Slag van Missionary Ridge, 25 November 1863

Slag van Missionary Ridge, 25 November 1863


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Slag van Missionary Ridge, 25 November 1863

InleidingDie planSherman alleenThe Miracle of Missionary RidgeNadraaiBoeke

Inleiding

Slag tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog wat die konfederale beleg van Chattanooga beëindig het. Die stad het op 9 September aan die magte van die unie geval na 'n vaardige veldtog onder bevel van generaal William Rosecrans, maar hy het in die slag van Chickamauga (19-20 September), net ten suide van Chattanooga, verslaan. 'N Groot deel van sy leër het teruggevlug na die stad, terwyl generaal George Thomas daarin geslaag het om genoeg manne bymekaar te bring om 'n totale roete te voorkom en genoeg skade aan Braxton Bragg se Konfederale weermag aangerig het om die glans van die Konfederale oorwinning af te haal.

Na die geveg is die leër van Rosecrans in Chattanooga beleër. Berge kyk uit oor die stad, en deur Lookout Mountain in die weste en Missionary Ridge in die ooste te beset, het Bragg bykans alle toevoerroetes na die stad geblokkeer. Hy was oortuig dat die Unie -magte in die stad binnekort oorgegee sou word.

Die reaksie van die Unie op gebeure in Chattanooga was onmiddellik en oorweldigend. Selfs voor Chickamauga het dit duidelik geword dat Rosecrans kwesbaar was en dat versterkings na hom toe gehaas word. Generaal Sherman is beveel om oos van die Mississippi af te marsjeer, terwyl 'n ander mag wes van die Army of the Potomac gestuur is en onder bevel van Joe Hooker geplaas is, wat eers onlangs onder bevel van die leër verwyder is.

Generaal U. Grant was die algemene bevel van die Unie -magte in die weste. Sy eerste stap was om Rosecrans met Thomas te vervang, en daarna is hy ook op pad na Chattanooga (op 24 Oktober). Daar gekom het hy ontdek dat Rosecrans se hoofingenieur, generaal W. F. Smith, reeds 'n plan uitgewerk het wat 'n nuwe toevoerroete sou oopmaak. Al wat ontbreek het, was die wil om dit te probeer, en Grant het dit verskaf.

Twee dae na sy aankoms is die plan in werking gestel. Einde Oktober was die 'krakerlyn' stewig vas. Die aanbod situasie het onmiddellik verbeter. Nou kan Grant na sy tweede probleem wend - die Konfederale weermag wat Chattanooga nog omring het.

Die leër het 'n baie sterk posisie beklee. Van die voet van Lookout Mountain af steek hul voorste linie oor die Chattanooga -vallei, voordat hulle noordwaarts draai om langs die voet van Missionary Ridge na die Tennessee -rivier te hardloop. Die rant self was sterk versterk, met drie lyne loopgrawe - een aan die voet, een halfpad bo en een bo. Missionary Ridge was die sleutel tot die posisie. Solank Bragg sy lyn op die rant kon handhaaf, kon hy sy kommunikasielyne, gebaseer op die Chickamauga -stasie op die Westelike en Atlantiese spoorweg, maklik beskerm en die federale beheer van Chattanooga en Oos -Tennessee bedreig.

Die plan

Grant het besluit dat die middelpunt van Bragg se posisie op Missionary Ridge veels te sterk was om aangeval te word. In plaas daarvan was hy van plan om beide flanke van Bragg se lyn terselfdertyd aan te val, wat hom dwing om die sentrum te verswak. Slegs dan sou 'n aanval op die voorkant van Missionary Ridge geloods word.

Hierdie flankaanvalle sou deur die leërs van Sherman en Hooker geloods word. Nie een van hierdie leërs was in Chattanooga nie. Nadat die 'cracker line' gestig is, het Hooker se mans in Lookout Valley gebly. 'N Klein Konfederale mag het nog steeds Lookout Mountain gehou. Grant moes besluit of Hooker deur hierdie leër sou veg, of die brûe van die krakerlyn sou gebruik om dit te omseil. Sy keuse is deur die Tennessee -rivier vir hom gemaak. Swaar reën het die rivier laat opkom, wat die pontbrug ongeskik vir 'n groot leër gemaak het. Op 24 November baklei Hooker om die noordelike rand van Lookout Mountain. Die oggend van 25 November was hy op sy plek om oor Chattanooga -vallei te marsjeer om Bragg se linkerflank by Rossville Gap aan te val.

Sherman se weermag het eers op 20 November in die omgewing van Chattanooga begin aankom. Toe hulle by Brown's Ferry kom, het hulle oorgesteek na die noordelike oewer van die Tennessee -rivier en 'n versteekte kamp opgeslaan agter die heuwels noord van Chattanooga. Dit het Bragg in die gesig gestaar met die moontlikheid dat Sherman se manne noordwaarts marsjeer na die verligting van Knoxville en daarna deur Longstreet beleër word. In plaas daarvan was hulle besig om voor te berei om die Tennessee noord van Bragg se lyn op Missionary Ridge oor te steek en langs die rantlyn aan te val. Hierdie twee aanvalle sou Bragg dwing om sy flanke te versterk, en dan sou Grant se laaste leër, Thomas's Army of the Cumberland, beveel word om Missionary Ridge aan te val.

Die voorbereidings vir hierdie plan het goed afgeloop. Die eerste bewegings het 'n dag vroeg, op 23 November (Slag van Orchard Knob), plaasgevind nadat 'n Konfederale woestyn voorgestel het dat Bragg op die punt was om hom terug te trek. Dit het die federale frontlinie ongeveer 'n kilometer nader aan Missionary Ridge verskuif en Grant 'n beter posisie gegee vanwaar die stryd waargeneem kon word. Die volgende dag sien Hooker se manne kontak met die res van die leër (Battle of Lookout Mountain, 24 November). Hulle was nou op hul plek vir hul opmars oor die Chattanooga -vallei.

Dit het Sherman net verlaat. Hy moes eers 'n mag oor die Tennessee -rivier kry, dan 'n pontbrug bou om sy kavallerie en artillerie toe te laat om oor te steek en dan die regterflank van Bragg aan te val. Om die troepe oor te haal en die brug te bou, het Sherman 116 pontonbote gehad, wat elkeen dertig man oor die rivier kon vervoer voordat hy deel van die pontonbrug geword het. Hierdie bote is weggesteek in die Noord -Chickamauga -rivier, wat uit die noorde in die Tennessee -rivier vloei, effens stroomop van Missionary Ridge.

Sherman het op 24 November om 02:00 begin beweeg. Die eerste golf bote het die Konfederale plakkate op die suidelike oewer van die Tennessee verras, en teen daglicht is twee volledige afdelings (8 000 man) oorgevaar. Tussen daglig en middag is die pontbrug voltooi en die res van sy magte het oorgesteek. Uiteindelik, om 13:00. Sherman het die voorskot beveel.

Sy doel was om die noordelike punt van Missionary Ridge aan te val ter voorbereiding van die hoofaanval die volgende dag. Vir 'n geruime tyd blyk dit dat sy mag 'n byna bloedlose oorwinning behaal het. Dieselfde mis wat die uitsig op Lookout Mountain beperk het, het Bragg ook verhinder om te sien wat aan die regterkant van sy regterflank gebeur.

Ongelukkig was Sherman se kaarte nie akkuraat nie. Hulle het getoon dat Missionary Ridge deurlopend is, maar die rant eindig eintlik in 'n reeks heuwels. Die mees noordelike hiervan staan ​​hoër as die nabygeleë rif, en met 'n val van 200 voet tussen hom en die hoofrug. Dit was hierdie heuwel wat Sherman se mans omstreeks 15:30 gevang het. Uiteindelik besef Bragg wat gebeur het, en het twee mislukte pogings aangewend om Sherman te verdryf. Sherman was nou in plek om sy deel van die volgende dag se aanval te begin.

Sherman veg alleen

Die gebeure van 25 November het nie Grant se plan gevolg nie. Terwyl die Konfederate hul posisies in die Chattanooga -vallei ontruim het, het hulle die paaie versper en die hoofbrug oor Chattanooga Creek vernietig. Alhoewel Hooker vroegoggend sy posisies op Lookout Mountain verlaat het, moes hy die brug herbou en dit het hom vier uur geneem om die spruit oor te steek. Sy leër het eers laat in die dag by Missionary Ridge gekom.

Intussen het Sherman sy aanval betyds geloods. Vanuit sy posisie op Orchard Knob Grant kon die Konfederale versterkings langs die rif gestuur word om hul regterflank te versterk. Die aanval van Sherman het oor die nok gelê - een kolom aangeval langs die kruin, 'n ander langs die oostelike basis en 'n derde langs die westelike basis. Die aanval op die oostelike flank het die meeste vordering gemaak en bedreig Bragg se spoorlynaanvoerlyn, maar andersins het die aanval min gevorder. Dit word gekant teen die generaal -majoor Patrick Cleburne se afdeling, waarskynlik die sterkste in Bragg se lyn, en die laaste wat aan die einde van die geveg die lyn verlaat het.

Teen die middag was dit duidelik dat Grant se plan nie werk soos verwag nie. Hooker het nog nie aan die suidelike punt van Missionary Ridge verskyn nie. Sherman se aanval het nou tot stilstand gekom en hy het 'n dreigende gevaar om teruggedruk te word.

The Miracle of Missionary Ridge

Grant se reaksie was om 'n algemene aanval deur Thomas se mans te beveel, wat die hele dag op hierdie bevel gewag het. Grant se bevel was vir 'n aanval op die eerste lyn van die Konfederale geweerputte aan die voet van Missionary Ridge (alhoewel Sheridan ten minste nie duidelik was na watter lyn geweerputte waarna verwys word nie, en 'n boodskapper gestuur is om verduideliking te vra).

Woods en Sheridan se afdelings, die veterane van Orchard Knob, sou 'n belangrike rol speel in die aanval, met nog twee afdelings wat hul flanke beskerm. Die bevel is om 15:30 gestuur. en die aanval is kort daarna geloods.

Wat daarna gebeur het, staan ​​bekend as die 'wonderwerk van die sendingrug'. Die federale afdelings het tot by die eerste lyn van die Konfederale loopgrawe gejaag en hul verdedigers op die heuwel laat vlug. Sonder om op bevele te wag, het regiment vir regiment die soldate van Thomas se leër van die Cumberland op die rant begin vorder!

Hul beamptes is kort agtergelaat deur hierdie stap, maar het vinnig ingehaal en die aanval begin organiseer. Terug op Orchard Knob wou 'n woedende Grant uitvind wie die aanval beveel het, maar dit het vinnig duidelik geword dat niemand sulke bevele uitgereik het nie. Toe die aanval begin het, word Wood en Sheridan beveel om daarmee voort te gaan as hulle voel dat hulle die rant kan vang.

Hulle kon en het gedoen. Na 'n uur se swaar gevegte bereik die federale troepe die top van Missionary Ridge in ten minste ses posisies, waarvan een baie naby Bragg se eie hoofkwartier was. Toe hulle bo -op die rant was, kon hulle Konfederale gewere in beslag neem en dit gebruik om langs die lyn te skiet. Al langs die Konfederale lyn het Bragg se manne paniekerig geraak en gevlug. Slegs die afdeling van Cleburne het nie by die ineenstorting aangesluit nie en in goeie orde teruggetrek sodra dit duidelik was dat hulle andersins afgesny sou word.

Alhoewel die sukses van hierdie aanval buitengewoon was, kan enige idee dat dit maklik was, verdwyn word deur na die ongevalle -syfers te kyk. Tussen hulle verloor Sheridan en Wood 2 337 dood en gewond in die uur wat dit geneem het om Missionary Ridge te vang. Dit verteenwoordig byna die helfte van die totale verliese van die Unie in die geveg, en dit was meer mans as wat Sherman in twee volle dae se gevegte verloor het (1 697 dood en gewond). Die wonderwerk was dat die aanranding glad geslaag het.

Waarom dit daarin geslaag het, was die onderwerp van eindelose debat. Bragg het self voorgestel dat die moraal van sy mans gely het as gevolg van hul uitstekende standpunt. Vanaf die top van Missionary Ridge kon hulle 'n groot federale gasheer sien voorberei om aan te val, en die gesig het hulle ontstel. Gee egter dat Bragg se grootste fout was om Longstreet met 15.000 man te stuur om Knoxville aan te val, wat die weermag in Chattanooga kwesbaar laat.

Bragg het waarskynlik te veel mans aan die basis van Missionary Ridge geplaas. Toe hulle teen die helling terugtrek, het hulle gehelp om hul aanvallers teen die heuwel verder op te beskerm. Bragg se lyne is moontlik nie op die beste posisies langs die rant geplaas nie, wat blinde kolle veroorsaak het wat die federale aanvaller in relatiewe veiligheid naby die top kon bereik. Die hoë federale verliese op die hange van Missionary Ridge dui egter daarop dat die Konfederale posisies heeltemal aanvaarbaar was. 'N Meer geloofwaardige voorstel is dat Grant se plan nie heeltemal misluk het nie. Sherman se aanval het Bragg gedwing om 'n groot aantal mans noordwaarts te skuif om sy regterflank te beskerm. Dit het die posisies bo -op die rand kritiek laat verswak toe die laaste aanval begin het. Alhoewel Bragg troepe van sy regterkant na sy sentrum terugbesorg het, kon hulle nie die hele lyn betyds versterk om te keer dat sommige uniemagte die top bereik nie.

Nadraai

Net genoeg van Bragg se leër het ongeskonde gebly om die terugtog van die res te beskerm. Cleburne se afdeling het op 27 November uiteindelik die agtervolging in Ringgold, Georgia, gestaak. Grant draai om en stuur mans na die verligting van Knoxville, waar die beleg van Longstreet op 'n mislukking sou eindig.

Unie -verliese was 752 dood, 4713 gewond en 350 gevang of vermis (baie van Sherman se bevel), uit 'n totaal van 60 000 mans. Konfederale slagoffers is aangemeld met 361 sterftes, 2180 gewondes en 4,146 vermiste of gevang van ongeveer 40 000 mans (hoewel Grant self berig het dat hy 6 000 gevangenes geneem het).

Die slag van Missionary Ridge het die beheer van die Unie oor Chattanooga verseker. Daarmee saam het beheer oor die ooste van Tennessee gekom. Erger nog, een van die min spoorverbindings tussen Virginia en die res van die Konfederasie het deur Oos -Tennessee en Chattanooga geloop. Uiteindelik kan die leër van die Chattanooga Union in Georgië optrek en die hart van die Konfederasie bedreig. Aan die einde van 'n jaar wat die val van Vicksburg en die nederlaag op Gettysburg beleef het, het die Konfederale mislukking by Chattanooga die inisiatief vir 1864 aan die Unie oorhandig.

Boeke



Missionary Ridge

Op 25 November 1863 het meer as 50 000 uniesoldate die konfederate se verdediging langs Missionary Ridge oos van Chattanooga bestorm. Die aanval het gestrek vanaf die Rossville Gap by die grens van Georgia, tot by Tunnel Hill aan die noordelike punt van Missionary Ridge. Teen die einde van die dag het die Konfederale Weermag van Tennessee teruggetrek in die rigting van Dalton, Georgia en Chattanooga was stewig in die hande van die Unie. Dit was, soos een van die Konfederale beamptes dit later beskryf het, "Die doodsklok van die Konfederasie."

Langs die kruin van Missionary Ridge is 'n reeks van agt voorbehoude en monumente wat die geskiedenis van die belangrikste gebiede van die Slag van Missionary Ridge bewaar en vertel. Die meeste van hierdie voorbehoude en monumente is geleë in woonbuurte langs 'n smal pad by die kruin van die rif. Verskeie tablette en kanonne is op privaat eiendom in die erf van die inwoners geleë. Wees respek vir hierdie inwoners en moenie in privaat opritte blokkeer of parkeer nie, of privaat eiendom betree sonder die toestemming van die eienaar.

Alle parkeiendomme langs Missionary Ridge is daagliks oop van sonsopkoms tot sonsondergang.

Kaart van Missionary Ridge

Iowa -bespreking by Rossville

Die Iowa -monument, geleë in die Rossville -gaping, net drie kilometer noord van Chickamauga -slagveld, is die mees suidelike reservaat van Chickamauga en Chattanooga National Military Park op Missionary Ridge. Tydens die geveg het die troepe van die unie uit generaal Joseph Hooker se bevel, wat hul oorwinning die vorige dag op Lookout Mountain gehad het, die suidelike flank van die Konfederale posisies net noord hiervandaan aangeval. Maar dit was ander Unie -soldate wat hul permanente stempel op die landskap sou afdruk. Na die Slag van Missionary Ridge, het duisende Iowans hul oorwinning gevier met 'n groot resensie deur die Rossville Gap. Alhoewel hierdie manne nie tydens die geveg in die leemte geveg het nie, het hulle goeie herinneringe aan die feestelike optog hulle geïnspireer om 'n groot monument op die terrein te plaas. Die monument is geleë op die kruising van snelweg 27 en West Crestweg in Rossville, Georgia.

Op die South Crestweg, net 'n paar kilometer noord van die Iowa -monument in Rossville, is die Bragg -reservaat. Hierdie voorbehoud behou die ligging van die hoofkwartier van die Konfederale generaal Braxton Bragg tydens die Slag van Missionary Ridge. Hierdie gebied is waar generaal George Thomas se Army of the Cumberland die middelpunt van die Konfederale lyn op Missionary Ridge gebreek het. Daar is 'n klein parkeerplek by die Bragg -reservaat, wat bestaan ​​uit verskeie kanonne en tablette. Die grootste kenmerk hier is die Illinois -monument.

Op South Crest Road net noord van die Bragg -reservaat is die Ohio -reservaat. Dit was hier waar die vakbond -soldate van Thomas Wood se afdeling van IV Corps Missionary Ridge aangeval het. Onder hierdie mans, waar baie Ohioans. Na die oorlog het Ohio 'n groot monument opgerig vir die manne wat hier geveg het. In 2014 het middelbare leerlinge van Reynoldsburg, Ohio, die geld ingesamel wat nodig was om die standbeeld van die tromspeler op hierdie Ohio -monument te herstel, wat jare tevore beskadig is. Die monument is tussen verskeie privaat huise geleë. Parkeer asseblief slegs in aangewese gebiede en moenie op privaat eiendom loop nie.

Teen die tyd dat generaal John Turchin sy troepe teen die helling van Missionary Ridge gelei het, was hy 'n ervare soldaat. Turchin, gebore in Rusland, is opgelei aan die Imperial Military Academy in St. Petersburg, en het verskeie jare in die Russiese leër in Europa gedien voordat hy na die Verenigde State emigreer. Hierdie gebied verdedig teen die mans van Turchin was die Alabamiërs van Arthur Manigault en die Suid -Caroliniërs. Daar is 'n tablet en twee kanonne by die Turchin -reservaat. Hou in gedagte dat daar geen openbare parkeerplek hier is nie en dat North Crest Road te smal is om langs die pad op hierdie plek te parkeer. Draai in 'n systraat of parkeer by DeLong Reservation en stap terug. Moenie in privaat opritte blokkeer of parkeer nie.

By DeLong Reservation op North Crest Road, net noord van die Turchin Reservation, is 'n monument vir die 2de Minnesota Infanterie wat in hierdie gebied geveg het. Benewens die 2de Minnesota -monument is daar verskeie tablette en kanonne.

Kolonel Edward Phelps het sy brigade persoonlik teen die helling van Missionary Ridge gelei. Net toe hy die kruin bereik, is hy op hierdie plek deur 'n Konfederale koeël getref en doodgemaak. Die monument is 'n opwaartse kanon. Daar is geen parkeerplek op hierdie plek nie. Moenie in privaat opritte blokkeer of parkeer nie.

73ste Pennsylvania -reservaat

Terwyl die uniemagte grootliks suksesvol was in hul aanvalle langs Missionary Ridge, het die Konfederasie die oorhand oor die noordelike heuwels van die rif gehou. Die 73ste Pennsylvania het sterk gely tydens die verlowing. Hierdie manne, onder meer generaal Oliver Howard se XI Corps, was veterane van baie van die belangrikste verbintenisse van die oostelike oorlogsteater, nadat hulle in Second Manassas, Chancellorsville en Gettysburg geveg het. Terwyl hulle die konfederale geweerputte in die heuwels aan die noordelike punt van Missionary Ridge in Chattanooga laai, word die eenheid van die res van die brigade afgesny. As gevolg hiervan is byna die hele regiment dood, gewond of gevange geneem. Slegs vyf en twintig mans vermy gevangenskap. Vandag is daar 'n monument vir die 73ste Pennsylvania, asook verskeie tablette wat die militêre operasies in die gebied verduidelik. Die 73ste Pennsylvania -monument is geleë op die kruising van Glassstraat en Campbellstraat net langs North Crestweg. Daar is geen parkeerplek op hierdie plek nie. Om 'n park in 'n openbare ruimte in die kommersiële gebied van Glassstraat te besoek en te loop, of om by die Sherman -reservaat te parkeer en 'n kort pad te stap wat die Sherman -reservaat en die 73ste Pennsylvania -reservaat verbind.

Besoekers kom bymekaar vir 'n veldwagter-toer deur Sherman Reservation aan die noordelike punt van Missionary Ridge.

Die Sherman -reservaat is aan die noordelike punt van North Crest Road geleë. Op vyftig hektaar is dit die grootste van die reservate op Missionary Ridge, en dit behou die gebied waar generaal William T. Sherman se troepe die konfederale verdediging op Tunnel Hill aangeval het. Generaal Patrick Cleburne het die mans van Sherman suksesvol afgeweer, maar is uiteindelik gedwing om terug te trek toe die res van die Konfederale Weermag ooswaarts van Missionary Ridge terugtrek. Daar is 'n klein parkeerarea by die kruising van Lightfoot Millweg en North Crestweg. 'N Klein roete lei na die reservaat, wat verskeie monumente, tablette en kanonne bevat. Daar is ook 'n verbindingsroete waarmee besoekers tussen die Sherman -reservaat en die 73ste Pennsylvania -reservaat kan stap, teen die heuwel langs Glassstraat.

Die New York -monument by Ringgold Gap, Georgia

Twintig myl oos van Chickamauga Battlefield en weggesteek langs die Ringgold Wastewater Treatment Plant is 'n monument wat deur die staat New York opgerig is. In die nadraai van die Slag van Missionary Ridge het die Konfederate suidwaarts teruggetrek met die Unie -weermag. Op 27 November 1863 het 'n klein Konfederale mag onder bevel van generaal Patrick Cleburne stand gehou by Ringgold Gap.

Alhoewel hulle groot getalle was, het hulle die Unie -magte, wat baie van New York was, groot ongevalle aangerig. Die Konfederale oorwinning het die weermag genoeg tyd gegee om terug te trek en te herorganiseer ter voorbereiding van die somerveldtog in Georgië. Hierdie klein monument is opgedra aan die New Yorkers wat in hierdie vallei geveg en gesterf het. Dit is aan die suidpunt van Depotstraat in Ringgold, Georgia, geleë.


Gevegte vir Chattanooga: agtergrond

Na die Konfederale oorwinning in Chickamauga in Noordwes -Georgië in September 1863, het die leër van die Unie teruggetrek na die belangrike spoorwegaansluiting van Chattanooga, Tennessee. Die Konfederale Generaal Braxton Bragg (1817-76) het die stad vinnig beleër en toegang tot die voorraad van die Unie afgesny. In reaksie hierop beveel president Abraham Lincoln (1809-65) generaal-majoor Ulysses S. Grant (1822-85) aan Chattanooga. Grant, wat in Oktober aangekom het, het die stad spoedig herbou, 'n broodnodige toevoerlyn oopgemaak en begin met maneuvers om die beleg op te hef.

Het jy geweet? Die naam 𠇌hattanooga ” is afgelei van 'n Creek -Indiese woord wat beteken dat “rock tot 'n punt kom, en#x201D 'n verwysing na Lookout Mountain.


Maandag 25 November 2013

Sherman word deur die manne van Cleburne op Missionary Ridge, 1863, afgeweer

Teen die nag van die 24ste het genl.Ulysses S. Grant, vakbond -generaal van die vakbond, verkeerdelik geglo dat genl.maj. William T. Sherman vroeër die dag Tunnel Hill aan die noordelike punt van Missionary Ridge verower het. 1 Op grond van hierdie aanname het hy om middernag 'n bevel uitgevaardig dat Sherman die oggend van vandag se datum in 1863 die Konfederate in sy voorkant sou aanval. Sherman se doel was om Bragg se flank te draai, wat beteken dat die posisie van South Chickamauga Creek na Tunnel Hill aangegryp moet word. . Terselfdertyd het hy bevele aan generaal -majoor George Thomas uitgevaardig om gelyktydig die sentrum van die Konfederate op Missionary Ridge aan te val. Generaal -majoor Joseph Hooker sou by die aanval aansluit vanuit sy pas gewende posisie op Lookout Mountain, na die suidpunt van die rif naby Rossville beweeg en dan noordwaarts op Missionary Ridge vorder.

Teen die middag aan die noordelike punt van Missionary Ridge, waar oupagrootjie Nathan R. Oakes in Mark P. Lowrey se brigade van Patrick Cleburne's Division geveg het, het die konfederate elke aanval deur Sherman se troepe afgeweer. Sherman het nou 6 afdelings onder sy bevel gehad en byna 'n derde van die weermag se krag by Chattanooga. Voor die middag is Sherman vir eers 'n ander afdeling, Baird's, gestuur. In totaal het Sherman bykans 30 000 troepe tot sy beskikking gehad. Slegs 6 brigades van ongeveer 4 000 Konfederate konfronteer Sherman: Smith's, Govan's en Lowrey's van Cleburne's Division Brown's en Cummings's van Stevenson's Division en Maney's van Walker's Division.

Tot op daardie oomblik sou die meeste van die Konfederate bo -op Missionary Ridge nie kon dink dat vyandelike soldate die klim sou probeer nie, veral onder ongelooflike kanon- en geweervuur. Maar verstommend, dit is net wat Thomas se manne gedoen het. Die Konfederate was eenvoudig geskok en oorweldig. Batterye kon nie hul gewere genoeg druk om in die indringers te skiet nie. Bragg het geen reserwes om te stuur om die posisies wat oorskry word, te versterk nie. Honderde Konfederate het eenvoudig oorgegee terwyl duisende gevlug het. In minder as anderhalf uur vanaf die begin van die opmars, het die Federale die meeste van die rantposisies wat die Konfederate die afgelope 2 maande beklee het, beheer. Nie Grant of Thomas kon hulle voorstel dat die aanval van Thomas — wat bedoel was om sekondêr te wees as Sherman's — vandag eintlik die deurslaggewende sou wees nie. Dit was in werklikheid die keerpunt van die geveg.

Aan die suidpunt van die rif het Hooker sy manne uiteindelik van Lookout Mountain af gevorder, en eenhede het Rossville Gap aan die suidkant van Missionary Ridge bereik. Omstreeks 16:00 het hulle met hul aanval begin. Met min weerstand van die korps van genl.maj John C. Breckenridge 2 het sy troepe noordwaarts langs die top en weerskante van die rif beweeg totdat hulle met Thomas se manne te doen gekry het. Teen die aand van die 25ste het die Hooker en Thomas se troepe die middel- en suidpunt van Missionary Ridge gehou, en die Konfederate was terugtrek. Behalwe vir die noordelike deel van die rant, waar Cleburne's en Cheatham se afdelings van Hardee se regtervleuel nog gehou het, was Missionary Ridge heeltemal onder federale beheer.

Die rebelle-aanklag het om 16:00 begin, en saam met die hand-tot-hand-gevegte het dit die Federale laat hardloop. Binne minder as 'n uur is nog 'n aanklag georganiseer om die oorblywende magte van die basis van Tunnel Hill af te dryf. Oor die algemeen was dit wonderlike gevegte, wat gelei het tot die vaslegging van verskeie kleure en baie gevangenes. Meer belangrik. Dit stop Sherman se pogings om Tunnel Hill te vang, en neem sy krag vir die res van die geveg buite aksie.

7 uur lank, en teen 'n kans van byna 7 tot 1, het die manne van Cleburne Tunnel Hill teen vasberade magte gehou. 3 Maar die Konfederale sukses het groot koste in terme van die dapper lewens verloor. Cleburne se werk was nie tevergeefs nie, alhoewel hy op die punt was om ontstellende nuus van verder af te kry. Selfs terwyl sy manne hul triomf aan die regterkant toejuig, het die linkerkant van die Konfederale lyn ineengestort en weggevoer. Teen 18:00 het slegs die troepe van Hardee en Cleburne in die pad gestaan ​​van 'n volledige federale sweep van Missionary Ridge.

In die algemene terugtog van Bragg se leër daardie dag, dien die afdeling Cleburne ’s, die enigste georganiseerde konfederale mag, as agterhoede. Cleburne sal alles in sy vermoë doen om die weermag te red. Hy het dadelik beveel dat brig. States Rights Gist, bevelvoerder van die afdeling Walker, om sy troepe oor die rant te vorm. Daarna het hy alle voertuie wat gespaar kan word, beveel om die Chickamauga Creek oor te steek. Hy het Lucius Polk bevele gestuur om 'n mag na die Vlak Ford -brug te stuur en dit ten alle koste te hou. Hy het ook die brigade van Govan gestuur om die vyand se vooruitgang op die vlak Ford -pad te ontmoet.


Slag van Missionary Ridge, 1863

Stereografie uit die Panorama van die Slag van Missionary Ridge, die hoofkwartier van die Konfederale Generaal Braxton Bragg, geskilder in 1885. Dit is geverf deur Eugen Bracht se panoramamaatskappy in Berlyn en die eerste keer uitgestal in Kansas City in 1886. Dit is verwoes deur 'n tornado in Nashville, Tennessee. Uit Bennett se reeks "Wanderings Among the Wonders and Beauties of Western Scenery." Kyk na die oorspronklike brondokument: WHI 25891

Wisconsin se rol

Veertien Wisconsin -eenhede en mdash sewe Wisconsin -infanterie -regimente en sewe Light Artillery -batterye en mdash het deelgeneem aan die verbreking van die beleg by Chattanooga. Die 15de en 24ste Wisconsin -infanterieregimente was een van die magte wat Missionary Ridge aangeval het, deur die Konfederale geledere gebreek en die strategiese ligging ingeneem het.

Onder die mans wat die dag op die helling gestyg het, was die 18-jarige Arthur MacArthur, adjudant van die 24ste Wisconsin-infanterie. Toe die kleurdraer van die regiment geskiet is, het hy die regimentvlag opgetel. Hy het dit die res van die pad teen die helling opgedra en op die kruin geplant. Vir sy prestasie in hierdie geveg het McArthur 'n Erepenning ontvang, van eerste luitenant tot majoor bevorder en onder bevel van die regiment gekry. Hy was die vader van die beroemde leier van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, generaal Douglas MacArthur.

Skakels na meer inligting
Lees meer oor die geveg
Bekyk 'n strydkaart
Bekyk verwante beelde
Bekyk oorspronklike dokumente

[Bron: Report on the Nation's Civil War Battlefields (Washington, 1993) Estabrook, C. Records and Sketches of Military Organisations (Madison, 1914) Love, W. Wisconsin in the War of the Rebellion (Madison, 1866).]


Ed Johnson, die laaste man wat in Chattanooga gelits is, het grootgeword op Missionary Ridge in 'n arm swart gesin. Sy vroegste werk as kind was by die kunsmismyn op die Ridge.

Nevada Taylor was die mooi blonde 21-jarige dogter van die opsigter vir die eerste begraafplaas van Chattanooga in die vroeë 1900's, Forest Hills Cemetery, geleë in St. Elmo naby die voet van die Incline Railway.

Op 'n besonder donker aand op 23 Januarie 1906, omstreeks 18:00, was Nevada op pad huis toe van haar werk as boekhouer by W.W. Brooks kruideniersware in Market Street. Sy het pas uit die bus geklim. Toe sy deur die grafstene na haar pa se huis stap, word sy van agter aangeval, verstik met 'n leerband en verkrag. Toe Nevada later ondervra is deur die balju, was Nevada aanvanklik nie seker of die aanvaller swart of wit was nie. Toe sê sy dit is 'n negerman met groot spiere en 'n sagte, vriendelike stem. ”

Dit is moeilik om die openbare verontwaardiging wat hierdie voorval veroorsaak het, te waardeer. Die maand voor (Desember 1905) het 'n swart man 'n 15-jarige wit meisie wat in die Vine Street Weeshuis woon, verkrag. 'N Week later is 'n 16-jarige meisie ernstig gesteek deur 'n ontsnapte swart inbreker. Die dag daarna val 'n swart man 'n wit skoolmeisie in die sentrum van Chattanooga aan. Dit is gevolg deur 'n Chattanooga -konstabel wat deur 'n berugte swart dobbelaar geskiet is.

Die twee plaaslike koerante, die oggend Times en die middagnuus, het met mekaar meegeding om ontstekende en verontwaardigde retoriek oor hierdie voorvalle, asof hulle probeer om meer waarskynlik by die plaaslike salonne aangehaal te word. “Desperadoes Run Rampant in Chattanooga ” blaas die nuus.

Die heersende sentiment was dat 'n boodskap aan die swart bevolking gestuur moes word, anders sou geen wit vrou in Chattanooga veilig wees nie. Balju Joseph F. Shipp, 'n voormalige Konfederale kaptein, was binnekort weer herkiesbaar.

Die 24-jarige Ed Johnson is deur 'n wit man geïdentifiseer nadat 'n beloning van $ 375 vir inligting gepos is. Die verskeie getuies wat hom daardie nag elders gesien het, is in die hof as onbetroubaar beskou omdat hulle self swart was, of in 'n salon waar Ed die aand gewerk het. Nevada Taylor was aanvanklik nie in staat nie en later baie huiwerig om hom as haar aanvaller te identifiseer. Die hofrekords weerspieël 'n besmette en bevooroordeelde proses.

Om op die oomblik wit te wees en nie saam te stem dat Ed Johnson skuldig was nie, was om geweld op jouself uit te nooi. Om swart te wees en iets oor die voorval te sê, was om dieselfde te doen. Tog het die burger en hul koerante luidkeels beswaar gemaak teen die idee dat enige plaaslike verhoor allesbehalwe billik kan wees.

Twee plaaslike swart prokureurs het eers die skuldigbevinding van Johnson aanhangig gemaak by die staat en daarna by die federale howe. Die Hooggeregshof het die saak hersien en 'n uitstel van uitvoering ter verdere ondersoek afgelê. Vir plaaslike inwoners, wat net -net afgeskrik het van 'n vorige lynchpoging op Johnson, was dit te veel.

Bygestaan ​​deur opsetlik swak veiligheidsmaatreëls by die gevangenis, breek 'n lynch -skare in die nag van 19 Maart 1906 in die tronk in die stad Chattanooga in, sleep Ed Johnson na die Walnut Street Bridge, slaan hom, hang hom en skiet hom (in daardie bevel) totdat hy dood was. They hung him from the second cross railing back from the city side of the bridge because another black had previously been lynched from the first railing of the nearly-new bridge, with the intention, one man yelled, of working their way across the bridge.

Despite the beatings and threats and promises of leniency if he would confess his crime, Ed Johnson’s last words were, “God bless you all. I am an innocent man.” Those were the words placed on his tombstone.

The Pleasant Garden Cemetery, established in 1891 as one of the first black cemeteries in the state of Tennessee, is located on the southeast side of Missionary Ridge, just below the crest, in the community of Ridgeside, not far from Shallowford Road. Ed Johnson’s grave is there.

Burials at Pleasant Garden continued into the late 1960’s. The property is now privately owned. Although it includes hundreds, probably thousands of graves, it fell into such neglect that it was practically unrecognizable as a cemetery by the late 1990’s. Efforts are now underway to at least stop further decay of the grounds.

(Much of this information is from the book, "Contempt of Court" by Mark Curriden and Leroy Phillips, 1999.)


Inhoud

After their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, the 40,000 men of the Union Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga. Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee besieged the city, threatening to starve the Union forces into surrender. Bragg's troops established themselves on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, both of which had excellent views of the city, the Tennessee River flowing through the city, and the Union's supply lines. The only supply line that was not controlled by the Confederates was a roundabout, tortuous course nearly 60 miles long over Walden's Ridge from Bridgeport, Alabama. Heavy rains began to fall in late September, washing away long stretches of the mountain roads. On October 1, Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler's Confederate cavalry intercepted and severely damaged a train of 800 wagons—burning hundreds of the wagons, and shooting or sabering hundreds of mules—at the start of his October 1863 Raid through Tennessee to sever Rosecrans's supply line. Toward the end of October, Federal soldiers' rations were "four cakes of hard bread and a quarter pound of pork" every three days. ΐ] The Union Army sent reinforcements: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker with 15,000 men in two corps from the Army of the Potomac in Virginia and Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman with 20,000 men from Vicksburg, Mississippi. On October 17, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies, designated the Military Division of the Mississippi he moved to reinforce Chattanooga and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas. Α] Thomas launched a surprise amphibious landing at Brown's Ferry on October 27 that opened the Tennessee River by linking up his Army of the Cumberland with Hooker's relief column southwest of the city, thus allowing supplies and reinforcements to flow into Chattanooga over what was called the "Cracker Line". In response, Bragg ordered Lt. Gen. James Longstreet to force the Federals out of Lookout Valley. The ensuing Battle of Wauhatchie (October 28󈞉) was one of the war's few battles fought exclusively at night. The Confederates were repulsed, and the Cracker Line was secured. Β ]

Sherman arrived with his 20,000 men of the Army of the Tennessee in mid-November. Grant, Sherman, and Thomas planned a double envelopment of Bragg's force, with the main attack by Sherman against the northern end of Missionary Ridge, supported by Thomas in the center and by Hooker, who would capture Lookout Mountain and then move across the Chattanooga Valley to Rossville, Georgia, and cut off the Confederate retreat route to the south. Γ ]

On November 23, Sherman's force was ready to cross the Tennessee River. Grant ordered Thomas to advance halfway to Missionary Ridge on a reconnaissance in force to determine the strength of the Confederate line, hoping to ensure that Bragg would not withdraw his forces and move in the direction of Knoxville, Tennessee, where Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside was being threatened by a Confederate force under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet. Thomas sent over 14,000 men toward a minor hill named Orchard Knob and overran the Confederate defenders. Grant changed his orders and instructed Thomas's men to dig in and hold the position. Δ ]

Surprised by Thomas's move and realizing that his center and right might be more vulnerable than he had thought, Bragg quickly readjusted his strategy. Bragg assigned Col. Warren Grigsby's brigade of Kentucky cavalry to picket the Tennessee river northeast of Chattanooga and ordered Brig. Gen. Marcus Joseph Wright to bring his brigade of Tennessee infantry from Cleveland, Tennessee, by train to Chickamauga Station. He recalled all units he had recently ordered to Knoxville if they were within a day's march. Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne's division returned after dark from Chickamauga Station, interrupting the process of boarding the trains. Bragg began to reduce the strength on his left by withdrawing Maj. Gen. William H. T. Walker's division from the base of Lookout Mountain and placing them on the far right of Missionary Ridge, just south of Tunnel Hill. He assigned Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee to command his now critical right flank, turning over the left flank to Maj. Gen. Carter L. Stevenson. Bragg's concern for his right proved justified and his decisions were fortuitous. In the center, Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge ordered his men to begin fortifying the crest of Missionary Ridge, a task that Bragg had somehow neglected for weeks. Unable to decide whether to defend the base or the crest of the Ridge, the divisions of Brig. Gens. William B. Bate and J. Patton Anderson were ordered to move half of their divisions to the crest, leaving the remainder in the rifle pits along the base. James L. McDonough wrote of the upper entrenchments, "Placed along the physical crest rather than what is termed the military crest . these works severely handicapped the defenders." Ε ]

November 24 was dark, with low clouds, fog, and drizzling rain. Sherman's force crossed the Tennessee River successfully in the morning then took the set of hills at the north end of Missionary Ridge, although he was surprised to find that a valley separated him from the main part of the ridge. Alerted by Grigsby's cavalry that the enemy had crossed the river in force, Bragg sent Cleburne's division and Wright's brigade to challenge Sherman. After skirmishing with the Confederates, Sherman ordered his men to dig in on the hills he had seized. Cleburne, likewise, dug in around Tunnel Hill. Ζ]

At the same time, Hooker's command succeeded in the Battle of Lookout Mountain and prepared to move east toward Bragg's left flank on Missionary Ridge. The divisions of Stevenson and Cheatham retreated behind Chattanooga Creek, burning the bridges behind them. Η ]

On the night of November 24, Bragg asked his two corps commanders whether to retreat or to stand and fight. Cleburne, concerned about what Sherman had accomplished, expected Bragg to retreat. Hardee also counseled retreat, but Breckinridge convinced Bragg to fight it out on the strong position of Missionary Ridge. Accordingly, the troops withdrawn from Lookout Mountain were ordered to the right wing to assist in repelling Sherman. ⎖]


The Battle of Chattanooga:

By 23 November 1863, 70,000 Federal troops were amassed in battle of Chattanooga. The Federal breakout began with General Thomas seizing Orchard Knob from the Confederates, and driving the Confederate line back. The next day, Joseph Hooker led the Federal attack at the Battle of Lookout Mountain, known as the “The Battle above the Clouds,” and used his six-to-one advantage in men to defeat the Confederates.

But the key battle was the Battle of Missionary Ridge. It was begun on 24 November and engaged with a fury on 25 November. Again the Federals had six to one odds in their favor, but the three Confederate lines ascending the steep ridge threw back Federal attacks all day—at times in hand to hand combat.

General Thomas, however, refused to be denied victory. He brought up 23,000 Federals on a two mile-long line and sent them charging a full mile under fire. The bluecoats crashed into and overwhelmed the 3,200 Confederates in the rifle pits at the base of the ridge. As retreating Confederates scrambled out of the way, fire poured down on the Federals from the Confederate second line: artillery fire, musket fire, an inferno of blazing fire. The Yankee junior officers on the spot thought they had no choice: they had to charge straight up the mountain through that avalanche of artillery shells and bullets.

Grant, seeing the blue uniforms move up, thought it was suicide and demanded to know who had given the order to attack up the ridge. No one knew, but the bluecoats kept moving, dodging behind whatever cover they could find as they made their ascent. Soon they had captured the second line of Confederate rifle pits, the defenders scrambling higher to the final line. Though the fire remained fierce and deadly, the Union troops got a break. As the Federals ascended, the Confederate artillery‘s field of fire diminished to nothing, it being impossible to depress the barrels any farther. The Confederate gunners were reduced to lighting fuses on canister shells and rolling them and cannon balls down the ridge.

Grabbing the flag of the 24th Wisconsin from an exhausted color sergeant, eighteen-year-old Lieutenant Arthur MacArthur (father of future general Douglas MacArthur) led the final charge: “On Wisconsin!” he cried. Soon the Federals were over the top, and as MacArthur planted his regiment’s colors in front of what had been Braxton Bragg’s headquarters he was greeted with the sight of Confederate uniforms melting away down the reverse slope of the ridge.

Phil Sheridan led the Federals’ pursuit, which continued the next day. Only the fighting courage of Patrick Cleburne’s shielding division (Cleburne was known as “the Stonewall Jackson of the West”) allowed the Confederates to escape. The charge up Missionary Ridge had decided the contest. Told that Confederate generals had considered Missionary Ridge impregnable, Grant replied, “Well, it was impregnable.”4 But the bravery of men like Arthur MacArthur and Phil Sheridan had changed that.


Missionary Ridge

The Battle of Missionary Ridge was fought on November 25, 1863, as part of the Chattanooga Campaign of the American Civil War. Following the Union victory in the Battle of Lookout Mountain on November 24, Union forces under the command of Major General Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Missionary Ridge and defeated the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by General Braxton Bragg — forcing the Confederate forces to retreat to Georgia.

George L. Banks

Rank: Sersant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company C, 15th Indiana Infantry

Gebore: October 13, 1893, Lake County, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: As color bearer, led his regiment in the assault, and, though wounded, carried the flag forward to the enemy’s works, where he was again wounded. In a brigade of 8 regiments this flag was the first planted on the parapet.

James B. Bell

Rank: Sersant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: August 9, 1835, Branot, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Though severely wounded, he was the first of his regiment on the summit of the ridge, planted his colors inside the enemy’s works, and did not leave the field until after he had been wounded 5 times.

Henry V. Boynton

Rank: luitenant-kolonel

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: 35th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: July 22, 1835, West Stockbridge, Massachusetts

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Led his regiment in the face of a severe fire of the enemy was severely wounded.

Charles W. Brouse

Rank: Kaptein

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company K, 100th Indiana Infantry

Gebore: December 30, 1839, Indianapolis, Indiana

Place / Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: To encourage his men whom he had ordered to lie down while under severe fire, and who were partially protected by slight earthworks, himself refused to lie down, but walked along the top of the works until he fell severely wounded.

Robert B. Brown

Rank: Privaat

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company A, 15th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: October 2, 1844, New Concord, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Upon reaching the ridge through concentrated fire, he approached the color bearer of the 9th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.), demanded his surrender with threatening gesture and took him prisoner with his regimental flag.

Freeman Davis

Rank: Sersant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company B, 80th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: February 28, 1842, Newcomerstown, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling:This soldier, while his regiment was falling back, seeing the 2 color bearers shot down, under a severe fire and at imminent peril recovered both the flags and saved them from capture.

George Green

Rank: Korporaal

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: July 16, 1840, England

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Scaled the enemy’s works and in a hand-to-hand fight helped capture the flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).

Thomas Graham

Rank: Second Lieutenant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company G, 15th Indiana Infantry

Gebore: September 16, 1837

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Seized the colors from the color bearer, who had been wounded, and, exposed to a terrible fire, carried them forward, planting them on the enemy’s breastworks.

Philip Goettel

Rank: Privaat

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company B, 149th New York Infantry

Gebore: September 2, 1840, Syracuse, New York

Place/Date: At Ringgold, Georgia, November 27, 1863

Aanhaling: Capture of flag and battery guidon.

Hiram R. Howard

Rank: Privaat

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: February 17, 1843, Urbana, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Scaled the enemy’s works and in a hand-to-hand fight helped capture the flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).

Simeon T. Josselyn

Rank: First Lieutenant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company C, 13th Illinois Infantry

Gebore: January 14, 1842, Buffalo, New York

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: While commanding his company, deployed as skirmishers, came upon a large body of the enemy, taking a number of them prisoner. Lt. Josselyn himself shot their color bearer, seized the colors and brought them back to his regiment.

Leverett M. Kelley

Rank: Sersant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company A, 36th Illinois Infantry

Gebore: 1841, Schenectady, New York

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Sprang over the works just captured from the enemy, and calling upon his comrades to follow, rushed forward in the face of a deadly fire and was among the first over the works on the summit, where he compelled the surrender of a Confederate officer and received his sword.

John S. Kountz

Rank: Musician

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: March 25, 1846, Richfield, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Seized a musket and joined in the charge in which he was severely wounded.

Arthur MacCarthur, Jr.

Rank: First Lieutenant/Adjutant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: 24th Wisconsin Infantry

Gebore: Springfield, Massachusetts

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Gryp die kleure van sy regiment op 'n kritieke oomblik en plant dit op die gevange werke op die kruin van Missionary Ridge.

Axel H. Reed

Rank: Sersant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company K, 2d Minnesota Infantry

Gebore: March 13, 1835, Hartford, Maine

Place/Date: At Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863 At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: While in arrest at Chickamauga, Ga., left his place in the rear and voluntarily went to the line of battle, secured a rifle, and fought gallantly during the 2-day battle was released from arrest in recognition of his bravery. At Missionary Ridge commanded his company and gallantly led it, being among the first to enter the enemy’s works was severely wounded, losing an arm, but declined a discharge and remained in active service to the end of the war.

William Schmidt

Rank: Principal Musician

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry

Gebore: July 10, 1846, Tiffin, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: Rescued a wounded comrade under terrific fire.

John J. Toffey

Rank: First Lieutenant

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company G, 33d New Jersey Infantry

Gebore: June 1, 1844, Pawling, New York

Place/Date: At Chattanooga, Tennessee, November 23, 1863

Aanhaling: Although excused from duty on account of sickness, he went to the front in command of a storming party and with conspicuous gallantry participated in the assault of Missionary Ridge was here wounded and permanently disabled.

James C. Walker

Rank: Privaat

Organization: U.S. Army

Company: Company K, 31st Ohio Infantry

Gebore: November 30, 1843, Harmony, Ohio

Place/Date: At Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863

Aanhaling: After 2 color bearers had fallen, seized the flag and carried it forward, assisting in the capture of a battery. Shortly thereafter he captured the flag of the 41st Alabama and the color bearer.


The battle

Prior to this battle, the morale of the Confederates was high as they had bested the Union army at the Battle of Chickamauga (September 19�, 1863). The Union army had retreated to Chattanooga. They were pursued by the Confederate army who succeeded in bottling up the Union army in a tight semicircle. General Grant took over command of the Union army in October and shored up the defenses. His coming had a significant effect on morale as he decided to go on the offensive.

He started by opening a supply route to the beleaguered Union army by driving the Confederate army from the Tennessee River. He now planned for a major offensive in November. On 23 November he instructed his assistant General George Thomas to launch a probe against the Confederates on Missionary Ridge. This was an important landmark as its control gave the army a clear view of the countryside as well as Chattanooga.

The morale of the rebel soldiers had been slowly ebbing and a simple maneuver turned into a significant win for the Union army. The Confederate force retreated and went up the strategic ridge, leaving the lower areas in control of the Union army.

The stage was now set for the battle as the Union army captured Lookout Mountain on one side of the Confederate force. This was on 24 November. General Joseph Hooker under the overall command of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant&aposs with about 56,000 men, captured Lookout Mountain. The disheartened Confederate troops who had held it since the Battle of Chickamauga for the last 2 months simply caved in. This left the Confederate left wing dangerously weak. Hooker&aposs troops captured the mountain and drove off the Confederates and now he was ready for the battle at Missionary Ridge.

Grant now planned a threefold assault on the Confederate positions on Missionary Ridge. From the left, General Sherman attacked with his troops. While from the right an attack was mounted by the Union army under General Joseph Hooker. Both these elements of the Union army made heavy weather against strong resistance. There was severe fighting but the confederates held on.

As per the plan, Grant now ordered the Central thrust. The Union army now launched an offensive to relieve the forces of Sherman and hooker. This was the most significant phase of the battle as the Union forces made excellent headway against the Confederate force. Many factors went against the Confederate army one of which was a poor generalship. This had resulted in defensive trenches being dug which did not serve their purpose. The result was that the center of the Confederate force collapsed like a house of cards. General Bragg the confederate general sounded the bugle of retreat and pulled his troops away from Chattanooga. It was a colossal defeat for the Confederates and it had its repercussions as general Bragg resigned soon after.

Braxton Bragg (1817-1876) was a U.S. Army officer who was called from retirement and became a general during the Civil War (1861-65). He was promoted to full general after General Albert Sidney Johnston’s death at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862. He was captured by the Union forces in 1865 but paroled. His plantation was captured and he had to look for civil employment. He died in 1876 aged 59. His opponent Ulysses Grant became the 18th president of the USA. One must remember the winner takes all and the loser gets nothing.


Dead Confederates, A Civil War Era Blog

Bloggers really are a shameless bunch, snatching an idea from one of their colleagues, and running off on a new tangent with it.

Keith Harris, who blogs at Cosmic America, got the ball rolling this time by posting a video clip of Grant author Joan Waugh, discussing the persistent rumors of drunkenness that swirled around Grant throughout the war and after. Waugh’s own position on the subject is not entirely clear, but she describes the sort of “default” position taken by many historians — that his drinking didn’t interfere with his abilities “when it counted,” — and follows up by explaining that she admonishes her students to be “mature about judging our presidents and other leaders,” recognizing their human foibles, and asking rhetorically whether Lincoln, after suffering through a series of failed Union generals, would “appoint a raging drunk to lead the Union army?”

Professor Brooks D. Simpson, himself a Grant biographer, takes strong exception to the notion that Grant only drank when nothing much was going on. He outlines three specific occasions when Grant had what appears to have had serious alcohol-related incidents when engaged in active military operations, one of which — a fall from his horse at New Orleans in October 1863 — put him effectively out of action for weeks. “When you are a general in command of an army,” Simpson writes, “something important is always going on, and it would be bad business for a general to assume a lull in the fighting to relax before being surprised. Think Shiloh.”

Simpson doesn’t discuss Grant’s drinking at Chattanooga, but it was attested by Ambrose Bierce, at the time a staff officer under General William Babcock Hazen. Bierce thought well of Grant, but as Simpson himself noted in a 2007 piece for the Ambrose Bierce Project, the writer chafed mightily at the fatuous accolades and near-deification of the man that followed Grant’s death in July 1885. Among the things that stirred Bierce’s ire — and it didn’t take much, truly — were the general’s eulogists who built complex rationalizations around his imbibing or, worse, averred he never touched the bottle. A few months after Grant’s passing, Bierce set out his own, utterly unapologetic perspective on the subject:

For my part, I know of nothing in great military or civic abilities incompatible with a love of strong drink, nor any reason to suppose that a true patriot may not have the misfortune to be dissipated. Alexander the Great was a drunkard, and died of it. Webster was as often drunk as sober. The instances are numberless. When the nation’s admiration of Grant, who was really an admirable soldier, shall have accomplished its fermentation and purged itself of toadyism, men of taste will not be ashamed to set it before their guests at a feast of reason. . . .

My own observation – take it for what it is worth – is that it was some time afterward. As late as the battle of Mission[ary] Ridge (November 25,1863) it was my privilege to be close to him for six or seven hours, on Orchard Knob – him and his staff and a variable group of other general and staff officers, including Thomas, Granger, Sheridan, Wood and Hazen. They looked upon the wine when it was red, these tall fellows – they bit glass. The poisoned chalice went about and about. Some of them did not kiss the dragon my recollection is that Grant commonly did. I don’t think he took enough to comfort the enemy- not more than I did myself from another bottle but I was all the time afraid he would, which was ungenerous, for he did not appear at all afraid I would. This confidence touched me deeply.

Many times since then I have read with pleasure and approval the warmest praises of Grant’s total abstinence from some of the gentlemen then and there present.

Such virtues as we have
Our piety doth grace the gods withal.

These gentlemen were themselves total abstainers from the truth.

One wonders whether, 125 years after his death, the fermentation of Grant’s legacy in this regard is even yet accomplished. Not quite yet, for some.

Bierce excerpt from David J. Klooster and Russell Duncan, eds., Phantoms of a Blood-Stained Period: The Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce (University of Massachusetts, 2002). Image: Chromolithograph of a painting by Thure de Thulstrup, “Battle of Chattanooga” (depicting the Battle of Missionary Ridge) of the Chattanooga Campaign. Library of Congress.


Kyk die video: Shermans Assault on Missionary Ridge - with Park Historian Jim Ogden