Tawasa AT -92 - Geskiedenis

Tawasa AT -92 - Geskiedenis


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Tawasa
(AT-92: dp. 1.330, 1. 205 ', b. 38'6 ", dr. 14'3", s. 16.5
k .; kpl. 85; a. 1 3 ", 2 40 mm; cl. Bannock)

Tawasa (AT-92) is op 22 Junie 1942 in Portland, Oreg, neergelê deur die Commercial Iron Works wat op 22 Februarie 1943 gelanseer is, geborg deur mev. Thomas F. Sullivan, en op 17 Julie 1943 in diens geneem is, luitenant Fred C. Clark in bevel.

Tawasa het einde Augustus haar vaart langs die kus van Kalifornië gehou en teruggekeer na Portland. Die sleepboot stoom in Oktober na San Pedro, Kalifornië, en vertrek op die 20ste na Hawaii en sleep twee bakke met olie. Sy het op 4 November by Pearl Harbor aangekom en is aangestel by Service Force, Pacific Fleet. Die volgende dag is die sleepboot op pad na die Ellice -eilande en het op 20ste by Funafuti aangekom.

Tawasa is na die Gilbert-eilande gestuur en het op 26 November by Abemama aangekom, wat slegs die vorige dag deur Amerikaanse mariniers geneem is. Op 3 Desember verhuis sy na Tarawa. Die sleepboot het heen en weer tussen Tarawa en Funafuti gereis in Desember 1943 en Januarie 1944. Op 21 Januarie staan ​​sy uit Tarawa en ontmoet met Task Force (TF) 62, die Southern Attack Force, vir die inval van die Marshall -eilande. Op die 31ste van die Kwajalein-atol het Tawasa geluide geneem sodat Mississippi (BB-41) die oewer kon nader vir noue bombardement. Die sleepboot het daarna bergings-, sleep- en keerdiens uitgevoer tot 18 Februarie toe sy na Eniwetok verhuis het om te help met die aanranding wat die volgende oggend op die atol sou toeslaan. Sy ondersteun die operasies totdat die atol beveilig is en bly byna twee maande in die gebied en lewer diens aan Amerikaanse skepe met behulp van hierdie nuwe basis. Tawa $ a vertrek op 12 April uit die Marshalls vir 'n tender beskikbaar by Pearl Harbor en om 'n radar te laat installeer.

Die sleepboot het op 25 Mei na die Marshalls teruggekeer. Op 11 Junie was sy in die transportskerm van TF 52, die Northern Attack -mag, toe dit na die Mariana -eilande gesorteer het. Vier dae later is sy losgemaak om LST's te help terwyl hulle mariniers en toerusting op Saipan aanland. Op 7 Julie is sy aan die gang vir Eniwetok.

Tawasa het van 31 Julie tot 24 Augustus 1944 saam met ServRon 10 gewerk toe sy by ServRon, Suid -Stille Oseaan, aangesluit het. Die skip het in die Suidelike Stille Oseaan tot 9 Mei 1946 opereer toe sy Noumea na die Verenigde State vertrek het.

Vanaf San Pedro, haar tuishawe, het sy langs die kus van Kalifornië opereer totdat sy op 27 Desember 1946 na Pearl Harbor teruggekeer het. Op 23 Februarie 1947 het Tawasa na Japan gegaan en 'n toer van agt maande by Yokosuka voordat sy op 30 Oktober 1947 huiswaarts gekeer het.

Die sleepboot het op 15 Junie 1948 na Alaska gegaan en uit Adak gery tot Oktober toe sy vir vier maande na Guam gestoom het. Sy het toe aan die weskus gebly tot 10 Augustus 1950 toe sy aan die gang was vir 'n vyf maande lange toer in Alaska. Gedurende die volgende dekade is haar operasies aan die weskus verbreek deur sewe ontplooiings na die Verre Ooste vir operasies met die 7de vloot. Op die eerste hiervan, van 4 Junie 1952 tot 1 Maart 1953, werk Tawasa saam met TF 92, die Logistieke Ondersteuningsmag wat die Verenigde Nasies se magte in Korea voorsien het. Sy het ook dienste verrig by die Koreaanse hawens Cho Do, Sokcho en Chinhae.

Tawasa ontplooi weer na die westelike Stille Oseaan van 13 Februarie tot 3 Julie 1962. Op 29 Desember neem sy Plaice (SS-390) op sleeptou by San Francisco en lewer die duikboot aan Pearl Harbor voordat sy op 1 Februarie 1963 na San Die ~ o terugkeer Sy werk met die 7de vloot van April tot November 1964 en met die Alaskan Sea Frontier van Junie tot September 1965. In Desember 1965 sleep die sleepboot Bunker Hill (AVT-9) van San Francisco na San Diego. Dit was die grootste operasionele sleep van 'n sleepboot van die Stille Oseaan -vloot - 33 946 ton. Sy het van 8 Februarie tot 1 April 1967 na Alaska teruggekeer.

Die volgende ontplooiing van Tawasa na die westelike Stille Oseaan plaas die skip vir die derde keer in haar vlootloopbaan in 'n gevegsgebied. Op 5 Februarie 1968 staan ​​sy uit San Diego na San Francisco om YFN-1126 te gaan haal en die bedekte aansteker aan Hawaii te besorg. Sy het haar aanklag by Pearl Harbor op die 17de verlaat en die daaropvolgende week na die Filippynse Eilande gegaan om teikendienste vir skepe by Subicbaai te lewer tot 13 April toe sy na Vietnam was.

Tawasa het op die 17de in Danang aangekom en die volgende dag vertrek vir spesiale operasies wat 'n maand lank geduur het. Sy keer op 21 Mei vir 'n week terug na Subicbaai en stoom dan na Sattahip, Thailand, om drone vir die Royal Thai Navy te lewer. Die sleepboot het op 19 Junie na Danang gebel en spesiale operasies begin wat tot 10 Julie geduur het. Na afloop van die missie het die sleepboot Hong Kong en Yokusuka opgeroep voordat hy op 26 Augustus na San Diego teruggekeer het. Sy betree die volgende maand die Campbell Machine Yard vir 'n opknapping wat tot 21 Januarie 1969 geduur het.

Op 5 Maart is Tawasa aan die gang vir die Filippyne en Viëtnam. Sy bel na Danang en gaan dan na die "Yankee Station" vir toesig. Die skip is op 22 Mei verlig en het via Hong Kong na Singapoer gevaar. Op 3 Junie het die sleepboot egter die hulp van Evans (DD-754) gekry wat met die Australiese vliegdekskip Melbourne gebots het. Evans is in twee gesny en slegs die agterste deel was op dreef. Tawasa het die gedeelte gesleep en dit na Subicbaai terugbesorg voordat sy met haar oorspronklike reis voortgegaan het. Sy was op 16 en 17 Junie in Singapoer en vertrek na Vung Tau met YF-866 agterna. Sy het die aansteker op die 19de afgelaai en die volgende dag 'n herstelvenster opgetel voordat sy via Subic Bay na Guam gegaan het. Nadat hy op 8 Julie na Subic Bay teruggekeer het, het Tawasa twee ekstra reise na Vung Tau onderneem voordat hy op 24 September 1969 na San Diego teruggekeer het.

Tawasa is weer van 16 Maart tot 4 Oktober 1970 en van 8 November 1972 tot 15 Junie 1973 na die westelike Stille Oseaan ontplooi. In 1971 het die sleepboot van Julie tot November na Kodiak ontplooi om as soek- en reddingsskip te dien.

Nadat sy in 1973 na San Diego teruggekeer het, het Tawasa in die waters van Kalifornië gebly tot 1 April 1975 toe sy uit diens gestel is en van die vlootlys verwyder is.

Tawasa het drie gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, twee vir Korea en sewe vir Viëtnam.


Navy Tenders / sleepbote

Deur die geskiedenis was die tender en sleepboot 'n noodsaaklike deel van die militêre operasies van die Amerikaanse vloot. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was hierdie tenders en sleepbote die tuiste van duisende vlootpersoneel. Saam met personeel bevat elke tender en sleepboot duisende pond dodelike asbes. Hierdie asbes is verskaf deur maatskappye wat geweet het die asbes is gevaarlik en het geweet dat duisende dienspligtiges uiteindelik vreeslike siektes sou opdoen as hulle aan hierdie mineraal blootgestel word. Maar die maatskappye verkies wins bo veiligheid en verberg die gevare vir die vloot en die dienspligtiges.

Asbes is gereeld gebruik vir die isolasie van pype, ketels, elektriese toebehore en rompkonstruksie. Dit is ook in baie gebiede aan boord as 'n brandwerende materiaal gebruik, insluitend 'n gladde vloer op dekke en op grootmure. Die ergste gebiede op die tender- en amp -sleepboot was in die vuur-, pomp- en enjinkamers waar isolasie die pype en bedrading bedek het. Van die personeel wat die grootste risiko loop, sluit in keteltenders, elektrisiën, motormanne, masjienmanne, pypfitters en skeepsmakers.

Baie van die maatskappye wat asbesprodukte aan die vloot gelewer het, het skuld erken en trustfondse gestig om vlootveterane te vergoed. As u iemand ken wat mesothelioom het, kontak ons ​​vir meer inligting oor u regte.

Hieronder vind u 'n lys van 'n paar tenders en sleepbote wat tussen 1940 en 1990 in gebruik geneem is en die risiko's van blootstelling aan asbes bevat. Personeel aan boord van enige van hierdie skepe of burgerlikes wat onderhoud, herstel of dekonstruksie van die werf verskaf het, het moontlik die risiko van asbes blootgestel.


Tawasa Indiërs

Tawasa -verbindings. Hulle praat 'n dialek wat deel uitmaak van die Timucuan -afdeling van die Muskhogean -taalfamilie, tussen Timucua proper en Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama en Apalachee.

Tawasa -ligging. In 1706-7 in die weste van Florida oor die breedtegraad van die kruising van die Chattahoochee- en Flintrivier op 'n vroeër tyd en weer later was hulle op die Alabama naby die huidige Montgomery. (Sien ook Louisiana.)

Ek het elders gesê (Swanton, 1946, p. 187) dat die naam van hierdie sending op soek was na die lys wat in 1656 opgestel is. Ek moes die datum as 1680 gegee het.

Tawasa Villages. Hulle het gewoonlik net een stad beset, maar Autauga op Autauga Creek in die suidoostelike deel van Autauga County, Alabama, het na bewering aan hulle behoort.

Tawasa geskiedenis. De Soto het die Tawasa naby die Montgomery -terrein gevind in 1540. Tydens die volgende anderhalf eeu het hulle na die omgewing van die Apalachicola -rivier verhuis, maar in 1707 is hulle aangeval deur die Creeks, wat sommige van hulle gevange geneem het, terwyl die grootste deel het na die Franse gevlug en deur hulle lande naby die huidige Mobile gekry. Hulle het verskillende plekke in die woonbuurt beset, maar in 1717 verhuis hulle terug na die streek waar De Soto hulle gevind het, hul hoofdorp in die noordwestelike voorstede van die huidige Montgomery. Na die Verdrag van Fort Jackson in 1814, was hulle verplig om hierdie plek te laat vaar en na die Creek -gebiede tussen die Coosa- en Talapoosa -riviere te verhuis, waar hulle gebly het tot by die belangrikste migrasie na die Mississippi. Voorheen het sommige van hulle saam met ander Alabama na Louisiana gegaan en hulle lot gevolg. Die naam is tot binne 'n paar jaar deur Alabama in Polk County, Texas, onthou.

Tawasa -bevolking. Die Franse sensus van 1760 gee 40 Tawasa-mans terug en die Georgia-sensus van 1792 “ oor 60. ” Die sensus van 1832-33 gee 321 Indiane in dorpe genaamd Tawasa en Autauga, maar dit was beslis nie Tawasa-Indiane in die streng toepassing van die term. (Sien Alabama)

Verbinding waarin hulle opgemerk is. Die Tawasa -stam sal etnologies onthou word vanweë die redding van soveel belangrike inligting rakende die vroeë geskiedenis van hulself en hul bure deur die gevange Indiese Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908), wat in 1708 na Virginia gekom het en ter wille van hom van die nog belangriker woordeskat wat by hom verkry is.


Skepe soortgelyk aan of soos USS Tawasa (AT-92)

Verkry deur die Amerikaanse vloot vir gebruik tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy het die gevaarlike, maar noodsaaklike taak gehad om brandstof te verskaf aan vaartuie in gevegs- en nie-gevegsgebiede, hoofsaaklik in die Stille Oseaan. Wikipedia

Verkry deur die Amerikaanse vloot vir gebruik tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy het die gevaarlike, maar noodsaaklike taak gehad om brandstof te verskaf aan vaartuie in gevegs- en nie-gevegsgebiede, hoofsaaklik in die Stille Oseaan. Wikipedia

Vlootolier van die Cimarron-klas wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur die Amerikaanse vloot verkry is. Sy dien haar land hoofsaaklik in die Stille Oseaan Theatre of Operations en verskaf petroleumprodukte waar nodig om skepe te bestry. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Onmiddellik na die Stille Oseaan gestuur om konvooie en ander skepe teen Japannese duikbote en vegvliegtuie te beskerm. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Oorspronklik nie die naam genoem nie en word die korrekte aanduiding van haar romp vir die grootste deel van haar lewensduur genoem. Wikipedia

Van die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Onmiddellik na die Stille Oseaan gestuur om konvooie en ander skepe teen Japannese duikbote en vegvliegtuie te beskerm. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Onmiddellik na die Stille Oseaan gestuur om konvooie en ander skepe teen Japannese duikbote en vegvliegtuie te beskerm. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Gestuur na die Stille Oseaan om konvooie en ander skepe teen Japannese duikbote en vegvliegtuie te beskerm. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Cabana, gebore in Fairhaven, Massachusetts op 26 Maart 1911, het op 17 Maart 1930 by die vloot aangesluit en op 2 Februarie 1941 as masjinis aangestel. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Onmiddellik na die Stille Oseaan gestuur om konvooie en ander skepe teen Japannese duikbote en vegvliegtuie te beskerm. Wikipedia

Gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Gestuur na die Stille Oseaan om konvooie en ander skepe teen Japannese duikbote en vegvliegtuie te beskerm. Wikipedia


Kyk na tipe houerskepe | Video

Skepe is op verskillende maniere ontwerp, afhangende van die gebruik en toepassings daarvan. Die feit dat daar soveel soorte is, toon dat seevaart nog lank belangrik sal wees.

Die belangrikste vervoermiddel was skepe. Mense het wêreldwyd handel gedryf. Nuwe verbeterings in skeepvaarttegnologie is mettertyd aangebring, wat 'n omwenteling in die konsep van seevaart veroorsaak het. Alle beperkings, soos tyd en afstand, is verminder deur moderne tegnologie. Verder het die gerief van seevaart aansienlik verbeter.

Ondanks die gewildheid van lugreise en treine as vervoermiddels, bly skepe die beste opsie vir verhandeling. Die fundamentele rede hiervoor is dat skepe groot hoeveelhede vrag oor groot afstande kon vervoer. Vragskepe kom in verskillende groottes en vorms voor, elkeen met sy eie stel funksies. By die keuse van 'n skip om goedere te vervoer, word die omvang van die gebruik in ag geneem


Tweede tydperk in opdrag, 1951 �

Hergebruik en vroeë pligte

As gevolg van die behoefte om die vloot uit te brei wat veroorsaak is deur die uitbreek van die Koreaanse Oorlog op 25 Junie 1950, Apache is op 20 Julie 1951 weer in gebruik geneem. Na 'n paar maande se operasies aan die Amerikaanse Weskus is sy na die Verre Ooste beveel en vroeg in Desember 1951 in Sasebo, Japan, aangekom.

Koreaanse oorlog diens

Op 17 Desember 1951 het Apache het na Wonsan, Korea, geseil, waar sy die vloot seevaart USS verlig het Yuma (ATF-94) as die bergings- en reddingsvaartuig in die gebied. Apache het ook boeie in die hawens van Wonsan en Hungnam, Korea, gelê voordat hulle op 4 Januarie 1952 na Sasebo teruggekeer het.

Apache Die volgende missie begin op 18 Januarie 1952, toe sy as patrollieskip van Cho Do en Sok To, Korea, as stasie begin staan ​​het. Sy keer op 19 Februarie 1952 terug na Yokosuka, Japan, maar was op 20 Maart 1952 terug in die Wonsan-hawe. Op 12 April 1952 het sy kortliks by Sasebo ingebring vir herstelwerk. Gedurende die volgende vier weke het sy verskeie bergingslopies na Cheju Do, Korea, gemaak voordat sy op 12 Mei 1952 by Sasebo aangekom het vir herstelwerk.

Apache keer op 16 Junie 1952 weer in aksie in Wonsan en dien daar totdat hy op 28 Junie 1952 na Sasebo terugkeer, en haar diens in Korea uitgee.

Koreaanse Oorlog eerbewyse en toekennings

Apache het twee strydsterre ontvang vir haar Koreaanse oorlogsdiens, vir:

  • Tweede Koreaanse Winter: 19 Desember 1951 tot 4 Januarie 1952 19 Januarie tot 18 Februarie 1952 20 Maart tot 13 April 1952 en 26 tot 28 April 1952
  • Koreaanse verdediging Somer-herfs 1952: 9 tot 12 Mei 1952 16 tot 28 Junie 1952

Vredestyd, 1953 �

Apache vertrek op 2 Julie 1952 uit Japan en vertrek na Pearl Harbor. Maar vir 'n sleep na Kwajalein en een na Midway Atoll, Apache het tot 4 Mei 1953 in Hawaise waters gebly, toe sy na Seattle, Washington, vertrek het, waar sy 'n sleepwa opgetel het. Daarna is sy na San Diego. Sy werk langs die kus van Kalifornië tot middel Julie 1953, toe sy op pad is na die Westelike Stille Oseaan. Sy het daar gedien tot einde 1954 en verskeie missies uitgevoer in Guam, Kwajalein, Eniwetok, Bikini Atoll en die Filippyne.

In Januarie 1955 Apache keer terug na die Amerikaanse weskus en bereik San Francisco op 14 Januarie 1955. Sy het egter op 17 Maart 1955 na die Verre Ooste begin, Yokosuka bereik op 21 Mei 1955 en begin met sy vlootmagte, Verre Ooste. Alhoewel haar tuishawe in Januarie 1956 na San Diego verander is, het sy tot vroeg in 1960 in die Westelike Stille Oseaan gebly en as sleepskip gedien en soms deelgeneem aan soek- en reddingsmissies.

Vroeg in 1960, Apache keer terug na San Diego vir 'n ses maande lange opknapping. Toe, in Desember 1960, na etlike maande diens in San Diego, het sy teruggegaan na die Westelike Stille Oseaan. Sy het by Pearl Harbor en Guam stilgehou voordat sy in Sasebo in Februarie 1961 gekom het. Kort daarna het sy na Subic Bay in Luzon in die Filippyne verhuis en vanaf die basis in April 1961 opereer toe sy na Kwajalein en Pearl Harbor vertrek het. Op 11 Mei 1961 het sy Hawaii verlaat en na San Diego gegaan. Gedurende die res van 1961 en begin 1962, Apache het weer 'n kus -sleep -operasie langs die Amerikaanse weskus uitgevoer.

Op 7 Mei 1962 het Apache het die werf van Campbell Machine Company in San Diego binnegegaan vir opknapping en het daar gebly tot 18 Julie 1962, toe sy met opknapping begin het. Begin September 1962 het sy na die Verre Ooste begin. Tydens haar toer daar het sy diens gedoen in die Filippyne, in Okinawa, in Hong Kong en in Japan, voordat sy op 6 Januarie 1963 by Sasebo vertrek en 'n koers na Pearl Harbor gesit het. Sy het daarvandaan na San Diego gegaan en die volgende paar maande deurgebring in stand-by en na plaaslike operasies.

Apache het haar patroon van die Amerikaanse Weskusbedrywighede en die implementering van die Wes -Stille Oseaan gedurende 1964 en 1965 voortgesit.

Vietnam -oorlog diens

Laat in 1965, Apache het haar eerste cruise in die Westelike Stille Oseaan gemaak wat die oorlog in die Viëtnam -oorlog behels, wat begin het met die Amerikaanse sewende vlootbedrywighede op die Yankee -stasie aan die Viëtnamese kus. Begin Februarie 1966 begelei sy die vernietiger USS   Brinkley bas na Subic Bay volgende Brinkley bas se botsing met geleide missielvernietiger USS   Waddell in die Suid -Chinese See.

Na kort diens in Da Nang, Suid -Viëtnam, Apache het na Hong Kong en Kaohsiung, Taiwan, gegaan vir rus en ontspanning. Daarna het sy nog 'n sleep van Subicbaai na Da Nang gesleep voordat sy op 4 Maart 1966 uit Vietnam vertrek en huis toe gegaan het. Die sleepboot het onderweg by Pearl Harbor stilgehou voordat hy op 1 April 1966 by San Diego aangekom het.

Viëtnam -oorlog se eerbewyse en toekennings

Apache het 'n veldtogster ontvang vir haar diens in die Viëtnam -oorlog, vir:

Sy het ook 'n Navy Unit Commendation en 'n Meritorious Unit Commendation ontvang vir haar diens in die Viëtnam -oorlog.

Ondersteuning vir bathyscaphe Trieste II en ander pligte, 1966 �

Apache het die res van 1966 en die eerste agt maande van 1967 langs die kus van Kalifornië gery. Trieste II. Apache se nuwe rol was om die badkuip te sleep wanneer dit nodig was.

Op 23 Oktober 1967 het Apache begin met 'n reeks toetse en proewe op San Clemente Island, Kalifornië, tesame met Trieste II.Apache het Januarie en Februarie 1968 gewy aan die verskaffing van dienste vir Fleet Training Group, San Diego, maar begin Maart 1968 hervat sy haar pligte met Trieste II.

Apache vasgemeer voor die hulpherstel dok USS Wit sand (ARD-20), met die badkuip Trieste II, by die Panamakanaalsone ca. 28 Februarie 1969. Apache was besig om te sleep Wit sand na die Atlantiese Oseaan om in diens te neem Trieste II in 'n soektog na die gesinkte kern duikboot USS Skerpioen (SSN-589) langs die Azore.

Op 3 Februarie 1969 het Apache het van San Diego af begin om die hulpherstel USS te sleep Wit sand (ARD-20), wat vervoer is Trieste II, verplig om die Atlantiese Oseaan in diens te neem Trieste II in die ondersoek na die verlies van die kern -duikboot USS in 1968 Skerpioen (SSN-589). Hulle bereik die Azore op 21 Mei 1969, waar die snelwegvervoer USS by hulle aansluit Ruchamkin (APD-89), wat aangestel is om hulle te ondersteun. Van 2 Junie 1969 tot 2 Augustus 1969, Apache, Wit sand, en Ruchamkin onderhoude stasie naby Trieste II terwyl die badgedeelte die oorskot van Skerpioen.

Op 7 Augustus 1969 het Apache geneem Wit sand, weer dra Trieste II, onder sleep en, afskeidsmaatskappy met Ruchamkin, begin die lang reis terug na San Diego, wat hulle op 7 Oktober 1969 bereik het. By haar terugkeer, Apache begin met voorbereidings vir 'n uitgebreide opknapping, en sy het op 15 Desember 1969 die werwe by San Diego binnegegaan.

Nadat hierdie werk middel April 1970 voltooi is, Apache het opknappingsopleiding tot einde Junie 1970 gehou en daarna plaaslike operasies uitgevoer tot en met 25 September 1970, toe sy aan die gang was na Panama om die duikboot USS te begelei Dolfyn (AGSS-55) terug na San Diego. In Januarie 1971 het Apache bedrywighede hervat met Trieste II.

Apache het op 5 Oktober 1971 uit San Diego vertrek vir 'n reeks spesiale operasies in die Pearl Harbor -gebied wat tot begin Mei 1972 voortgeduur het. Op 23 Mei 1972 het Apache teruggekom na San Diego.

Apache Dinsdag 13 Desember 1972 vier die Apache sy 30ste verjaardag. Daar was 'n partytjie in die EL Cortez Hotel in San Diego, CA.

Apache het weer in Junie 1972 aan die gang gekom en bergingsoperasies afgewissel met insleepdienste vir Trieste II. Sy het hierdie roetine tot Maart 1973 voortgesit toe sy met 'n herstelperiode in San Diego begin het. Verskeie materiële ongevalle het die werk verleng, en Apache verlaat die werf eers op 21 Mei 1973, toe sy saam vaar Trieste II vir waters voor die kus van San Francisco om aan Operation Teleprobe deel te neem. Slegte weer het die operasie egter uitgestel, en Apache verdere skade opgedoen wat haar genoop het om op 23 Junie 1973 na San Diego terug te keer vir drie weke se herstelwerk.

Apache het op 18 Julie 1973 in San Francisco aangekom en op 20 Julie 1973 het Hawaii -waters begin om Operasie Teleprobe te hervat. Die operasie is op 30 Julie 1973 suksesvol afgehandel, en Apache het op 8 Augustus 1973 teruggekeer in San Diego vir meer plaaslike bedrywighede.

Apache het haar laaste sleep as 'n aktiewe Amerikaanse vlootskip op 31 Januarie 1974 gemaak toe sy die fregat USS afgelewer het Sterett (DLG-31) na Long Beach, Kalifornië.


Die vrouegeskiedenis -pionier Gerda Lerner sterf op 92

Deur Dinesh Ramde
Gepubliseer 4 Januarie 2013 13:34 (EST)

(AP Photo/Wisconsin State Journal, Sarah B. Tews)

Aandele

MILWAUKEE (AP) - Gerda Lerner het haar 18de verjaardag in 'n Nazi -gevangenis deurgebring en 'n sel gedeel met twee heidense vroue wat gearresteer is vir politieke werk wat hul kos met die Joodse tiener gedeel het omdat tronkbewaarders rantsoene vir Jode beperk het.

Lerner sou jare later sê dat die vroue haar gedurende die ses weke geleer het hoe om te oorleef en dat die ervaring haar geleer het hoe die samelewing mense kan manipuleer. Dit was 'n les dat die vrouegeskiedenispionier, wat Woensdag op 92 -jarige ouderdom oorlede is, gesê het dat sy in die Amerikaanse akademie versterk word deur geskiedenisprofessore wat leer asof net die mans die moeite werd is om te studeer.

'Toe ek agterkom dat die helfte van die bevolking geen geskiedenis het nie en ek is meegedeel dat dit normaal was, kon ek die druk weerstaan', het Lerner in 2002 aan die Wisconsin Academic Review gesê.

Die skrywer was 'n stigterslid van die National Organization for Women en word toegeskryf aan die oprigting van die land se eerste nagraadse program in vrouegeskiedenis, in die sewentigerjare in New York.

Haar seun het gesê dat sy vreedsaam gesterf het van oënskynlike ouderdom by 'n versorgingsfasiliteit in Madison, waar sy gehelp het om 'n doktorale program in vrouegeskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Wisconsin op te stel.

'Sy was altyd 'n baie wil-en-opinie-vrou,' het haar seun, Dan Lerner, laat Donderdag aan The Associated Press gesê. 'Ek dink dit is die kenmerke van wonderlike mense, mense met sterk standpunte en vaste oortuigings.'

Sy is gebore in 'n bevoorregte Joodse gesin in Wene, Oostenryk, in 1920. Toe die Nazi's aan bewind kom, is sy saam met die twee ander jong vroue opgesluit.

'Hulle het my geleer hoe om te oorleef,' skryf Lerner in 'Fireweed: a Political Autobiography'. '' Alles wat ek nodig gehad het om deur die res van my lewe te kom, het ek in die ses weke in die tronk geleer. '

Sy het geesdriftig geraak oor die kwessie van geslagsgelykheid. As professor aan die Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, NY, stig sy 'n vrouestudieprogram - insluitend die eerste gegradueerde program in vrouegeskiedenis in die VSA

Sy verhuis later na Madison, waar sy help om 'n doktorale program in vrouegeskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Wisconsin op te stel.

Haar dogter, Stephanie Lerner, het gesê dat haar ma 'n reputasie verdien as 'n no-nonsense professor wat haar studente aan streng standaarde gehou het wat sommige destyds moontlik nie waardeer het nie. Een voormalige student het 30 jaar later aan Gerda Lerner geskryf en gesê dat niemand meer invloedryk in haar lewe was nie.

'Sy het gesê:' Ek het gedink jy is onmoontlik, moeilik, nie verstaanbaar nie, maar jy het my 'n model van toewyding gegee wat ek nog nooit gehad het nie, 'onthou Stephanie Lerner. "Dis net hoe sy was."

Alhoewel Gerda Lerner ander aan hoë standaarde gehou het, het sy self geen kortpaaie geneem nie. Stephanie Lerner het byvoorbeeld gesê dat haar ma daarvan gehou het om in die berge te stap, selfs al word sy ouer en word haar mobiliteit uitgedaag.

Stephanie Lerner onthou op 'n stomende dag in Kalifornië 'n spesifieke staptog met haar ma ongeveer 30 jaar gelede. Stephanie Lerner het 'n ligte dagpak saamgebring, maar Gerda Lerner het 'n stewige sak van 50 pond ingedra omdat sy wou oefen vir toekomstige staptogte.

"Ek was baie jonger en baie in vorm. Maar op 'n sekere punt het ek gesê ek kan dit nie meer doen nie," het Stephanie Lerner gesê. "Sy het net aangegaan. Dit was haar vreugde, haar vasberadenheid."

Gerda Lerner het verskeie handboeke oor vrouegeskiedenis geskryf, waaronder 'The Creation of Patriarchy' en 'The Creation of Feminist Consciousness'. Sy het ook 'Black Women in White America' geredigeer, een van die eerste boeke wat die stryd en bydraes van swart vroue in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis gedokumenteer het.

Sy trou in 1941 met Carl Lerner, 'n gerespekteerde filmredakteur. Hulle woon 'n paar jaar in Hollywood voordat hulle na New York terugkeer.

Die egpaar was betrokke by aktivisme wat wissel van pogings om die filmbedryf te verenig tot werk in die burgerregtebeweging.

Toe sy gevra is hoe sy so 'n sterk gevoel van geregtigheid en regverdigheid ontwikkel het, het sy aan die Wisconsin Academy Review gesê dat die gevoel in die kinderjare begin het. Sy onthou hoe sy gesien het hoe haar ma voorwerpe op die vloer laat val en weggaan, terwyl bediendes haar gemors laat opruim.

'Ek wou hê dat die wêreld 'n regverdige en regverdige plek moes wees, en dit was duidelik nie so nie - en dit het my van die begin af ontstel,' het sy gesê.

Sy het vasbeslote geword om vir gelykheid te veg, en sy het ander aangemoedig om hul eie stryd teen ongelykheid aan te pak. Sy het gesê mense wat die wêreld wil verander, hoef nie deel te wees van 'n groot georganiseerde groep nie - hulle moet net 'n oorsaak vind waarin hulle glo en moet nooit ophou veg daarvoor nie.

Sy erken die filosofie om haar te help om gelukkig te bly ondanks die gruwels wat sy as jong vrou beleef het.

'Ek is gelukkig omdat ek die balans gevind het tussen die aanpassing, of die oorlewing van wat ek deurgemaak het, en om op te tree vir dit waarin ek geglo het,' het sy in 2002 gesê. 'Dit is die sleutel.'


Bill Steinkraus, ruiter wat Olimpiese geskiedenis gemaak het, sterf op 92

Bill Steinkraus, een van Amerika se mees gevierde perdeskouryers en die land se eerstes wat 'n Olimpiese individuele goue medalje in enige ruitersportdissipline gewen het, is op 29 November in sy huis in die Noroton-afdeling van Darien, Conn.

Sy dood is Donderdag deur die United States Equestrian Team Foundation aangekondig.

Steinkraus, wat algemeen beskou word as een van die grootste ruiters in die geskiedenis van die ruitersport, het van 1952 tot 1972 al ses die Olimpiese spanne van die Verenigde State gehaal en slegs die Spele van 1964 in Tokio misgeloop toe sy perd op die laaste oomblik lam geraak het.

Hy verower sy rekordmakende Olimpiese individuele goue medalje, in skouspring, in Mexico-stad in 1968. Hy wen ook silwermedaljes in Rome in 1960 en in München in 1972 en 'n spanbrons in 1952 in Helsinki. Sy Amerikaanse span het in 1956 in Stockholm vyfde geëindig.

Sy goue medalje kom aan boord van Snowbound, 'n kragtige 9-jarige ruin. 'Ek hou daarvan om hom as 'n George Bernard Shaw -perd te beskou,' het Steinkraus aan The New York Times gesê. 'Hy het sy eie mening oor alles.'

Deur sy prestasies tydens die Olimpiese Spele en in ander internasionale geleenthede het Steinkraus, 'n Yale -gegradueerde en 'n bekwame violis, bewonderaars van regoor die wêreld gelok.

"Amerikaanse ruiters het hom gerespekteer vir sy perdry, en die Europeërs was verbaas dat iemand soos gekweek, opgevoed en intelligent 'n Amerikaanse ruiter kan wees," het Bertalan de Nemethy, die jarelange afrigter van die Amerikaanse span en self 'n elegante voormalige Hongaarse kavaleriebeampte, gesê. eenkeer gesê.

William Clark Steinkraus is op 12 Oktober 1925 in Cleveland gebore en het grootgeword in Westport, Conn.

As 'n student van die bekende afrigters Gordon Wright en Morton W. Smith, het hy as tiener junior titels verower voordat hy by Yale ingeskryf het.

Steinkraus onderbreek sy studie vir weermagdiens tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Hy het in Birma (nou Myanmar) gery met die laer berede regiment van die weermag en gehelp om die Birma -pad weer oop te maak, 'n belangrike toevoerroete vir die geallieerde magte. Na die oorlog keer hy terug na Yale en studeer.

Die leër se kavallerie het al die Amerikaanse ruiterryers wat internasionaal deelgeneem het, voorsien totdat die regiment in die vroeë naoorlogse jare ontbind is. Die Amerikaanse ruiterspan is in 1950 gestig, en Steinkraus is in 1951 deur die span aangewys.

Beeld

Hy het 22 jaar lank vir die span gery, 17 as kaptein, voordat hy in 1972 aan die internasionale kompetisie teruggetree het. Hy is in 1973 as spanpresident verkies, in 1983 as voorsitter en in 1992 emeritusvoorsitter.

In 1960 trou Steinkraus met Helen Ziegler, 'n kleindogter van die 19de-eeuse nyweraar William Ziegler, wat 'n uitgestrekte landgoed met die naam Great Island in Noroton gestig het, wat deur 'n landbrug met die gemeenskap verbind is. Sy en Steinkraus en hul gesin het baie jare daar gewoon. (Die landgoed was in 2016 in die nuus toe dit vir $ 175 miljoen op die mark gebring is.)

Me. Steinkraus, 'n voormalige assistent vir kankernavorsing by die Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York, was 'n sportvrou, bekend as Sus, wat seilbote gejaag, geski, wild gejag en dressuur aangeneem het, 'n bekwame ruiter in kompetisie geword en later 'n internasionale oordeel. Sy is in 2012 oorlede.

Steinkraus word oorleef deur hul drie seuns, Eric, Philip en Edward.

Steinkraus was 'n redakteur in boekuitgewery in New York en het verskeie boeke oor die sport geskryf, veral 'Reflections on Riding and Jumping: Winning Techniques for Serious Riders', uitgegee deur Doubleday in 1991. Hy het ook vir die gesaghebbende tydskrif geskryf Kroniek van die perd.

Behalwe dat hy viool gespeel het, was Steinkraus ook 'n kenner van ou boeke en antieke meubels. Nadat hy van die kompetisie afgetree het, was hy 'n televisiekommentator vir vier Olimpiese Spele en daarna 'n Olimpiese beoordelaar.

Hy was ook 10 jaar lank voorsitter van die springkomitee van die Wêreldbeker -sokkertoernooi van die International Equestrian Federation en meer as 40 jaar lank as direkteur van die American Horse Shows Association. Hy is in 1987 opgeneem in die Show Jumping Hall of Fame, in Lexington, Ky.

Toe hy uittree uit die internasionale kompetisie, het kommersiële borgskap en prysgeld net begin inkom. ' begin, ”het hy gesê.

Een hedendaagse ruiter (en later 'n afrigter en beoordelaar), George H. Morris, noem hom "die man wat styl te perd belichaam het". Another, Hugh Wiley, said: “He would think through a riding problem and always come up with an intelligent answer. After riding, he usually played his fiddle, read The Wall Street Journal or went to the opera.”

For all his Olympic medals, Steinkraus was quick to credit his horses, including Hollandia in Helsinki, Main Spring in Munich and Riviera Wonder in Rome, in addition to Snowbound in Mexico City. Success in competition, he insisted, depended on the relationship between rider and mount.

“A good horseman must be a good psychologist,” he told Life magazine in 1968. “Horses are young, childish individuals. When you train them, they respond to the environment you create. You are the parent, manager and educator. You can be tender or brutal. But the goal is to develop the horse’s confidence in you to the point he’d think he could clear a building if you headed him for it.”

Indeed, in the equation of rider and horse, Steinkraus placed greater importance on the latter.

“In this sport,” he said, “the horse is more the athlete. He’s the body and you’re the brain. When you need a new body, you get one.”


Old Lions Department: Architectural Historian Albert Schmidt at 92

The historian who lived a long life is working on a long article—a monograph, perhaps, about city planning and urbanism in provincial Russia, finding and shaping Catherine the Great’s imperial urban space. Born in 1925, Albert Schmidt calls himself a workaholic, and insists he always has been, but he tries to have fun too.

An emeritus professor of history and law at the University of Bridgeport and Quinnipiac University’s School of Law, Schmidt has written about Russian architectural history and town planning, Soviet law, and English legal history.

Since retirement, he was a docent at the National Portrait Gallery for fifteen years and he volunteered at the League of Women Voters Lobby Corps for seventeen, lobbying for various kinds of legislation. He was docent at historic houses and architecture tours for about ten years at the Decatur House in Lafayette Square and Heurich House (the DC Historical Society) near DuPont Square.

He has been in retirement nearly as long as he’s worked —at 92 years of age, this is an understandable parallel. His first job was at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa and he moved to Connecticut in 1965. He retired in 1990 and moved to Washington D.C. with his wife of 67 years, Kathryn. He became attracted to the capital because it seemed like a great place for retirement.

Schmidt met his wife at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana. “My home was Louisville, Kentucky. I went across the river to Indiana and she was from Cincinnati, right up the river from me. We met at DePauw and dated, nearly broke up, patched things up, married in 1951 and here we are, 67 years later. Happy ending, huh?”

He continued: “We bought a house in Mount Pleasant on Hobart Street in 1979 when property was still fairly cheap. Part of the front door was boarded up from the post-Martin Luther King riots that had occurred in the neighborhood.” They rented the basement apartment for eleven years, and on schedule, when Schmidt retired, he stayed there for ten years. When he could not easily negotiate the stairs, they moved to a co-op in Cleveland Park, the Broadmoor on Porter and Connecticut. It was on the list of James Goode’s Best Addresses: A Century of Washington’s Distinguished Apartment Houses.

“It’s a nice little place,” said Schmidt. “We’re not native Washingtonians by a long shot but we’ve been here since 1990 so we knew our way around. I used to drive but I no longer can. I’ve got neuropathy and can’t tell where my feet are going so I use a walker.”

When he was able to be more physically active, Schmidt enjoyed lobbying for the League of Women Voters. “I do try to keep up with current politics I’m not a political animal to the extent that I’ve been involved as a politician myself, but I’ve always worked for someone,” he said.

In Connecticut, he and his wife lived next door to Leonard Bernstein, with whom he worked with on a gubernatorial campaign. Bernstein’s home was very spacious and Schmidt’s wasn’t, so Bernstein opened his for fundraising purposes. Schmidt managed elections in 1997, 1998, and 2000 in Bosnia and Kosovo, so he has stayed involved in politics. “My wife’s even more a political animal than I,” especially for DC voting rights in Congress earlier this decade.

“I wasn’t sure I ever was going to college. The 1930s were hard for my family but that which was the source of agony for so many families was a blessing for me, namely being in World War II,” said Schmidt. He used the GI Bill and though he lost some of his best friends in the war, for him, it gave him a free education—all the way to the doctorate, he said. “I’d never thought I’d get a doctorate, I thought I was going to be a bookkeeper. Instead of taking foreign languages in high school, I took six semesters of bookkeeping and accounting. I was awarded a scholarship for college which took care of my tuition and I waited tables at sorority houses and that gave me my board, and I saved my GI Bill until graduate school and that led me all the way to the doctorate —it was very unforeseen.”

He wrote a memoir of his life that attempts to list the various activities of every year. “I started ten years before I was born. Born in 1925, I went back to 1914. My family knew many WW1 veterans, and I thought that was a good idea because of the association.”

As visiting scholar at George Washington University, he receives library privileges and attends seminars at the Institute for European, Russian, Eurasian Studies. He once went to Ukraine to lecture for a month under GW’s auspices. He’s frequently attended events at the Kennan Institute at the Woodrow Wilson Center. “Every Monday, there is a Washington DC history seminar there — I used to attend regularly, but I don’t negotiate the Metro any longer. My walking’s so bad, I don’t want to take any chances. I formerly took the Metro all the time.”

The Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) at the Wilson Center even has an internship named after him. He once taught a course at GW, “but I’ve really been retired since 1990,” said Schmidt.

His daily schedule is as such: He gets up early in the retirement home where he lives and starts working at 5:30-6:00 AM on his research papers. Sometimes, he doesn’t work. “I do miss water aerobics. I exercise twice a day here. In the morning in a class and in the afternoon, usually on an elliptical machine or walking.”

THE AMERICAN WITH THE FROZEN BEARD IN RUSSIA

When Schmidt was in the Soviet Union for the first time—for the longest stretch—he lived at Moscow University. He went to the U.S. Embassy and used the commissary there to do shopping and he did his own cooking. “I bought good stuff,” said Schmidt.

For a Sunday meal, he’d go to a hotel. “It was expensive and wasn’t great. I like Russian food. If you go to the Russian Tea Room in Manhattan, it’s good, but my Soviet dining wasn’t that. In Britain, I could eat fish and chips but I’ve never spent a lot going to expensive places. I’ve spent a fair amount of time in The Netherlands because one of the great libraries in Soviet law was in Leiden. I’d been there for weeks at a time and I liked the restaurants.”

Schmidt’s favorite period is Old Russia, mainly the eighteenth century. “Peter and Catherine were really transformative figures. Catherine’s intent was, in part, to Europeanize Russia and she was very successful in many ways in doing so. The Soviets tried to minimize her achievements because anything that Imperial Russia did was unacceptable to them, but they became much more generous, eventually. My PhD was in English history but I went back to Indiana University in the early Sixties and studied Russian Eastern European history and related subjects and then travelled in the Soviet Union for six months and Eastern Europe in 1962-63 and I went a number of times after that to either Russia or the Ukraine in ‘98. I have not done any archival work in Russian history —I’ve done archival work in English history, but not Russian. For the most part, I donated my Russian library to Hillwood Museum it’s called the Marjorie Merriweather Post residence. It’s near Cleveland Park and is a magnificent place, and there is a library. Because of the aesthetic aspects, much of the library consists of works of Russian art, but they have almost nothing on Russian architecture,” said Schmidt.

Schmidt wrote a book about architecture and the planning of classical Moscow and donated all of the books on Moscow to this museum. “Now I’m working on provincial Russia, where there’s nothing more to do! I might start a new field,” joked Schmidt.

Classical Russia is a reference to the architectural style, the style generally of the art. Provincial Russia is a geographical term. In other words, there is provincial classicism and there’s Moscow classicism. Around Moscow, that’s the area Schmidt knows best.

He has been to the Caucasus but he’s never been to Eastern Siberia or to Central Asia, although he has been to North Russia —Archangel, way north. “Not in the winter though. It can get so bloody cold. Experienced forty below in Leningrad once,” reminisced Schmidt. He usually has a much thicker beard than when we spoke, which he said was frozen “and I’ve had ice all over my beard.”

Schmidt didn’t always just deal with architectural history. About midway in his career, he became involved in Soviet law. In the early ‘70s, he went into college administration, and had been a chair of the history department at the University of Bridgeport for a number of years. Those were good years, he said, and he had reasonable success. He became Dean and eventually Vice President of the university.

“But that didn’t work out too well. Times got hard and the president expected more of me than I could deliver so our relationship became fairly tense, and finally, I resigned from the administrative post to go back to teaching. The dean of the law school was very appreciative of what I’d done as an administrator and offered me a post teaching Soviet law. I told him that I had no knowledge of legal education. How can I possibly do that?’”

The dean said, “translate your Russian history into Soviet law, translate your English history into English common law, and your European history into European legal history.” For Schmidt, that was easier said than done, but he agreed, and in the late early ‘80s, he worked hard to become a legal historian and received a grant to go to NYU law school for a year, “just for exposure to legal education.”

He then became acquainted with a whole cast of Soviet legal scholars and “built almost a whole new career” in the ‘80s by teaching part-time law school and part-time college liberal arts. “That’s where I ended up —I try to publish whatever I do. Now I’ve gone back to Russian architectural history,” said Schmidt.

He did Soviet law tours to Russia which he described as all right, but the one trip that he truly anticipated was one where they’d take a group of students to Central Asia as well as European Russia, but then Chernobyl happened and Schmidt’s tour “melted away” —people withdrew from it. That was his last attempt to see Central Asia.

“What was really new to me. we know Soviet laws or the lack thereof by the high handedness of Soviet leaders, and while there may be a legal basis —Stalin, Khrushchev, and others had been very lax in being faithful to what a legal system’s supposed to do — bestow justice. However, civil law is not so bad. Tort law and contract law —these are all pretty good, well-organized, and that was interesting. Law under Gorbachev, especially.”

Schmidt also became involved with an international group of Soviet law scholars and liked their company he in turn did follow a path that most of them did not follow, mainly historic preservation law. Since Schmidt was knowledgeable about the architecture, he figured he could transfer his knowledge into preservation law. He published some articles in that area. He was also was very impressed by the relationship between Soviet and German civil law.

“The structure was similar, except the Russians added the socialist dimension to it. I published in that area too. I tried to publish because I didn’t want to be simply a parasite but I never achieved the kind of expertise many of the people in that field have. Jack of all trades, master of none, that pretty much sums it up.”

It was an unexpected change of career directions in the late 1970s, spurned by his tense relationship with the president of the university. Schmidt’s wife Kathryn was a librarian in the high school system in Westport, Connecticut —Connecticut’s “gold coast.” It was a good high school, he said, and she and a group of faculty were invited to go to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem for a six-week summer program, and Schmidt was “stuck with that job as vice president.”

When he resigned from his post, he accompanied her to Israel. “I do try to have a project whenever I do something and my project then was to go to West Bank University—Birzeit, near Ramallah. Birzeit was probably the best of the West Bank universities, and I went to the University of Bethlehem and Najah University in Nablus, Palestine. I wrote an article on these Arab West Bank universities after I got back. That was my project in Israel but I’ve enjoyed Israel very much, and I got an award: ‘best participating non-participant.’ I had no business there, and what I did do was try to bring faculty and students from these Arab universities to the Hebrew University for a gathering and it was sort of fun because most had never met their opposites. It was quite an experience!”

On how Russians compared to the Arabs and Israelis during his time there, Schmidt heard about a number of Israelis who had a Soviet experience themselves they were refugees in relatively early ‘78. “I must say though, the situation—bad as it was then—it’s not as bad as it is now. Certainly, this was before much of the violence between sides that has occurred since. For example, Hebron, which has been a place of violence since the late ‘20s —we went there and it still wasn’t as bad as it became.”

Schmidt did take a trip up the length of Gaza to the Egyptian border, and he also went to ancient Saint Catherine’s monastery in Sinai when it was still under Israeli control. These exciting diversions may have ended up sapping some of his scholarship, “I guess you could say.”

Amongst his other diversions, Schmidt travelled to Latin America and visited Machu Picchu, Peru when it was springtime.” The funniest thing about the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador, he said, was when he was in a whale tour group and they bore witness to a ridiculous mating ritual on top of a rock. One of the huge tortoises mounted a boulder and thought it was a female.

INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS IN THE 60S

One of the main things that Schmidt considers to be one of his important accomplishments was during the Sixties “when there was a real largesse of funding from the federal government, something not seen these days, and it all went for education. To a considerable extent, it was because Russia had launched the Sputnik. That was their first venture to space and it meant for as far as the U.S. was concerned that they were ahead of us in rocketry and space exploration.”

Sputnik occurred in the late ‘50s and so Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) which allowed for the study of advanced technologies and also crucial foreign languages that would prove useful. In 1952–53, Schmidt had had a Fulbright scholarship to Britain to get his doctorate but this was his second big grant, an NDEA one, which provided for his going to Indiana University to study Russian languages, and then a third one was when he was teaching. He had applied for and was awarded a grant to establish an Institute for non-Western history as a faculty member of the University of Bridgeport.

“I say ‘I’ but I have to be careful not to make this too personal, but obviously the people who were at Bridgeport in the history department when I came there thought only in terms of U.S. history and European history, and they gave me carte blanche to hire new faculty. I hired people in areas that were not usually represented. In other words, I wanted to hire an Africanist, a Middle Easternist, a South Asia (India/Pakistan) specialist, and I wanted to hire an East Asian/China/Japan specialist.”

“In any case,” he went on, “I did obtain permission to hire an Africanist who happened to be a specialist in the Middle East too and I hired a South Asianist and a Latin American historian, and for a time, Bridgeport had a unique history department. When I applied for these institutes to bring non-specialists in for summer programs, I had the faculty to back up my proposals.”

In 1967, 68, 69, and 70, Schmidt obtained funding from the institutes in what they then termed non-Western history “because they had this faculty that was interested in teaching in the summer, but the participants were from high school —even elementary school teachers for programs in those areas. We made the program especially attractive because we offered a Master’s Degree if you accumulated enough credits. They would do that through attending classes during the year, not funded by the grant. In the summer, these people got scholarships.”

During the rest of the year, students had to pay their own way. They offered a Master’s program that gave them access to all of those exotic areas. “It was really a good deal for everybody concerned. In ‘67–68, normal ‘69, it was a two-year deal. Those who were awarded the scholarship came one year to Bridgeport and the next year they went to India —they saw a lot of India. The only trouble was, summer in India is no picnic. It’s dreadfully hot. In the summer of 1969, I had to go to India to contact all the places where we were going to send our students and work out arrangements. I did that for about six weeks and I travelled through almost the entire subcontinent of India. It was fantastic. It was an around the world trip I came one way and went back the other. I came back through Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.”

Schmidt found these educational excursions to be very interesting and useful, not just for the students, but for him. He still hears from the school teachers he worked with, many of whom are retired now.

“This was an eye opener for many of these people who had never been beyond their school district but we don’t do that in education anymore. They were given a stipend for going to summer school —that was pretty liberal.”

Schmidt’s own history has largely been one of moving in a variety of areas instead of concentrating on one. He had a stint in administration and different fields of history, and he tried to publish in any field that he taught.

AN OLD PRACTITIONER REMEMBERS THE EXCITING DAYS

Schmidt has always been enchanted by the visual remains of an earlier period when he studies history. When he went to Italy, Schmidt was still working on a dissertation in Tudor-Stuart English history. He was still spellbound by Venice and Florence and how Venice of today hasn’t changed very drastically from the Venice of five hundred years ago.

He went to Indiana University in the early ‘60s, had his first sabbatical from Coe College in Iowa and they said, “What do you want to do?” First, he was at Indiana university for a calendar year from September of ‘60 to July or August of ‘61 and he took three years of Russian language and began to have some competence in reading and speaking Russian. Then he took related courses: Russian literature, Soviet economics, eastern European history (because he became interested in eastern Europe in 1956 with the Hungarian revolution and he lectured publicly on Hungary and European history, using the stipend that he received from those lectures to bring a Hungarian revolutionary youth to the college).

He was especially intrigued with Czechoslovakia, since Cedar Rapids has a large population of Czechs, and there is a considerable amount of Polish history there as well. Self critical about his knowledge of European history, Schmidt went to Indiana and took a course in Balkan history. He came to know the head of the Eastern European program, Robert Byrnes, who was very helpful to Schmidt, understanding what Schmidt was trying to do —he was trying to establish himself in another field entirely.

“He drew me aside once, and said, ‘How would you like to go to Russia for a year?’ Now this was 1960 and that was sort of an exciting thing because it was just beginning to open up—it was the time of De-Stalinization. Khrushchev was trying to erase the Stalinist, negative image and he opened it to scholars, and I was in the second group of scholars to go to the Soviet Union in 1961-62. I eventually toured the country and I even tried hitchhiking. That was sort of a daring thing to do, wasn’t it? At that time, my spoken Russian went pretty well I had taken an intensive course on Russian language during the year so I handled spoken Russian reasonably well by the end of it. Then I was asked, ‘what are you going to study?’ and I thought, ‘my God, if I’m going to Russia, I wanted to get an idea of Russian cities, the image of Old Russia.’ That’s what I did, I worked with the books I collected there in Russian architectural history and there weren’t many people in this country who were involved in that so I collected a library which I’m still using.”

“Now since then, there are a number of younger scholars—they’re not young anymore, they’re younger than I—so the field is more populated, but I’m one of the oldest practitioners in the field in this country and so that’s what I went over to work at. I found a mentor in one of my faculty members at a University in Leningrad. Most of the scholars I found in Russia were not very helpful.I think they thought that I was too uninformed, didn’t know enough about this subject, so why should I be wasting their time?

“To some extent, my language was not great but it was good enough. I never had any trouble dealing with people along the street, but as a specialist, it wasn’t really great. One professor became my mentor,I dedicated my article to him, his name was Vladimir I. Piliavsky. He was very helpful, and we struck a bargain. I would send him books on American architecture and he would send me books on Russian architecture. Some years later, my wife joined me in Russia on a visit and he invited us to dine at their home in Leningrad.”

“He is long since deceased, having died in the 1980s, but I enjoyed all this and there were some Russians who treated me royally but there were some who were very disdainful of me. On the other hand, I was high in my praise of aspects of their art, and that pleased them. I was really impressed the classical art which we have here which is so abundant —Mount Vernon, the Federal Triangle, columns, domes and the like, in our capital, are all a part of the neoclassical style, and I didn’t realize that it was so pervasive in Russia, and that goes back to Catherine the Great in the late eighteenth century. I had a genuine interest it was something I could connect with because of my background in Western art style.”

“Just as I became impressed with the images I see, like when I went to France or Britain—to Mont-Saint-Michel, or London’s Wren churches, St. Paul’s Cathedral. I became intrigued and when I went to Russia and saw its landmarks. What I’m trying to do in the present paper is show that there was a very extended interest in classicism in Russian architectural history which isn’t much talked about, especially provincial architecture, and the cities are probably not even very well known. I did travel to many of them.”

The best days as a historian, Schmidt said, is “when I discover something or when I get an idea that is meaningful. Once I came upon the archives of an eighteenth century British law firm deposited in what had been the Lincolnshire county jail. This was in 1984, and I thought, this is a story of a county law firm B. Smith + Co. as it functioned. It was a good discovery but there was nothing personal about it, I knew nothing about the people nor how it would be a readable piece. Then one day I learned there was a retired partner, one Harry Bowden, in the law firm, still living.”

“I notified him that I was a historian and interested in the papers which he himself had deposited in the county archives located in the jail, and he said, ‘why don’t we have lunch?’ We did have lunch and it was then that I learned that he had the diaries of the principal, Benj Smith II, in this law firm from 1796 until 1858. They were daily diaries —I wrote a number of articles dealing with the personalities in the law firm and what they did, especially when I matched the diaries with the records in the jail.”

“While this was truly exciting, the law firm story became more so as that, but after Harry Bowden died. I was contacted by members of the Gould-Smith family of an early principal of the law firm named Benj. Smith. They had not been in touch with this man who was the last partner, Harry Bowden, in the law firm. They wanted to know what I could tell them about their family and the role of Smith II in the law firm. I was able to become virtually a member of the family because they knew far less than I did. We are still very close.”

MEMORIES FROM WORLD WAR II

When World War II ended in 1945, Schmidt was stationed in the Philippines in Manila. He served as a radio operator and supported air-sea rescue operations. He hadn’t had enough time in the Philippines or in service even to expect to be discharged very quickly. “I wanted to do something that would be interesting instead of just booze around, I wasn’t much of a boozer anyway.”

The high school he attended in Louisville was Louisville Boys High where there was a junior ROTC unit. He was in the Army Air Force and did basic training in Texas, and then I went to MacDill Field in Florida. He completed radio training at Scott Field, Illinois, outside St. Louis, and went overseas to New Guinea and the Philippines. Until he went into the service in March of 1943, Schmidt hadn’t travelled anywhere.

After the war ended in September 1945, Schmidt learned that an American military tribunal was going to try the Japanese generals in a war crimes trial in Manila. One was Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese general in charge of troops in Manila who had committed many atrocities, but he was also a famous general because it was he who in 1942 had conquered Singapore from the British and was highly regarded by most of the Japanese generals. Afterwards he had a falling out with his commanders.

Schmidt went to another trial, this time of General Masaharu Homma, who was a commander of the Japanese troops in the Bataan Death March (1942), “which was the greatest atrocity, I suppose, committed by the Japanese against American troops.” Schmidt went into Manila from Clark Field and he sat in every portion of both trials. Then a half century later, he taught both trials when a professor in law school.

For Schmidt, that series of trials was a thrill to have been there and to have taught them later on as a professor. There was a book published in 2015 called Yamashita’s Ghost: War Crimes, MacArthur's Justice, and Command Accountability by Allan A. Ryan and it contained illustrations and photographs of the courtroom where Yamashita was being tried in Manila and a surprised Schmidt found his picture in it —he had been unaware that such a picture existed.

He was also an intern at the United Nations in Lake Success, NY, in the summer of 1950 which was when the Korean War began. “The Korean War was different than any other war. It was not a war of the U.S. versus North Korea, it was technically a war of the UN versus North Korea, because the Soviets had walked out of the Security Council and therefore they were not there to exercise their veto the way they normally did. When President Truman decided to intervene in Korea, it wasn’t a U.S. operation, it was a UN operation, and we really screwed the Russians because they were trying to pin intervention on us but we were just part of a UN operation,” said Schmidt.

“The Soviet delegate, a man by the name of Yakov Malik, came back to the UN and there was a groot furor about what the Soviets were going to do once they got back to the UN. The demand for tickets to go to the Security Council was enormous —there were 20,000 requests for room in this council chamber that held about 800 people. I was working there as an intern that summer and I really wanted to witness the Soviet’s return I knew that the security council layout —a circular room within a circular hall around it. When the time came for the Soviet delegate to return, I walked that hall, trying to find a way to get in, but there were guards at every door. When I passed the door to the main entrance, a guard called for more chairs and I knew where to find them, so I got a chair and walked through the door with the chair and sat right next to the South Korean delegate. I sat there in the whole event. That was my triumphant moment!”

“Of course, the Soviet delegate Malik charged the U.S. with all kinds of high handedness but we outsmarted them on that. It certainly proved to be a UN operation, not a US operation. Now we certainly talk about our involvement in the Korean War, which we were very much a part of, but it was technically not the U.S. against North Korea but the UN against North Korea.”

The last historic work he read that really impressed him was The Vanquished: Why The First World War Failed To End, by Robert Gerwarth. “It was about the post-WW1 period after November 11th,” said Schmidt. “We think of the war as ending on November 11th, 1918. It really didn’t, there were oh-so-many very heated lesser conflicts. The Bolsheviks’ civil war in Russia, German extremists, conflict between the Turks and Greeks, and this was about those conflicts that extended beyond the armistice of 1918. It gives one a better understanding of the chaotic world that didn’t end with the peace treaties of 1918–19.”

Schmidt doesn’t smoke he never had a cigarette in his mouth. He likes bourbon, Jack on the rocks. As a Kentuckian, he likes horses but he doesn’t ride. “We didn’t have a car for years and years. My father was a machinist who made it to the sixth grade and my mom, she graduated from high school.”

He has always been a baseball fan, although he doesn’t go to games as much as he used to. He watches, and he always reads the box scores the morning after. Schmidt knew baseball best in the ‘30s and ‘40s, after Babe Ruth had just retired, Lou Gehrig was still going strong, as was Jimmy Foxx and young Joe DiMaggio.

The biggest adventure he had as a kid was the great Ohio River Valley flood in 1937. “We went out a second-story into a boat to evacuate the house.”

One of Schmidt’s daughters, Elizabeth Schmidt, is a professor of history at Loyola University Maryland. “I never urged her especially to be a historian but it rubbed off evidently, and certainly she’s a far better historian than I am. She’s certainly a far better scholar than I am, she has completed her sixth book! I don’t approach that.”

What’s Schmidt’s drive to continue working? He takes it day by day, he says.


David Rubinger, Whose Iconic Images Etched Israel’s History, Is Dead At 92

JERUSALEM (JTA) — David Rubinger, the Israeli photographer who took the iconic photo of Israeli paratroopers standing in front of the Western Wall after its capture in the Six-Day War, has died.

Rubinger, whose photos chronicled much of the history of the Jewish state, died Thursday. He was 92.

Rubinger was awarded the Israel Prize for his body of work in 1997, the first photographer to receive the award. He reportedly took 500,000 photos of Israeli people and events during his career.

An immigrant to Israel from Austria, he arrived in Israel in 1939 at 15 and fought in 1944 with the Jewish Brigade, a military division of the British army led by British-Jewish officers in Europe.

He began his career as a photojournalist in 1955 with the daily HaOlam Hazeh and then for Yediot Acharonot. He was also Time-Life’s main photographer in Israel for five decades, beginning in 1954. He also served as the Knesset’s official photographer for 30 years.

The photo at the Western Wall was taken on June 7, 1967, after paratroopers pushed into the Old City of Jerusalem and reached the narrow space between the Western Wall and the houses that faced it at the time. Rubinger maintained that the photo wasn’t successful from an artistic perspective but that its wide distribution has made it famous.

His own favorite work, he told interviewer Yossi Klein Halevi in 2007, depicted a blind boy who arrived as a new immigrant in Israel in the 1950s stroking a relief map of Israel.

“I call it, ‘Seeing the Homeland,’” Rubinger told Halevi.

Israeli President Reuven Rivlin eulogized Rubinger in a statement.

“There are those who write the pages of history, and there are those who illustrate them through their camera’s lens,” Rivlin said. “Through his photography, David eternalized history as it will be forever etched in our memories. His work will always be felt as it is seen in the eyes of the paratroopers as they looked upon the Western Wall, and in the expressions on the faces of the leaders of Israel, which he captured during the highest of highs and lowest of lows.”

David Rubinger, Whose Iconic Images Etched Israel’s History, Is Dead At 92


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