Iberiese Ram Protome

Iberiese Ram Protome


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Praat: Iberiese perd

Gebruiker Montanabw het my laaste wysiging gewysig, die afdeling 'geskiedenis' verwyder, en daar is volgende probleme met die wysiging primoIn teenstelling met wat gebruiker Montanabw sê, Marismeño -perd is nie 'n buitekant van Sorraia nie, is dit 'n perd op sy eie uit die suide van Spanje (Royo al, p.663), terwyl Sorraia 'n Portugese ras is met 'n redelik ekstreme knelpunteffek ( twee moederlyne ), en die hipotese dat die Sorraias die voorvaders van die huidige suidelike Iberiese perde (bv. d'Andrade 1945) verteenwoordig, sou nie goed ondersteun word op moederlike genetiese basis nie). sekondo, Het Montanabw geskryf as 'n opsomming van haar/sy wysiging (Bronne ontbreek volledig en behoorlik. U inligting word ook verkeerd geïnterpreteer, die More het omstreeks 700 nC ingeval en die datum van 5000 vC is baie spekulatief) wel, as ek sê die makmaak van perde op die Iberiese skiereiland dateer tot laat 13de eeu v.G.J. - inval op die Iberiese Skiereiland deur Afrikaanse stamme wat makgemaakte perde saamgebring het (na M. Pidal, Baroja) (Ramon Menendez Pidal, Julio Caro Baroja) Ek bedoel 13de eeu vC of ongeveer 3300 jaar gelede - Iberiese stamme het uit Afrika gekom om die Iberiese skiereiland te migreer/binne die Bronstydperk (na Pidal en Baroja) of gedurende die kopertydperk - 2000 jaar binne te val. vroeër. Wanneer ek verklaar hulle [perde] het ongeveer 5000 jaar gelede saam met Sredny Stog -kultuurmense gekom (Anthony http://users.hartwick.edu/anthonyd/harnessing%20horsepower.html, 1992, Perd, wiel, taal 2009) Ek bedoel 3000 v.G.J. Daar moet op gelet word dat Azzaroli die binnelandse perde-inleiding in Spanje verbind met die Bell-Beaker-kultuur, maar hy verklaar dat hulle nie mense afskrik nie, en dat die perd met Keltiese stamme in die 9de-7de eeu vC gekom het (Azzaroli, p.124- 125) Terwyl ek dit eens is dat bronne nie volledige aanhalings gehad het nie, werk ek nie vir Wikipedia nie, en doen dit op my vrye tyd :) - ek het nie tyd gehad om volledige en meer bronne by te voeg nie, en hierdie wysiging deur Montanabw stel onnodige streng standaard op sonder As ek eers die artikel voltooi het wat nou onvolledig en onwetenskaplik is, dink ek nogal 'n 'nuwe standaard' in Wikipedia, ensiklopedie wat meestal gebou is op ongegronde materiaal en 'n stadige aanpassingsperiode van artikels na die gewenste Wikipedia -standaard, dit wil sê, verkry en aangehaal. tertio, verklaring in nuwe wysiging - Daar word vermoed dat Iberiese perde een van die oudste tipes mak perde is is 'n hoorsê en benodig 'n bronverwysing na hierdie stelling, en nader aan die waarheid is 'die oudste tipes mak perde in Europa' - Asië het 1-3000 jaar voor Europa mak geword kwarto, Iberiese perde in die oudheid moet opgeneem word - Ann Hyland het Equus, Horse in the Roman World, geskryf, dit bevat 'n afdeling wat aan Iberiese perde gewy is, maar meer wetenskaplike benaderings is in Azzaroli, Fernando Quesada Sanz, Caballo en la antigua Iberia., En ook Romeinse skrywers soos Columella, Vegetius ens quinto, Middeleeue is nodig - miskien ook Hyland, maar dan ook Spaanse skrywers, ens sexto, Vroeë moderne tydperk tot einde van die 18de eeu - ontwikkeling van Andalusiese perde, versprei na die Amerikas, - baie skrywers, maar kosbare bronne uit die gewilde perde- en teelhandleidings bekend as libro de la gineta septimo, Napoleontiese tydperk en 19de eeu - agteruitgang van Iberiese perde octavo, moderniteit en vestiging van huidige rasse gebaseer op stamboeke, ens. wil graag saamwerk, daarom dink ek dat dit hierdie artikel sal help as ons almal hier saamwerk (my belangrikste navorsingsgebied is antieke Eurasiese steppe en Iraanse mense van Sentraal-Asië, vroeg-moderne Oos-Europa en Ottomaanse Turkye, Amerikaanse vlaktes Indië voor- Perdekultuur uit die 1880's, en die Spaanse 16 tot 17de eeu Libros de la gineta), en verbeter hierdie artikel en sy onderdele. Dit sal verblydend wees dat mense uit Spanje en Portugal kundig is (via taal, onlangse literatuur en toegang daartoe) in hierdie onderwerp - bienvenidos DarioTW (kontak) 05:55, 10 Februarie 2011 (UTC)

OK, ek stem saam dat die artikel uitgebrei en verbeter moet word, maar dit gaan meestal oor die moderne Iberiese rasse, nie oor die geskiedenis van die Iberiese perd nie (dit sou egter nog 'n goeie artikel wees, miskien moet u dit skep!) wat hierbo geskryf is, sou meer sin maak as u vertraag, woorde soos 'behoorlik' ry, nie beledigings inbring nie (veral na my, aangesien ek u eintlik hier probeer help, en ek werk gratis in my spaar ook tyd!) en moenie lukraak feite sonder volledige aanhaling ronddwaal nie - u moet volledig noem sodat ander mense toegang kan kry tot wat u beweer dat u aanhaal. Ek het egter toevallig 'n kopie van die Anthony -boek, so gooi my 'n bladsynommer vir u inligting oor die Sredni Stog -kultuur, want ek kan dit bevestig of nie. Hyland is stewig, maar ek het nie haar boeke nie, dus moet ek vertrou dat u materiaal nie verkeerd aangehaal of misbruik nie (wat ek nog nie doen nie, want u is tot dusver redelik sorgeloos) Die materiaal by die aankoms van Iberiese mense en perde is die moeite werd verdere studie. Oor die algemeen is die probleem die manier waarop u massiewe wysigings aan hierdie artikels inbring, ongeorganiseerd en nie behoorlik aangehaal nie. Dit sal ure neem om noukeurig na te gaan en te hersien wat u skryf, want dit is eerlikwaar onbegryplik. U Engelse vaardighede is minder kommerwekkend as u net kleiner, opeenvolgende wysigings sou aanbring en 'n goeie URL aan volledige bronverwysings sou gee, sodat ander mense maklik die bronmateriaal kan vind en dinge na behoefte kan herformuleer. Montanabw (kontak) 05:41, 11 Februarie 2011 (UTC)

Hi. Ek is die outeur van die laaste veranderinge aan die artikel en wou 'n paar dinge oor u wysigings bespreek. My mening, soos ek aangedui het, is nog steeds 'n werk aan die gang, so miskien was u 'n bietjie te vinnig.

  • Die tekort aan koue bloed /swaar trekperde uit inheemse vee
  • Die ekonomiese prioriteit van muil broei oor perde. Die meeste ooie is tot hierdie teling gewend
  • Die grootste deel van die voorraad (tot die middel van die twintigste eeu) was pony-C-grootte perde (12-14 paar hande), wat ons noem jacas. En die meeste van die genoemde rasse is eenvoudig die oorlewendes. met die criollos van Suid -Amerika.

Ek hoop dat die meeste hiervan in die artikel sal kom, behoorlik verkry

As u 'n regte titel vind, dink ek die inligting wat in die kolom beskikbaar was, was waardevol en moet dit herstel word -Wllacer (kontak) 20:44, 18 Maart 2012 (UTC)

Ons kan bespreek watter materiaal ons moet skuif en bewaar, maar die algemene reël is om NIE bronbespreking te verwyder (of weg te steek) sonder bespreking nie. Ons kan beide bronne vir verskillende inligting gebruik. Ek stem saam dat daar 'n paar oortollige materiaal is en dat die grafiek mooi en handig is. Ek dink dat u bespreking van muil- en koudbloedteling in 'n verhalende paragraaf kan gaan, en geen probleem as u iets wil opdis nie. Maar ons MOET by die standaard Engelse terminologie hou, of miskien net die hoogte bereik (in beide hande, duim en sentimeter sodat mense wêreldwyd kan verstaan ​​dat ons 'n sjabloon het wat omskakel) In Engels sê ons nie 'big pony' ( en "ooie" is vroulike skape, nie perde nie) of het 'n ander klassifikasie as perd en ponie. As daar 'n narratiewe plek is om te verduidelik wat 'n 'jaca' is, of iets dergeliks, kan ons die Spaanse klassifikasiestelsel bespreek en miskien die Spaanse terme en definisies inskryf, maar die Engelse vertalings soos 'big pony' is nie standaard en eintlik glad nie van nut nie. Die "afsny" tussen perde en ponies is eintlik lukraak, en wissel in Engelssprekende lande van 14 hande in Australië tot 14,3 in een of ander FEI-kompetisie. Die waarheid is, soos verduidelik in die ponie -artikel, 'pony' -status is in elk geval meer 'n fenotipe -benaming. Ek dink ook die Walliese ponie, in Engels, is die enigste ras wat 'ABCD' hoogteklassifikasies gebruik. Montanabw (kontak) 18:44, 19 Maart 2012 (UTC) Laastens kom die ABCD -klassifikasie van die Spaanse Hipical Federation, ek het gedink dit is wydverspreid en is handig om die fenotipiese beeld te vermy. Wetlik in Spanje is die afsny nou 150 cm (14h3). Dit was voorheen 147 cm (7 cuartas, 14h2). Weet ek nie hoe ooi in my gedagtes gekom het as 'n sinoniem van merrie nie, miskien die ramkop van baie PRE? -) Dankie dat u my reggemaak het, ek werk aan die verhaal. dit neem net 'n rukkie .-- Wllacer (kontak) 13:30, 20 Maart 2012 (UTC) Die truuk hieroor is om die Spaanse klassifikasies en so aan Engelssprekendes te verduidelik, wat dit nie ken nie. Ek is bly om u te help met die stukkie. As u wonder hoe u so iets moet benader, kyk dan hoe ons die totaal atipiese kleurkleurklassifikasies in die Fjord -perdartikel hanteer het - dit is gebaseer op die Noorse taal, daarom is dit vreemd vir Engelssprekendes; niemand anders doen dit nie Ons het baie tyd daaraan bestee om die terminologie te verduidelik en wat elke ding beteken. Montanabw (kontak) 17:27, 20 Maart 2012 (UTC)

Ek het pas 5 eksterne skakels op die Iberiese perd verander. Neem 'n rukkie om my wysiging te hersien. As u enige vrae het, of as u die bot nodig het om die skakels of die bladsy heeltemal te ignoreer, besoek hierdie eenvoudige FAQ vir meer inligting. Ek het die volgende veranderinge aangebring:

  • Argief https://web.archive.org/web/20070927101815/http://www.intl-pag.org/14/abstracts/PAG14_P594.html bygevoeg na http://www.intl-pag.org/14/ opsommings/PAG14_P594.html
  • Argief https://web.archive.org/web/20140407073803/http://www.eaap.org/docs/Publications/eaap116%20-%20553687176K.pdf bygevoeg na http://www.eaap.org/docs /Publications/eaap116%20-%20553687176K.pdf
  • Argief https://web.archive.org/web/20120326110450/http://www.alterreal.pt/home.htm bygevoeg by http://www.alterreal.pt/home.htm
  • Bygevoeg <> merk na http://www.asambleamadrid.es/Resources/Ficheros/C5/Diarios%20de%20sesiones/Diarios%20de%20sesiones%20%20Legislatura%20VIII/VIII-DS-850.pdf
  • Bygevoeg <> merk op http://www.conquistador.com/lusitano.html
  • Argief https://web.archive.org/web/20110713064745/http://www.itgganadero.com/itg/portal/seccion.asp?S=3&P=17&N=79 bygevoeg by http: //www.itgganadero. com/itg/portal/seccion.asp? S = 3 & ampP = 17 & ampN = 79
  • Argief https://web.archive.org/web/20100601222055/http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/horses/losino/index.htm bygevoeg na http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/ rasse/perde/losino/index.htm

As u my veranderinge nagegaan het, kan u die instruksies op die onderstaande sjabloon volg om probleme met die URL's op te los.

Vanaf Februarie 2018 word die besprekingsbladsye "Eksterne skakels aangepas" nie meer gegenereer of gemonitor nie InternetArchiveBot . Geen spesiale aksie is nodig met betrekking tot hierdie kennisgewings op die besprekingsbladsy nie, behalwe gereelde verifikasie volgens die instruksies hieronder in die argiefhulpmiddel. Redakteurs het toestemming om hierdie gespreksbladsye met 'Eksterne skakels aangepas' te verwyder as hulle gespreksbladsye wil ontwrig, maar die RfC sien voordat hulle massa sistematiese verwyderings doen. Hierdie boodskap word dinamies bygewerk deur die sjabloon <> (laaste opdatering: 15 Julie 2018).


The Magic Of Cannae: Battering Ram Versus Quicksand

Wat was die belangrikste faktore wat Hannibal in staat gestel het om te wen teen 'n oorweldigende kans op Cannae? Die genialiteit van die slagveld van Hannibal was veelsydig. Hy was 'n meester van die onverwagte, hy was onvoorspelbaar en in staat om nie-lineêr te dink-wat ons vandag 'buite die boks dink' sou noem. Hy het die ongelooflike vermoë om in een oogopslag die voor- en nadele van terrein en weer te begryp. Hy het die sterk- en swakpunte van die verskillende komponente van sy multi-etniese weermag goed verstaan ​​en hoe hy elkeen tot sy grootste voordeel kon benut. Die belangrikste is dat hy sy vyande verstaan ​​het, miskien beter as wat hulle hulself verstaan ​​het. Sy taktiese visie word weerspieël in die wyse waarop hy sy magte ontplooi het om die massiewe Romeinse leër by Cannae die hoof te bied en in sy vermoë om sy strydplan met akkuraatheid te implementeer. Met 'n virtuositeit wat soos die glans van Capablanca op die skaakbord lyk, bereik hy wat minder sterflinge as onmoontlik sou beskou het.

Op daardie noodlottige oggend van 2 Augustus 216 vC, op die vlakte deur Cannae, het die Romeinse leër gevorm suid/suidwes regs van die Aufidus (nou Ofanto) rivier, met die magte van Hannibal noord/noordoos, geen leër in nadeel nie deur verblind te word deur die son. Daar word gesê dat 'n warm wind-die Volturnus-deur die loop van die dag stof op die gesigte van die Romeine geblaas het, maar dit was moontlik 'n omstandigheid wat deur die pro-Romeinse kroniekskrywers uitgevind is om hul nederlaag te verduidelik. Die gevegsfront was meer as 'n kilometer breed, met 150 000 mans wat bereid was om aan die grootste doodstryd van die Oudheid deel te neem.

Kom ons probeer om die scenario te visualiseer. Dis middeloggend. Hannibal is te perd op 'n effense buiging, en kyk saam met sy broer Mago en 'n klein groepie offisiere oor die vlakte van Cannae. Die Romeinse leër onder konsuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus en Caius Terentius Varro ontplooi vir die geveg. Dit is die grootste Romeinse leër wat ooit bymekaargekom het, agt Romeinse en agt geallieerde legioene, in totaal 16 legioene, en daar is Romeine wat die horison regs en links vul so ver as wat die oog kan sien. Gisgo, een van die offisiere, fluister: "Hannibal, daar is baie Romeine daar!" Die Kartagoanse bevelvoerder antwoord: "Ja, Gisgo, maar dit lyk asof u nie 'n baie belangrike ding opgemerk het nie." “Wat, my generaal?” "Onder al die Romeine is daar nie een met die naam Gisgo nie!" Gisgo breek uit van die lag en word saam met die offisierkorps bygevoeg, en binnekort weerklink die lag deur die saamgestelde Kartago -magte. Hannibal kon bygevoeg het, "en onder hulle is daar ook geen Hannibal nie!"

Die Romeine het soos volg ontplooi. Die ekwiete, met 2 400 (of 3 200, as ons die verhoging van 400 per legioen aanvaar) was op die regtervleuel, onder bevel van Aemilius Paullus. Die geallieerde kavallerie, met 7 200 (of 9 600), vorm die linkervleuel en was onder bevel van Terentius Varro. Die sentrum, onder leiding van Minucius en Servilius, het bestaan ​​uit die menigte infanteriemagte, wat in 'n meer kompakte en dieper formasie geplaas is as wat normaal was vir 'n Romeinse leër. Hulle getal was 80 000 minus die magte wat oorgebly het om die Romeinse kampe aan beide kante van die rivier te bewaak. Die voorste linie het bestaan ​​uit skermutselinge.

Hannibal se weermag het ook kavalleriekontingente op albei flanke gehad. Aan die linkerkant van die Kartago, voor die 2 400-3 200 Romeinse gelyke, het Hannibal sy 6 000 sterk Keltiese en Iberiese perde geplaas, gelei deur Hasdrubal (geen verhouding met Hannibal se broer met die naam nie). Op die regtervleuel het hy die Numidiaanse perd ontplooi, onder leiding van Hanno (of Maharbal), met 'n nommer van 4 000, en die gesig staar die 7 200-9 600 geallieerde perde. In die middel het hy sy swakste infanteriemagte geplaas, ongeveer 30 000 (minus die mans wat oorgebly het om sy kamp aan die linkerkant van die rivier te verdedig). Hulle het bestaan ​​uit Galliërs afgewissel met kontingente van meer betroubare Iberiërs. Hy het sy 10 000 elite -veterane in Afrika (baie dra pantser en wapens wat die vorige jaar by die Slag van die Trasimene -meer gevang is) as reserwemag aangehou en 5 000 aan elke kant geposisioneer. Die Kartago -sentrumvorming, direk onder bevel van Hannibal en sy broer Mago, vorder en neem posisie as 'n konvekse halfsirkel aan (gesien van die Romeinse kant). Voor was 'n ry skermutselinge.

Hannibal moes sy troepe -ontplooiing lank voor die geveg beplan het; dit kon nie 'n improvisasie gewees het ter plaatse terwyl die Romeinse leër in plek was nie. Waarom het Hannibal gekies om sy magte te posisioneer soos hy? Hoe kon hy die bewegings van sy vyande voorspel? Het hy 'n noodlottige gebrek in die Romeinse formasie herken?

Daar kan geargumenteer word dat wat die Romeine gedoem het, hul elitisme was, wat hulle voorspelbaar gemaak het. Hannibal het geweet dat die Romeinse adel regs, die ereplek, sou ry, en nie saam met hul "mindere" eweknieë, die Italiaanse bondgenote nie. As die Romeine hul totale kavallerie in twee gelyke magte verdeel het wat aan weerskante van die veld ontplooi was, sou die uitslag van die geveg heel anders gewees het. Maar hulle het die kleiner elite -Romeinse mag voorspelbaar regs geplaas, wat 'n noodlottige kwesbaarheid veroorsaak het. Hannibal het die swaar Keltiese en Iberiese perd onder Hasdrubal teen hulle ontplooi en hulle met meer as twee teen een getel en feitlik 'n vinnige oorwinning verseker op die flank naaste aan die rivier. Die wonderlike ding is dat hy dit gedoen het sonder om 'n vergelykbare kwesbaarheid op sy eie regterflank te skep, waar sy kavallerie baie groot was.

Die kavalleriemag van Hannibal het bestaan ​​uit twee kontingente met heeltemal verskillende vermoëns: Kelties/Iberies en Numidiaan. Die swaar Keltiese en Iberiese ruiters vorm 'n skokmag wat hul aantal Romeinse eweknieë sou vermorsel, terwyl die ruiterslag tussen die rivier en die Romeinse regterinfanterieflank gekompakteer word, tot 'n punt dat 'n deel van die ruiters moes afklim om te veg, sonder 'n gebrek voldoende beweegruimte. Die Numidiaanse perd, aan die ander kant, wat Hannibal op sy regtervleuel geplaas het, was 'n baie beweeglike mag, wat spesialiseer in botsings met tref en hardloop. Terwyl perde vir die Italiaanse bondgenote 'n vervoermiddel was om hul ruiters in die stryd te neem, was die Numidiërs, wat feitlik te perd grootgeword het, een met hul rande, met mens en dier wat as een funksioneer. Hulle was in hul tyd die beste, die ratsste en veelsydigste ruitermag ter wêreld. Hulle taktiek het behels dat hulle vorder en terugtrek, sirkel en rigtings verander, sluit in om te slaan en onmiddellik te ver wegtrek om geslaan, geslaan en uitgevoer te word, te materialiseer en te verdwyn in 'n dodelike ballet van die hoogste perdry. Hulle was die ideale magte om die groter kontingent geallieerde perde aan die Romeinse linkerkant te teister en besig te hou, om hul minder mobiele teëstanders te immobiliseer en vas te vang en sodoende die voordeel van hul numeriese meerderwaardigheid te ontken.

Terwyl die Keltiese en Iberiese perd die Romeinse kavallerie geloop het, eerder as om die paar oorlewendes agterna te jaag, het die gedissiplineerde ruiters onder Hasdrubal vinnig agter die slagveld gery om op die agterkant van die geallieerde perd aan die teenoorgestelde kant te val, terwyl die magte wat aangehou is kontroleer deur die wervelende Numidiërs. Die geallieerde kavallerie onder Varro was verbaas oor die donderslag en het paniekbevange geraak en die ruiters het met groot verliese uit die veld gevlug en deur die Numidiërs agtervolg. Varro kon daarin slaag om te ontsnap en bereik die veiligheid in Venusia, 10 myl daarvandaan, met slegs 70 ruiters. Die swaar perd onder Hasdrubal, wat nogmaals agtervolg het, het omgedraai en op die rug van die sukkelende Romeinse leër geval, wat weer totale en volmaakte dissipline toon in die uitvoering van Hannibal se meesterplan. Intussen het die Karthagiese generaal 'n dodelike lokval op die oog af geslaan - in die vlakte wat die Romeine gekies het omdat daar geen hinderlaag moontlik sou wees nie!

Na uitruilings tussen die skermutselinge, wat Kretaanse boogskutters aan die Romeinse kant en Baleariese slingers aan die Kartagoër insluit, het die massale Romeinse legioene in die middel daarvan aangekla, vol vertroue dat hulle die dapper, maar minder gedissiplineerde en in groot getal Galliërs en Iberiërs in die gesig staar. Die Romeinse strydplan was gesond en sou onder normale omstandighede gewerk het. Hulle massiewe leër, baie mans diep, sou soos 'n reusagtige ram deur die vyand se middelpunt stoot, Hannibal se leër in die helfte sny en die verslaande vyand regs en links van die gebroke sentrum opruim. Maar dit was nie so nie - dit was nie normale omstandighede nie: dit het Hannibal, miskien die grootste militêre genie in die geskiedenis, in die gesig gestaar. Die slagram het 'n dryfsand gekry.


Inhoud

Die Engelse woord Baskies kan uitgespreek word / bɑː s k / of / b æ s k / en is afgelei van die Frans Baskies (Frans: [koes]], wat afgelei is van Gascon Basco (uitgespreek [ˈbasku]), verwant aan Spaans Vasco (uitgespreek [ˈbasko]). Dit kom op hul beurt uit Latyn Vascō (uitgespreek [ˈwaskoː] meervoud Vascōnes- sien die geskiedenisafdeling hieronder). Die Latyn / w / het oor die algemeen ontwikkel tot die bilabiele / b / en / β̞ / in Gascon en Spaans, waarskynlik onder die invloed van Baskies en sy verwantskap Aquitanian (die Latyn / w / het in plaas daarvan ontwikkel tot / v / in Frans, Italiaans en ander Romaanse tale).

Verskeie muntstukke uit die 2de en 1ste eeu vC wat in Baskeland gevind is, dra die opskrif barscunes. Die plek waar hulle geslaan is, is nie seker nie, maar dit is vermoedelik êrens naby Pamplona, ​​in die hartland van die gebied wat volgens historici bewoon is deur die Vascones. Sommige geleerdes het 'n Keltiese etimologie voorgestel wat gebaseer is op bhar-s-, wat "top", "punt" of "blare" beteken, waarvolgens barscunes het moontlik 'die bergmense', 'die langes' of 'die trotse' beteken, terwyl ander 'n verhouding tot 'n proto-Indo-Europese wortel gehad het *kroeg- wat "grens", "grens", "opmars" beteken. [12]

In Baskies noem mense hulself die euskaldunak, enkelvoud euskaldun, gevorm uit euskal- (dws "Baskies (taal)") en -dun (dit wil sê "een wat het") euskaldun beteken letterlik 'n Baskiese spreker. Nie alle Baskies is Baskies-sprekers nie. Daarom, die neologisme euskotar, meervoud euskotarrak, is in die 19de eeu bedink as 'n kultureel Baskiese persoon, hetsy Baskies of nie. Alfonso Irigoyen stel dat die woord euskara is afgelei van 'n ou Baskiese werkwoord enautsi "om te sê" (vgl. moderne Baskies esan) en die agtervoegsel -(k) ara ("manier (om iets te doen)"). Dus euskara sou letterlik beteken "manier van sê", "manier van praat". Een bewysstuk ten gunste van hierdie hipotese word in die Spaanse boek gevind Compendio Geskiedenis, geskryf in 1571 deur die Baskiese skrywer Esteban de Garibay. Hy teken die naam van die Baskiese taal aan as enusquera. Dit kan egter 'n skryffout wees.

In die 19de eeu het die Baskiese nasionalistiese aktivis Sabino Arana 'n oorspronklike wortel geplaas euzko wat hy gedink het vandaan kom eguzkiko ("van die son", wat verband hou met die aanname van 'n oorspronklike songodsdiens). Op grond van hierdie vermeende wortel stel Arana die naam Euzkadi voor vir 'n onafhanklike Baskiese nasie, bestaande uit sewe Baskiese historiese gebiede. Arana se neologisme Euzkadi (in die geregistreerde spelling Euskadi) word steeds wyd gebruik in beide Baskies en Spaans, aangesien dit nou die amptelike naam van die outonome gemeenskap van Baskeland is. [13]

Vroeë antropologiese en genetiese studies vanaf die begin en einde van die 20ste eeu het teoretiseer dat die Baske die afstammelinge van die oorspronklike Cro-Magnons is. [14] [15] Alhoewel hulle op sommige maniere geneties onderskeid is as gevolg van isolasie, is die Baskies nog steeds baie tipies Europees wat hul Y-DNA- en mtDNA-rye en in terme van ander genetiese lokusse betref. Dieselfde rye is wydverspreid in die westelike helfte van Europa, veral langs die westelike rand van die vasteland. [16] [17] Die onderskeidendheid wat opgemerk word deur studies oor 'klassieke' genetiese merkers (soos bloedgroepe) en die oënskynlik 'pre-Indo-Europese' aard van die Baskiese taal het gelei tot 'n gewilde en langdurige misleidende opvatting dat Baskies is 'lewende fossiele' van die vroegste moderne mense wat Europa gekoloniseer het. [18] 12

Studies van die Y-DNA-haplogroepe het egter bevind dat die oorgrote meerderheid moderne Baske op hul direkte manlike afstammelinge 'n gemeenskaplike afkoms met ander Wes-Europeërs het, naamlik 'n duidelike oorheersing van Indo-Europese Haploggroep R1b-DF27 (70% [19] ). [18] [20] Alhoewel dit aanvanklik teoreties was dat dit 'n paleolitiese merker was, [21] [16] (p.1365 Tabel 3), het hierdie teorie teenstrydighede teëgekom selfs voor die mees onlangse chronologiese her-evaluerings, [18] [22] aangesien meer onlangse studies eerder tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat R1b in die Neolitiese tydperk of later, tussen 4 000 en 8 000 jaar gelede, uit die suidwestelike Eurasië na Wes -Europa versprei het. [23] [24] [25] [26] Die ouderdom van die subklade wat Baskies dra, R1b-DF27, "word beraam op

4 200 jaar gelede, tydens die oorgang tussen die Neolitiese en die Bronstydperk, toe die Y -chromosoomlandskap van Wes -Europa deeglik opgeknap is. Ondanks die hoë frekwensie in Baskies, is die interne diversiteit van Y-STR van R1b-DF27 laer daar, en dit lei tot meer onlangse ouderdomsberamings ", wat impliseer dat dit van elders na die streek gebring is. [19]

Langs die hooflyn R1b, is hoë frekwensies van E-V65 gevind onder Baskiese outogtone inwoners van die Alava-provinsie (17,3%), die provinsie Vizcaya (10,9%) en die provinsie Guipuzcoa (3,3%). [27] Verskeie antieke DNA -monsters is herwin en versterk uit die Iberiese en Baskiese streek. Die versameling mtDNA- en Y-DNA-haplogroepe wat daar geneem is, het aansienlik verskil in vergelyking met hul moderne frekwensies. Die skrywers het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat daar 'diskontinuïteit' bestaan ​​tussen ou inwoners en moderne Baske. [28] Terwyl Baske 'n paar baie argaïese mtDNA -afstammelinge bevat, [29] [30], is hulle nie van 'onverdunde paleolitiese afkoms' nie, maar van beduidend vroeë neolitiese oorsprong met 'n verband met die geïsoleerde Sardynse mense. [9] Sowat 4500 jaar gelede is byna al die Y-DNA-erfenis uit die Iberiese mengsel van mesolitiese jagter-versamelaars en neolitiese boere vervang deur die R1b-afkoms van Indo-Europese herders uit die steppe, [31] [32] en die Baskiese genetiese eiesoortigheid is die gevolg van eeue se lae bevolkingsgrootte, genetiese drywing en endogamie. [11]

Outosomale genetiese studies het bevestig dat Baskies noue genetiese bande met ander Europeërs het, veral met Spanjaarde, wat 'n gemeenskaplike genetiese identiteit van meer as 70% met Baskies het, 'n homogeniteit tussen beide hul Spaanse en Franse bevolkings, volgens 'n SNP-genotiperingsstudie met 'n hoë digtheid. in Mei 2010 gedoen, en 'n genomiese onderskeidendheid ten opsigte van ander Europese bevolkings. [16] [33]

In 2015 is 'n nuwe wetenskaplike studie van Baskiese DNA gepubliseer wat daarop dui dat Baskies afstammelinge is van neolitiese boere wat met plaaslike Mesolitiese jagters gemeng het voordat hulle millennia lank geneties geïsoleer geraak het uit die res van Europa. [34] Mattias Jakobsson van die Uppsala Universiteit in Swede het genetiese materiaal ontleed uit agt menslike geraamtes uit die Steentydperk wat in die El Portalón -grot in Atapuerca, Noord -Spanje, gevind is. Hierdie individue het tussen 3 500 en 5 500 jaar gelede geleef, na die oorgang na boerdery in Suidwes -Europa. Die resultate toon dat hierdie vroeë Iberiese boere die naaste voorouers is van die huidige Baske. [35] Die bevindings is gepubliseer in Verrigtinge van die National Academy of Sciences van die Verenigde State. [9] Volgens die studie toon die "resultate dat die Baske hul afkoms herlei het na vroeë boerderygroepe uit Iberia, wat in stryd is met vorige opvattings dat hulle 'n oorblywende bevolking is wat hul afkoms na mesolitiese jagter-versamelaarsgroepe spoor." Hierdie vroeë neolitiese boerevoorouers van die Baske het egter ook bygevoeg met die plaaslike suidwestelike jagter-versamelaars, en "die aandeel mengselverwante mengsels van jagters by vroeë boere het ook toegeneem in die loop van twee millennia." Hierdie vermengde groep was ook stamvaders van ander hedendaagse Iberiese volke, maar hoewel die Baskies na hierdie tyd millennia lank relatief geïsoleer gebly het, het latere migrasies na Iberië gelei tot 'n duidelike en bykomende mengsel in alle ander Iberiese groepe. [36]

In 2019 is 'n studie gepubliseer in Wetenskap waarin 'n meer fyn afgestemde en diepgaande tyd-transek van die Iberiese antieke bevolkings, waaronder die Baskies, ontleed is. Uit die opsomming daarvan staan: "en ons onthul dat die huidige Baske die beste beskryf kan word as 'n tipiese Ystertydperk-bevolking sonder die vermengingsgebeurtenisse wat later die res van Iberia beïnvloed het." Dit dui aan dat Baskies sedert minstens 1000 vC of 3000 jaar voor die hede geïsoleer was van vermenging met buitegroepe. In Iberia was hierdie latere vermengingsgebeure (tussen-teel) gebeurtenisse met Sentraal-Europese (Keltiese), oostelike Middellandse See en Noord-Afrikaanse bevolkings, en genomiese afkoms daarvan kom voor in alle of die meeste huidige Iberiese bevolkings, behalwe vir die Baskiese. [10]

Baskiese stamme is in die Romeinse tyd deur Strabo en Plinius genoem, waaronder die Vascones, die Aquitani en ander. Daar is genoeg bewyse om die hipotese te ondersteun dat hulle destyds en later ou variëteite van die Baskiese taal gepraat het (sien: Aquitaanse taal).

In die vroeë Middeleeue was die gebied tussen die Ebro- en Garonne -riviere bekend as Vasconia, 'n vaag omskrewe etniese gebied en politieke entiteit wat sukkel om die druk van die Iberiese Visigotiese koninkryk en die Arabiese heerskappy in die suide af te weer, sowel as die Frankiese stoot van die noorde. [37] [38] Teen die begin van die eerste millennium het die gebied van Vasconia in verskillende feodale streke gefragmenteer, soos Soule en Labourd, terwyl suid van die Pireneë die Kastilië, Pamplona en die Pyreneense graafskappe Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorça (later Koninkryk Aragon), en Pallars het in die 9de en 10de eeu as die belangrikste streeksentiteite met die Baskiese bevolking na vore getree.

Die Koninkryk Pamplona, ​​'n sentrale Baskiese koninkryk, later bekend as Navarra, het 'n proses van feodalisering ondergaan en was onderhewig aan die invloed van sy veel groter Aragonese, Castiliaanse en Franse bure. Castilië het Navarre van sy kuslyn ontneem deur die belangrikste westelike gebiede te verower (1199–1201), wat die koninkryk sonder grense laat. Die Baskies is verwoes deur die War of the Bands, bittere partydige oorloë tussen plaaslike regerende families. Verswak deur die Navarese burgeroorlog, het die grootste deel van die koninkryk uiteindelik geval voor die aanslag van die Spaanse leërs (1512–1524). Die Navarrese gebied noord van die Pireneë het egter buite die bereik van 'n steeds magtiger Spanje gebly. Neder -Navarra het in 1620 'n provinsie van Frankryk geword.

Die Baske het nietemin baie selfregering geniet tot die Franse Revolusie (1790) en die Carlist Wars (1839, 1876), toe die Baske die erfgenaam van Carlos V en sy nageslag ondersteun het. Aan weerskante van die Pireneë het die Baske hul inheemse instellings en wette verloor tydens die Ancien régime. Ondanks die huidige beperkte selfregerende status van die Baskiese outonome gemeenskap en Navarra, soos bepaal deur die Spaanse grondwet, het baie Baskies sedertdien pogings tot hoër selfbevoegdheid probeer (sien Baskiese nasionalisme), soms deur gewelddade. Labourd, Neder-Navarra en Soule is geïntegreer in die Franse departementestelsel (begin 1790), met Baskiese pogings om 'n streekspesifieke politiek-administratiewe entiteit te vestig wat tot op hede nog nie begin het nie. In Januarie 2017 is 'n enkele agglomerasie -gemeenskap vir die Baskeland in Frankryk gestig. [39]

Politieke en administratiewe afdelings Redigeer

Die Baskiese streek is verdeel in ten minste drie administratiewe eenhede, naamlik die Baskiese outonome gemeenskap en Navarra in Spanje, en die arrondissement Bayonne en die kantons Mauléon-Licharre en Tardets-Sorholus in die departement van Pyrénées Atlantiques, Frankryk.

Die outonome gemeenskap ('n konsep wat in die Spaanse Grondwet van 1978 gevestig is), bekend as Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa of EAE in Baskies en as Comunidad Autónoma Vasca of CAV in Spaans (in Engels: Baskiese outonome gemeenskap of BAC), [40] bestaan ​​uit die drie Spaanse provinsies Álava, Biskaje en Gipuzkoa. Die ooreenstemmende Baskiese name van hierdie gebiede is Araba, Bizkaia en Gipuzkoa, en hul Spaanse name is Álava, Vizcaya en Guipúzcoa.

Die BAC bevat slegs drie van die sewe provinsies van die huidige historiese gebiede. Soms word daar eenvoudig na verwys as "die Baskeland" (of Euskadi) deur skrywers en openbare agentskappe wat slegs die drie westelike provinsies oorweeg, maar ook soms net as 'n maklike afkorting as dit nie tot verwarring in die konteks lei nie. Ander verwerp hierdie gebruik as onakkuraat en is versigtig om die BAC (of 'n ekwivalente uitdrukking soos "die drie provinsies", tot 1978 in Spaans genoem "Provincias Vascongadas") te spesifiseer wanneer hulle na hierdie entiteit of streek verwys. Net so word terme soos "die Baskiese regering" vir "die regering van die BAC" algemeen alhoewel nie algemeen gebruik nie. In particular in common usage the French term Pays Basque ("Basque Country"), in the absence of further qualification, refers either to the whole Basque Country ("Euskal Herria" in Basque), or not infrequently to the northern (or "French") Basque Country specifically.

Under Spain's present constitution, Navarre (Nafarroa in present-day Basque, Navarra historically in Spanish) constitutes a separate entity, called in present-day Basque Nafarroako Foru Erkidegoa, in Spanish Comunidad Foral de Navarra (the autonomous community of Navarre). The government of this autonomous community is the Government of Navarre. Note that in historical contexts Navarre may refer to a wider area, and that the present-day northern Basque province of Lower Navarre may also be referred to as (part of) Nafarroa, while the term "High Navarre" (Nafarroa Garaia in Basque, Alta Navarra in Spanish) is also encountered as a way of referring to the territory of the present-day autonomous community.

There are three other historic provinces parts of the Basque Country: Labourd, Lower Navarre and Soule (Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea en Zuberoa in Basque Labourd, Basse-Navarre en Soule in French), devoid of official status within France's present-day political and administrative territorial organization, and only minor political support to the Basque nationalists. A large number of regional and local nationalist and non-nationalist representatives have waged a campaign for years advocating for the creation of a separate Basque département, while these demands have gone unheard by the French administration.

Population, main cities and languages Edit

There are 2,123,000 people living in the Basque Autonomous Community (279,000 in Alava, 1,160,000 in Biscay and 684,000 in Gipuzkoa). The most important cities in this region, which serve as the provinces' administrative centers, are Bilbao (in Biscay), San Sebastián (in Gipuzkoa) and Vitoria-Gasteiz (in Álava). The official languages are Basque and Spanish. Knowledge of Spanish is compulsory under the Spanish constitution (article no. 3), and knowledge and usage of Basque is a right under the Statute of Autonomy (article no. 6), so only knowledge of Spanish is virtually universal. Knowledge of Basque, after declining for many years during Franco's dictatorship owing to official persecution, is again on the rise due to favorable official language policies and popular support. Currently about 33 percent of the population in the Basque Autonomous Community speaks Basque.

Navarre has a population of 601,000 its administrative capital and main city, also regarded by many nationalist Basques as the Basques' historical capital, is Pamplona (Iruñea in modern Basque). Only Spanish is an official language of Navarre, and the Basque language is only co-official in the province's northern region, where most Basque-speaking Navarrese are concentrated.

About a quarter of a million people live in the French Basque Country. Nowadays Basque-speakers refer to this region as Iparralde (Basque for North), and to the Spanish provinces as Hegoalde (South). Much of this population lives in or near the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (BAB) urban belt on the coast (in Basque these are Baiona, Angelu en Miarritze). The Basque language, which was traditionally spoken by most of the region's population outside the BAB urban zone, is today rapidly losing ground to French. The French Basque Country's lack of self-government within the French state is coupled with the absence of official status for the Basque language in the region. Attempts to introduce bilingualism in local administration have so far met direct refusal from French officials.

Large numbers of Basques have left the Basque Country to settle in the rest of Spain, France or other parts of the world in different historical periods, often for economic or political reasons. Historically the Basques abroad were often employed in shepherding and ranching and by maritime fisheries and merchants. Millions of Basque descendants (see Basque American and Basque Canadian) live in North America (the United States Canada, mainly in the provinces of Newfoundland [41] and Quebec), Latin America (in all 23 countries), South Africa, and Australia.

Miguel de Unamuno said: "There are at least two things that clearly can be attributed to Basques: the Society of Jesus and the Republic of Chile." [42] Chilean historian Luis Thayer Ojeda estimated that 48 percent of immigrants to Chile in the 17th and 18th centuries were Basque. [43] Estimates range between 2.5 - 5 million Basque descendants live in Chile the Basque have been a major if not the strongest influence in the country's cultural and economic development.

Basque place names are to be found, such as Nueva Vizcaya (now Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico), Biscayne Bay (United States), and Aguereberry Point (United States). [44] Nueva Vizcaya was the first province in the north of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) to be explored and settled by the Spanish. It consisted mostly of the area which is today the states of Chihuahua and Durango.

In Mexico most Basques are concentrated in the cities of Monterrey, Saltillo, Reynosa, Camargo, and the states of Jalisco, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and Sonora. The Basques were important in the mining industry many were ranchers and vaqueros (cowboys), and the rest opened small shops in major cities such as Mexico City, Guadalajara and Puebla. In Guatemala, most Basques have been concentrated in Sacatepequez Department, Antigua Guatemala, Jalapa for six generations now, while some have migrated to Guatemala City.

In Colombia, Basques settled mainly in Antioquia and the Coffee Axis. It is estimated that nearly 2,500,000 persons from all Antioquia (40% of this department) have Basque ancestry, as well, in the 19th century about 10% of Colombia's total population were Basque descendants. [45] [ mislukte verifikasie ] Antioquia has one of the biggest concentrations of Basques descendants around the world. [ aanhaling nodig ] In 1955, Joaquín Ospina said: "Is there something more similar to the Basque people than the "antioqueños". [46] Also, writer Arturo Escobar Uribe said in his book "Mitos de Antioquia" (Myths of Antioquia) (1950): "Antioquia, which in its clean ascendance predominates the peninsular farmer of the Basque provinces, inherited the virtues of its ancestors. Despite the predominance of the white race, its extension in the mountains. has projected over Colombia's map the prototype of its race in Medellín with the industrial paisa, entrepreneur, strong and steady. in its towns, the adventurer, arrogant, world-explorer. Its myths, which are an evidence of their deep credulity and an indubitable proof of their Iberian ancestor, are the sequel of the conqueror's blood which runs through their veins. ". [47] Bambuco, a Colombian folk music, has Basque roots. [48] [49]

The largest of several important Basque communities in the United States is in the area around Boise, Idaho, home to the Basque Museum and Cultural Center, host to an annual Basque festival, as well as a festival for the Basque diaspora every five years. Reno, Nevada, where the Center for Basque Studies and the Basque Studies Library are located at the University of Nevada, is another significant nucleus of Basque population. Elko, Nevada, sponsors an annual Basque festival that celebrates the dance, cuisine and cultures of the Basque peoples of Spanish, French and Mexican nationalities who have arrived in Nevada since the late 19th century.

Texas has a large percentage of Hispanics descended from Basques who participated in the conquest of New Spain. Many of the original Tejanos had Basque blood, including those who fought in the Battle of the Alamo alongside many of the other Texans. Along the Mexican/Texan border, many Basque surnames can be found. The largest concentration of Basques who settled on Mexico's north-eastern "frontera", including the states of Chihuahua, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas, also settled along Texas' Rio Grande from South Texas to West Texas. Many of the historic hidalgos, or noble families from this area, had gained their titles and land grants from Spain and Mexico they still value their land. Some of North America's largest ranches, which were founded under these colonial land grants, can be found in this region.

California has a major concentration of Basques, most notably in the San Joaquin Valley between Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. The city of Bakersfield has a large Basque community and the city has several Basque restaurants, including Noriega's which won the 2011 James Beard Foundation America's Classic Award. There is a history of Basque culture in Chino, California. In Chino, two annual Basque festivals celebrate the dance, cuisine, and culture of the peoples. The surrounding area of San Bernardino County has many Basque descendants as residents. They are mostly descendants of settlers from Spain and Mexico. These Basques in California are grouped in the group known as Californios.

Basques of European Spanish-French and Latin American nationalities also settled throughout the western U.S. in states like Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

Taal wysig

The identifying language of the Basques is called Basque or Euskara, spoken today by 25%-30% [50] of the region's population. An idea of the central place the language has in cultural terms is given by the fact that Basques identify themselves by the term euskaldun and their country as Euskal Herria, literally "Basque speaker" and "Country of the Basque Language" respectively. The language has been made a political issue by official Spanish and French policies restricting its use either historically or currently however, this has not stopped the teaching, speaking, writing, and cultivating of this increasingly vibrant minority language. This sense of Basque identity tied to the local language does not only exist in isolation. For many Basques, it is juxtaposed with a sense of either Spanish or French identity tied with the use of the Spanish and French languages among other Basques, especially in the French Basque Country. Regarding the Spanish Basque Country, Basques that don't have a sense of Spanish identity make up an important part of the population. [51] As with many European states, a regional identity, be it linguistically derived or otherwise, is not mutually exclusive with the broader national one. For example, Basque rugby union player for France, Imanol Harinordoquy, has said about his national identity:

I am French and Basque. There is no conflict, I am proud of both. . . . I have friends who are involved in the political side of things but that is not for me. My only interest is the culture, the Euskera language, the people, our history and ways. [52]

As a result of state language promotion, school policies, the effects of mass media and migration, today virtually all Basques (except for some children below school age) speak the official language of their state (Spanish or French). There are extremely few Basque monolingual speakers: essentially all Basque speakers are bilingual on both sides of the border. Spanish or French is typically the first language of citizens from other regions (who often feel no need to learn Basque), and Spanish or French is also the first language of many Basques, all of which maintains the dominance of the state tongues of both France and Spain. Recent Basque Government policies aim to change this pattern, as they are viewed as potential threats against mainstream usage of the minority tongue. [53]

The Basque language is thought to be a genetic language isolate in contrast with other European languages, almost all of which belong to the broad Indo-European language family. Another peculiarity of Basque is that it has been spoken continuously in situ, in and around its present territorial location, for longer than other modern European languages, which were all introduced in historic or prehistoric times through population migrations or other processes of cultural transmission. [54] [ bladsy benodig ]

However, popular stereotypes characterizing Basque as "the oldest language in Europe" and "unique among the world's languages" may be misunderstood and lead to erroneous assumptions. [55] Over the centuries, Basque has remained in continuous contact with neighboring western European languages with which it has come to share numerous lexical properties and typological features it is therefore misleading to exaggerate the "outlandish" character of Basque. Basque is also a modern language, and is established as a written and printed one used in present-day forms of publication and communication, as well as a language spoken and used in a very wide range of social and cultural contexts, styles, and registers.

Land and inheritance Edit

Basques have a close attachment to their home (etxe(a) 'house, home'), especially when this consists of the traditional self-sufficient, family-run farm or baserri(a). Home in this context is synonymous with family roots. Some Basque surnames were adapted from old baserri or habitation names. They typically related to a geographical orientation or other locally meaningful identifying features. Such surnames provide even those Basques whose families may have left the land generations ago with an important link to their rural family origins: Bengoetxea "the house of further down", Goikoetxea "the house above", Landaburu "top of the field", Errekondo "next to the stream", Elizalde "by the church", Mendizabal "wide hill", Usetxe "house of birds" Ibarretxe "house in the valley", Etxeberria "the new house", and so on. [56]

In contrast to surrounding regions, ancient Basque inheritance patterns, recognised in the fueros, favoured survival of the unity of inherited land holdings. In a kind of primogeniture, these usually were inherited by the eldest male or female child. As in other cultures, the fate of other family members depended on the assets of a family: wealthy Basque families tended to provide for all children in some way, while less-affluent families may have had only one asset to provide to one child. However, this heir often provided for the rest of the family (unlike in England, with strict primogeniture, where the eldest son inherited everything and often did not provide for others). Even though they were provided for in some way, younger siblings had to make much of their living by other means. Mostly after [57] the advent of industrialisation, this system resulted in the emigration of many rural Basques to Spain, France or the Americas. Harsh by modern standards, this custom resulted in a great many enterprising figures of Basque origin who went into the world to earn their way, from Spanish conquistadors such as Lope de Aguirre and Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, to explorers, missionaries and saints of the Catholic Church, such as Francis Xavier.

A widespread belief that Basque society was originally matriarchal is at odds with the current, clearly patrilineal kinship system and inheritance structures. Some scholars and commentators have attempted to reconcile these points by assuming that patrilineal kinship represents an innovation. In any case, the social position of women in both traditional and modern Basque society is somewhat better than in neighbouring cultures, and women have a substantial influence in decisions about the domestic economy. In the past, some women participated in collective magical ceremonies. They were key participants in a rich folklore, today largely forgotten.

Kosmaak Wysig

Basque cuisine is at the heart of Basque culture, influenced by the neighboring communities and produce from the sea and the land. A 20th-century feature of Basque culture is the phenomenon of gastronomical societies (called txoko in Basque), food clubs where men gather to cook and enjoy their own food. Until recently, women were allowed entry only one day in the year. Cider houses (Sagardotegiak) are popular restaurants in Gipuzkoa open for a few months while the cider is in season.

Cultural production Edit

At the end of the 20th century, despite ETA violence (ended in 2010) and the crisis of heavy industries, the Basque economic condition recovered remarkably. They emerged from the Franco regime with a revitalized language and culture. The Basque language expanded geographically led by large increases in the major urban centers of Pamplona, Bilbao, and Bayonne, where only a few decades ago the Basque language had all but disappeared. Nowadays, the number of Basque speakers is maintaining its level or increasing slightly.

Musiek wysig

Religion Edit

Traditionally Basques have been mostly Catholics. In the 19th century and well into the 20th, Basques as a group remained notably devout and churchgoing. In recent years church attendance has fallen off, as in most of Western Europe. The region has been a source of missionaries like Francis Xavier and Michel Garicoïts. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, was a Basque. California Franciscan Fermín Lasuén was born in Vitoria. Lasuén was the successor to Franciscan Padre Junípero Serra and founded 9 of the 21 extant California Missions along the coast.

A sprout of Protestantism in the continental Basque Country produced the first translation of the new Testament into Basque by Joanes Leizarraga. Queen Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Huguenot, commissioned the translation of the New Testament into Basque and Béarnese for the benefit of her subjects. By the time Henry III of Navarre converted to Catholicism in order to become king of France, Protestantism virtually disappeared from the Basque community.

Bayonne held a Jewish community composed mainly of Sephardi Jews fleeing from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. There were also important Jewish and Muslim communities in Navarre before the Castilian invasion of 1512–21.

Nowadays, according to one single opinion poll, only slightly more than 50% of Basques profess some kind of belief in God, while the rest are either agnostic or atheist. The number of religious skeptics increases noticeably for the younger generations, while the older ones are more religious. [58] Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in Basque Country. In 2019, the proportion of Basques that identify themselves as Roman Catholic was 60%, [59] while it is one of the most secularized communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.

Pre-Christian religion and mythology Edit

Christianisation of the Basque Country has been the topic of some discussion. There are, broadly speaking, two views. According to one, Christianity arrived in the Basque Country during the 4th and 5th centuries but according to the other, it did not take place until the 12th and 13th centuries. The main issue lies in the different interpretations of what is considered Christianisation. Early traces of Christianity can be found in the major urban areas from the 4th century onwards, a bishopric from 589 in Pamplona and three hermit cave concentrations (two in Álava, one in Navarre) that were in use from the 6th century onwards. In this sense, Christianity arrived "early".

Pre-Christian belief seems to have focused on a goddess called Mari. A number of place-names contain her name, which would suggest these places were related to worship of her such as Anbotoko Mari who appears to have been related to the weather. According to one tradition, she travelled every seven years between a cave on Mount Anboto and one on another mountain (the stories vary) the weather would be wet when she was in Anboto, dry when she was in Aloña, or Supelegor, or Gorbea. One of her names, Mari Urraca possibly ties her to an historical Navarrese princess of the 11th and 12th century, with other legends giving her a brother or cousin who was a Roman Catholic priest. So far the discussions about whether the name Mari is original and just happened to coincide closely with the Christian name María or if Mari is an early Basque attempt to give a Christian veneer to pagan worship have remained speculative. At any rate, Mari (Andramari) is one of the oldest worshipped Christian icons in Basque territories.

Mari's consort is Sugaar. This chthonic couple seems to bear the superior ethical power and the power of creation and destruction. It's said that when they gathered in the high caves of the sacred peaks, they engendered the storms. These meetings typically happened on Friday nights, the day of historical akelarre or coven. Mari was said to reside in Mount Anboto periodically she crossed the skies as a bright light to reach her other home at Mount Txindoki.

Legends also speak of many and abundant genies, like jentilak (equivalent to giants), lamiak (equivalent to nymphs), mairuak (builders of the cromlechs or stone circles, literally Moors), iratxoak (imps), sorginak (witches, priestess of Mari), and so on. Basajaun is a Basque version of the Woodwose. This character is probably an anthropomorphism of the bear. There is a trickster named San Martin Txiki ("St Martin the Lesser").

It is unclear whether neolithic stone structures called dolmens have a religious significance or were built to house animals or resting shepherds. Some of the dolmens and cromlechs are burial sites serving also as border markers.

Die jentilak ('Giants'), on the other hand, are a legendary people which explains the disappearance of a people of Stone Age culture that used to live in the high lands and with no knowledge of iron. Many legends about them tell that they were bigger and taller, with a great force, but were displaced by the ferrons, or workers of ironworks foundries, until their total fade-out. They were pagans, but one of them, Olentzero, accepted Christianity and became a sort of Basque Santa Claus. They gave name to several toponyms, as Jentilbaratza.

Society Edit

Historically, Basque society can be described as being somewhat at odds with Roman and later European societal norms.

Strabo's account of the north of Spain in his Geografie (written between approximately 20 BC and 20 AD) makes a mention of "a sort of woman-rule—not at all a mark of civilization" (Hadington 1992), a first mention of the—for the period—unusual position of women. "Women could inherit and control property as well as officiate in churches. The evidence for this assertion is rather sparse however. [60]

This preference for female dominance existed well into the 20th century:

. matrilineal inheritance laws, and agricultural work performed by women continued in Basque country until the early twentieth century. For more than a century, scholars have widely discussed the high status of Basque women in law codes, as well as their positions as judges, inheritors, and arbitrators through ante-Roman, medieval, and modern times. The system of laws governing succession in the French Basque region reflected total equality between the sexes. Up until the eve of the French Revolution, the Basque woman was truly ‘the mistress of the house', hereditary guardian, and head of the lineage. [61]

While women continued to have a higher position in Basque than other western European societies, it is highly unlikely that any point the society was 'matriarchal', as is often falsely claimed about pre-Indo-European peoples in general. The 'Basque matriarchy' argument is typically tied to 20th century nationalism and is at odds with earlier accounts of the society. [62]

Although the kingdom of Navarre did adopt feudalism, most Basques also possessed unusual social institutions different from those of the rest of feudal Europe. Some aspects of this include the elizate tradition where local house-owners met in front of the church to elect a representative to send to the juntas en Juntas Generales (soos die Juntas Generales de Vizcaya of Guipúzcoa) which administered much larger areas. Another example was the fact that in the medieval period most land was owned by the farmers, not the Church or a king. [54] [ bladsy benodig ] [63]


Prevent Iberian Wedding

Teken in op die CK II -uitbreiding en geniet onbeperkte toegang tot 13 groot uitbreidings en meer!

Crusader Kings III nou beskikbaar!

Die ryk juig toe Paradox Interactive die bekendstelling van Crusader Kings III aankondig, die nuutste inskrywing in die uitgewer se groot strategie-rolspel-franchise. Adviseurs kan nou 'n rol speel in invloedsposisies, en teëstanders moet hul skemas vir 'n ander dag red, want op hierdie dag kan Crusader Kings III op Steam, die Paradox Store en ander groot aanlyn -kleinhandelaars gekoop word.

Delpiero1234

WritAAR

As a player, what I can do to prevent the Iberian Wedding from firing? I think it can fire when Aragon and Castile have a female and male ruler or something like that.
Can it also fire if one of the two parties is at war? If not then I could drag Aragon into a long war to ensure that it won't fire, or not?


Edit: Nvm the Iberian Wedding fired anyways


Take a look at Delpiero's Inkwell for a complete list of my AARs.

Londoner247

Field Marshal

It cannot fire if Aragon is human controlled. It also cannot fire whilst Aragon and Castile are at war with each other (but third party wars don't prevent it). Finally, it cannot fire if they do not share a border.

Your best bet therefore looks like allying France and going to war with Castile and / or Aragon to give France a chain of provinces separating Castile from Aragon. Not sure that's a good plan in the long run though as France doesn't need that help!

MWSampson

Second Lieutenant

GChapman

Lt.generaal

User4035

Field Marshal

You can make castile release Leon and such thus making castile weaker so the can't hold their PU.

I noticed if Poland doesn't conquer teutons then they usually lose their Lithuania PU. So similar logic for xastile.

MAKE ORTHODOXY GREAT AGAIN!

Freedavebrown

Major

Valanna

Second Lieutenant

Mackwolfe

Algemeen

Roprop

Korporaal

User4035

Field Marshal

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.

. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

MAKE ORTHODOXY GREAT AGAIN!

AurochsAway

Field Marshal

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.

. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

Wickermoon

Lt.generaal

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.
. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

Issac1709

Lt.generaal

Issac1709

Lt.generaal

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.

. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

Just pay some dip and spam the return core button, also anyone have any idea what CB's give no dip return core?

I know Impreal Ban does (Best CB ever, no dip conquest), any more?

Wickermoon

Lt.generaal

Just pay some dip and spam the return core button, also anyone have any idea what CB's give no dip return core?

I know Impreal Ban does (Best CB ever, no dip conquest), any more?

Strangedane

Algemeen

I just fed an exiled portugal ALL of it's european holdings back in one war.


Ancient Greek Terracotta Protome of a ram head - 10×9×11 cm - (1)

Greece approx. 6th/5th century BC. representation of a ram's head. Height: 10 cm, width: 9 cm, length: 11 cm The animal is depicted with spiral horns and deliberately without ears to give the figure more strength, that the face is fine and detailed.
Claims of ram-condemnation types can be found in Egyptian and Vedic religiosity. In the Greco-Roman world, as in the biblical world, the ram is by definition an animal destined for sacrifice. In the Christian world, the Agnus Dei, who saves mankind with his sacrifice, is often represented as a ram, in contrast to the evil goat, symbolic of the unclean. An astral figure corresponding to the constellation that marks the beginning of spring, when the animals of the flock begin to move away from their mothers, and their horns begin to grow on their foreheads, the ram has a clear solar, warrior and phallic value.
Condition: some small losses on the neck and muzzle, horns, small cracks. Glued right horn.

Provenance: In 1994 from the German art trade, prior to that German private collection from the 1950s. Certificate of origin is available from Catawiki.

Important information:
The seller guarantees that this item was legally acquired and is entitled to send it.
The seller will ensure that the necessary documents are also supplied.
The seller will inform the buyer if this takes more than 2 days.

Greece approx. 6th/5th BC. Plastically shaped representation of a ram's head. Height: 10 cm, width: 9 cm, length: 11 cm The animal is depicted with spiral horns and deliberately without ears to give the figure more strength, that the face is fine and detailed.
Claims of comparable ram forms can be found in Egyptian and Vedic religiosity. In the Greco-Roman world as in the biblical world, the ram is by definition an animal destined for sacrifice. In the Christian world, the Agnus Dei, who saves humanity due to its sacrifice, is often portrayed as ram, as opposed to the evil goat, symbol of the unclean. An astral figure that corresponds to the constellation that marks the beginning of spring, when the births of the flock begin to distance themselves from their mothers, and their horns grow on their foreheads, the ram has a clear solar, warrior and phallic value.
Condition: Flaking at the neck and muzzle, horns, small cracks. Right horn glued.

Provenance: In 1994 from the German art trade, before that in a German private collection of the 50s. Proof of origin at Catawiki.

Important information:
The seller guarantees, that this object has been acquired legally and that he is entitled to ship it.
The seller will ensure that the necessary documents are provided.
The seller will inform the buyer if this should take more than 2 days.


First Punic War (264–241 bce )

The proximate cause of the first outbreak was a crisis in the city of Messana (Messina), commanding the straits between Italy and Sicily. The Mamertini, a band of Campanian mercenaries, had forcibly established themselves within the town and were being hard pressed in 264 by Hieron II of Syracuse. The Mamertini appealed to both Rome and Carthage, and the Carthaginians, arriving first, occupied Messana and effected a reconciliation with Hieron. The Roman commander, nevertheless, persisted in throwing troops into the city, and, by seizing the Carthaginian admiral during a parley, induced him to withdraw. This aggression provoked war with Carthage and Syracuse.

Operations began with a joint attack upon Messana, which the Romans easily repelled. In 263 the Romans advanced with a considerable force into Hieron’s territory and induced him to seek peace and alliance with them. They besieged and captured the Carthaginian base at Agrigentum in 262 but made little impression upon the Carthaginian fortresses in the west of the island and upon the towns of the interior.

In 260 the Romans built their first large fleet of standard battleships. At Mylae (Milazzo), off the north Sicilian coast, their admiral Gaius Duilius defeated a Carthaginian squadron of superior maneuvering capacity by grappling and boarding. This left Rome free to land a force on Corsica (259) and expel the Carthaginians but did not suffice to loosen their grasp on Sicily. A large Roman fleet sailed out in 256, repelled the entire Carthaginian fleet off Cape Ecnomus (near modern Licata) and established a fortified camp on African soil at Clypea (Kélibia in Tunisia). The Carthaginians, whose citizen levy was utterly disorganized, could neither keep the field against the invaders nor prevent their subjects from revolting. After one campaign they were ready to sue for peace, but the terms which the Roman commander Marcus Atilius Regulus offered were intolerably harsh. Accordingly they equipped a new army in which, by the advice of a Greek captain of mercenaries named Xanthippus, cavalry and elephants formed the strongest arm. In 255, under Xanthippus’ command, they offered battle to Regulus, who had taken up position with an inadequate force near Tunis, outmaneuvered him, and destroyed the bulk of his army. A second Roman fleet, which subsequently reached Africa after defeating the full Carthaginian fleet off Cape Hermaeum (Sharīk Peninsula), withdrew all the remaining troops.

The Romans now directed their efforts once more against Sicily. In 254 they captured the important fortress of Panormus (Palermo), but when Carthage threw reinforcements into the island the war again came to a standstill. In 251 or 250 the Roman general Lucius Caecilius Metellus at last brought about a pitched battle near Panormus in which the enemy’s force was effectively crippled. This victory was followed by an investment of the chief Punic base at Lilybaeum (Marsala), together with Drepanum (Trapani), by land and sea. The besiegers met with a gallant resistance and in 249 were compelled to withdraw by the loss of their fleet in a surprise attack upon Drepanum, in which the admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher was repulsed with a loss of 93 ships. While this was the Romans’ only naval defeat in the war, their fleet had suffered a series of grievous losses by storm, and now it was so reduced that the attack upon Sicily had to be suspended. At the same time, the Carthaginians, who felt no less severely the financial strain of the prolonged struggle, reduced their forces and made no attempt to deliver a counterattack. The only noteworthy feature of the ensuing campaigns is the skillful guerrilla war waged by a new Carthaginian commander, Hamilcar Barca, from his strong positions on Mt. Ercte (247–244) and Mt. Eryx (modern Erice) (244–242) in western Sicily, by which he effectually screened Lilybaeum from any attempt on it by the Roman land army.

In 242 Rome resumed operations at sea. By a magnificent effort on the part of private citizens a fleet of 200 warships was equipped and sent out to renew the blockade of Lilybaeum. The Carthaginians hastily collected a relief force, but in a battle fought off the Aegates Insulae (Egadi Islands), west of Drepana, their fleet was caught at a disadvantage and mostly sunk or captured (March 10, 241). This victory, by giving the Romans undisputed command of the sea, rendered certain the ultimate fall of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. The Carthaginians accordingly opened negotiations and consented to a peace by which they ceded Sicily and the Lipari (Eolie) Islands to Rome and paid an indemnity of 3,200 talents.


History – Moorish Art and Architecture

One of my favourite style of Islamic art and architecture is the Moorish Style.It is derived from the name Moors – a name the Europeans gave the Arab-muslims who took over the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th Century.

The architecture style (and subsequently – the art) was influenced by Greco-Roman, Berber and Visigoth cultures and tradition and in turn influences the future Mediterranean culture.

La Mezquita – Cordoba, Spain

History of the Muslim government of the Iberian Peninsula.

Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given to the areas in the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania that was under the Muslims rule between the period of 711AD to 1492AD. It is said that the name Al-Andalus was taken from the name Vandal , the Germanic tribe who controlled parts of the Iberian Peninsula between 407AD to 429AD. However, there is no historical basis to support this fact. It is also said the name derived from Arabic name for Atlantis, taking that the sounds of both of these names were almost similar. The etymology of the name is still a disputed topic.

In the year 711AD, the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid gave orders to Tariq bin Ziyad to lead a small force towards Spain, through Gibraltar (in fact, the name Gibraltar is derived from the Arabic word Jabal Tariq, meaning the Hill of Tariq) and successfully lead it from campaigns to campaigns and conquered the whole of Spain under the name of Al-Andalus, Governed by the Islamic Caliphate of Ummayad.

The Al-Andalus period was agreed by many historians to be very successful. Advances in Philosophy, Sciences, Medicines and the Arts was developed extensively great muslim men of philosophy and sciences emerged like Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Ibn Bajjah ( Avempace) ,a considerable amount of medicines were discovered and utilized, many artistic revolutions were introduced. In short – the Muslim World back then contributed significantly to the relative fields and after the fall of the Muslim Empire in Spain in 1492 became the foundations of the European Renaissance.

The Art Form – The Uniqueness of The Moorish Art and Architecture

A collage of art relics from the Al-Andalus. From left to right – Pyxis of Al-Mughira, Louvre, A fragment of an Amulet, Louvre, tin-glazed with lusterware decoration, Spain and a Quran manuscript page.

The art of the Moors are very highly advanced,as with the advances of other academical fields. Many of modern musical instruments were based or even evolved from Arabic instruments, such as the lute (from the Arabian Oud), the guitar (Qitara), the castanet (Kasatan) and many more. The Flamenco, one of the hallmark of Spanish performing arts, were acknowledged to be heavily influenced by Arabian performing arts.

In this time period also the geometric and arabesque art, the characteristic art of the Islamic Empire, grew considerably. The art form of Geometric art are improvised with the advent of the new mathematical knowledge the Muslim scholars had acquired. In effect, more and more designs came up and utilized, and gets more and more complicated and intricate.

The Arabesques also enjoyed a significant transformation as with the Geometric art. Arabesques became more and more complex and elaborate, floral elements are more apparent and stylized, decorating everything to small daily items to buildings and palaces.

A variation of the Middle eastern and Central Asian space filling decoration called Mocárabe was founded and introduced – it is notable for it stalactite or honeycomb like form decorating the likes of La Mezquita and the Alhambra.

Many great fine works was done in this golden age from literature, to sciences to art . Cities and palaces were constructed -The Caliphate City of Medinat Azzahra, The Great Mosque of Cordoba (La Mezquita) and the Palace of Generalife. And of course, one place that serves as the witness of this great period, and the place to see it all is the Alhambra.

Courtyard of the Lions. note the intricate Arabesques on the walls and the Mocárabe beneath the arches

Mosaic works and stone works in the Alhambra.

Hall of the Ambassadors, Alhambra. Almost all of the characteristic Islamic art decoration were present here – the Zillij Tileworks, the pierced screens, the arabesques, calligraphy…


Resumen

Este artículo estudia la expansión de la enseñanza básica en América Latina durante el siglo xx desde una perspectiva mundial y comparativa. El trabajo argumenta que los niveles y la expansión, en términos de matrícula, fue bastante notable. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo del grado de distribución de la matrícula demuestra que dicha expansión no se corresponde con mejoras equivalentes en la calidad de la educación. El persistente sesgo del gasto público en educación terciaria sugiere que la explicación de su baja calidad está relacionada con las carencias del financiamiento público de la educación primaria. Esto implica que la tesis de economía política sobre el subdesarrollo educativo de América Latina que proponen Engerman, Mariscal y Sokoloff para el siglo XIX, se mantiene durante la mayor parte del siglo xx.


Random-access Memory - History

Early computers used relays, or delay lines for "main" memory functions. Ultrasonic delay lines could only reproduce data in the order it was written. Drum memory could be expanded at low cost but retrieval of non-sequential memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, and later, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as random-access register banks and registers. Such registers were relatively large, power-hungry and too costly to use for large amounts of data generally only a few hundred or few thousand bits of such memory could be provided.

The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947. It stored data as electrically charged spots on the face of a cathode ray tube. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access. The capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller, faster, and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches.

Magnetic-core memory, invented in 1947 and developed up until the mid 1970s, became a widespread form of random-access memory. It relied on an array of magnetized rings by changing the sense of magnetization, data could be stored, with each bit represented physically by one ring. Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible.

Magnetiese kerngeheue was die standaard vorm van geheuestelsel totdat dit in die vroeë sewentigerjare deur vaste-geheue in geïntegreerde stroombane verplaas is. Robert H. Dennard het in 1968 'n dinamiese ewekansige toegangsgeheue (DRAM) uitgevind, wat die vervanging van 'n 4- of 6-transistorgrendelingskring deur 'n enkele transistor vir elke geheue-bit moontlik gemaak het, wat die digtheid van die geheue aansienlik verhoog het ten koste van onbestendigheid. Data is in die klein kapasitansie van elke transistor gestoor en moes binne 'n paar millisekondes gereeld herlaai word voordat die lading kon lek.

Voor die ontwikkeling van geïntegreerde leesalleen geheue (ROM) stroombane, permanent (of alleen-lees) geheue vir ewekansige toegang is dikwels saamgestel met behulp van diode matrikse aangedryf deur adresdekodeerders, of spesiaal gewinde kerntougeheue vliegtuie.

Lees meer oor hierdie onderwerp: ewekansige toegang tot geheue

Ander artikels wat verband hou met & quot geskiedenis & quot;

Beroemde aanhalings wat die woord geskiedenis bevat:

& ldquo Die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse politiek is besaai met liggame van mense wat so suiwer standpunt ingeneem het dat hulle glad nie die indruk gehad het nie. & rdquo
& mdash Ben C. Bradlee (geb. 1921)