Slag van Cape Gloucester, 26 Desember 1943-April 1944

Slag van Cape Gloucester, 26 Desember 1943-April 1944


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Slag van Cape Gloucester, 26 Desember 1943-April 1944

Die slag van Cape Gloucester (26 Desember 1943-April 1944) was die belangrikste Amerikaanse aanval tydens Operasie Behendigheid, die inval in Wes-Nieu-Brittanje, en is uitgevoer om beheer oor die Dampier- en Vitiazstraat tussen New Britain en New te verseker Ierland.

Die westelike punt van New Britain was om twee redes belangrik. Eerstens sou die Geallieerdes hul greep op Rabaul, die magtige Japannese basis aan die noordpunt van die eiland, kon verskerp. Tweedens sou dit die Geallieerdes beheer gee oor die Dampierstraat, wat tussen New Britain en die kleiner eiland Umboi (of Rooke) geloop het. Die geallieerde veldtog op die Huon -skiereiland het hulle beheer gegee oor die Straat Vitiaz, tussen Umboi en Nieu -Guinee. Sodra albei seestraat in geallieerde hande was, kon hulle gebruik word om te stuur verder wes langs die kus van Nieu -Guinee, en uiteindelik met die terugkeer na die Filippyne.

Die Japannese het besluit dat 'n inval in Wes -Nieu -Brittanje waarskynlik die volgende beweging van die Geallieerdes sou wees. In September is generaal Iwao Matsuda van Rabaul na die westelike punt van die eiland gestuur. In Oktober het die 17de afdeling Rabaul uit China begin bereik, en die meeste daarvan is toe wes beveel om by Matsuda aan te sluit. Toe die Amerikaners land, het die Japannese die 65ste brigade, die 4de skeepsgroep en deel van die 17de afdeling in Cape Gloucester, ongeveer 10 000 man.

Die aanval sou deur die Amerikaanse mariniers onder generaal William Rupertus uitgevoer word. Die plan was vir 'n tweeledige aanval aan weerskante van Kaap Gloucester. Die 2de Bataljon, 1st Marine Division, sou aanval by Tauali, aan die westekant van die skiereiland, en die hoofpad afsny en die Japannese verdedigers afsonder. Combat Team C, van die 7de Marines, sou land in Borgenbaai, oos van die skiereiland en 'n strandkop vestig. Hulle sou dan saamgevoeg word met Combat Team B, wat bestaan ​​uit die res van die 1st Marines. Gevegspan B sou binneland toe vorder en die Japannese vliegveld op die kaap verower.

Elf dae voor die aanvang van die Cape Gloucester het 'n ander mag by Arawe aan die suidkus van Wes -New Britain geland. Dit was 'n afleidingsaanval wat bedoel was om Japannese aandag van Cape Gloucester af te trek. Die Japannese het wel 'n paar troepe vir hierdie geveg toegewy, maar die stadige bewegingsnelheid op die eiland het beteken dat dit nie veel invloed op die gevegte by Cape Gloucester gehad het nie.

Die westelike landings het sonder probleme verloop. Toe die mariniers die oggend van 26 Desember land, vind hulle die Japannese verdediging rondom Tauali verlate en kry geen weerstand nie. Teen die einde van die dag het hulle die pad langs die weskus van die Kaap versper.

In die ooste was daar meer probleme, maar dit is meestal deur die terrein veroorsaak. Verkenning voor die inval het voorgestel dat daar 'n klam plat gebied agter die strande was, maar dit blyk 'n diep moeras te wees. Die eerste Amerikaanse dood van die inval is eintlik veroorsaak deur 'n boom wat in die moeras val, ondermyn deur Amerikaanse artillerievuur. Ten spyte van die moeilike terrein het die 7de Marines daarin geslaag om oor die moeras te kom sonder om 'n groot weerstand te ondervind en 'n posisie op droërgrond ongeveer 900 meter in die binneland gevestig.

Die eerste mariniers het toe soos beplan deur hulle gegaan en begin vorder na die vliegveld. Hulle het die eerste Japannese verdediging, 'n netwerk van vier bunkers, raakgeloop en 'n geruime tyd gehou. Uiteindelik het 'n Amtrak wat die binneland genoem is, daarin geslaag om een ​​bunker te vernietig, en hierdie gaping in die netwerk het die mariniers in staat gestel om die res af te handel.

Op 27 Desember ry die mariniers drie myl langs die kuspad na die vliegveld.

In die nag van 27-28 Desember het die Japannese 'n hewige teenaanval teen die oorspronklike landingspunt geloods. Die aanval het misluk en die Japannese minstens 200 sterftes gekos.

Op 28 Desember het die mariniers 'n sterker verdedigingsposisie gekry, hierdie keer van twaalf bunkers, met meer as 250 man. Teen hierdie tyd het die mariniers hul tenks geland, en 'n kombinasie van 75 mm HE -skulpe en infanterie het hierdie posisie vinnig uitgeskakel. Die Amerikaners het 9 dood en 36 gewond verloor, die Japannese minstens 266 dood. Die mariniers het die gebied Hell's Point gekry, maar die opposisie is baie vinniger oorkom as wat dit sou suggereer.

Op 29 Desember bereik die mariniers die oostelike punt van die vliegveld en kom uit die oerwoud. In die verwagting dat hulle hewige weerstand sou ontmoet, het hulle vir 'n formele aanval opgestel, met die tenks ondersteun deur infanteriegroepe en artillerie, maar die Japannese het in geen getalle verskyn nie en die vliegveld is baie vinnig ingeneem.

Die Japannese verskyn weer op 30 Desember. Hulle het tydens die Amerikaanse aanval skuiling na die suide van die vliegveld geneem en nou 'n banzai -aanval uitgevoer. Soos gereeld was dit 'n totale mislukking, en die oorlewendes het in die middel van die skiereiland die berge ingevlug.

Die nuutgevangde vliegveld het baie moeite gedoen om weer in gebruik te neem. Amerikaanse aanvalle het 27 beskadigde Japannese vliegtuie oor die aanloopbane laat lê, die grond het in modder verander en die gebied het nou onder Japannese aanval gekom. Tog was die vliegveld middel Februarie gereed vir sy eerste geallieerde vliegtuie.

Dit het nie die gevegte rondom Cape Gloucester beëindig nie. Die Japannese het nog steeds 'n groot aantal troepe in die suide van Borgenbaai gehad, en was moontlik binne die artilleriegebied van die vliegveld. Die terrein in hierdie gebied was tipies van die wat in 'n groot deel van die Nieu -Guinee -veldtog teëgekom het, met 'n reeks steil rande wat oorheers is deur die oerwoud wat lei na Hill 660, die sleutelposisie in die gebied. Die Japannese het bunkers en plase op die meeste van hierdie rante gebou en sou om die beurt uit elkeen gesit moes word. Baie min wapens was effektief op hierdie terrein. Die tenks wat so effektief was op die pad na die vliegveld, kon dit nie hanteer nie. Basoeka's en vlamgooiers het 'n groot deel van hul impak in die nat gebied verloor, terwyl die dik blare beteken dat mortiere, granate en artillerie ondoeltreffend teen die bunkers was. Die antwoord was om regtig naby te kom en plofstof te gebruik om die bunkers te vernietig.

Dit het die Marines die eerste helfte van Januarie geneem om die twee myl tussen die landingsposisies en Hill 660 te vorder. Op 12 Januarie was die heuwel die teiken van 'n kragtige lug- en artilleriebombardement, en op 13 Januarie die 3de Bataljon, 7de Marines (kolonel) Buse), het hul eerste aanval op die heuwel gemaak. Die hoofaanval is uit die noordweste gedoen, terwyl 'n tweede losskakel met 'n gepantserde stootskraper na die suide gestuur is om die verdedigers af te sny. Die hoofaanval het misluk, maar die stootskraperpartytjie, onder kaptein Joseph Buckley, het dit reggekry.

Die mariniers het weer op 14 Januarie aangeval, en hierdie keer kon hulle met steun van 60 mm mortiere die kruin van die heuwel bereik. Die Japanners is gedwing om terug te trek in die omringende oerwoud, terwyl baie van hulle Buckley se padblokkade raakgeloop het. 'N Paar dae se geringe skermutselings het gevolg voordat die Japannese kort voor dagbreek op 16 Januarie 'n laaste banzai -aanval op die heuwel gedoen het. Hulle het op sommige plekke die kruin bereik, maar is uiteindelik met groot verliese afgeweer. Die stryd om Hill 660 kos die mariniers 50 dood en gewond, terwyl die Japannese 200 dood is.

Die vang van Hill 660 het die Cape Gloucester -gebied verseker. Die mariniers het daarna stadig oos gevorder om hulself 'n sterk verdedigende omtrek te gee. Hul finale teiken was die Willaumez -skiereiland en die vliegveld by Talasea. Op 6 Maart het hulle 'n nuwe amfibiese aanval by Talasea uitgevoer, en na 'n paar dae het gevegte die gebied oorgeneem. Dit was die effektiewe einde van die Amerikaanse veldtog op New Britain, en einde April is die mariniers verlig deur die 40ste afdeling van die weermag.


Wikipedia: ewekniebeoordeling/Slag van Cape Gloucester/argief1

Ek het hierdie artikel vir ewekniebeoordeling gelys, want ek hoop om hierdie artikel binnekort na GA te neem en wil graag terugvoer gee oor enigiets wat ontbreek, of dinge wat verbeter kan word voordat ek dit doen. Dankie aan almal wat kom inloer. Dankie, AustralianRupert (kontak) 01:22, 3 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

  • Stel voor dat 'n legende in die onderskrif ingesluit word vir die kaart van die disposisie. Nikkimaria (kontak) 01:12, 5 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
    • Dankie, Nikki. Bygevoeg. AustralianRupert (kontak) 11:00, 6 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

    Kommentaar Die artikel is beslis in 'n goeie toestand. Ek wil die volgende opmerkings en voorstelle lewer:

    • Die materiaal op die agtergrond van hierdie geveg kan sterker gefokus word op die lugveldtog teen Rabaul, en let op die omvang en doel van hierdie poging.
      • Het 'n bietjie bygevoeg, maar weet nie of dit regtig die punt bereik nie: [1]. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 09:23, 10 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
      • Klaar. AustralianRupert (kontak) 10:16, 8 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
      • Verdeel in 'n onderafdeling van die agtergrond. AustralianRupert (kontak) 11:00, 6 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
      • Het 'n voorbereidingsafdeling in 'n aparte Prelude geskep. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 09:49, 12 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
      • Bygevoeg. Ek moes 'n paar beelde skuif, maar ek dink dit werk nou. AustralianRupert (kontak) 11:00, 6 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
      • Dankie, Nick, ek sal die naweek aan hierdie opmerkings werk. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 11:00, 6 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
        • @Nick-D: Dag. Nick, as u 'n rukkie het, kan u na my veranderings kyk en my laat weet of dit aan u bedoeling voldoen? Dankie vir jou tyd. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 09:56, 2 Maart 2018 (UTC)
          • Daardie veranderinge lyk vir my goed, en die artikel moet deur GA- en A-klas-resensies deurloop. Die paragraaf oor die Japannese gevegsorde is 'n goeie werk op sigself, gegewe hoe verbasend ingewikkeld hierdie onderwerp is (as u regtig 'n konynwarrende wil onderneem om die artikel uit te brei, kan die Japannese opbou meer gedek word besonderhede). Ek sal dalk 'n bietjie meer wil byvoeg oor die lugagtergrond, deels om my te versag vir 'n beplande artikel oor die lugveldtog teen Rabaul. Nick-D (kontak) 10:23, 2 Maart 2018 (UTC)
            • Cheers, Nick, enige byvoegings sal baie welkom wees. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 10:25, 2 Maart 2018 (UTC)

            Hersiening deur Cinderella157 Redigeer

            Hallo, @AustralianRupert, ek is jammer dat ek nie saamstem met Nick en IMHO nie, die artikel het waarskynlik nog 'n bietjie werk nodig - alhoewel dit 'n goeie idee is om GA of A Class te ontmoet. Enkele aanvanklike waarnemings is:

            Aanvanklike opmerkings wysig
            • Daar is 'n mate van ruimte om die prosa te verbeter: leesbaarheid, duidelikheid en ekonomie.
            • Ten minste een (soort) fout het duidelik geword na 'n kort oorsig van die bronne
              • "Die mag kom aan boord van verskillende tipes vaartuie, insluitend APD's" - dit is deur die APD vervoer en in die landingsvaartuie afgelaai.
                • Aangepaste. AustralianRupert (kontak) 10:16, 8 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                • Ja, hulle is PD. AustralianRupert (kontak) 10:16, 8 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                  • Nou kaarte aangepas. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 07:38, 9 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                    • Ek sou dink dat Map 22, bl. 302, Shaw & amp Kane dalk beter is as die eerste kaart, aangesien dit meer van die plekke wat bespreek word toon? Cinderella157 (kontak) 09:55, 9 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                      • Ek wil die eerste kaart behou, aangesien die skepper baie moeite daaraan gedoen het. Watter plekke wil u byvoeg? Ek sal kyk of dit aangepas kan word. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 10:13, 9 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                        • Long Island, Rooke Is, Goodenough Is, Gasmata en Talasea. Die teks "Madang" kan van kant verander. Die lettergrootte vir Lae, Wau en sommige ander is groter as Madang. Ek dink hier 'n bietjie vooruit. As dit in algemene met 'n beter resolusie gestoor word, kan afdelings gesny en vir individuele bladsye gestoor word. Die noordpunt en ligging kan 'n probleem wees. As u meer in die algemeen dink, kan dit goed wees om 'n paar punte by te voeg (alles tegelyk) - sê: Wide Bay, Open Bay, Admiralty Islands (Manus Is), Kirawina Is, Woodlark Is, Normanby Is, Fergusson Is en enige ander relevante punte, soos Shortland -eilande en die Treasurys. 'N Paar gedagtes. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 01:59, 11 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                          • Moenie bekommerd wees nie, 'n versoek is bygevoeg op die skepper se besprekingsbladsy. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 04:26, 11 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                            • Die kaart is nou opgedateer. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 07:16, 17 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                              • Hi, twee "foute" wat spring. Gasmata ontbreek 'n 'a' en Telasea is te laag - ongeveer halfpad tussen waar dit nou is en die vernouing voor die einde van die kaap en aan die oostelike kus, soos getoon (sien [2]). Cape Sudest word 'n paar keer genoem ([3]). In die omstandighede is dit ook die moeite werd om by te voeg. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 07:48, 17 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Moenie bekommerd wees nie, ek het 'n opmerking op Chris se besprekingsbladsy geplaas om te sien of hy dit nog 'n bietjie kan aanpas. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 08:02, 17 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

                                Sal graag saam met u hieraan wil werk. Ek sou my kop moes kry om die beskikbare (aanlyn) materiaal. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 13:09, 7 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

                                Dit sal wonderlik wees. Gelukkig vir enige hulp wat ek kan kry. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 10:16, 8 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

                                Strukturele kommentaar Redigeer

                                @AustralianRupert, ek het die OH's hersien tot die mate wat dit in die Battle -afdeling behandel word. Dit wek kommer wat opgelos en/of versoen moet word, en dui op 'n strukturele verandering en miskien uitbreiding. Die infoboks gee die stryd aan as "26 Desember 1943 - 22 April 1944". Ek het gekyk na die New Britain -veldtog en die Cape Gloucester -afdeling. Dit dek die Slag van Talasea. Vanaf die einde van die Gloucester -afdeling:

                                Medio Januarie versoek Sakai toestemming om sy bevel uit Wes-Nieu-Brittanje terug te trek, en dit is op 21 van die maand deur Imamura toegestaan. Die Japannese magte het daarna probeer om van die Amerikaners los te kom en na die Talasea -gebied te beweeg. [46] Mariene patrollies het die Japannese agtervolg, en 'n groot aantal klein verbintenisse is in die middel van die eiland en langs die noordkus gevoer.

                                Hierdie artikel dek nie die Green Beach-landings deur LT 21, hul onttrekking en trou nie. Dit dek ook nie die opmars na Borgenbaai nie. LT 21 was 'n integrale deel van die operasie. Ek dink dat daar ruimte is om die gevegsafdeling uit te brei, ten minste tot die punt wat in die Slag van Talasea lei, of 'n skakel met magte van Arawe (wat ooit eerste kom)? Vir 'n deel hiervan let ek op die datums wat in die inligtingsblokkie gegee word. Ek weet nie hoekom dit gekies is nie (dit wil sê 'n bron), maar middel Januarie (volgens die aanhaling) lyk meer in ooreenstemming met gebeure? Aan die ander kant, Rooke Is. is dit nie 'n intrinsieke deel van hierdie op nie, maar verskyn dit tog in die Slag -afdeling?

                                In 'n soortgelyke trant begin die artikel met 'n vol stoom (detail) wat na die strandkoppe beweeg, maar dit lyk asof dit sy pof (IMHO) verloor? Miskien bied hierdie ander dinge 'n einde aan die aksie.

                                Die Slagafdeling word afgesluit met 'n opsomming van die slagoffers? Behalwe as 'n tussentydse opsomming, sou ek dink dat dit meer na die nadraai lei? Die basisontwikkeling begin binne die tyd van die Slagafdeling. Miskien is dit beter om 'n hoofafdeling te wees tussen die Slag en die nasleep. Net so kan die opruiming beter deel uitmaak van die geveg. The Aftermath sal dan handel oor ongevalle, die daaropvolgende ontwikkeling (op New Britain en in die SWPA), 'n ontleding van die aksie en 'n breër analise (en let op dat laasgenoemde maar nie eersgenoemde gedek word nie). Ek dink Hough bied iets op eersgenoemde, soos die waarde van die Green Beach -landings. Kortom, ek dink dat sommige besonderhede op die verkeerde plekke in die struktuur is.

                                Ek hoop dit is duidelik genoeg. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 12:22, 22 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

                                • Wat die datum in die infobox betref, glo ek dat dit uit hierdie bron kom: [4], wat blykbaar die datum gebruik waarop die mariniers verlig is. 'N Datum van 16 Januarie word ondersteun deur Shaw & Kane p. 389 as die einde van die georganiseerde verdediging: "Die vang van Hill 660 en die afweer van die teenaanval om dit weer in te neem, was die effektiewe einde van die Japannese verdediging van die Kaapse Gloucester-Borgenbaai-gebied". Ek kan hierby aanpas as u dit die beste dink.
                                • Ek dink dat die infoboks die omvang van die artikel moet weerspieël - so ja, ek dink dit moet aangepas word. 16 Jan klink in ooreenstemming met die artikel. Talasea val binne die datums van hierdie artikel, dus dit word problematies - beide dat Talasea 'n aparte artikel is en dat dit nie in die Battle -afdeling hier behandel word nie. Dit is egter gepas om die bronne te versoen. Dit kan met 'n nota gedoen word. Maar dit kan ook in die nadraai aangespreek word. Gegewe die status van die artikel, sou ek op die oomblik nie notas uitsluit nie (in teenstelling met Torakina - waar die artikel in 'n beter toestand was). Ek merk ook op dat "aantekeninge" -notas nie apart van aanhalings (verkorte voetnotas) hoef te word nie. Dit kan 'n opsie wees waar daar slegs baie min aantekeninge is. Cinderella157 (kontak) 11:42, 23 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Aangepas met verduideliking in teks. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 09:53, 2 Maart 2018 (UTC)
                                • Met betrekking tot u opmerking "is Rooke Is. Nie 'n intrinsieke deel van hierdie opmerking nie": bedoel u Long Island? Indien wel, ja, ek stem saam dat dit geskuif kan word. Ek wonder of dit beter kan wees in die afdeling Voorbereidings of in die nasleep?
                                • Ja, my fout. Stel nadraai voor. Cinderella157 (kontak) 11:42, 23 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Nou verhuis. Daar is ook melding gemaak van die landing op Rooke Island in 44 Februarie. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 02:39, 25 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Wat die ongevalle betref, is dit op 8 Februarie na die nadraai verskuif: [5].
                                • Ek het verwys na: "Die posisie is uiteindelik verseker op 16 Januarie 1944 waartydens 50 mariniers en meer as 200 Japannese dood is. Die verowering van hierdie posisie verteenwoordig die einde van die Japannese verdedigingsoperasies in die Kaapse Gloucester- en Borgenbaai -gebiede." Soos dit tans is, skep hierdie figuur 'n skynbare inkonsekwentheid met die nasleep en moet dit moontlik versoen word. Soos ek hierbo gesê het, is tussenfigure egter nie onvanpas in die Battle -afdeling nie. Cinderella157 (kontak) 11:42, 23 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Moenie bekommerd wees nie, ek het die bewoording nou aangepas om dit hopelik duideliker te maak dat die syfers tussenin is en slegs betrekking het op die gevegte rondom Hill 660. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 02:39, 25 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Met betrekking tot die Green Beach -landing word dit behandel in die paragraaf wat begin met "Die Japannese verdediging rondom die westelike landing.". Stem egter saam, dit moet uitgebrei word. Intussen het ek die paragraaf effens aangepas om dit duideliker te maak watter landing met watter strand verband hou.
                                • Verdeel nou in sy eie afdeling. Bygevoeg besonderhede van 'n paar van die botsings en die belangrikste betrokkenheid en die daaropvolgende ineenstorting en skakel. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 02:39, 25 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Die opmars na Borgenbaai word behandel in die paragraaf wat begin "In die daaropvolgende weke het Amerikaanse troepe suidwaarts na Borgenbaai gedruk." Stem egter saam dat dit uitgebrei kan word.
                                • Verdeel nou in sy eie afdeling. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 02:39, 25 Februarie 2018 (UTC)
                                • Ek het die basisontwikkeling in sy eie afdeling verdeel met 'n vlak twee -opskrif, aangesien dit waarskynlik nie heeltemal in die Battle -afdeling hoort nie, en ook nie heeltemal deel is van die Aftermath nie. Groete, AustralianRupert (kontak) 09:15, 23 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

                                Hallo @AustralianRupert, daar is waarskynlik 'n mate van ruimte om die evolusie van die plan te bespreek, veral omdat dit ontstaan ​​het deur die verdeling van die krag in twee aanvallende elemente en 'n landing in die lug. Redes waarom dit na die finale plan verander het en vertraag is weens die beskikbaarheid van aflewering. Daar is ook die toewysing van take, met die 5de mariniers 'n reserwe? Die logistieke plan en hoe dit afgespeel het. Die beweging van die mag na die landing, insluitend die misleidingplan. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 02:14, 25 Februarie 2018 (UTC)

                                Moenie bekommerd wees nie, ek sal ook hierna kyk. Die vyfde mariniers wat in die reservaat is, word tans egter al twee keer genoem, so ek sal dit waarskynlik nie weer noem nie. AustralianRupert (kontak) 02:39, 25 Februarie 2018 (UTC) Ek het die ontwikkeling van die plan baie interessant gevind in die OH's. Ek dink dit kan meer as 'n afdeling ontwikkel word. Sien die Slag van Arawe. Terwyl ek dinge gelees het, was die aanvanklike plan 'n aanval op Gasmata en Cape Glocester deur 1st Marine Div. Verskoon my as ek die "besonderhede" verkeerd verstaan. Ek het hulle nie dubbel nagegaan nie. My punt is die breë prentjie, die aanvanklike plan en hoe dit ontwikkel het. Die aanvanklike plan was om 1 Marine tussen Gasmata en Cape G. te verdeel. By Cape G sou dit twee losies van soortgelyke grootte (oos en wes) en 'n para -daling hê (gegewe dat MacA paras toegeken het). Japannese versterking aan Gasmata het hierdie deel doodgemaak en die alternatief was vir Arawe met die Cav. Dit het die Div vrygemaak om as 'n formasie te werk (behalwe dat 5 Marine Regt in reserwe was). Die aanvanklike plan was vir die maan in November, maar die vloot het dit vertraag as gevolg van landings in NG. Die aanvanklike plan vir Cape G was vir twee losies en 'n para drop. Die mariniers was nie tevrede met die verdeling van hul krag nie (beginsel is om krag te konsentreer). Die hersiening het aan Green Beach 'n beperkte taak gebied. Ek dink dat al hierdie punte veral 'n eer aan die mariniers is, en die artikel moet dit weerspieël - selfs al is dit 'n geval van lees tussen die lyne. Die gevegspanne A, B en C was nie so duidelik op regimentlyne gedefinieer as wat die plan ontwikkel het nie? Wat die logistieke plan betref, dink ek dat dit besonder goed gevorm is, maar dit word nie so in die artikel voorgestel nie. Daar is die algemene beplanningsfaktore volgens die omvang van die aanbod wat aanvanklik geland moet word, ens. Daar is ook 'n beplanning oor hoe dit bereik moet word - die laai op vragmotors teen grootmaat vrag en die plan vir verspreiding na 'sub dump' eerder as druk op die groot stortingsterreine. Dit is 'n mate van 'subtiel' in beplanning wat ek gewoonlik nie met die VSA assosieer nie. Hoe gebeurtenisse na die eerste skoot 'n ander probleem is. Daar was duidelik hik, soos die weermagbestuurders en die terrein. Is dit dalk 'n gedeelte in die Slag? Die aanvang en verhuising kan 'n aparte afdeling wees? Die konvooi het aanvanklik as 'n bedrog na Finschaffen verhuis? Die landingsmagte was afsonderlik, selfs al konvooi hulle aanvanklik saam. Die verskillende toewysings moet duidelik gemaak word. Die vuurpyl wat DUWK's afgevuur het, het nie die hele pad afgelê nie - hulle is uitgestyg. Maar die teks lees asof hulle dit gedoen het? Daar was LCP's met vuurpyle wat die flanke aangeneem het vir die geel strandlandings (nie genoem nie?) Die Blue beach -landings was beduidend (al het dit nie sonder probleme verloop nie. Ek het gesoek na "blou" sonder om terug te keer? Hoop dit help. Ek is jammer om te wys eerder as om te skiet. Ek moet slaap. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 16:14, 26 Februarie 2018 (UTC) Dankie, ek sal aanhou werk daaraan. Kan u asseblief 'n ref wat sê dat hulle na Finschhafen verhuis het as 'n bedrog? kyk en kom terug na u toe. Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 09:20, 27 Februarie 2018 (UTC) Met verskoning blyk dit dat ek verkeerd was. Groete Cinderella157 (kontak) 09:46, 27 Februarie 2018 (UTC) Moenie bekommerd wees nie, dankie dat u teruggekeer het. Groete, Australiese Rupert (kontak) 10:43, 27 Februarie 2018 (UTC) Dink ek het die meeste van hierdie punte nou bedek. Groete, Australi anRupert (kontak) 09:53, 2 Maart 2018 (UTC) Ek sal na dinge kyk as ek 'n kans kry (as dit te warm is om buite te wees). Groete, Cinderella157 (kontak) 10:51, 2 Maart 2018 (UTC)


                                Eerste vlootkruis, Nicaragua

                                As eerste luitenant verdien Chesty sy eerste vlootkruis vir die bevel oor 'n Nicaraguaanse National Guard -eenheid. Van Februarie tot Augustus 1930 het Chesty vyf suksesvolle verbintenisse teen 'n groot aantal gewapende bandiete gelei, wat die vyandelike magte elke keer heeltemal gelei het, volgens sy toekenning.

                                "Deur sy intelligente en kragtige leierskap sonder om te dink aan sy eie persoonlike veiligheid, deur groot fisieke inspanning en deur baie ontberings, het luitenant Puller alle struikelblokke oorkom en vyf opeenvolgende en ernstige houe teen georganiseerde bandiete in die Republiek Nicaragua getref," lui sy aanhaling. .


                                Slag van Cape Gloucester

                                Die Slag van Cape Gloucester is tussen 26 Desember 1943 en 16 Januarie 1944 in die Stille Oseaan -teater van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog tussen Japannese en geallieerde magte op die eiland New Britain, Territory of New Guinea, gevoer.

                                Die Amerikaanse landing, genaamd Operation Backhander, vorm deel van die breër Operation Cartwheel, die belangrikste strategie van die geallieerde in die Suidwes -Stille Oseaan -gebied en die Stille Oseaan -gebiede gedurende 1943–1944. Dit was die tweede landing wat die Amerikaanse 1st Marine Division tot dusver tydens die oorlog uitgevoer het, ná Guadalcanal. Die doel van die operasie was om die twee Japannese vliegvelde naby Cape Gloucester vas te lê wat deur elemente van die Japanse 17de afdeling verdedig is.

                                Arthur Pendleton

                                ARTHUR PENDLETON – Korporaal, 1st Marine Division (Kompanie H, 2de Bataljon, 1st Division) Op 2 Januarie 1942, op 20 -jarige ouderdom, bevind Arthur hom onder 'n klein groepie rekrute wat na Paryseiland, Suid -Carolina, [Lees meer]


                                Slag van Cape Gloucester, 26 Desember 1943 - April 1944 - Geskiedenis

                                Die vang van die Cape Gloucester -vliegvelde

                                Die algehele plan van die 1ste mariene afdeling het 'n beroep op kolonel Frisbie se gevegspan C, die versterkte 7de mariniers, gehad om 'n strandkop vas te hou wat by Target Hill geanker was, terwyl gevegspan B, kolonel William A. Walvis se eerste mariniers, versterk, maar sonder die 2d -bataljon aan die strand by Green Beach, gevorder op die vliegvelde. As gevolg van die opbou ter voorbereiding van die aanval op Conoley se bataljon, het generaal Rupertus versoek dat Kreuger die afdelingsreserwe, Combat Team A, kolonel John T. Selden se versterkte 5de mariniers vrylaat. Die weermaggeneraal het ingestem en die 1ste en 2de bataljon gestuur, 'n dag later gevolg deur die 3d bataljon. Die afdelingsbevelvoerder het besluit om die span op Blue Beach, ongeveer drie kilometer regs van die Yellow Beaches, te laat beland. Die gebruik van Blue Beach sou die 5de mariniers nader aan Cape Gloucester en die vliegvelde geplaas het, maar nie elke element van Selden se gevegspan A het die woord gekry nie. Sommige eenhede het eerder op die geel strande geraak en moes te voet of in voertuie na die bestemde bestemming beweeg.

                                Terwyl Rupertus planne beraam het om die reservaat te verbind, het Whaling se gevegspan gevorder na die Kaapse Gloucester -vliegvelde. Die mariniers het aanvanklik slegs sporadiese weerstand ondervind, maar ligte bomwerpers van die Army Air Forces het gevaar op hul pad gesien en 'n doolhof van loopgrawe en bunkers wat in die binneland strek vanaf 'n voorval wat gou die bynaam Hell's Point gekry het. Die Japannese het hierdie verdediging gebou om die strande te beskerm waar Matsuda verwag het dat die Amerikaners sou land. Onder leiding van die opmars het die 3d bataljon, 1st Marines, onder luitenant-kolonel Hankins, die Hell's Point-posisie op die flank geslaan, eerder as om reguit te wees, maar om die kompleks te oorkom, sou egter 'n dodelike taak wees.

                                Reën en bytende insekte

                                Aangedryf deur moessonwinde, het die reën wat die aanval op Conoley se 2d Bataljon, 7de Marines, geteister het, die hele eiland deurdrenk en almal daarop. Aan die voorkant het die stortvloed jakkalsgate oorstroom, en die toestande was net effens beter agter, waar sommige mans in 'n oerwoud hangmat tussen twee bome geslaap het. 'N Marine het sy hangmat deur 'n opening in 'n muskietnet binnegegaan, op 'n lengte van rubberdoek gelê en die net toegemaak. Bo hom, wat ook in die net toegemaak was, het 'n rubberdeksel gespan om hom teen reën te beskerm. Ongelukkig het 'n storm net so sterk soos die een wat op die aand van D-Day begin waai het, dat die deksel soos 'n los seil klap en die reën binne-in die hangmat gedryf het. In die donker kan 'n rukwind 'n boom ontwortel, verswak deur oorstromings of die gevolg van die voorbereidende bombardement, en dit laat neerstort. 'N Vallende boom val op 'n hangmat wat deur een van die mariniers beset is, wat sou verdrink het as iemand nie met 'n mes deur die bedekking gesny en hom vrygemaak het nie.

                                Die reën van die moesson oorstroom 'n veldkombuis in Cape Gloucester, wat klagtes oor waterige sop regverdig. Departement van Verdediging (USMC), foto 72821

                                Die reën, sê luitenant -kolonel Lewis J. Fields, 'n bataljonbevelvoerder in die 11de Marines, lyk soos ''n waterval wat oor jou stort, en dit hou aan en aan.' Die eerste stortvloed het vyf dae geduur, en herhalende storms het nog twee weke voortgeduur. Nat uniforms het nooit regtig gedroog nie, en die mans het voortdurend gely aan swaminfeksies, die sogenaamde oerwoudvrot, wat maklik tot oop sere ontwikkel het. Die muskietgedraagde malaria bedreig die gesondheid van die mariniers, wat ook met ander insekte te kampe gehad het met 'klein swart miertjies, rooi miertjies, groot rooimiere' op 'n eiland waar 'selfs die ruspes byt'. Die Japannese het moontlik nog meer gely weens 'n tekort aan medisyne en probleme met die verspreiding van wat beskikbaar was, maar dit was 'n skande troos vir mariniers wat deur ongemak en siektes gepla was. Einde Januarie 1944 het siektes of nie-gevegsbeserings die ontruiming van meer as 'n duisend mariniers genoodsaak, meer as een uit elke tien het reeds in New Britain diens gedoen.

                                Die moerasse en oerwoude van die eiland sou moeilik gewees het sonder die wind, reën en siektes. Soms kon die soldate wat in die slag was, nie meer as 'n paar meter voor hulle sien nie. Beweging was onmoontlik, veral waar die reën die land oorstroom het of die vulkaniese grond in gladde modder verander het. Geen wonder dat die assistent -afdelingsbevelvoerder, brigadier -generaal Lemuel C. Shepherd, jr., Die veldtog van New Britain vergelyk het met "Grant's fight through the Wilderness in the Civil War" nie.

                                Oorstromings as gevolg van die stortvloed van die moesson maak die lewe ellendig, selfs in die vergelykende gemak van die agterste gebiede. Departement van Verdediging (USMC) foto 72463

                                Rupertus vertraag die aanval deur Hankins om tyd te gee vir die afdelingsreserwe, Selden se 5de mariniers, om aan wal te kom. Op die oggend van 28 Desember, na 'n bombardement deur die 2d Bataljon, 11de Marines, en aanvalle deur Army Air Forces A-20s, het die aanvalstroepe nog 'n vertraging ondervind en 'n uur gewag sodat 'n ekstra peloton M4 Sherman medium tenks kon verhoog die gewig van die aanval. Teen 1100 het Hankins se 3d bataljon, 1st Marines, vorentoe beweeg, Kompanjie I en die tenks wat voorlê. Omtrent dieselfde tyd het walvisjagte sy kompanie A van sy regiment deur moeras en oerwoud gestuur om die binnelandse punt van die rant wat uit Hell's Point strek, te gryp. Ondanks die struikelblokke op sy pad, het Company A omstreeks 1145 uit die oerwoud gebars en oor 'n veld met hoë gras gevorder totdat dit deur intense Japannese vuur gestop is. Teen laatmiddag het Whaling die maneuver laat vaar. Both Company A and the defenders were exhausted and short of ammunition the Marines withdrew behind a barrage fired by the 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, and the Japanese abandoned their positions after dark.

                                Roughly 15 minutes after Company A assaulted the inland terminus of the ridge, Company I and the attached tanks collided with the main defenses, which the Japanese had modified since the 26 December landings, cutting new gunports in bunkers, hacking fire lanes in the undergrowth, and shifting men and weapons to oppose an attack along the coastal trail parallel to shore instead of over the beach. Advancing in a drenching rain, the Marines encountered a succession of jungle covered, mutually supporting positions protected by barbed wire and mines. The hour's wait for tanks paid dividends, as the Shermans, protected by riflemen, crushed bunkers and destroyed the weapons inside. During the fight, Company I drifted to its left, and Hankins used Company K, reinforced with a platoon of medium tanks, to close the gap between the coastal track and Hell's Point itself. This unit employed the same tactics as Company I. A rifle squad followed each of the M4 tanks, which cracked open the bunkers, twelve in all, and fired inside the accompanying riflemen then killed anyone attempting to fight or flee. More than 260 Japanese perished in the fighting at Hell's Point, at the cost of 9 Marines killed and 36 wounded.

                                A 75mm pack howitzer of the 11th Marines fires in support of the advance on the Cape Gloucester airfields. Department of Defense (USMC) photo 12203

                                With the defenses of Hell's Point shattered, the two battalions of the 5th Marines, which came ashore on the morning of 29 December, joined later that day in the advance on the airfield. The 1st Battalion, commanded by Major William H. Barba, and the 2d Battalion, under Lieutenant Colonel Lewis H. Walt, moved out in a column, Barba's unit leading the way. In front of the Marines lay a swamp, described as only a few inches deep, but the depth, because of the continuing downpour, proved as much as five feet, "making it quite hard," Selden acknowledged, "for some of the youngsters who were not much more than 5 feet in height." The time lost in wading through the swamp delayed the attack, and the leading elements chose a piece of open and comparatively dry ground, where they established a perimeter while the rest of the force caught up.

                                Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, attacking through that regiment's 3d Battalion, encountered only scattered resistance, mainly sniper fire, as it pushed along the coast beyond Hell's Point. Half-tracks carrying 75mm guns, medium tanks, artillery, and even a pair of rocket-firing DUKWs supported the advance, which brought the battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Walker A. Reaves, to the edge of Airfield No. 2. When daylight faded on 29 December, the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, held a line extending inland from the coast on its left were the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, and the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, forming a semicircle around the airfield.

                                The Japanese officer responsible for defending the airfields, Colonel Kouki Sumiya of the 53d Infantry, had fallen back on 29 December, trading space for time as he gathered his surviving troops for the defense of Razorback Hill, a ridge running diagonally across the southwestern approaches to Airfield No. 2. The 1st and 2d Battalions, 5th Marines, attacked on 30 December supported by tanks and artillery. Sumiya's troops had constructed some sturdy bunkers, but the chest-high grass that covered Razorback Hill did not impede the attackers like the jungle at Hell's Point. The Japanese fought gallantly to hold the position, at times stalling the advancing Marines, but the defenders had neither the numbers nor the firepower to prevail. Typical of the day's fighting, one platoon of Company F from Selden's regiment beat back two separate banzai attacks, before tanks enabled the Marines to shatter the bunkers in their path and kill the enemy within. By dusk on 30 December, the landing force had overrun the defenses of the airfields, and at noon of the following day General Rupertus had the American flag raised beside the wreckage of a Japanese bomber at Airfield No. 2, the larger of the airstrips.

                                On 31 December 1943, the American flag rises beside the wreckage of a Japanese bomber after the capture of Airfield No. 2, five days after the 1st Marine Division landed on New Britain. Department of Defense (USMC) photo 71589

                                The 1st Marine Division thus seized the principal objective of the Cape Gloucester fighting, but the airstrips proved of marginal value to the Allied forces. Indeed, the Japanese had already abandoned the prewar facility, Airfield No. 1, which was thickly overgrown with tall, coarse kunai grass. Craters from American bombs pockmarked the surface of Airfield No. 2, and after its capture Japanese hit-and-run raiders added a few of their own, despite antiaircraft fire from the 12th Defense Battalion. Army aviation engineers worked around the clock to return Airfield No. 2 to operation, a task that took until the end of January 1944. Army aircraft based here defended against air attacks for as long as Rabaul remained an active air base and also supported operations on the ground.


                                History’s Storyteller: The Life of WWII Marine Ed Bearss

                                US Marine Corps Corporal Edwin Cole Bearss wearing his Purple Heart Medal circa 1945. Photograph archivingwheeling.org.

                                Edwin (Ed) Cole Bearss (pronounced ‘bars’) was born June 26, 1923, in Billings, Montana, to Omar and Virginia Bearss. He grew up on a 10,000 acre ranch, the B bar S, located 90 miles west of Billings. The Little Bighorn Battlefield was 35 miles southwest of the ranch. He had a younger brother, Pat, and there was a time Ed and Pat would ride together on horseback to and from the Sarpy Creek School a distance of six miles from the ranch.

                                Ed and Pat on horseback. Photograph courtesy of the Bearss Family, Robert Desourdis, and Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

                                Ed Bearss was born into a lineage of family members who served in the United States (US) Marine Corps. His father, Omar, was a Marine in WWI. Omar’s cousin Hiram “Hiking Hiram” Bearss was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1901 for extraordinary heroism during the Philippine-American War (February 4, 1899 – July 2, 1902) Hiram Bearss was also awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in 1918 for his valor in WWI (1914 -1918).

                                Omar Bearss would read history books to his boys on subjects including WWI, the American Civil War, and the US Marine Corps. Ed developed an intense interest in history that infused his life. Charles Crawford of the Georgia Battlefields Association said about Ed, “There was a Marine in Ed before Ed was ever in the Marines.”

                                On December 7, 1941, the National Football League was finishing its season. Three games were played that day: the Chicago Bears (34) against the Chicago Cardinals (24), the Brooklyn Dodgers (21) versus the New York Giants (7), and the Washington Redskins (20) played against the Philadelphia Eagles (14). During these three games public address announcers broadcast early reports of the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, or paged government and military personnel to report to their units.

                                The Bearss family on December 7, 1941, was listening to the Chicago Bears playing against the Chicago Cardinals at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois.

                                On April 28, 1942, Ed Bearss enlisted in the US Marine Corps.

                                Ed arrived at the US Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego, California, on April 30, 1942. After seven weeks training in Boot Camp Platoon 369, he was assigned to the newly activated 22nd Marine Regiment (22nd Marines). On June 18 the 22nd Marines began deployment to the WWII Pacific Theater of Operations. In September 1942 Ed requested and was assigned to the 3rd Raider Battalion which was being formed in the Samoas. [ The Samoan Islands are an archipelago in the central South Pacific Ocean.]

                                In April 1943 when the 3rd Raider Battalion was based in New Hebrides (an island group off the northern coast of Australia now called Vanuatu), Ed was diagnosed with malaria and sent to New Zealand for six weeks to recuperate.

                                Ed didn’t return to the 3rd Raiders after convalescence but was assigned to the 2nd Platoon of L Company, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division. The 1st Marine Division would deploy to New Guinea to plan the assault on Cape Gloucester in New Britain, Territory of New Guinea.

                                The island of New Britain, Territory of New Guinea, is to the east of mainland New Guinea. Ed Bearss would land at Cape Gloucester with the 1st Marine Division on December 26, 1943. Map commons.wikimedia.org.

                                [The Battle of Cape Gloucester (December 26, 1943 – January 16, 1944) codenamed Operation Backhander had the objective to capture a major Japanese airstrip near Cape Gloucester and to defeat elements of the Japanese 17th Division in control of the area. The battle was in support of Operation Cartwheel (1943 – 1944).

                                Operation Cartwheel was a major Allied plan to neutralize and then to isolate and bypass Rabaul (far eastern end of island of New Britain) as the Allies moved northward towards Japan.

                                Rabaul was a Australian naval base that was captured by the Japanese in 1942. It became a major Japanese air and naval installation and was the most heavily defended Japanese fortification in the South Pacific. It was also the assembly point for convoys of ships, known as the “Tokyo Express,” that would race south to bring troops and supplies to areas of conflict in the Solomon Islands.]

                                On December 26, 1943, the 1st Marine Division would spearhead an attack at Cape Gloucester.

                                January 2, 1944, the Marines were driving eastward through dense jungle terrain. Corporal Bearss’ platoon was advancing through the jungle — Ed was walking point — when they approached a creek that would become known as Suicide Creek.

                                Medium tank crosses Suicide Creek to blast Japanese emplacements holding up the Marine advance. Blhotograph US Marine Corps January 1944.

                                In the 2003 book Edwin Cole Bearss History’s Pied Piper by John C. Waugh, Ed tells of being wounded as the Japanese, dug into the bank on the other side of Suicide Creek, opened fire:

                                “I was on my knees when the first bullet struck. It hit me in my left arm just below the elbow, and the arm went numb. It felt like being hit with a sledgehammer. It jerked me sideways and then I was hit again, another sledgehammer blow to my right shoulder. I fell, both arms shattered, and my helmet slipped down over my eyes. I couldn’t see. But there were now dead men lying all around me.

                                It seemed a long time that I lay there, in fierce pain, pinned down by Japanese fire… Unable to stand it any longer and afraid of bleeding to death, I decided to risk getting up the Japanese gun just in front of me was firing off to the right. As I wiggled around trying to rise, another bullet grazed my butt and another hit my foot. I quit moving…”

                                After lying in an area without possible rescue for what seemed like hours, bleeding, and afraid he was going to die, Ed decided to try to move again.

                                “They [the Japanese] saw me [move] but couldn’t get their gun depressed fast enough before, without the use of either arm, I went over the lip of a knoll and slid down the other side, … I still don’t know how I did it. If that ground had been level, I would be dead. I realized then how important terrain was in a battle.”

                                Having moved to a different position, Lieutenant Thomas J. O’Leary and a US Navy corpsman named Hartman, crawled over to Ed and pulled him back behind the lines far enough so stretcher bearers could reach him and carry him to the battalion aid station.

                                Ed received medical treatment at military facilities in the South Pacific and would eventually arrive back in the US for continued medical care and rehabilitation. During his hospitalization Ed would spend countless hours reading history books. After 26 months recovering from his war wounds, Edwin Cole Bearss was discharged from the US Marine Corps on March 15, 1946. [But for those of us who have known a US Marine, “Once a Marine always a Marine.”]

                                Ed Bearss graduated from Georgetown University in 1949 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Foreign Service Studies. In 1955 he would earn a Master of Arts Degree in History from Indiana University.

                                After working at the Naval Hydrographic Office and the Office of the Chief of Military History, in 1955 Ed sought a position working for the National Park Service. He was assigned to the Vicksburg National Military Park in Vicksburg, Mississippi, as a historian.

                                In 1957 a young schoolteacher born in Brandon, Mississippi, arrived at the Vicksburg National Military Park with a US Civil War question about Union General William Tecumseh Sherman’s Meridian Campaign. Her name was Margie Riddle. Her question and their discussion involved a campaign “cannonball,” and she was proved correct on the issue. Ed and Margie were married July 30, 1958, and they would be a formidable team in the field of American Civil War history.

                                In 1958 Ed would be promoted to Regional Historian for the Southeast Region of the National Park Service working out of Vicksburg.

                                While at Vicksburg, Ed studied Civil War maps and located what he thought was the sunken Union gunboat United States Ship (USS) Cairo (named after Cairo, Illinois). A ironclad warship, she was sunk on December 12, 1862, when clearing mines in the Yazoo River for the planned attack on Haynes Bluff, Mississippi. [It was the first ship sunk by a mine that was remotely detonated.] Along with Don Jacks, a maintenance man at the Vicksburg National Military Park, and Warren Grabau, US Army engineer and geologist, the USS Cairo was located buried in Yazoo River mud.

                                USS Cairo. US Naval Historical Center photograph.

                                With support from the State of Mississippi the ship was salvaged and can now be viewed at the USS Cairo Museum at the Vicksburg National Military Park.

                                In 1966, Ed, Margie, and their three children moved to Washington, D.C., where he became the Historian for the National Park Service’s historical sites. In 1981 he was named Chief Historian of the National Park Service. He held the position until 1994.

                                In the 1990 Ken Burns miniseries Die Burgeroorlog, Ed Bearss was featured as one of the Civil War historians.

                                After retiring from the National Park Service Ed Bearss continues to share his love for history and vast knowledge by leading battlefield tours, writing, lecturing, participating in Civil War Roundtables, and encouraging remembrance of our national history. He has received numerous awards and has been called by many “A National Treasure.”

                                Ed Bearss leads a tour in 2011 about the US Civil War Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), Pennsylvania, with South Mountain Expeditions. Photograph S. O’Konski Collection.

                                Ed leads the Battle of Gettysburg tour members across the July 3, 1863, “Pickett’s Charge” field in 2011. Photograph S. O’Konski Collection.

                                In an earlier quote from Ed Bearss in this story about his wounding and survival at the 1944 Battle of Suicide Creek, he said, “I realized then how important terrain was in a battle.” On his battlefield tours today he says, “You can’t describe a battlefield unless you walk it.”

                                Thank you to the Bearss family, Robert Desourdis, and Nova Science Publishers, Inc., for use of the Bearss family photograph.

                                Thank you to the US Marine Corps University Research Center for assistance in the research for this story.

                                Thank you to Dr. Vernon L. Williams, Military Historian and Professor Emeritus of History, at Abiliene Christian University, Abilene, Texas. He is the Director of the East Anglia Air War Project.

                                I first met Ed Bearss on a 2006 History America Tours cruise “Invasion of Italy.” The tour started in Valletta, Malta. We sailed on theClipper Adventurer to Sicily where we walked WWII Allied invasion beaches and visited battle sites. The ship then sailed from Messina, Sicily, to the mainland of Italy, and the tour travelled north with excursions to the WWII battle sites of Salerno, Monte Cassino, Anzio, the Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial, and other WWII history locations.

                                After daily trip excursions with Ed, I was filled with information about WWII. I became a member of the “Ed Bearss Fan Club.” I learned a great deal about WWII from him and was motivated to pass on the history I learned to others interested in WWII history. In 2015 I started my website World War 2 History Short Stories and named Chief Historian Emeritus of the National Park Service Ed Bearss as one of the people who inspired me to undertake the project.

                                Dinner onboard the Clipper Adventurer in 2006. Left to right: Ed Bearss, this story’s author Susan O’Konski, and History America Tours company owner Peter Brown.


                                Battle of Cape Gloucester – 1943

                                From the Commander: Just another follow up to last month’s Military History and the history of island hopping in the Pacific. Although not widely published or reported, there were people back in the U.S. that opposed the lose of life during this time on islands nobody knew existed and wondered why soldiers were dying on these “God forsaken shores”. A point to remember is General MacArthur’s promise to the Philippine people that he would return. In April 2008, I was fortunate enough to visit the Philippines with my wife and two couples from Post 49 and we visited Corregidor and truly received a lesson in History.

                                An overlay of the U.S. over the many islands in the south Pacific. to give an idea of distances.

                                Die Slag van Cape Gloucester was a battle in the Pacific theater of World War II between Japanese and Allied forces which took place on the island of New Britain, Territory of New Guinea, between late December 1943 and April 1944.

                                The battle was a major part of Operation Cartwheel, the main Allied strategy in the South West Pacific Area and Pacific Ocean Areas during 1943–44, and was the second World War II landing of the U.S. 1st Marine Division, after Guadalcanal.

                                The main objective of the American and Australian allies was the capture and expansion of the Japanese military airfield at Cape Gloucester. This was to contribute to the increased isolation and harassment of the major Japanese base at Rabaul. A secondary goal was to ensure free Allied sea passage through the straits separating New Britain from New Guinea.

                                Supporting operations for the landings in Cape Gloucester began on 15 December, when the U.S. Army‘s 112th Cavalry Regiment was landed at Arawe on the south-central coast to block the route of Japanese reinforcements and supplies from east to west and as a diversionary attack from the future Cape Gloucester landings.

                                Monsoon rains kept everything wet

                                Although they lost the opening battle, the Japanese did not concede Arawe to the Americans without further struggle. Beginning on the afternoon of the invasion, 15 December 1943, and continuing for the next several days, they launched furious air attacks, especially targeting ships that had supported the assault. In addition, two nearby Japanese infantry battalions advanced on Arawe and dug in just beyond the American perimeter.

                                Beyond dealing with night-long battles, the Marines had to cope with Cape Gloucester’s terrible winter weather. Day after day of monsoon rains flooded the kitchens (causing the men to eat watery soup) and flooded the rearward tents (for those fortunate-enough to sleep in tents instead of outdoor hammocks covered with mosquito netting).

                                Wet uniforms never really dried, and the men suffered continually from fungus infections, the so-called jungle rot, which readily developed into open sores. Mosquito-borne malaria threatened the health of the Marines, who also had to contend with other insects—”little black ants, little red ants, big red ants,” on an island where “even the caterpillars bite.”

                                Why did anyone care about these hot, malaria-infested places? General MacArthur believed capturing Cape Gloucester, and other island locations with good harbors, was indispensable for his plan to recapture Japanese-occupied sections of the Philippines. All the military services, and especially the Allied navies, required logistical bases to resupply their forces, repair their equipment, treat their wounded, and support their fighting elements.


                                Base development

                                The Base Engineer and his operations staff landed on 27 December 1943 and completed a reconnaissance of the two Japanese airfields by 30 December. They found that they were 3 feet (0.91   m) deep in kunai grass and that the Japanese had neither attempted to construct proper drainage nor to re-grade the airstrips. They decided not to proceed with any work on No. 1 Airstrip and to concentrate on No. 2. The 1913th Engineer Aviation Battalion arrived on 2 January, followed by the 864th Engineer Aviation Battalion on 10 January and the 841st Engineer Aviation Battalion on 17 January. Work hours were limited by blackout restrictions imposed by the Task Force Commander, which limited work to daylight hours until 8 January 1944 and by heavy and continuous rain from 27 December 1943 until 21 January 1944, averaging 10 inches (254   mm) a week. Grading removed 3 to 6 feet (0.91 to 1.83   m) of material, mostly kunai humus, from two-thirds of the area. The subgrade was then stabilized with red volcanic ash that had to be hauled from the nearest source 8 miles (13   km) away. Marston Mat was then laid over the top but this did not arrive until 25 January 1944, resulting in further delay. By 31 January, 4,000 feet (1,200   m) of runway was usable and by 18 March a 5,200-foot (1,600   m) runway was complete. Natural obstacles prevented the runway being lengthened to 6,000 feet (1,800   m) as originally planned but there were four 100-by-750-foot (30 by 229   m) alert areas, 80 hardstands, a control tower, taxiways, access roads and facilities for four squadrons. [93]

                                A memorial service for Marines killed during the battle

                                A Beechcraft Model 18 had landed on the runway at Cape Gloucester in January, followed by a C-47. Lieutenant General Walter Krueger, the commander of Alamo Force, inspected the airstrip with Brigadier General Frederic H. Smith, Jr., on 9 January 1944. They estimated that the 8th Fighter Group could move in as early as 15 January. This did not prove feasible the airbase was not finished and was at capacity with transport aircraft bringing in much-needed supplies. The 35th Fighter Squadron arrived on 13 February, followed by the 80th Fighter Squadron on 23 February. Heavy rains made mud ooze up through the holes in the steel plank, making the runway slick. This did not bother the 35th Fighter Squadron which flew nimble and rugged P-40 Kittyhawks but the P-38 Lightnings of the 80th Fighter Group found themselves overshooting the short runway. Major General Ennis C. Whitehead, the commander of the Fifth Air Force Advanced Echelon (ADVON), decided to move the 8th Fighter Group to Nadzab and replace it with RAAF Kittyhawk squadrons from Kiriwina. [94] No. 78 Wing RAAF began moving to Cape Gloucester on 11 March. No. 80 Squadron RAAF arrived on 14 March, followed by No. 78 Squadron RAAF on 16 March and No. 75 Squadron RAAF two days later. No, 78 Wing provided close air support for the 1st Marine Division, assisted the PT boats offshore and provided vital air cover for convoys headed to the Admiralty Islands campaign. Operations were maintained at a high tempo until 22 April, when No. 78 Wing was alerted to prepare for Operations Reckless and Persecution, the landings at Hollandia (Jayapura) and Aitape. [95]

                                To support air operations, 18,000 US barrels (2,100,000   l 570,000   US   gal 470,000   imp   gal) of bulk petroleum storage was provided, along with a tanker berth with connections to the five storage tanks, which became operational in May 1944. The 19th Naval Construction Battalion worked on a rock-filled pile and crib pier 130 feet (40   m) long and 540 feet (160   m) wide for Liberty ships. It was not completed before the 19th Naval Construction Battalion left for the Russell Islands, along with the 1st Marine Division, in April 1944. Other works included 800,000 square feet (74,000   m 2 ) of open storage, 120,000 square feet (11,000   m 2 ) of covered warehouse storage and 5,400 cubic feet (150   m 3 ) of refrigerated storage a 500-bed hospital was completed in May 1944 and a water supply system with a capacity of 30,000 US gallons (110,000   l 25,000   imp   gal) per day was installed. Despite problems obtaining suitable road surface materials, 35 miles (56   km) of two-lane all-weather roads were provided, surfaced with sand, clay, volcanic ash and beach gravel. Timber was obtained locally, and a sawmill operated by the 841st Engineer Aviation Battalion produced 1,000,000 board feet (2,400   m 3 ) of lumber. [96]


                                Leading From the Front

                                During the opening weeks of the campaign, Puller won a fourth Navy Cross for his efforts in directing Marine units in attacks against the Japanese. On February 1, 1944, Puller was promoted to colonel and later took command of the 1st Marine Regiment. Finishing the campaign, Puller's men sailed for the Russell Islands in April before preparing for the Battle of Peleliu. Landing on the island in September, Puller fought to overcome a tenacious Japanese defense. For his work during the engagement, he received the Legion of Merit.


                                Battle of Cape Gloucester, 26 December 1943-April 1944 - History

                                Konstruksie
                                Built prewar by the Australians as a single runway for civilian aircraft known as Cape Gloucester Airfield. During late late December 1942, after the Japanese built a second runway, the original runway became known as No. 1 Strip. The Japanese built second runway became known as Cape Gloucester No. 2 Strip, East Airfield or No. 2 Strip.

                                World War II Pacific Theatre History
                                On December 17, 1942 at dawn under cloud cover, Tachikaze and Patrol Boat No. 39 landed 350 Japanese troops at Cape Gloucester. This detachment was under the overall command of Major Kiyomitsu Mukai, the construction battalion commander and rapidly secured Cape Gloucester Airfield (No. 1 Strip) and established a 40 km beachhead area.

                                The Japanese immediately began improving and expanding the prewar runway and built a second runway (Cape Gloucester No. 2 Strip, East Airfield). Once built, the original runway became known as Cape Gloucester No. 1 (Old Strip, West Airfield).

                                Cape Gloucester Airfield was used by the Japanese as a forward airfield for fighters and bombers from both the Japanese Army Air Force (JAAF) and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN).

                                On July 30, 1943 two Type 96 G3M Nell bombers from the 11th Air Fleet escorted by sixteen A6M Zeros including three from the 201 Kokutai that landed with the bombers at Cape Gloucester. Aboard one was Vice-Admiral Junichi Kusaka, commander of the Southeast Area Fleet and his staff for a brief inspection then departed transporting Major General Iwasa Shun. That same day, three Type 2 fighters (Ki-45kai Nick) from the 13th Sentai arrived as the first fighters based at the airfield.

                                On August 2, 1943 a Ki-51 Sonia from the 83rd Dokuritsu Chutai with passenger Lt. General Hatazo Adachi took off from Madang Airfield on a bound for Lae Airfield escorted by nine Ki-43 Oscars from the 24th Sentai. Flying at 4,900', the formation was spotted by P-38 Lightnings escorting B-25 Mitchells off Teliata Point on the north coast of New Guinea roughly 30 miles south of Saidor. To flee, Ki-51 Sonia dove to low level and managed to escape interception and proceeded eastward to land safely at Cape Gloucester Airfield.

                                As of October 19, 1943 defenses included 12 heavy and 34 light anti-aircraft batteries, including fake "dummy" gun positions.

                                Japanese units based at Tuluvu / Cape Gloucester
                                13th Sentai (3 x Ki-45 Nick) July 30, 1943
                                26th Sentai (Ki-51 Sonia)
                                83rd Dokuritsu Chutai / 83rd Independent Air Chutai (Ki-51 Sonia)

                                As of October 19, 1943 defenses included 12 heavy and 34 light anti-aircraft batteries plus fake "dummy" gun positions.

                                For roughly a year spanning from late December 1942 until the American landing at Cape Gloucester on December 26, 1943 Cape Gloucester Airfield was targeted by American bombers and fighters. The airfield was so heavily bombed by the 5th Air Force, a new term entered their vocabulary 'to Gloucesterize' a target, due to the pot-marked appearance of the airfield from aerial photos.

                                American missions against Cape Gloucester
                                December 23, 1942 - January 29, 1944

                                After the December 26, 1943 landing by the 1st Marine Division at Cape Gloucester, the Japanese 53rd Infantry commanded by Col. Kouki Sumiya fell back to Cape Gloucester Airfield on December 29 and centered their defense on "Razorback Hill" a ridge with bunkers that spans across the southwest approach to the airfield. The 5th Marines 1st Battalions and 2nd Battalions attacked this area on December 30 supported by tanks and artillery. Overpowered, Japanese were defeated by dusk.

                                On December 30, 1943 U. S. Marines occupied Cape Gloucester Airfield. On December 31, 1943 U. S. Marine Corps (USMC) General William H. Rupertus held a U. S. flag raising ceremony near G4M1 Betty on No. 2 Strip. Later on March 11, 1944 Colonel Oliver P. Smith and Lieutenant Colonel Henry W. Buse with a color guard of the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines raised the same U. S. flag at Bitokara.

                                After capturing Cape Gloucester, the Marines located intact Ki-61 Tony 263. This aircraft was immediately recovered and transported to Australia for technical evaluation. Many other wrecks were surveyed by ATIU (Air Technical Intelligence Unit).

                                During January 1944, American forces worked to repair the runway but heavy rains delayed repairs until the end of the month. As of January 31, 1944 the runway was 4,500' x 100', with a parallel runway under construction and the west runway used as a crash strip.

                                American units based at Cape Gloucester
                                8th FG, 35th FS (P-40) from Finschafen February 19 - March 14, 44 Nadzab
                                8th FG, 36th FS (P-47) from Finschafen Feb 19 - March 14, 44 to Nadzab
                                8th FG, 80th FS (P-38s) Dobodura Feb 24 - March 25, 1944 to Nadzab
                                6th PRG 8th PRS (F4-F5s) from ? Lae - ? to Nadzab #1
                                12th Defense Battalion (USMC) Dec 30, 1943 - late May 1944
                                Australian units based at Cape Gloucester
                                78 Squadron (P-40s) March - April 25, 1944 to Tadji

                                Robert Rocker adds:
                                "The 36th FS and 80th FS were based at Gloucester in March of 1944, but it was raining so much in April they pulled both squadrons back into New Guinea. Bill Wallisch a 35th FS Crew Chief told me the mud was so bad there that they just could not operate properly."

                                Cape Gloucester I (Old Strip, West Airfield)
                                Lat 5° 27' 32S Long 148° 25' 57E Cape Gloucester I is located to the west, running roughly north-west to south-east, nearest to the ocean.

                                Built prewar by the Australian administration. The single runway was 600 yards long. When the Japanese occupied the airfield on December 17, this runway was unserviceable due to trench barricades, erosion, floodwaters and vegetation. Surveyed by on December 20, the Japanese decided to build a new runway adjacent to this runway. When completed, the runway was expanded to 3,900' runway and a series of revetments were built along the eastern edge of the strip.

                                Largely abandoned by the Japanese, it was overgrown when captured by Marines in December 1943. Reportedly, this strip was repaired and used until 1990s, when it was deemed unsafe.

                                Cape Gloucester II (No. 2 Strip, East Strip, New Airfield)
                                This runway runs east to west. Built prewar by Australians, 750 yards long. When the Japanese occupied the airfield on December 17, this runway was unserviceable due to trench barricades, erosion, floodwaters and vegetation.

                                Expanded by the Japanese , the first phase of construction was completed by January 15, 1943 for emergency landings 1,150m x 100m. On February 1 at 9am, a Ki-61 Dinah piloted by 1Lt. Okano and Sgt. Major Kanaya landed but, flipped over damaging the aircraft and injuring the crew. Next on February 5, four aircraft landed at 6am, likely Ki-43 Oscars of the 11th Sentai, en route from Rabaul to Lae.

                                By February 16, the runway was observed as 3,900', later expanded to 4,500' in length, with a large dispersal loop and taxiway to the north side. This was the primary Japanese strip at Cape Gloucester. Several wrecked and some intact Japanese Navy and Army aircraft were captured at this location. Repaired and expanded by the Americans. Post war, it was disused and overgrown today.

                                Vandag
                                Still in use today, known as "Cape Gloucester Airport". Airport code: IATA: CGC. Serviced by secondary airlines. Occasionally, nearby volcanic eruptions temporarily close the runway.

                                Brian Bennett voeg by:
                                "I found the old dump at Cape Gloucester some years ago but you would need to move a bit of dirt to get at it. I recall that there were bits of Japanese aircraft sticking out of the ground."

                                Verwysings
                                Engineers in Theater Operations [Pacific] "Advance Area Airdromes 31 January 1944", Map No. 24
                                Airdromes Guide Southwest Pacific Area - 1 July 1945
                                Cape Gloucester: The Green Inferno by Bernard C. Nalty, Marine Corps Heritage Center, 1994
                                Tuluvu's Air War by Richard Dunn
                                Tuluvu's Air War: Chapter V High Ranking Visitors by Richard Dunn

                                Dra inligting by
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                                Kyk die video: WW2: US Marines Land u0026 Unload Supplies - Cape Gloucester, New Britain Jan. 4, 1944