale artistieke prestasies, wat vir baie onbekend is.


Ses mylpale om die geskiedenis en belangrikheid van Persiese kuns en kultuur te ken.

Die URUK -periode - aardewerk- en keramiekvaartuie

Die Uruk -tydperk dateer uit ongeveer 4000 tot 3100 vC, wat in die suide van Mesopotamië gebaseer was, ook bekend as antieke Irak. Die nedersetting was die tuiste van verskillende boere en jagters wat hul lewens langs riviere gevestig het. Sirië, Turkye,

Sirië, Turkye, Iran en Irak, wat destyds met verskillende name genoem is, was 'n groot deel van die Uruk -tydperk. Saam met die betowerende argitektuur en artistieke mosaïek, het die Uruk-periode 'n groei in pottebakkery en protoskryf gesien.

URUK Pottery – Persiese kuns

Susa, 'n belangrike kolonie van die Uruk -tydperk, het die invloedrykste protowriting -vaardighede saam met pottebakkery en silinder seëls. Die vaardighede en besonderhede van die kunstenaars is prysenswaardig, want die klein foute of asimmetrie in die skeppings toon dat almal met die hand gemaak is. Wat dit ongelooflik maak, is in 'n tyd waarin geen masjinerie of tegnologie bestaan ​​nie, die omvang van kuns en talent was groter.

'N Ander interessante faktor wat 'n belangrike rol in die Uruk -tydperk gespeel het, was die byhou van rekords van goedere en werkers deur middel van piktogramme. Alhoewel dit bedoel was vir bestuursdoeleindes, is die piktogramme 'n voorbeeld van uitstekende kunswerke.

Die vroeë ystertydperk - kuns op metale

Die vroeë ystertydperk het plaasgevind in die tydperk 900 - 600 v.C. Die mees algemene metaal wat gebruik is om ingewikkelde en gedetailleerde beeldhouwerke uit te sny, was brons. Die beeldhouwerke wat van brons gemaak is, is Luristan-brons genoem en dit is op baie plekke in die weste van Sentraal-Iran gevind deur argeoloë.

Luristan Brons Persiese kuns

Die gebruik van metaal op groot skaal is gevorm in 'n aantal kunswerke, waaronder wapens, gereedskap, perdebeslag, vaartuie en ornamente. Die gereedskap wat gebruik is om die stukke te sny en te hamer, was redelik eenvoudig, maar die tegnieke was innoverend. Ingewikkelde kerfwerk oor die metaal kunswerke was handmatig en tydrowend. Hierdie era het die vorming van diere voorgestel, meestal bokke of skape met groot horings in verskillende vorme en style.

Die Islamitiese Goue Eeu

Hierdie era het gedurende die 9de en 10de eeu ontstaan. Die Sasaniese Ryk regeer in 651 wat tot 'n einde gekom het na die "Moslem -verowering van Persië", of die "Arabiese verowering". Dit het ook gelei tot die agteruitgang van die Zoroastriese godsdiens in Iran. Nadat hierdie era tot 'n einde gekom het, het kunstenaars in die streek eksponensiële groei en potensiaal getoon, wat die 9de eeu as die goue tydperk voorgestel het. Plekke soos Groter Iran en oostelike dele het die toenemende belangrikheid van die Turkse mense gesien, en dit het gelei tot 'n kulturele Turko-Persiese tradisie.

Iran het die koms van twee belangrike dinastieë, die Samanid -dinastie en die Seljuq -dinastie, gekry, wat albei die belangrikheid van Persiese kuns gedurende hul tyd verhoog het. Erdewerk, keramiek, metaalwerk en boekverf het veral toegeneem. Tydens die Samanid -dinastie het 'n Sunni -ryk oor baie dele geheers, waaronder Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Oesbekistan, Tadzjikistan, Kazakstan en Pakistan. Hierdie era spesialiseer in epigrafiese aardewerk, 'n erdehouer met letters met spreekwoorde en seëninge daarop, wat gebruik is om kos te bedien. Die letters was in Kufi -skrif met 'n swart strokie op die wit voetstuk.

Epigrafiese pottebakkery Persiese kunskultuur

Die Seljuq -dinastie wat gedurende die 10de eeu geheers het, was verantwoordelik vir verwarrende innovasies in materiaal en tegnieke. Materiale soos minaiware wat op 'n wit agtergrond gebruik is, saam met geëmailleerde figure, frituurware en 'n silikon-gebaseerde pasta is ingevoer en daarom het hulle klei vervang.

Die vakgebied metaalwerk en beeldhouwerk tydens die Islamitiese kunsperiode het ook nuwe innovasies tot gevolg gehad. Saam met die hamer van die metaal om gedetailleerde ontwerpe te skep, het kunstenaars tydens die Iraanse kunsperiode ook edelmetaalinlegsels bygevoeg om die kunswerk uit te lig. Boekskilderye het ook bekendheid verwerf van Iran tot Irak, wat dierlike figure bevat om getrouheid, verraad en moed uit te beeld. Boekskilderye het ook gelei tot die wydverspreide Persiese kalligrafie, wat een van die gewildste dissiplines geword het.

Die Mongool onder leiding van Genghis Khan

Hierdie era het gedurende die 13de eeu baie dinastieë gevorm as gevolg van die verdeling van die Ryk onder die seuns van Genghis Khan. Elke dinastie het bygedra tot kuns en dit help groei, wat gelei het tot die Goue Eeu van Persiese skilderkuns. Die belangrikste dissiplines wat wydverspreid was tydens die Persiese kunstyd was kalligrafie, illustrasie en skilderye wat die kultuur van Mongole verteenwoordig. Daar was egter kritiek teen die heersers dat hulle op daardie stadium die Perse as Mongole vertoon het.

Die Safavids - Hoogtepunt vir letterkunde en argitektuur

Hierdie era het ook baie bygedra tot die ontwikkeling en verspreiding van 'n aantal kunsdissiplines, soos weef, miniatuur skilderye en keramiek. Persiese matte en matte was in groot aanvraag vanweë die voorstelling van die stam se kultuur en uitstekende vakmanskap. Dit was toe die weefkuns 'n hupstoot gekry het.

Persiese miniatuur skilderye

Boekillustrasies en Persiese miniatuurskilderye is deeglik beoefen en hulle vertoon dikwels vertel- en denkvaardighede. Die kunstenaars het ook baie menslike figure gebruik om hul verhale te vertel. Alhoewel Persiese kuns nooit probeer het om die menslike figuur heeltemal te verbied nie, bevat miniatuurskilderye dit as die sentrale plot vanweë die privaatheid daarvan. Nuwe soorte vate en keramiekvoorwerpe is beoefen, soos bekers, bottel met 'n lang nek en borde. Die nuwe vorm van die vaartuig wat uitgevind is, was 'n kolfvormige vaartuig met 'n baie klein nek en plat lyf aan die een kant en afgeronde lyf aan die ander kant.

Die Qajar Art

Die Qajar -dinastie wat van 1781 tot 1925 geheers het, het 'n groot invloed op die kuns, argitektuur en kunsvorme van die ryk gehad. Skilderye en groot muurskilderye was 'n integrale deel van die Qajar -kuns. Die tydperk van relatiewe vrede, tesame met die bewind van Agha Muhammad Khan en sy nageslag, het 'n groot uitbarsting vir die artistieke uitdrukking gegee. Die skilderye en muurskilderye het historiese tonele en feestye uitgebeeld, wat spesifiek ontwerp is om in paleise en koffiehuise opgestel te word. Spesiale boogblaaie op die skilderye is aangebring om dit in mure te pas.

Qajar -dinastie Persiese kuns

Die styl en uitbeelding van skilderye skep 'n aanname dat die Qajar -dinastie sy wortels het met die Safavid -ryk. Die uitbeelding van lewelose voorwerpe en mense word teenoor hul aard uitgebeeld. Terwyl mense beslis geïdealiseer en met gestandaardiseerde kenmerke geplaas is, is lewelose voorwerpe as werklike voorwerpe getoon. Dit is reggestel deur die toenemende dissipline van fotografie in die 19de eeu.

Iraanse kuns en 'n handves vir kuns, wonderlikheid en lewenskragtigheid

Al die dissiplines en hul opregte opvolgings maak van Iran 'n ryk en lewendige land met die interessantste tradisie en kultuur. Nie net tradisionele kuns nie, maar moderne Iraanse kuns styg ook en vorm 'n platform vir homself, wat ewe lofwaardig is. As gevolg van 'n groot aantal dinastieë het Iraanse kuns of Persiese kuns ontwikkel en gesigte in alle dissiplines verander. Die elegante styl van artistieke vaardighede, byvoorbeeld, weef, het 'n groot impak op die wêreld gelaat met hul voltooide en onderrigvaardighede.

Persiese kuns dra effektief by tot die wêreld met sy oudste en innoverende tegnieke, wat 'n groot vraag in die hedendaagse wêreld vorm en ook 'n verwysingspunt vir sy kuns en wonderlikheid is!

Oor The Artist Editorial

Lewer inspirerende en outentieke inhoud vir liefhebbers van kuns, ontwerp en kultuur en laat kunstenaars inspirasie put uit nie minder nie as die beste kunswerke ter wêreld. Bekyk alle plasings deur The Artist Editorial & rarr


Die antieke Persiese kuns

Die antieke Persiese kultuur het 'n oorheersende belang aan die dekoratiewe aspek in hul kuns wat hulle gebruik het as 'n bron en 'n uitdrukkingsmiddel met 'n diep filosofiese betekenis oor die lewe. Hierdie dekoratiewe aspek toon die daaglikse gebeure van die man in sy meerjarige stryd om oorlewing. Alhoewel ons in ander artikels 'n uiteensetting sal gee van hul artistieke manifestasie, is dit belangrik om te begin met algemene aspekte van hul geskiedenis en eienaardigheid om beter te verstaan ​​waarom hulle hul kuns op die manier wat dit gedoen het, geproduseer het.

Die oorvloedige dekoratiewe simboliek gee uiting aan hul begeertes en aspirasies, sowel as die besondere manier om die lewe met veiligheid, selfvertroue en groot innerlike krag te sien. Hulle kuns Dit is 'n aantreklike manier om hul poëtiese manier om die lewe te sien uit te druk, deur dit te doen met 'n verfynde vertoning van detail en 'n pragtige versiering wat direk op die hart van die kyker gerig is deur die emosies wat kommunikeer.

Hulle het hierdie voorwerpe ontwerp met behulp van figuurlike patrone waar die beelde van die oorspronklike voorwerpe in die werklike lewe sowel as die menslike figuur daarin maklik herken kan word. Die stadige proses om 'n ideale formule vir die versiering van hul emosies en lewensbegrippe uit te vind en te vestig, het begin sedert die eerste kunstenaars, die primitiewe skilders van keramiek, die konvensies van groot duidelikheid en uitdrukkingsvermoë gemaak het, wat die grondslag gelê het vir die tipe dekoratiewe ontwerp wat so kenmerkend is van die verbeelding van die Perse. Hulle het die deure oopgemaak vir eindelose moontlikhede van illustrasies, tegnieke en ontwikkelingswyses, aangesien hul kuns sedert duisende jare ontwikkel het.

Goue en silwer werk van die Achaemenidiese dinastie

Persiese kuns het 'n noue verhouding met poësie sowel as die godsdienstige en filosofiese denke. Duisend jaar van literêre ontwikkelinge bevestig dat die Perse die meeste digters en verbeeldingrykste is oor ander kulture. Hierdie kenmerk van ontwerpelose verbeelding vertaal ook na hul kunswerke in al sy artistieke manifestasies.

Persiese ambagsmanne en kunstenaars bereik beslis hul ontwerp om uit te druk emosionele krag, hulle is nie net beperk tot die suiwer intrinsieke karakter van die voorwerp nie, omdat hierdie kunswerke in hul hande tot lewe kom, dit bereik uitdrukkings soos vreugde of hartseer, sowel as 'n wye reeks diep en intense gewaarwordinge op 'n manier vergelykbaar met die gevoelens wat ons voel as ons na musiek luister.

Aangebring deur die oorheersende behoefte om te wys emosionele uitdrukking, So spesifiek vir die kultuur en tradisie van die Persiese mense, ondersoek die kunstenaar 'n wye verskeidenheid moontlikhede om die skoonheid uit te druk met baie hulpbronne waarin selfs elemente van die kultuur van ander mense nie uitgesluit word nie.

Persiese kuns stadig volwasse en ontwikkel hul eie spesifieke kanonne wat so effektief blyk te wees dat hulle die toets van tyd en die grense wat hulle beïnvloed het, geslaag het.

Fantastiese legendes, sprokiesverhale of selfs die manier waarop hulle die monsters se kenmerke omskryf het, het altyd 'n realistiese en oortuigende lug gehad met 'n dramatiese en emosionele las, waar dit beskou word dat hulle die donker, verward en irrasionele aspekte verwerp het.

Perse Miniatuur skildery

Die Perse was vaardige meesters in die ontwikkeling van miniaturen wat hulle met uitstekende detail uitgevoer het, maar kon ook monumentale werke met verstommende vindingrykheid en ongelooflike tegniese fanfare ontwikkel.

Hierdie klem op die verligting produseer nie 'n koue of abstrakte kuns nie, omdat dit die manier waarop beweging in lyne, ekspressiwiteit en vetgedrukte kleure uitgedruk word, bestuur. Hulle kry definisie van die vorms met die gebruik van kontraste tussen die figuur en die agtergrond. Alhoewel dit waar is, lyk dit soms 'n bietjie berekend of oordrewe bewustelik en kieskeurig op soek na konsekwentheid, konsentrasie en balans. Hierdie elemente help uiteindelik om die ekspressiwiteit van hul werk en die suksesvolle kommunikasie van gevoelens te bereik, eerder as om afbreuk te doen aan die doeltreffendheid van hul bedoeling.

Die Persiese ontwerpers kon balans vind, selfs in werke met ingewikkelde motiewe. Hulle het 'n besondere vermoë gehad om beelde tot sy eenvoudigste terme te verminder sonder om die ekspressiwiteit daarvan te verloor.

Hulle kon in daardie geminiaturiseerde werke 'n perfekte kommunikasie met die kyker bereik, selfs met net silhoeëtte. Hulle weet hoe om feite of abstrakte idees voor te stel sonder om die voorwaardes van samehangende visuele waardering te skend, en elimineer die frustrasie wat dubbelsinnigheid by die kykers kan veroorsaak.

Persiese neigings en evolusie in hul styl

In die verkennings om hul eie identiteit so lank te vind en te ontwikkel, kan ons op sekere oomblikke sien dat 'n paar dwang teenoor die realisme of die naturalisme voorkom. Hulle is ook beïnvloed deur die kuns van Rome of Griekeland. Maar hul styl het die Perse nie bevredig nie, dit het relatief oppervlakkig, besonders en individueel gelyk. Hulle was meer bevoorreg vir 'n universele en tydlose aanbieding.

Alhoewel die formules wat dit in die Persiese kuns ontwikkel het, baie was, en baie daarvan te gereeld en redelik, het dit gestandaardiseerde modelle geword wat met herhaling uitgevoer is.

Hierdie kultuur moet nietemin erken word as een wat 'n oorheersende plek beklee in terme van die hoeveelheid artistieke formules wat in hul kuns geïmplementeer word, die bereikte oppergesag op vele maniere waarin die fresco's uitstaan, met universeel geldende vorme van artistieke uitdrukking wat daarmee gepaard gaan met die res van die Persiese werke, was dit beslis 'n kosbare erfenis vir huidige en toekomstige geslagte.

Besoek gerus die ander artikels oor hierdie interessante kultuur waarin meer spesifieke aspekte van hul kuns waardeer kan word, soos argitektuur en ander manifestasies van hul poëtiese, vernuftige en besondere kuns.


Persiese kuns en letterkunde

Persiese kuns en letterkunde of Iraanse kuns het een van die rykste kunserfenisse in die wêreldgeskiedenis en was sterk in baie media, waaronder argitektuur, skildery, weefwerk, erdewerk, kalligrafie, metaalbewerking en beeldhouwerk.

Op verskillende tye was invloede uit die kuns van naburige beskawings baie belangrik, en laastens het Persiese kuns groot invloede gekry en ontvang as deel van die wyer style van Islamitiese kuns.

Rotskuns in Iran is die oudste kuns wat nog oorleef het. Iraanse argitektuur word in hierdie artikel behandel. Van die Achaemenidiese Ryk van 550 vC-330 vC het die grootste deel van die tyd 'n groot Iraanssprekende staat geheers oor gebiede soortgelyk aan die moderne grense van Iran, en dikwels baie wyer gebiede, soms Groter Iran genoem, waar 'n proses van kulturele persisering blywende resultate, selfs as die heerskappy geskei is. Die howe van opeenvolgende dinastieë het oor die algemeen die styl van Persiese kuns gelei, en kuns wat deur die hof geborg is, het baie van die indrukwekkendste oorlewendes agtergelaat.

In die ou tyd is die oorlewende monumente van Persiese kuns opvallend vir 'n tradisie wat konsentreer op die menslike figuur (meestal manlik en dikwels koninklik) en diere. Persiese kuns het steeds groter klem gelê op figure as Islamitiese kuns uit ander gebiede, maar om godsdienstige redes vermy hulle nou oor die algemeen groot voorbeelde, veral in beeldhouwerk. Die algemene Islamitiese styl van digte versiering, geometries uiteengesit, het in Persië ontwikkel tot 'n uiters elegante en harmonieuse styl wat motiewe van plante afkomstig van Chinese motiewe soos die wolkband kombineer, en dikwels diere wat op 'n baie kleiner skaal voorgestel word as die plantelemente rondom hulle. Onder die Safavid -dinastie in die 16de eeu is hierdie styl in 'n wye verskeidenheid media gebruik en versprei van die hofkunstenaars van die shah, waarvan die meeste hoofsaaklik skilders was.

Persiese literatuur:
Persiese literatuur, geskrifte in Nieu -Persies (ook Modern Persies genoem), die vorm van die Persiese taal wat sedert die 9de eeu geskryf is met 'n effens uitgebreide vorm van die Arabiese alfabet en met baie Arabiese leenwoorde. Die literêre vorm van Nieu -Persies staan ​​in Iran bekend as Farsi, waar dit die amptelike taal van die land is. dit is met 'n Cyrilliese alfabet geskryf deur Tadjiks in Tadzjikistan en Oezbekistan. Nieu -Persies was eeue lank ook 'n gesogte kultuurtaal in Wes -Sentraal -Asië, op die Indiese subkontinent en in Turkye.

Die Iraanse kultuur is miskien die bekendste om sy literatuur, wat in die 9de eeu in sy huidige vorm ontstaan ​​het. Die groot meesters in die Persiese taal Ferdowsi, Neẓami Ganjavi, Ḥafeẓ Shirazi, Jam en Moulana (Rumi) inspireer steeds Iraanse skrywers in die moderne era.

Persiese letterkunde is diep beïnvloed deur Westerse literêre en filosofiese tradisies in die 19de en 20ste eeu, maar bly steeds 'n lewendige medium vir die Iraanse kultuur. Of dit nou in prosa of in poësie was, dit was ook 'n middel tot kulturele introspeksie, politieke onenigheid en persoonlike protes teen invloedryke Iraanse skrywers soos Sadeq Hedayat, Jalal Al-e Ahmad en Sadeq-e Chubak en digters soos Sohrab Sepehri, Mehdi Akhavan Saales, Ahmad Shamlu en Forough Farrokhzad.

Persiese tradisionele musiek:
Iraanse klassieke musiek bestaan ​​uit kenmerke wat deur die land se klassieke, middeleeuse en kontemporêre tydperke ontwikkel is. As gevolg van die uitruil van musiekwetenskap deur die geskiedenis, hou baie van Iran se klassieke melodieë en modusse verband met dié van sy buurkulture. Die klassieke kunsmusiek van Iran funksioneer steeds as 'n geestelike hulpmiddel soos in die geskiedenis, en nog minder as 'n ontspanningsaktiwiteit. Dit behoort grotendeels aan die sosiale elite, in teenstelling met die folkloriese en populêre musiek, waaraan die samelewing as geheel deelneem. Die parameters van die klassieke musiek van Iran is egter ook opgeneem in folk- en popmusiekkomposisies.

Inheemse Iraanse musiekinstrumente wat in die tradisionele musiek gebruik word, sluit in snaarinstrumente soos die chang (harp), qanun, santur, rud (oud, barbat), teer, dotar, setar, tanbur en kamanche, blaasinstrumente soos die sorna (zurna , karna), ney en neyanban, en perkussie -instrumente soos tompak, kus, daf (dayere), naqare en dohol. word nie in die klassieke repertoire gebruik nie, maar word in die volksmusiek gebruik. Tot in die middel van die Safavid -ryk was die chang 'n belangrike deel van die Iraanse musiek. Dit is daarna vervang deur die qanun (siter), en later deur die westelike klavier.

Die teer funksioneer as die primêre snaarinstrument in 'n uitvoering. Die setar kom veral onder Sufi -musikante voor. Die westelike viool word ook gebruik, met 'n alternatiewe stem wat deur Iraanse musikante verkies word. Die ghaychak, dit is 'n soort viool, word na baie jare se uitsluiting weer bekendgestel aan die klassieke musiek.


Antieke Persiese/Iraanse kuns - Geskiedenis

Met die samewerking van R. H. Dyson en bydraes deur C.K. Wilkinson

Die vroegste voorwerpe wat in Iran gevind is, wys die begeerte om 'n idee uit te druk deur vorms wat effektief en miskien selfs aangenaam is, is klei -beeldjies wat gevind is by die opgrawing van 'n neolitiese dorpie by Tepe Sarab naby Kermanshab. Twee hiervan, wat noukeurig uitgevoer is, word hier weergegee. Die een is 'n vroulike figuur wat hier die 'Venus' van Tepe Sarab genoem word, die ander 'n varkie.

Die vroulike figuur word voorgestel met sy bene uitgestrek. Boude, dye en bene word saamgevat in klubagtige vorms wat na die einde afneem. Elke 'been' het 'n skuins bos aan die kant, miskien bedoel om die skeiding tussen been en dy aan te dui. Die punte van die klubvormige vorms word afgebreek, maar dit is onwaarskynlik dat die voete afsonderlik gevorm is. Daar was hoogstens 'n lyn wat die punt van die res van die vorm skei en die enkelgewrig aandui. Die boonste deel van die liggaam, waarin die arms nie aangedui is nie, is gevorm soos 'n breë kegel waaruit die lang nek opstaan ​​as 'n steiler en veel smaller kegel, eindig in 'n kort, effens verlengde horisontale nok met 'n afgeronde rand. Die peervormige borste steek ongeveer uit die keël van die liggaam uit by die aanvang van die nek. 'N Mens kan oplet dat die beeldjie uit verskillende dele saamgestel is en dat die vorm van die bene nie anders is as die van die borste nie, wat 'n sekere visuele eenheid aan die beeld gee.

Die abstraksie van die weergawe dui dadelik aan dat daar nie 'n bedoeling was om 'n spesifieke individu te wys nie; die klem is geplaas op die algemene vroulike eienskappe, die borste en dye, wat duidelik bedoel is om idees oor vrugbaarheid uit te druk. Talle fragmente van hierdie beeldjies en ook baie duideliker is by Tepe Sarab gevind. Ander sulke vroulike beeldjies met min of meer geskematiseerde vorms is gevind in die oorblyfsels van die vroeë dorpskulture van die Nabye Ooste [ongeveer 6000-4000 v.C.] Van Tepe Sarab in Iran tot Çatal Hüyük en Hacilar in Turkye. [1] Hulle moes 'n spesifieke betekenis gehad het wat ons slegs in die algemeenste terme kan verstaan ​​en weergee: daar bestaan ​​ongetwyfeld 'n geloof in simpatieke magie, waardeur vrugbaarheid en rykdom verhoog kan word deur effektiewe weergawes in beeldhou en skildery van die voorwerpe wat daarmee verband hou. . Kuns was dus 'n instrument wat invloed op die natuur, die mens en miskien selfs die god kan uitoefen-alhoewel ons vir hierdie vroeë tydperk nie die bestaan ​​van konsepte van antropomorfe gode kan aanneem soos dié wat later in die kulture van die ou Nabye Ooste bekend was nie.

Die tweede beeldjie van Tepe Sarab verteenwoordig 'n vark wat baie naturalisties weergegee word, in teenstelling met die abstrakte vorm van die Venus. Die bene word op die eenvoudigste manier weergegee deur saam te druk en die klei in min of meer hoekige vorms te buig. Tog skep dit die indruk van 'n dier wat vinnig beweeg. Die onreëlmatige kruislyne op die liggaam kan borselhare verteenwoordig, maar meer waarskynlik, en meer in ooreenstemming met weergawes elders, dui dit op die wonde wat uit die jagter se wapens ontvang is. Wat ook al die betekenis van hierdie detail is, dit lyk waarskynlik dat die beeldjie op 'n manier toekomstige sukses in die jag van die varke verseker is. Dit lyk asof hierdie magiese, of moet ons eerder 'praktiese' betekenis van kuns vir die mense wat hierdie voorwerpe begeer, en vir diegene wat dit uitgevoer het, in Iran tot die Sasaniese tydperk oorleef het. Terselfdertyd moet die begeerte om 'n voorwerp te versier om die voorkoms daarvan te verlewendig nie buite rekening gelaat word nie. Die beenhandvatsel van 'n vuursteenmes wat in 'n baie vroeë [bl. Die vlak van die opgrawings by Tepe Sialk naby Kashan kan op hierdie manier geïnterpreteer word. Die handvatsel toon 'n man wat later in die Persiese groet was, en buig uit die heupe met gekruiste arms. Die kop kan bedek wees met 'n ronde pet van die tipe wat nog steeds gedra word, maar die gesig is afgesny. Hy dra 'n kilt wat om die middel opgerol is. Die skeiding van die bene word aangedui deur 'n vlak groef aan die voorkant, waaronder die voete deur 'n baie geringe uitsteeksel getoon word. Onder die voete was 'n diep bos vir die vuursteen wat nie behoue ​​bly nie. Ander handvatsels van been van Tepe Sialk het gewone dierekoppe. Ons weet nie of hierdie handvatsels gemaak is vir magiese doeleindes of bloot om die plesier te versier nie. In beide gevalle is 'n oortuigende weergawe van menslike en dierlike vorme hier, soos by Tepe Sarab, op die eenvoudigste manier bereik.

Aardewerk, wat vroeg in die Neolitiese era in Iran verskyn het, was 'n goedkoop plaasvervanger vir sorgvuldig gemaalde klipvate en minder permanente houers vir hout en vel. Dit het voldoen aan die behoefte aan 'n verskeidenheid sulke houers in vorms wat wissel van drinkbekers tot kookpotte en opbergkanne. Baie van die vaartuie wat op prehistoriese terreine opgegrawe is, is dus bruikbaar van aard met dik mure en min of geen versiering nie.

Van die begin af het die Iraanse pottebakker egter versierde ware vervaardig. Binnekort is 'n hele reeks fyn erdewerk ontwikkel met plaaslike versieringsstyle gebaseer op die vindingrykheid van die pottebakker, wat geïnspireer is deur materiaal en temas wat reeds in sy kultuur gevestig is en deur die stimulus van die natuurlike vorms van die omliggende platteland. Die nuwe medium, pottebakkery, bied 'n wye verskeidenheid kreatiewe geleenthede. Die plastiek kan nie net in verskillende vorms gevorm word nie, maar die kleur kan verander word deur die vuurmetode te verander en die oppervlak kan versier word deur patrone daarop te druk of te skilder. Dit is skaars verbasend dat die vorming en skildery van aardewerk vir meer as tweeduisend jaar, van ongeveer 5500 tot ongeveer 3000 v.C., een van die belangrikste artistieke aktiwiteite was van die inwoners van Iran. Selfs na 3000 v.C., die geskatte datum waarop die eerste werklike stedelike beskawing by Susa in die suidweste van Iran ontstaan ​​het, het die vervaardiging van geverfde aardewerk eeue lank in die dorpe van sommige gebiede voortgegaan.

'N Studie van die kuns van Iran vereis dat slegs pottebakkery wat hoogtepunte in die artistieke produksie van die land verteenwoordig, hier genoem word. Dit moet natuurlik verstaan ​​word dat sulke geselekteerde erdewerk geensins die hele toestand van die keramiekbedryf in 'n gegewe dorpskultuur weerspieël nie.

Sir Herbert Read het daarop gewys dat vroeë erdewerk vir die algemene ontwikkeling van kuns relevant is: 'Aardewerk is tegelyk die eenvoudigste en moeilikste van alle kunste. Dit is die eenvoudigste omdat dit die elementêrste is, maar die moeilikste omdat dit die mees abstrakte is. ' En gaan voort: 'Beoordeel die kuns van 'n land, beoordeel die fynheid van sy gevoeligheid volgens sy erdewerk, dit is 'n seker toetssteen. Pottebakkery is suiwer kuns, dit is kuns wat bevry is van nabootsende bedoeling. Beeldhouwerk, waaraan dit die naaste verwant is, het van die eerste af 'n nabootsende bedoeling gehad, en dit is miskien tot so 'n mate minder vry van die uitdrukking van die wil om te vorm as pottebakkery, plastiek in sy mees abstrakte wese. ' [2]

Die saak vir aardewerk word dus aangebied in 'n ietwat oordrewe vorm en sonder inagneming van die beperkings wat die pottebakker opgelê word deur sy ambag en die doel van die voorwerpe wat hy gemaak het. Nietemin lees Read [bl. 22] argumente vir die oorweging van erdewerk buite die van argeologiese chronologie en die bestudering van die verspreiding van keramiese eienskappe van een streek na 'n ander. Laasgenoemde twee studies bied egter ons enigste gids vir die rangskikking van vroeë Iraanse kulture in ruimte en tyd, aangesien geskrewe bronne vir die meeste streke ontbreek tot in die middel van die eerste millennium v.C. -behalwe by Susa, waar Mesopotamiese invloed vanaf die derde millennium 'n uitsending van spykerskriftekste veroorsaak het.

Die beperkte omvang van sistematiese argeologiese ondersoek na Iran, en in verskeie gevalle die swak gehalte daarvan, maak 'n uiteensetting van keramiek en gevolglik stilistiese ontwikkeling baie voorlopig. Tog is die breë uiteensetting vir die piedmontale gebied van die sentrale plato en die laagland rondom Susa waarneembaar, asook meer onlangs die van vroeë nedersettings in Azarbaijan.

In die bergboog rondom die sentrale woestyn, wat ongeveer van Persepolis en Kerman tot Teheran en Meshed bereik, is verskeie vroeë plekke ondersoek wat 'n soortgelyke soort growwe, bruin handgemaakte erdewerk toon. Die klei bevat baie gekapte strooi wat gebruik word as 'n temperingsmiddel om krake te voorkom terwyl dit droog word. Oppervlaktes het gewoonlik 'n glansryke afwerking gekry deur oor die algemeen te poleer. Op verskeie opgegrawe terreine, soos Tall-i Bakun naby Persepolis, en die Belt- en Hotu-grotte, naby Beshar aan die Kaspiese kus, is gevind dat hierdie ware, soms sagteware genoem omdat dit maklik verkrummel, meer versierde ware voorafgegaan het wat swart geverf is op 'n rooi of grys grond. Op twee ander vroeë belangrike terreine, Tepe Sialk naby Kashan en Cheshm-i Ali naby Teheran, kom soortgelyke sagteware sonder versiering voor saam met die later geverfde erdewerk. Naby verwante gewone goedere wat verband hou met geverfde erdewerk kom ook voor in die graafskappe van Tepe Sarab naby Kermanshah, in die basale Tepe Giyan naby Nihavend, en by Hajji Firuz Tepe in die suide van Azarbaijan. Hierdie uitgebreide opsomming van terreine met 'n nou verwante tipe aardewerk word interessant wanneer besef word dat ooreenkomste in erdewerk kontak tussen dorpe impliseer. Op een of ander manier is die kennis van hoe om erdewerk uit klei gemeng met gemengde kaf te maak, onbekend. Die middelpunt van die vroegste vervaardiging van erdewerk in die Nabye Ooste is ook nie bekend nie, want die Iraanse monsters is nog onvoldoende om aan te dui dat dit die plekke verteenwoordig waar aardewerk uitgevind is.

Die Chalkolitiese geverfde ware wat op die plato en ook in die westelike berge ontwikkel het, is meer kenmerkend van die vroeë Iraanse kuns as die meer primitiewe erdewerk. Die verspreiding daarvan val enersyds saam met die landbousone rondom die noordelike punt van die sentrale Piemonte en andersyds met groot landbouvalleie in die Zagros. In die sentrale gebied is hulle gevind op plekke naby Kashan, Qum, Saveh, Rayy, Tepe Hissar Damghan en Nishapur, sowel as aan die Kaspiese kus by Hotu -grot. In die Zagros kom hulle in die noorde voor by Hajji Firuz Tepe en Dalma Tepe in die Solduz-vallei van Azarbaijan naby Kermanshah, hulle word gevind by Tepe Siahbid, en in die vlaktes by Pasargadae en Persepolis kan ons Tall-i Bakun en Tall-i Nokhodi noem , [3] 'n nuwe webwerf. Die geskiedenis van een van hierdie streeksontwikkelings in geverfde erdewerk is die beste opgeteken by Tepe Sialk, waar die vroegste fase slegs van abstrakte versiering is. Kenmerkend vir hierdie stadium is eenvoudige meetkundige patrone soos die pastille wat in swart op 'n rooi grond geverf is binne-in die diep fragmentariese bak wat in figuur 2. Uitbroeide en gekruiste suigpille, zigzags en golwende lyne is dikwels in groepe van vier gebruik, eers op die binne en later aan die buitekant van bakke. 'N Tweede ware gebruik 'n buff -slip as die grond vir 'n delikate paneel [bl. 23] patroon wat moontlik uit mandjie afgelei is. Al die geometriese ontwerpe word gekenmerk deur die mate waarin dit voorkom as netpatrone wat op die agtergrond opgelê word, wat dus 'n integrale deel van elke ontwerp vorm. Slegs 'n paar patrone wat bestaan ​​uit soliede swart driehoeke kom voor. Die fyner pottebakkery met 'n smal plat basis waaruit die mure uitvlam en dan na 'n meer vertikale rigting verander. The same basic form, but with the shoulder placed higher in the bowl, was still used in the third period of Sialk about a thousand years later. Another early Sialk form which has been associated with later shapes by the excavator, R. Ghirshman, is the open bowl on a large foot. The walls are much thicker than those previously described. Vessels of both types were covered with a buff slip and decorated with a panelled pattern. Radio-carbon tests indirectly suggest a date of around 5000 B.C. for this early phase on the plateau.

We speak here of one phase because there is consistency in the pottery found in the excavated layers or levels, of which there were five in Period I at Sialk. The first yielded no walls, but the other four present four subsequent levels of construction of pisé walls, which correspond to four levels of occupation. When the pottery changes, when new forms of decoration, new colours, new shapes appear, it is assumed that a new period or phase has begun. Such changes may have been brought about by the addition of a new element in the population, or they may have been independently evolved. The latter seems unlikely when a change in pottery is accompanied by changes in the other remains such as building materials and methods. Such changes occurred between Periods I and I at Sialk when the pisé walls of Period I were replaced by the mud brick of Period II and [p. 24] the pottery of Period II appeared, which is more evolved than that of Period I. It is thin-walled, generally fired a brick red, and contains less straw than the foregoing wares. Patterns now expand. The interiors of deep bowls are divided into segments of different design or are covered by over-all designs. Often the pattern consists of geometric forms and lines so combined as to suggest organic forms. Most distinctive of this new departure are ibexes obtained by adding two short curved lines as horns to a form composed of two semicircles with the space between filled by vertical hatching. A bowl in the Metropolitan Museum, with linked ibex horns in a delicate pattern inside, is a fine example of the style of Period II which has been found at numerous sites other than Sialk--for example, at Kara Tepe in Shahriyar province west of Teheran, where an almost identical bowl was discovered. [4]

The third period at Sialk witnessed the emergence of more naturalistic animal forms than before and the combination of motifs into more complex compositions. By the middle of the period vertically and horizontally directed motifs had appeared. The vertical ones consisted of four elements: superimposed volutes, horizontal 'bird' chevrons, horned lozenges and vertical placed snakes. Horizontal motifs consisted of geometric forms like chequer-boards, but the more interesting vessels have rows of animals, felines, birds or a snake. At the end of the period horned animals are seen, first in panels, then in cursorily executed rows. Man appears fairly frequently with triangular thorax and summarily rendered head. To the same period belongs a vase in the shape of an animal such vases are called theriomorphic.

The change in decoration corresponds to the change in the consistency of the clay and in the manner of manufacture. At the beginning of the period the clay still [p. 26] contains some straw, but by the middle the clay is very compact with virtually no straw and the surface is smooth, with a soapy feeling. Increased firing temperatures due to improved kilns changed the red colouring to buff or cream [the entire range often occurring on a single vessel] to which a slight lustre is added by light burnishing. Later the surface and paint are again left mat and the colour of the clay has a greenish cast reminiscent of the clays of south-western Iran and Mesopotamia. A most important technological revolution, which occurred during Period III, was the introduction of the potter's wheel, which permitted mass production of new and more regular shapes. The appearance of the actual 'fast' wheel may have been preceded by use of a turn-table, or tournette, as it is called in French. This was a device by which the potter could easily bring every side of the vessel within his reach by turning it on a movable base--a mat or perhaps a clay or stone disk--which in some instances may have been pivoted. The actual potter's wheel can be made to spin fast enough to impart centrifugal force to a centered lump of clay. The result is a more regular form with more sharply defined profiles. A footed beaker was one of the characteristic forms of this new technique, but older forms carried on as well. [bl. 27]

In the middle of Period III at Sialk connections can be observed with the potter of other sites, for example, with that of Tepe Hissar at Damghan several hundred miles to the north-east. The main body of Hissar painted pottery [Period IB and IC] is very similar to its Sialk counterpart. Footed beakers with rows of animals and animals in panels, for example, are also found at both sites. One would like to theorize on the nature of this relationship. Why was one pottery essentially duplicated in another place? How did it become known: through trade, through migrant workers or through migration of a people? At any rate the fact that there were connections not only with Hissar but also with the pottery of Tepe Giyan--far to the west, over steep mountain passes--and with other sites indicates that the art of pottery-making was widespread and subject to influences from afar. The technique of mass production which had been created with the potter's wheel and the form of decoration, a combination of geometric and animal forms tastefully adjusted to the form of the vessel, laid the foundation for much of the stylistic tradition which subsequently characterized the pottery of Iran and which eventually found its way even to central India.

The sequence of south-western Iranian pottery cultures is known from two areas, Susiana and the Persepolis plain. Susiana, the region surrounding Susa, has prior claim to our interest because of the fact that prehistoric Iranian pottery was first discovered there and because, owing to its inherent aesthetic appeal, this pottery was the subject of a major essay in stylistic analysis made by the classical archaeologist E. Pottier. [5] Prehistoric Iran was thereby brought for the first time into the field of vision of general art history. When the painted pottery of Susa with its marvelously balanced panelled animal designs was first discovered, it was considered the earliest in the area. Recent excavations however, have shown that it came very late indeed in a development which began before 6500 BC., at a time when pottery was not yet used in the region. [6] Once painted pottery had been developed, several stages followed each other in the Susiana before the exceptional quality of the Susa I pottery had been attained [see Appendix, Chart I: Painted Pottery of Iran].

The example of Susa pottery usually shown is one of the large goblets with ibexes. Of all the painted pottery objects of the ancient Near East, the one here reproduced, which is in the Louvre, is the most successful. The design consists of three panels in each of which the principal figure is an ibex, its body formed by two connected triangles with curved sides. The curve of the back is continued in the marvelous sweep of the horns, which enclose an unidentifiable round object, marked with a central line of chevrons suggesting a plant and, at the side, cross-hatched segments. It may be only a filler design for an otherwise empty space at the same time it may also give a shorthand indication of plant and pasture. The frame surrounding the ibex becomes slightly narrower toward the bottom and thereby emphasizes the shape of the vessel. A stress on the circular circumference of the goblet is produced by a row of running saluki-like dogs with elongated bodies and also by the dark bands which border each register of [p. 28] animals. The top is formed by birds with long thin necks these create a very light design in contrast to the bottom, which has a thick band of dark paint that gives solidity to the base. Our short description can only enumerate the elements of the design it cannot render adequately in words the extraordinary feeling for balance in every detail expressed by the decoration of this vessel.

In addition to the goblets, the insides of open bowls show paintings of similar character, also with a remarkable equipoise between geometric ornament and animal form. The latter is so adjusted to decorative purposes that the over-all effect is entirely harmonious. The composition of the design stresses the circular form of the bowl in various ways: by bands which partly follow the curve of the bowl but turn several times at right angles, by three or four circles arranged within the bowl, or by lines which form counter-curves to the circumference of the bowl. Less artful arrangements involve concentric circles or radial compositions.

In the Persepolis region, at Tall-i Bakun, the probably contemporary painted pottery did not reach quite the degree of sophistication of that at Susa. A pleasing object is, however, one of the many conical bowls painted on the outside with two moufflons whose tremendously enlarged horns form swelling spirals. The space between the horns is filled by cross-hatched squares and circles with an enclosed cross.

Other patterns from Tall-i Bakun and Tal-i Nokhodi show the use of negative design with the same freedom as in a painted filled design. A reversal of forms in rhythmic sequence rather than axial symmetry is also to be observed.

The decorative inventiveness of the early potters of Iran, their sense of form and balance, the assurance with which they executed their lines and shapes, transformed these vessels of simple clay into pleasing works of art. It seems likely that the pottery motifs had more than merely decorative value, but all speculation about their meaning must remain simply speculation.

The use of seals accompanied the emergence of civilization in Iran as in many other regions of western Asia. These engraved seal-stones of various shapes were impressed on lumps of clay which had been pressed over the strings wound around the neck of a vessel to secure in place the piece of woven material or other device which was employed to cover the mouth of the vessel. Other such clay sealings assured the safety of the contents of baskets or of containers fashioned of various materials. No unauthorized person could tamper with goods protected by clay sealings without risking the heavy penalties imposed on thieves in antiquity. [bl. 30]

Aside from its practical function, the design engraved on the sealing surface--geometric, animal or human forms--probably had a general protective significance. Thus the seals which were usually perforated and worn as a pendant on a necklace or bracelet surely also served as amulets.

As in the potter of Iran, several groups can be distinguished among the stamp seals of that country, their style differing according to place and date of origin. [7] Only two examples are shown here, both of them closely related to groups of seals represented at Susa, although both were said to have been found in Luristan. The first is a black plaque perforated lengthwise through the middle of the object. One side of the plaque is engraved with a demon with a human body and moufflon horns. The demon has the elbows bent and both hands raised in a gesture of conjuration. Two snakes extend their triangular heads toward the demon's armpits. On either side of the demon appear several V-shaped lines of diminishing size and unknown meaning. The design is deeply and sharply gouged out from the relatively soft stone. All the shapes, such as the demon's limbs, are indicated merely by lines--except for his thorax, which is a triangular plane with horizontal lines and small vertical nicks, perhaps meant to suggest hair. Some surface design is also indicated on the bodies of the snakes, which are represented by two lines between which there is hatching in changing directions. The plaque belongs to the style of Susa A, contemporary with the beautiful pottery discussed above. In one of the painted bowls [8] occurs a human figure whose torso is similarly rendered in triangular form, although the fact that the demon on the seal has bent knees and the figure on the bowl stands upright makes the latter seem more advanced and human, whereas our demon seems to be shuffling along like an animal.

The second seal shown here is called in seal terminology a low hemispheroid. The seal is of dark red stone and has on the base the figure of a demon with the head of an ibex and feet in the form of heads of horned animals--the one recognizable horn looks like that of a bovine animal, but one cannot be sure with one hand the demon holds an ibex by the horns, with the other he raises a second ibex by one hind leg. It seems as if the demon were about to throw these animals into the air. His body is covered with short striations which probably indicate a hariy skin. The engraving is much more delicate than on the foregoing seal the entire surface of the bodies is hollowed out of the stone, and the outlines are almost naturalistically drawn. Moreover, despite the animal-head form of the feet, the demon's posture is so human that one is inclined to think of a man in the guise of a demon rather than a creature from the fearful unreasoning world of animal demons.

It is interesting to note that in the period to which the second stamp seal belongs, Susa B, the painted pottery of Susa A appears to have been largely replaced by unpainted pottery with characteristics of the Uruk period of Mesopotamia. [9] At all times Mesopotamian art appears to have centered more on man than did the pre-Islamic art of Iran. Perhaps Mesopotamian influence, so noticeable in the pottery of Susa of that time, was also responsible for the striking differences from the moufflon demon in the conception of the ibex demon in this seal. The difference in the horns, moufflon and ibex, of the demons on our two seals may or may not indicate a basic difference in the meaning of the figures. We can only say that, of the two, the ibex demon was far more widely represented and seems to have alternated on seal impressions from Susa with a human master of animals who in one case wears ibex horns on a fez-like headgear. [10] [bl. 32]

This is the first evidence for the representation of human and demonic creatures whose power to control snakes and other dangerous animals transcends that of ordinary men. Unfortunately we may never know whether we should call these powerful superhuman beings gods, shamans or--taking into consideration the occasional human form of the figure--kings with superhuman powers.

When the ibex demon was represented in Mesopotamia [11] he probably had a different and lesser significance. At least in historical times, gods were shown in Mesopotamia in human form and only demons, most of them evil, were given features of animals. [bl. 33]


NOTAS:
1. For a description of the Khuzistan region and its connections with Mesopotamia, see Adams, 'Early South-western Iran,' p. 109.

2. Ann L. Perkins in Relative Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, red. R. W. Ehrich [Univ of Chicago Press, 1954], p. 42, pointed to the fact that northern Mesopotamia lay 'in the path of migratory movements and commerce between Syria and Iran [and farther Asia] and the lands bordering the Mediterranean.'

3. For a discussion of these 'areas of refuge,' see Frye, Heritage of Persia, pp. 7-9.

4. The ornaments of the wooden horses from the equestrian statue in the Rumbur valley, Kafiristan, are reproduced in ILN [March 30, 1963], p. 468, lower left. In the time of King Sargon [721-705 B.C.], Assyrian horses had similar ornaments worn in the same way, as shown in Barnett, Assyrian Reliefs, Pl. 43. Herzfeld, Iran, p. 141, Fig. 256, reproduced drawings of several slightly differing ornaments of this type, two of which are Assyrian, one comes from Luristan, another from the Ordos region. Examples made of shell in various shapes, which were found at Nimrud, are in the Metropolitan Museum, acc. nrs. 54-117, 16-19.

5. For an archaeological survey of Seistan, see W. A. Fairservis, Archeological Studies in the Seiston Basin of Southwestern Afghanistan and Eastern Iran [Anthroplogical Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 48, New York, 1961].

6. Numerous sources of copper are known elsewhere in Iran see R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology IX [Leyden, 1964], p. 9.


Historical relations between India and Iran

New Delhi: The age-long historical relations between the Iranians and the people of the Indian subcontinent date back to a very remote past. In the splendid civilization of Mohenjodaro and the Sindh Valley which flourished between 2500 and 1500 BC, there are visible signs of relationship with the Iranian civilization. The ancient relics, earthenware and the marked resemblance in their designs and patterns are strong evidence in favor of this assertion.


This civilization is followed by the arrival of the Aryans in this land. Although the factors which lead to this mass migration are yet not fully known the various similarities found in the legends and religious texts of the two peoples allude to such connection. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that Sanskrit, Old Persian, and Avestan languages are the sisters born of the same mother. Inauthentic books of history some references have been made to the continuous relations of the two people during the days of the Medes, Pishdadiyan, and Kiwanian. In the holy book of Zoroastrians i.e. Avesta, too, mention has been made of North India.


Fortunately, since the Achaemenid period, we have authentic sources like the historical monuments of Persepolis. During the Achaemenid rule in the kingdom of Darius the Great the artisans, craftsmen, and traders traveled from Iran to India and from India to Iran and even in some battles between Iran and Greece the Indian soldiers fought as a part of the army of Achaemenid. The relics of Persepolis to confirm this view.


After the invasion of Alexander and the subsequent establishment of the Seleucid reign the relations between Iran and India weakened but following the fall of the Seleucids and foundation of the Parthian rule (228 CE), the relations between the two people were further enhanced, while the Sasanian period (224 – 651 CE) provides an excellent example of cultural affinity between them.


This reciprocal enrichment continued and there was an exchange of visits and even inter-marriage came in vogue between the two peoples. As the great poet of Iran Ferdowsi has related in Shahnameh, (The Book of Kings) the Sassanid king Bahram-e Gur who was a man of festivity, hunting and music, requested the Indian king Shangol to select ten thousand expert singers and musicians and send them to Iran so that they teach the art of Indian music and Iranians may learn Indian musical tunes and the Indian king did so.


Some of the historical works have claimed that Bahram-e Gur (d. 438 CE) even came on a visit to India and the Iranian kings also chose some of the Indian women as their queens. Similarly there are several other examples of very close cultural relations in the pre-Islamic era such as the well-known translation of Panchatantra – the ancient Indian book of fables in Sanskrit into Pahlavi during the reign of Anushiravan, better known as Nowsherwan the Just, and the arrival of chess in Iran from India and sending of backgammon to India by Nowsherwan which was an invention of Bozorgmehr, Nowsherwan’s wise minister. There was also the presence of several Indian translators in the royal courts of the Sassanid and ever-growing commercial and trade relations between the two countries, followed by the constant trail of traders’ caravans.

(12) With the advent of Islam and the subsequent gradual conversion of the Iranians to Islam in 652 CE which led to the end of the Sassanid rule in Iran, Iran was annexed to the vast Muslim empire.
Thousands of Iranian scholars, writers, poets and physicians who brought with them the Persian language, customs and traditions and this led to the serious and all-out the impact of Iranian culture on the Indian culture. So the Iranian culture was effectively grafted on the Indian soil and consequently, the ever-existing cordial relations between the two people were further enhanced. It is also considered as the beginning of the influence of the Persian language which developed more and more with the passage of time.


Keeping in view the historical – intellectual traditions of this region, the mystics and Sufis played a very important role in the dissemination of Islam in these areas. They compiled a number of books and treatises on Islamic Sufism in Persian which had an effective role in the development and promotion of Persian in these territories.


Sheikh Ali Hujweri (d. circa 1099 CE) the renowned Sufi author of Kashf ul-Mahjub arrived in Lahore in 1040 CE and wrote the first work on Islamic Sufism in Persian prose which is considered to be the earliest book written in Persian in the Indian subcontinent.


Among a large number of poets, writers, scholars, and Sufis who flourished in India. Persian language and the Iranian culture reached the remotest corners of the subcontinent and scholars, theologians and artists from different parts of Iran like Tabriz, Isfahan, and Ray thronged the courts in India and received rich gifts and rewards.


The founders of four main Sufi orders of Chishti, Qadiriyya, Suhrawardiyya, and Naqshbandi who established these Sufi orders in India migrated from Iran to India. Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti or KhwajaGhareeb Nawaz was an Iranian Muslim preacher, ascetic, religious scholar, philosopher, and mystic from Chisht in Khurasan, Iran. He settled down in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India in the early 13th-century, where he promulgated the famous Chishtiyya order of Islamic mysticism.


The first promoter of Persian (in the region) was the Sufi saint Seyyed Sharifuddin Bulbul Shah better known as Bulbul Shah Sohrawardi (d. 1327 CE) came to Kashmir.

(16) After him, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani (1313 – 1383 CE) in the company of 700 persons from among his disciples and friends including some artisans entered Kashmir and started providing religious guidance and instruction which naturally accompanied greatest promotion and spreading of Persian language among the people and rulers of Kashmir.

(17) The artisans also started (teaching and training in) Iranian arts.
The second king of Mughal dynasty in India was Humayun who after the defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri Afghan fled to Iran and as a result of military help by Shah Tahmasp Safavi, was able to return to India accompanied by a number of Iranian scholars and poets. It was during the reign of Humayun that due to the acquaintance and long stay of himself and his family in Iran, the number of poets, writers, scholars, and Sufis who migrated to the subcontinent increased gradually.

He too composed poetry in Persian. A Diwan in Persian is also attributed to him.


Akbar Jalaluddin ruled for about half a century. He was unparalleled as regards to the special attention paid and interest taken by him in Persian poetry and his patronage of Iranian scholars. In this period, Iranian poets migrated to the subcontinent in great numbers.

Akbar for the first time appointed a poet as poet-laureate in his court. His first poet-laureate was Ghazali Mashhadi, who was followed by Faizi Akbarabadi. Some of the nobles of his court like Abdur Rahim Khan-e Khanan, also made an important contribution in the development and spread of the Persian language and the Iranian culture.


Following the marriage of Jahangir Nuruddin to Nur Jahan, the daughter of an Iranian noble, Mirza Ghiyasuddin Beg Tehrani, the influence of Iranian language and literature in this subcontinent increased considerably.

Iranian art and architecture also gained extensive popularity.
Shahjahan Shahabuddin’s period is characterized by the glory of Iranian culture and art in the subcontinent. The Iranian architecture and Persian inscriptions on the various buildings became extensively popular in the subcontinent. A large number of forts, gardens, and mosques were built during his period, like the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Jami’ Masjid in Delhi. The famous poets of his time are Abu Talib Kalim, poet-laureate of his court, Qudsi Mashhadi and Sa’eb Tabrizi.


Aurangzeb Alamgir succeeded his father Shah Jahan and although he had little interest in poetry, Persian prose did make a lot of headway. Ruqqa’at-i-Alamgiri (the letters of Alamgir) written by him are a brilliant example of Persian essays. His daughter Zebun Nisa is known for her Persian poetry and her Persian Diwan is available even today.


After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal power also declined and his eleven successors could not keep the vast empire intact. Persian however retained is popularity. Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib (d. 1869 CE) belonged to this period. Ghalib is a distinguished poet of Persian and Urdu in India.
The British period began in 1757 CE and this imperialist rule left no stone unturned in destroying even the last remnants of Persian in this area but all their endeavors failed at least in the sphere of Persian poetry. The Persian poets in India played an important role in the preservation and popularity of the Persian language in the subcontinent. After the independence of India in 1947, the Persian language is taught in all the leading universities in India.


As already mentioned, Persian had been the official language of India for centuries and during this long span of time, hundreds of books had been written by the scholars and poets of India on different subjects. The history of India of this period had been written invariably in Persian. In addition to anthologies and Diwans of poetry, Persian dictionaries are among the most important works compiled. There have been more than one hundred dictionaries compiled in this area. Many translations had also been done and even religious books of Hindus like Ramayana, and Upanishads were translated into Persian.


Even today many books of Persian language are translated into Urdu and other languages and the books are written in the subcontinent are rendered in Persian. The process of cultural exchange between the two nations has continued and it is hoped that this dialogue between the two civilizations will further enhance.


The relations between two brotherly countries India and Iran in real sense strengthened only after 1947 in the political, economic and cultural fields. India and Iran have unitedly fought of the menace and danger of terrorism and are cooperating closely with each other in this field.


The development of the most strategic Iranian seaport of Chahbahar located in the Sea of Oman by the Indian companies has brought together India, Iran, and Afghanistan in the close strategic bond of friendship and cooperation. The most strategic Iranian seaport of Chahbahar is the shortest route for the quick transport of Indian goods to Russia, Afghanistan, and Central Asian countries.


Main History elements in the Persian Art

The art of Persians people in ancient timesreflected their inclination to represent the reality of their lifes and history with clarity without complications in the messages that the art works intended to transmit. In the great Iran which corresponds to the present-day States of: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and neighboring regions was born one of the richest artistic heritage in the world, The Persian Art where diverse disciplines including architecture, painting, fabrics, ceramics, calligraphy, metallurgy and masonry were developed with highly advances techniques and imaginative artistic expressions.

History is obviously a very powerful factor not only to shape the cultural identity of a region, but also to give color and local identification to it. History contributes to be able to define the dominant cultural characteristics of the people in each region and for instants their art tendencies. This statement in Persian art is very important to take in consideration, since in each period of this imaginative culture the art expression of the people was very aware of their social, political and economic surroundings. Their art was a reflection of their every day issues and was represented in all the drama and poetic means they could use. Not only was the architecture, painting sculpture, ceramic, golsmith or silversmith they extend this means of expression to poems, historical narratives, and fantastic stories.

The Persian Achaemenid Dynasty

The Achaemenid Dynasty marks the emergence of an important stage in the culture of Persia. Aqueménides Persian rulers embraced the artistic achievements of foreign civilizations and absorption occurred in their culture, but this artistic achivements did not satisfy the Persians who gradually created new and particular artistic and technical patterns much more related to the imagination and the histrionic expressiveness of facts and feelings of the Persian people.

The historical archives which refer to the civilization of the Persians show data ranging from 1000 BC to 600 B.C. These historical data are not marked relevant for the Persian Art until the emerge of Cyrus I (550 until 530 BC).

The reign of Cyrus the Great

During the reign of Cyrus the Great, Persia expands to the West and Northwest beyond the borders of what is today Iran to include Babylonia, some of the Aegean Islands and Anatolia (Asia Minor known in our days by Turkey). The son of Cyrus, Cambyses (530 to 522 BC), forces the Pharaoh of Egypt and the islands of Cypress to accept the Persian rule.

Persepolis Palace, Duomo, Cupulas

The reign of Darius

Persia empire reached its geographical peak during the reign of Darius I (522 to 486 BC) Dario’s Government reaches from sea Eral to the Persian Gulf. It also stretched from the first cataract of the Nile River to the Valley of the Rio Hindu.

The rule of Darius covers many cultures. He and his son used foreign artists to promote and strengthen its image of power dare carefully using certain amount of sculptures. This has resulted in the proliferation and the splendor of artistic monuments and buildings with great architectural value. Among these monuments are the Palace of Persepolis sculptures. Susa, Parsedae and Persepolis where the three most important cities of Persia.

Darius listed skilled artists and craftsmen natives of Egypt Greek Ionian and Mesopotamia. They constructed the buildings on a large scale to propagandize his power, so that the effect on the spectator should be daunting.

Ancient persian relief from Persepolis Palace

The Palace of Darius was a resulting stylistic amalgam of influences from countries and regions where all these artists that he recruited came from.

However nevertheless to concur hear so much artistic talent with different inheritance, the constructive design and the decoration of each of the parts of the Palace answered perfectly the needs of expression, ideological and religious of Persian culture as well as a grandiloquent representation of power, the main intension of the message transmitted.

The Sassanid period

The Sassanid period which comprises the entire final period of classical antiquity that even survive a few centuries, is considered one of the most important and influential of the Iran historical periods. Here occurred the greatest achievements of Persian culture, and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the Islamic conquest of Persia and the adoption of the Islam as a religion throughout the territory.

Sassanid period ancient persian art.

Persië had an important influence on the Roman civilization culture and also spread their influence well beyond, reaching as far away as Europe, the India, China and the Africa territories.

The Persian culture plays a key role in the formation of the medieval, European and Asian art, reaching the budding Islamic world as well.

The aristocratic and exclusive culture of the Sassanid dynasty became a Persian ‘Renaissance’. The precedence of what would be later known as ‘Islamic culture’ (architecture elements, draperies mastery, jewelry, writing and other skills) were adopted by the broader Islamic world from the Sassanid Persians.

Handmade ancient persian rugs utilized natural ingredients

The famous tapestry, the beautiful works of precious metalwork, reliefs worked in different types of materials as well as the frescoes of bright colors and eloquent expressiveness are today invaluable art work and palpable testimony of the importance of the Sassanid culture who saw themselves as successors of the Aqueménides after the interlude of Hellenistic and Parthian rule, and were convinced that their destiny was to restore the greatness of Persia.

The art of this period reveals an astonishing vitality, anticipating in some respects to the key elements of Islamic art. Sassanid art combined elements of traditional Persian art with elements and influences of Hellenistic art.

The conquest of Persia by Alexander the great began the spread of Hellenistic art into Western Asia. These artistic influences were accepted only externally, the essence never were complete assimilated.

Hellenistic art was interpreted freely by the peoples of the Near East. Thus the Sassanid period was a reaction against these art forms. Sassanid art revived traditional native Persian forms and, and already in the Islamic period, these forms reached the shores of the Mediterranean.

With the rise of the Sassanid’s, Persia regained much of the power and stability they long had lost leading to the resurgence of the art based on the traditions of the time of the Aqueménida culture.

The unique characteristic of Sassanid architecture is the distinctive use of space. Sassanid architects conceived his buildings in terms of masses and surfaces. This led to the use in abundance of brick walls decorated with molded or carved stucco.

The Islamic Period

After the completion of the Sassanid Persians period of predominance Persia integrated the list of regions that embrace Islam. This religion resulted in important changes in the Persian culture covering all areas of the spiri­tual and intellectual elements which determine the life of a traditional society.

If we define the culture as the one to cover these basic elements, “according to Western concepts”, then, there is undoubtedly a unique Islamic culture with different ‘zones’ or worlds contained therein, ‘worlds‘ that are United by the spirit and the sacred form of tradition and are separated by local factors, geographical, linguistic, ethnic or otherwise.

Many factors alone, or in combination could be enumerated, as they have been responsible for the creation of these Islamic cultural ‘worlds’ and they can be used as criteria for the delineation and description of each.

It is clear that the racial and ethnic characteristics of the peoples who have embraced Islam have been a very decisive factor in local cultural variations. These features have affected the language and literature, artistic forms of all kinds, which include clothing, ornamentation, the various styles of calligraphy and architecture, music, the creation of tapestries and metalwork as well as painting and ceramics processing.

Once Islamism converted, the Persians became the main instrument of the expansion of Islam in most of the rest of the Asian territory, at least until Malaysia. The Islamic period has given as predecessors History periods in the Persian Culture, innumerable and invaluable works of art that resonate in perfect accordance with the traditions and the religious fervor with which they were made for and shown, as in the previous periods evolutionary characteristics inherent not only to the history but also to the region in which they were created.


Ancient Persian/Iranian Art - History

TEHRAN – The Sassanid era (224 CE–651) is of very high importance in the history of Iran. Under Sassanids, Persian art and architecture experienced a general renaissance.

Architecture often took grandiose proportions such as palaces at Ctesiphon, Firuzabad, and Sarvestan that are amongst highlights of the ensemble.

Crafts such as metalwork and gem-engraving grew highly sophisticated, yet scholarship was encouraged by the state. In those years, works from both the East and West were translated into Pahlavi, the language of the Sassanians.

Rock-carved sculptures and bas-reliefs on abrupt limestone cliffs are widely deemed as characteristics and striking relics of the Sassanian art, top examples of which can be traced at Bishapur, Naqsh-e Rostam and Naqsh-e Rajab in southern Iran.

In 2018, UNESCO added an ensemble of Sassanian historical cities in southern Iran -- titled “Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region”-- to its World Heritage list.

The ensemble is comprised of eight archaeological sites situated in three geographical parts of Firuzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan. It reflects the optimized utilization of natural topography and bears witness to the influence of Achaemenid and Parthian cultural traditions and of Roman art, which later had a significant impact on the architecture and artistic styles of the Islamic era.

Efforts made by the Sassanids also yield a revival of Iranian nationalism took place, for example, Zoroastrianism was declared as the state religion.

The dynasty evolved by Ardashir I and was destroyed by the Arabs during a period of 637 to 651. The dynasty was named after Sasan, an ancestor of Ardashir I.

Under his leadership who reigned from 224 to 241, the Sassanians overthrew the Parthians and created an empire that was constantly changing in size as it reacted to Rome and Byzantium to the west and to the Kushans and Hephthalites to the east, according to Britannica Encyclopedia.

At the time of Shapur I (reigned 241 CE–272), the empire stretched from Sogdiana and Iberia (Georgia) in the north to the Mazun region of Arabia in the south in the east it extended to the Indus River and in the west to the upper Tigris and Euphrates river valleys.

Bust of a Sasanian king, most likely Shapur II

According to UNESCO, the ancient cities of Ardashir Khurreh and Bishapur include the most significant remaining testimonies of the earliest moments of the Sassanid Empire, the commencement under Ardashir I and the establishment of power under both Ardashir I and his successor Shapur I.

“The architecture of the Sassanid monuments in the property further illustrates early examples of construction of domes with squinches on square spaces, such as in the chahar-taq buildings, where the four sides of the square room show arched openings: this architectural form turned into the most typical form of Sassanid religious architecture, relating closely to the expansion and stabilization of Zoroastrianism under Sassanid reign and continuing during the Islamic era thanks to its usage in religious and holy buildings such as mosques and tombs,” the UN cultural body say in its website.

The Sassanid archaeological landscape also represents a highly efficient system of land use and strategic utilization of natural topography in the creation of the earliest cultural centers of the Sassanid civilization.


Ancient Persian/Iranian Art - History

CAIS is a cultural body founded in 1998, to promote scholarship and

research in all aspects of pre-Islamic Iranian Civilization

T he Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) is an independent not-for-profit educational programme, with no affiliation to any political or religious group dedicated to the research, protection, preservation of the pre-Islamic Iranian civilisation.

CAIS was established in 1998 by Shapour Suren-Pahlav en Oric Basirov (Department of Art and Archaeology), under the name of "Ancient Iranian Civilisation at the School of Oriental and African Studies" (AIC at SOAS) and later changed to "The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies" (CAIS at SOAS) of the University of London, to act as a forum for the exchange of information about the art, archaeology, culture and civilisation of Iranian peoples. CAIS no longer has any affiliation with SOAS .

The mission of the Circle is to expand understanding and appreciation of pre-Islamic Iranian heritage as achieved through systematic investigation of the archaeological and historical records.

The Circle seeks to promote and increase the existing body of knowledge relating to this important area, laying particular emphasis on providing up-to-date information to students, academics and cultural enthusiasts about current Iranian and international research projects and fieldworks.

Although, the Circle's title is about Ancient Iran, it also focuses on the early-Islamic era (as CAIS labels it the "Post-Sasanian period" or Farā-Sāsānī in Persian) of the Iranian art, archaeology, culture, history and languages of the area known as the "Greater Iran", stretching from the Western China to Near East and from the Russian Steppes to southern territories of the Persian Gulf.

The Circle's activities:

- Providing a "free access" website containing scholarly written articles and researches about the ancient Iranian civilisation.

- Daily Newsletter about the latest archaeological discoveries and related news from the Iranian world

- Hosting weekly lectures by scholar's of international reputes.

- Promoting the exchange of information regarding Ancient Iran by means of diverse activities of cultural and scholarly merit in culture and civilisation of the Ancient Iranian Peoples, by forging ties with a number of major institutions throughout the United Kingdom and international educational and cultural establishments.

- Reporting on recently-completed or on-going fieldwork and new research.


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