Opus Sectile Flooring [Rosette]

Opus Sectile Flooring [Rosette]


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Romeinse mosaïeke

Romeinse mosaïek was 'n algemene kenmerk van privaat huise en openbare geboue regoor die ryk van Afrika tot Antiochië. Mosaïek is nie net pragtige kunswerke op sigself nie, maar dit is ook 'n waardevolle rekord van alledaagse items soos klere, kos, gereedskap, wapens, flora en fauna. Hulle onthul ook baie oor Romeinse aktiwiteite soos gladiatorwedstryde, sport, landbou, jag en soms vang hulle selfs die Romeine self in gedetailleerde en realistiese portrette.

'N Romeinse vloermosaïek wat tussen 350 en 375 CE dateer en wat vis uitbeeld. Kos was 'n gewilde onderwerp by mosiacs gedurende die Romeinse tyd. Herkomst: Toragnola, Rome. (Vatikaan -museums, Rome).

Tegniek

Mosaiek, ook bekend as opus tesellatum, is gemaak met klein swart, wit en gekleurde vierkante wat tipies tussen 0,5 en 1,5 cm groot is, maar fyn besonderhede is dikwels weergegee met selfs kleiner stukke tot 1 mm groot. Hierdie vierkante (tesserae of tessellae) is gesny uit materiale soos marmer, teëls, glas, smalto (glaspasta), erdewerk, klip en selfs skulpe. 'N Basis is eers met vars mortier en die tesserae so na as moontlik aan mekaar geplaas met enige gapings wat dan met vloeibare mortier gevul word in 'n proses wat bekend staan ​​as voeg. Die geheel is daarna skoongemaak en gepoleer.

Oorsprong en invloede

Vloerbedekking met klein klippies is in die Bronstydperk gebruik in beide die Minoïese beskawing gebaseer op Kreta en die Mykeense beskawing op die vasteland van Griekeland. Dieselfde idee, maar die weergee van patrone, is in die 8ste eeu vC in die Nabye Ooste gebruik. In Griekeland dateer die eerste klippievloer met ontwerpe uit die 5de eeu vC met voorbeelde in Korinte en Olynthus. Dit was gewoonlik in twee skakerings met ligte meetkundige ontwerpe en eenvoudige figure op 'n donker agtergrond. Teen die einde van die 4de eeu vC is kleure gebruik en baie goeie voorbeelde is by Pella in Masedonië gevind. Hierdie mosaïek is dikwels versterk deur stroke terracotta of lood in te lê, wat dikwels gebruik word om buitelyne te merk. Inderdaad, eers in die Hellenistiese tyd in die 3de eeu vC het mosaïek werklik 'n kunsvorm geword en gedetailleerde panele met behulp van tesserae eerder as om klippies in vloere met patroon te begin. Baie van hierdie mosaïeke het gepoog om kontemporêre muurskilderye te kopieer.

'N Romeinse vloermosaïek uit die 3de eeu wat Bacchus, die god van wyn, uitbeeld. Van via Flaminia, Rome. (Palazzo Massimo, Rome).

Namate mosaïek in die 2de eeu vC kleiner en meer presies gesny is tesserae is soms gebruik, soms so klein as 4 mm of minder, en ontwerpe gebruik 'n wye spektrum kleure met gekleurde voeg om die omgewing te pas tesserae. Hierdie spesifieke mosaïek wat gesofistikeerde kleur en skaduwee gebruik het om 'n effek te skep wat soortgelyk is aan 'n skildery, word ook bekend as opus vermiculatum en een van sy grootste vakmanne was Sorus van Pergamon (150-100 v.G.J.), wie se werk, veral sy Drinking Doves-mosaïek, eeue daarna baie gekopieer is. Behalwe Pergamon, uitstekende voorbeelde van Hellenisties opus vermiculatum is gevind in Alexandria en Delos in die Cyclades. Vanweë die moeite wat met die vervaardiging van hierdie stukke gepaard gegaan het, was dit dikwels klein mosaïek van 40 x 40 cm wat op 'n marmer of skinkbord in 'n spesialiswerkswinkel gelê is. Hierdie stukke was bekend as emblemata aangesien dit dikwels as middelpunte gebruik is vir sypaadjies met meer eenvoudige ontwerpe. Hierdie kunswerke was so waardevol dat dit dikwels vir hergebruik elders verwyder is en van geslag tot geslag in gesinne oorgedra is. Verskeie emblemata 'n enkele mosaïek kan vorm en geleidelik emblemata het meer na hul omgewing begin lyk toe hulle dan panele genoem word.

Evolusie in ontwerp

Met 'n onderwerp soos mosaïek waar daar probleme is met dateer, 'n geweldige afwyking in artistieke kwaliteit, openbare smaak en streekbyeenkomste, is dit problematies om 'n streng lineêre evolusie van die kunsvorm te beskryf. Enkele belangrike veranderingspunte en streeksverskil kan egter opgemerk word.

Detail van die Alexander Mosaic, wat Alexander die Grote verteenwoordig op sy perd Bucephalus, tydens die Slag van Issus. Van die House of Faun in Pompeii.

Aanvanklik het die Romeine nie afgewyk van die grondbeginsels van die Hellenistiese benadering tot mosaïeke nie, en hulle was inderdaad sterk beïnvloed ten opsigte van die onderwerp en seemotiewe en tonele uit die Griekse mitologie en die kunstenaars self, aangesien die vele getekende Romeinse mosaïeke dra dikwels Griekse name, wat bewys dat selfs in die Romeinse wêreld mosaïekontwerp nog steeds deur Grieke gedomineer is. Een van die bekendste is die Alexander -mosaïek, 'n afskrif van 'n Hellenistiese oorspronklike skildery deur Philoxenus of Aristeides van Thebe. Die mosaïek is afkomstig van die House of the Faun, Pompeii en toon Alexander die Grote wat op Bucephalus ry en Darius III op sy oorlogswa in die Slag van Issus (333 v.C.) sien.

'N Romeinse vloermosaïek wat uit die 4de eeu nC dateer en die Dionysos uitbeeld wat veg teen Indiërs. Dionysos was 'n baie gewilde onderwerp in Romeinse mosaïek. Herkoms: Villa Ruffinella, Rome. (Palazzo Massimo, Rome).

Romeinse mosaïeke het dikwels vroeër kleurlinge gekopieer, maar die Romeine het wel hul eie style ontwikkel en produksieskole is ontwikkel in die hele ryk wat hul eie besondere voorkeure gekweek het en#8211 grootskaalse jagtonele en pogings tot perspektief in die Afrikaanse provinsies, impressionistiese plantegroei en 'n voorgrondwaarnemer in die mosaïeke van Antiochië of die Europese voorkeur vir figuurpanele, byvoorbeeld.

'N Romeinse vloermosaïek wat uit die 3de eeu nC dateer en een van die vier seisoene uitbeeld. Swart en wit mosaïek was baie gewild gedurende die Romeinse tydperk in Italië. Herkomst: via Prenestina, Rome. (Palazzo Massimo, Rome)

Die dominante (maar nie eksklusiewe) Romeinse styl in Italië self het slegs swart en wit gebruik tesserae, 'n smaak wat tot in die 3de eeu nC oorleef het en meestal gebruik is om mariene motiewe voor te stel, veral as dit vir Romeinse baddens gebruik is (dié op die eerste verdieping van die Baths of Caracalla in Rome is 'n uitstekende voorbeeld). Daar was ook 'n voorkeur vir meer tweedimensionele voorstellings en die klem op geometriese ontwerpe. In c. 115 CE by die Baths of Buticosus in Ostia is die vroegste voorbeeld van 'n menslike figuur in mosaïek en in die 2de eeu CE word silhoeëtvorme algemeen geword. Mettertyd het die mosaïek steeds meer realisties geword in die uitbeelding van menslike figure, en akkurate en gedetailleerde portrette word meer algemeen. Intussen het die 4de eeu n.C. in die oostelike deel van die ryk en veral in Antiochië die verspreiding van mosaïek plaasgevind wat tweedimensionele en herhaalde motiewe gebruik het om 'n 'tapyt'-effek te skep, 'n styl wat latere Christelike kerke en Joodse sinagoges.

'N Romeinse vloermosaïek in geometriese ontwerp wat dateer uit die laat 1ste eeu nC. Uit 'n villa naby Guido -kasteel, naby Rome. (Palazzo Massimo, Rome).

Ander vloerontwerpe

Vloere kan ook met groter stukke gelê word om ontwerpe op 'n groter skaal te maak. Opus signinum vloer gebruik gekleurde mortel-aggregaat (gewoonlik rooi) met wit tesserae geplaas om breë patrone te skep of selfs lukraak versprei. Kruise met vyf rooi tesserae en 'n sentrale tesserae in swart was 'n baie algemene motief in Italië in die 1ste eeu vC en het tot in die 1ste eeu nC voortgegaan, maar meer tipies met slegs swart teëls.

Opus sektiel was 'n tweede tipe vloer wat groot gekleurde klip- of marmerblaaie gebruik het in spesifieke vorms. Opus sektiel was 'n ander tegniek van Hellenistiese oorsprong, maar die Romeine het die tegniek ook uitgebrei na muurversiering. Dit word in baie openbare geboue gebruik, maar eers in die 4de eeu nC word dit meer algemeen in privaat villas, en onder Egiptiese invloed het dit ondeursigtige glas as primêre materiaal begin gebruik.

'N Romeinse vloermosaïek wat dateer uit die 1ste eeu vC en wat Nike uitbeeld. Van 'n Romeinse villa naby via Ruffinella, Rome. (Palazzo Massimo, Rome).

Ander gebruike van Mosaïek

Mosaïeke was geensins beperk tot vloer nie. Kluise, kolomme en fonteine ​​is dikwels versier met mosaïek (opus musivum), weer, veral in baddens. Die vroegste voorbeeld van hierdie gebruik dateer uit die middel van die 1ste eeu v.G.J. in die nimfeum van die 'Villa of Cicero' by Formiae, waar skyfies van marmer, puimsteen en skulpe gebruik is. Op ander plekke is daar ook stukke marmer en glas bygevoeg wat die effek van 'n natuurlike grot oplewer. Teen die 1ste eeu nC is meer gedetailleerde mosaïekpanele ook gebruik om Nymphaea en fonteine ​​te versier. In Pompeii en Herculanum is die tegniek ook gebruik om nisse, mure en voetstukke te bedek, en weereens het hierdie muurskilderye dikwels oorspronklike skilderye nageboots. Die mure en gewelwe van latere keiserlike Romeinse baddens is ook in mosaïek versier met glas, wat 'n weerspieëling was van die sonlig wat die poele tref en 'n glinsterende effek veroorsaak het. Die vloere van die poele self was dikwels met mosaïek, net soos die vloere van mausolea, soms selfs 'n portret van die oorledene. Weereens sou die Romeinse gebruik van mosaïek om muurruimte en kluise te versier, die binneversierders van Christelike kerke vanaf die 4de eeu nC beïnvloed.


Argeoloë herstel die vloer van die tweede tempel met die hulp van 'n wiskundige

Argeoloë van die Jerusalem-gebaseerde Tempelberg Siftingsprojek is vol vertroue dat hulle 'n unieke argitektoniese element van die Tweede Tempel suksesvol herstel het: 'n reeks regs versierde vloerteëls wat die porties bo-op die Tempelberg versier het, wat waarskynlik prominent in die binnehowe verskyn het van die Tweede Tempel tydens die bewind van koning Herodes in Jerusalem (37 tot 4 vC).

Frankie Snyder, 'n lid van die navorsingspan van die Temple Mount Sifting Project en 'n kenner van antieke vloere in die Herodiaanse styl, het gesê dat hy daarin geslaag het om die versierde teëlpatrone te herstel "deur geometriese beginsels te gebruik, en deur ooreenkomste te vind in teëlontwerp wat Herodes gebruik het op ander webwerwe. ” Snyder, wat 'n akademiese agtergrond in wiskunde en Judaïsme het, het verduidelik dat hierdie soort vloer, genaamd ‘opus sectile, 'Latyn vir' snywerk 'baie duur is en as baie meer gesog as mosaïek beskou word teëlvloere. ”

Verskeidenheid Herodiaanse vloerteëls / met vergunning van City of David

Tot dusver het ons daarin geslaag om sewe potensiële ontwerpe van die majestueuse vloer wat die geboue van die Tempelberg versier het, te herstel, en Snyder, wat opgemerk het dat daar geen opus sektiele vloere in Israel was voor die tyd van koning Herodes nie . 'Die teëlsegmente was perfek ingelê sodat 'n mens nie eens 'n skerp lem tussen hulle kon steek nie. ”

Dit stel ons in staat om 'n idee te kry van die ongelooflike glans van die tempel, het dr. Gabriel Barkay, medestigter en direkteur van die Temple Mount Sifting Project, gesê. Die gerestoureerde teëls word op 8 September tydens die 17de jaarlikse City of David Archaeological Conference aan die algemene publiek aangebied.

Sigsagmodule, Herodiaanse vloerteëls / Met vergunning van City of David

"Dit is die eerste keer dat argeoloë 'n element uit die Herodiaanse Tweede Tempel-kompleks suksesvol kon herstel," het medestigter en direkteur van die Temple Mount Sifting Project Zachi Dvira gesê.

Die Temple Mount Sifting Project is gestig in reaksie op die onwettige verwydering van tonne antieke ryk aarde uit die Tempelberg deur die Islamitiese Waqf in 1999. Dit is geleë in die Tzurim Valley National Park en word ondersteun deur die City of David Foundation en die Israel Archeology Foundation. Die inisiatief word uitgevoer onder die vaandel van die Bar-Ilan Universiteit en die Israel Parks & amp Nature Authority.

Tot op hede is ongeveer 600 gekleurde kliptegelsegmente ontbloot, waarvan meer as 100 definitief uit die Herodiaanse Tweede Tempelperiode gedateer is. Hierdie styl van vloere stem ooreen met dié in die paleise van Herodes in Masada, Herodian en Jericho, sowel as in majestueuse paleise en villa's in Italië, wat ook toegeskryf word aan die tyd van Herodes. Die teëlsegmente, meestal ingevoer uit Rome, Klein -Asië, Tunisië en Egipte, is gemaak van gepoleerde, veelkleurige klippe wat in verskillende meetkundige vorms gesny is. 'N Belangrike kenmerk van die Herodiaanse teëls is hul grootte, wat ooreenstem met die Romeinse meting van ongeveer een voet, ongeveer 29,6 cm.

Herodiaanse vloerteëls Opus -versameling / met vergunning van City of David

Die moontlikheid dat groot dele van die Tempelberg tydens die Tweede Tempel bedek was met opus -sectiele vloer, is eers in 2007 deur die argeoloog en direkteur van die Jerusalem Walls National Park saam met die Israel Nature and Parks Authority Assaf Avraham geopper.

Die teorie van Abraham was gebaseer op 'n beskrywing van die Romano-Joodse geskiedskrywer Josephus (1ste eeu nC) wat geskryf het: die onbedekte [tempelhof] is heeltemal geplavei met klippe van verskillende soorte en kleure ... ” (Die Joodse Oorlog 5: 2). Daarbenewens bevat die Talmudiese literatuur die wonderlike konstruksie van die Tempelberg, waarin rye marmer in verskillende kleure beskryf word - groen, blou en wit.

Nou, as gevolg van die wiskundige vaardighede van Frankie Snyder, het ons daarin geslaag om die werklike teëlpatrone te herskep, het dr. Barkay beklemtoon dat dit die eerste keer is wat ons met ons eie oë kan sien die glans van die vloer wat die Tweede Tempel en sy bylaes 2000 jaar gelede versier het. ”

Barkay vertel dat die Talmoed in die beskrywing van die tempel wat Herodes gebou het, sê dat elkeen wat die gebou van Herodes nog nie gesien het nie 'n pragtige gebou in sy lewe gesien het, sodat ons geslag nog nie verdien het nie. om die tempel in sy glorie te sien, en met die ontdekking en herstel van hierdie unieke vloerteëls, kan ons nou 'n dieper begrip en waardering vir die Tweede Tempel kry, selfs deur hierdie kenmerkende kenmerk. ”

Sedert die aanvang van die Temple Mount Sifting Project in 2004, het meer as 200 000 vrywilligers van regoor die wêreld aan die sif deelgeneem, wat 'n ongekende verskynsel op die gebied van argeologiese navorsing verteenwoordig.


Klassieke argeoloog Darius Arya

Darius op die plek in die Hagia Sofia, Istanboel, Turkye terwyl hy PBS ’s Ancient Invisible Cities geskiet het.

Daar is niks nuutser as om na die verlede te kyk nie, of ten minste die manier waarop die Romeinse argeoloog Darius Arya dink. Vir Darius is Rome meer as antieke geskiedenis, dit is sy lewende geskiedenis en 'n voortdurende verhaal wat Darius na die lesingsale, die veld en die skerms neem- groot en klein.

Almal het daarvan gedroom om Indiana Jones te wees, en vir Darius, “I het gedink ek sou dit net doen. Ek wou kniediep wees in antieke inskripsies en ondergrondse terreine, en daarom het ek met Latyn begin. alom bekend by studente en studente by die Centro. Terwyl sy fokus Grieks en Latyn was, was Darius geboei deur die aktiewe geskiedenis rondom hom en het hy voortgegaan met 'n meestersgraad en meestersgraad/PhD in klassieke argeologie aan die Universiteit van Texas in Austin, en 'n Fullbright -beurs en genootskap aan die American Academy ontvang in Rome.

Wat Darius aan die ewige stad veranker en nog steeds veranker, is die unieke kombinasie van verlede en hede in sy kuns, argitektuur en kultuur. “I is geneig om soos 2,500 jaar gelede na Rome uit die verlede te kyk en hierdie drade voortdurend te sien in die hedendaagse lewe, sowel as oor die hele wêreld. twee dekades in Rome, het hy alles gedoen om dit te deel. As die direkteur van American Institute for Roman Culture, 'n nie-winsgewende organisasie wat gesprekke bevorder oor die buitengewone kulturele erfenis van Rome deur middel van opvoeding, uitreik en multi-platform storievertelling, het Darius verskeie opvoedings- en nuwe media-inisiatiewe geskep, en as dokumentêre filmmaker, hy bied 2018 ’s 𠇊ncient Invisible Cities ” (PBS) en deurlopende Italiaanse televisiereekse “Under Italy ” (RAI5) aan.

Konservators bedek 'n ou muur by die opgrawing van Arya by Parco dei Ravennati in Ostia Antica. Die opgrawing behels die ondersoek van grafte langs 'n ou deur wat langs die Tiberrivier geleë is, asook die ontdekking van 'n laat antieke huis.

Ons het met Darius gaan sit om uit te vind hoe dit is om in Rome te woon, te werk en te grawe.

1 U koördineer al 15 jaar opgrawings in Rome. Wat is 'n paar van die verrassings wat u teëgekom het? Wat was jou mees vervullende projek tot nog toe?Maak nie saak hoeveel jy beplan en bestudeer nie, as jy uiteindelik opgrawe, sal jy onvermydelik dinge vind waarvan jy nie verwag het nie en nooit gedroom het nie. Ek het oor 'n ongedokumenteerde begraafplaas in die keiserlike era gekom en 'n ongeskonde, oop sektiele vloer ontbloot. My persoonlike gunsteling en waarskynlik die mees vervullende was afkomstig van ons opgrawing in die Park van die akwadukte, 'n openbare park minder as agt kilometer van die sentrum van Rome. Die park self is ongelooflik met sy myl lange arcade van die ou Aqua Claudia-akwaduk. Ons was in ons derde somer by opgrawings, en het al 'n 50.000 vierkante meter groot badkompleks ontdek met verskeie verhale en kamers en baie marmerpanele in situ. Ons was halfpad deur die dag en het al pragtige beeldfragmente opgegrawe (duidelike tekens van laat antieke spolasie) toe ons 'n gekleurde marmerkop ontbloot. Namate ons vorder, het ons besef dat ons 'n hele, ongeskonde standbeeld van die hoogste kwaliteit van 'n rooi marmerstandbeeld van die hoogste kwaliteit het, wat Marsyas aan 'n boom voorstel, met 'n pragtige gedetailleerde bespiering en 'n oorblywende brons ingelegde oog. Ek was so paranoïes toe ons dit vind, ek het besluit om die nag saam met Marsyas in die sloot te slaap uit vrees vir plunderaars (altyd 'n werklike bedreiging vir enige opgrawing). Ons het die standbeeld die volgende oggend met 'n klein kraan gehaal en na 'n superintendens -pakhuis vervoer om dit te bewaar. Na 'n deeglike herstel en skoonmaak, word ons Marsyas permanent in die openbare tentoonstelling in die Capitoline Museums Montemartini -galery vertoon.


Inhoud

Daar was baie curiae gedurende die geskiedenis van die Romeinse beskawing, waarvan baie terselfdertyd bestaan ​​het. Curia beteken eenvoudig "vergaderhuis". Terwyl die senaat gereeld by die curia in die komitiumruimte vergader het, was daar baie ander strukture wat ontwerp is om te voldoen aan die behoefte: byvoorbeeld ontmoeting met iemand wat nie die geheiligde curias van die senaat mag betree nie.

Die Curia Julia is die derde genaamde curia in die komitium. Elke struktuur is 'n paar keer herbou, maar het ontstaan ​​uit 'n enkele Etruskiese tempel, gebou om die wapenstilstand van die Sabine -konflik te eerbiedig. Toe hierdie oorspronklike tempel vernietig is, herbou Tullus Hostilius dit en gee dit sy naam. Dit het 'n paar honderd jaar geduur totdat die curia deur die brand deur die geïmproviseerde begrafnis van Publius Clodius Pulcher vernietig is. 'N Nuwe struktuur is toegewy aan die finansiële weldoener, Faustus Cornelius Sulla.

Trouens, die struktuur wat nou op die forum is, is die tweede inkarnasie van Caesar se curia. Van 81 tot 96 is die Curia Julia onder Domitianus herstel. In 283 is dit erg beskadig deur 'n brand, in die tyd van keiser Carinus. [2] Van 284 tot 305 is die Curia daarna deur Diocletianus herbou. Dit is vandag die oorblyfsels van die gebou van Diocletianus. In 412 is die Curia weer herstel, hierdie keer deur die stedelike prefek Annius Eucharius Epiphanius.

Op 10 Julie 1923 verkry die Italiaanse regering die Curia Julia en die aangrensende klooster van die Kerk van S. Adriano van die Collegio di Spagna vir ongeveer £ 16,000. [3]

Die buitekant van die Curia Julia is uit baksteenbeton met 'n groot steun in elke hoek. Die onderste gedeelte van die voorste muur was versier met marmerblaaie. Die boonste gedeelte was bedek met gipsimitasie van wit marmerblokke. 'N Enkele trap lei na die bronsdeure. Die huidige bronsdeure is moderne replika's, die oorspronklike bronsdeure is in 1660 deur pous Alexander VII oorgedra na die Basiliek van St. John Lateran. [5]

'N Muntstuk is tydens die oordrag binne die deure gevind. [6] Dit het argeoloë in staat gestel om die herstelwerk aan die senaatshuis op datum te bring en die bronsdeure by die bewind van keiser Domitianus (81–96 nC) te voeg. Die oorspronklike voorkoms van die Senaatshuis is bekend van 'n keiser Augustus denarius van 28 vC, wat die veranda toon wat deur kolomme op die voorste muur van die gebou gehou word. [7]

Die binnekant van die Curia Julia is redelik sober. Die saal is 25,20 m lank en 17,61 m breed. Daar is drie breë trappe wat vyf rye stoele of 'n totaal van ongeveer 300 senatore kon plaas. [5] Die mure is gestroop, maar is oorspronklik twee derde van die pad na bo in fineer gefineer. Die twee hoofkenmerke van die binneruim van die Curia Julia is die altaar van oorwinning en die opvallende vloer.

Aan die einde van die saal kon die "Altaar van Oorwinning" gevind word. [5] Dit het bestaan ​​uit 'n standbeeld van Victoria, die verpersoonliking van die oorwinning, wat op 'n aardbol staan ​​en 'n krans verleng. Die altaar is deur Augustus in die Curia geplaas om Rome se militêre bekwaamheid, meer spesifiek sy eie oorwinning tydens die Slag van Actium, in 31 vC te vier. Die altaar is in 384 nC verwyder, as deel van 'n algemene terugslag teen die heidense tradisies van antieke Rome na die opkoms van die Christendom. [8]

Die ander hoofkenmerk van die Curia se binnekant, die vloer, is in teenstelling met die kleurlose buitekant van die gebou. Op die vloer verskyn die Romeinse kunstegniek van opus -sektiel waarin materiale in mure en vloere gesny en ingelê word om foto's van patrone te maak. Dit word deur Claridge beskryf as 'gestileerde rosette in vierkante afwisselend met teenoorgestelde pare ingewikkelde kornhope in reghoeke, almal in groen en rooi porfier op agtergronde van Numidiaanse geel Frygiese pers'. [5]

In sy Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Augustus skryf oor die projek: "Ek het die Senaatshuis gebou. Met die mag van die staat heeltemal in my hande met universele toestemming, het ek die vlamme van burgeroorloë geblus, en toe my beheer prysgegee en die Republiek oorgegee aan die gesag van die senaat en die Romeinse volk. Vir hierdie diens is ek deur 'n dekreet van die senaat Augustus genoem ". [9] Trouens, die afstaan ​​van mag was in woord meer waar as in die daad wat die bou van die Curia Julia saamgeval het met die einde van die Republikeinse Rome.

In die verlede was die Curia Hostilia en Comitium "georiënteer deur die kardinale punte van die kompas, wat dit moontlik as 'n spesiaal uitgebreide ruimte gemerk het en dit in elk geval skuins afgeskakel het van die Forum -reghoek wat deur die eeue gevorm is". In stryd met die tradisie, is die Curia Julia deur Julius Caesar heroriënteer "op meer 'rasionele' lyne, in vergelyking met die reghoekige lyne van die Forum en nog nader met sy nuwe forum, waaraan die nuwe senaatshuis 'n argitektoniese aanhangsel vorm. in ooreenstemming met die toenemende ondergeskiktheid van die senaat ". Die verminderde mag van die Romeinse senaat tydens die keiserlike tydperk word weerspieël deur die Curia Julia se minder prominente ligging en oriëntasie. [10]

Tog het die twee geboue ooreenkomste gehad. Beide die Curia Hostilia se Tabula Valeria en die Curia Julia se altaar van oorwinning in die Curia Julia, getuig van die blywende voorrang van die Romeinse weermag ondanks die verminderde rol van die senaat.

17 Februarie 2012. 'n Uitsig van die Forum Romanum vanuit 'n venster van die Palazzo Senatorio: in die middel van die kerk van St. Martina en Luca in die onderste regterhoek die boog van Septimius Severus

13 November 2013 Uitsig oor die Curia Julia en die kerk van St. Martina en Luca


Pietra dura in Italië

Die Tribuna in die Uffizi -galery in Florence. Let op die marmer ingelegde vloer en die agtkantige middelste tafel met pietra dura blad. & kopieer Marta de Bortoli via Wikimedia Commons

Die heersende Medici -familie was die belangrikste stukrag vir die ontwikkeling van pietra dura in Italië. Die Medicis was een van die kragtigste handelsgesinne van die Italiaanse Renaissance, en die produktiefste beskermhere van die kunste.

Dit was in 1588 dat die groothertog Ferdinando I de Medici die Galleria dei Layori, miskien die eerste werkswinkel in Europa wat spesialiseer in houtsnywerk. Hy het gehoop dat die nuwe werkswinkel sy koshuise sou kon versier opus sektiel hardsteen werk soos die Romeinse paleise van die oudheid.

In hierdie werkswinkel het die eerste pietra dura -voorwerpe begin word. Die vakmanne by die Galleria kaste, tafelblaaie en selfs kaste begin bou. Al hierdie is gebruik om die uitgestrekte Medici -paleise in te rig.

Namate die kuns in die 16de eeu in Florence ontwikkel is, het dit bekend gestaan ​​as opera di commessi (letterlik, en saamgebou werk & rsquo), waar die moderne Italiaanse naam commesso vandaan kom.

Hierdie vroeë pietra dura -stukke was duur: klippe soos jaspis, porfier, kwarts en agaat moes uit afgeleë uithoeke van die wêreld ontgin en gestuur word voordat dit in 'n commesso paneel.

As gevolg van hierdie eksotisme en luuksheid, gekombineer met die tegniese kundigheid wat nodig was om sulke werk te voltooi, het pietra dura spoedig baie gewild geword onder die belangrikste versamelaars in Europa.

Miskien was die grootste prestasie van die Florentynse werkswinkel die versierings in die kamer, bekend as die Tribuna in die Uffizi -galery in Florence, voorheen die Medici & rsquos -administratiewe sentrum.

Die Tribuna Dit was waar die Medici -familie tradisioneel hul belangrikste versamelings skilderye en oudhede gehuisves het, insluitend werke van Michelangelo en da Vinci.

Die agtkantige vloer in die kamer is in die 1580's versier met 'n uitgebreide polychrome marmer pietra dura -inlegsel, en dit was oorspronklik ingerig met 'n groot pietra dura -kas, wat later vernietig is. Die middel van die kamer word tans beset deur 'n groot agtkantige pietra dura -tafel uit die 17de eeu.

Die werkswinkel in Florence wat die pietra dura -elemente vir die Uffizi en ander gebou het paleise in die stad sou verbasend bly funksioneer tot in die twintigerjare. Hulle pietra dura -werk sou in die 18de en 19de eeu veral gewilde versamelaars en rsquo -items vir groot toeriste word.

Pietra dura in Indië

Sommige van die uitgebreide pietra dura -werk oor die Taj Mahal. Let op die helderkleurige edelstene wat hier gebruik word, soos groen malachiet. & kopieer Teufel1987 via Wikimedia Commons

Vanaf die 16de eeu het kennis van die tegniek ook vanaf Florence versprei en plekke so ver as die Indiese subkontinent bereik.

Pietra dura sou 'n groot impak hê op die 16de en 17de eeu Indië. Dit was die periode van die Mughal -ryk in Indië, 'n tydperk wat verband hou met die opbloei van kuns en argitektuur.

Die heersende Mughals bewonder die nuut ontdekte tegniek en bestel uitgebreide werke in stukke: die gevolglike styl van pietra dura, of parchin kari was kenmerkend nie-Europees in sy beeldspraak en gebruik.

Indiese parchinkari-werk is weer meestal in argitektoniese as in dekoratiewe omgewings gebruik: 'n vroeë voorbeeld is die beroemde graf van die keiser Humayun (1508-1556) in Delhi, wat in 1569-70 voltooi is.

Miskien is die bekendste Indiese gebou met pietra dura -inlegwerk egter die Taj Mahal, miskien die ikoniese beeld van die Golden Age Mughal -argitektuur. Sommige van die inlegwerk van pietra dura word hierbo afgebeeld.

Die Taj Mahal is weelderig versier met blomme van pietra dura op die binnemure, vloere en mausolea, en gebruik skaars edelstene soos karneool, lapis lazuli, turkoois en malachiet.


Versiering van die inleg van poligroomstene

Opus sektiel is 'n manier om versierings te maak met presies gesnyde stukke polichroomsteen, gewoonlik marmer, om patrone en figure op plat oppervlaktes te maak.

Opus sectile is gebruik in plaveisels, mure en kleiner oppervlaktes, soos tafels.

Die tegniek was baie duur en is slegs gebruik in kontekste met 'n hoë status, waar poligroom mosaïek en skilderye nie voldoende was nie.

In die Villa Romana del Casale, 'n baie ryk Romeinse plattelandse villa in Sicilië vanaf die 4de eeu nC met meer as 3500m2 poligroom geometriese en figuurlike mosaïek, het slegs een kamer, die belangrikste gehoor waar die meester van die huis sy gaste ontvang het, 'n vloer in opus sektiel.


Laat -Romeinse en Bisantynse plekke in Istanbul

Admiraal Konstantyn Lippe het in 907-908 'n klooster, opgedra aan die Theotokos Panachrantos (die Onbevlekte Moeder van God), gebou. Keiser Leo VI die Wyse het deelgeneem aan die inhuldiging daarvan, en spoedig het die klooster een van die grootste in Konstantinopel geword.

Hierdie klooster bestaan ​​uit twee kerke.

Kerk van Theotokos Panachrantos (noordelike kerk)

Die katholikon van die klooster is moontlik gebou op die oorblyfsels van 'n kerk uit die 6de eeu. By die bou daarvan is grafstene van 'n Romeinse begraafplaas gebruik.

Die kerk was die tweede in Konstantinopel om die kruis-in-vierkante plan aan te neem (die eerste is die Nea Ekklesia van die Groot Paleis uit 880), en dit is die oudste kerk met die plan wat in die stad oorleef het. Dit het 'n naosverdeel in nege baaie. Die sentrale baai is bedek met 'n koepel wat deur vier kolomme ondersteun is. Die huidige koepel met agt vensters is uit die Ottomaanse tydperk, net soos die twee puntige boë wat oor die hele kerk strek en die kolomme vervang. Die basisse van die drie kolomme het in hul oorspronklike posisies gebly. Die gewelfde arms van die kruis-in-vierkantige kern eindig in groot drievoudige vensters aan die noord- en suidgevel. Die naos kulmineer in die ooste deur 'n drieparty bemaen in die weste deur 'n driebaai narthex. Die ape van die kerk is hoog en onderbreek deur vensters: deur 'n drievoudige venster op die sentrale apsis en deur enkele vensters aan die sy -apsies.

Hierdie kerk het boonop ses kapelle. Op die grondvlak was daar twee kapelle voor die protese en die diakoniese. Ongewoon was daar ook klein dakkapelle aan die vier rande van die gebou: twee oor die westelike hoekpaaie van die naos, een oor die protese, en een oor die diakoniese. Uit een van hierdie kapelle is in die 20ste eeu 'n marmerikoon van die 10de eeu van Martelaar Eudokia van Heliopolis gevind.

Die messelwerk bestaan ​​uit afwisselende bakstene en klein klipblokke. Die stene sink in 'n dik mortelbed, soos tipies in die 10de-eeuse Bisantynse argitektuur. Aan die binnekant was die kerk versier met marmerpanele en gekleurde teëls, en die kelders was bedek met mosaïek. Uitstekend is die vensterblare, kroonlyste en korbels van die kerk, versier met verskillende motiewe (soos blare, palmette, rosette, fantastiese plante, kruise, poue en arende). Hierdie vorm wat is een van die mees uitstaande versamelings van Midde -Bisantynse beeldhouwerke in die stad.

Archivolt with the busts of the Apostles, from the Church of Theotokos Panachrantos of the Monastery of Constantine Lips (late 13th or early 14th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos (south church)

The Monastery of Lips was restored by Theodora, the widow of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, between 1281 and 1304. She had another church erected south of the existing church. Dedicated to Saint John the Forerunner, that church served as a mausoleum for the members of the Palaiologan dynasty, starting with Theodora herself.

The south church is a notable example of Palaiologan architecture. Its centerpiece is a simple square bay crowned by a dome. The central bay is surrounded on three sides by an ambulatory and further on the west by a narthex (originally domed). These spaces were filled with tombs. The ambulatory is lower than the domed core and the bema, providing access of light through triple windows on three sides of the central bay.

The walls and vaults of the church were covered with mosaics. The floor of the naos was paved in the opus sektiel technique. Die bema has a marble floor, which has been preserved.

On the three apses of the south church, niches and windows of various sizes can be seen. More attention gets the attractive brickwork of the apses. The bricks are arranged to form various interesting patterns, like arches, hooks, meanders, sun crosses, and fans. Between these patterns there are white bands of stone separated by two to five courses of bricks. Such decorations, showing the influence of the East, became common in the Late Byzantine architecture.

Exonarthex-parecclesion

In the early 14th century, in order to create space for additional burial sites, a long exonarthex was added to the two churches, together a with parecclesion of the south church. These were interconnected, forming a space that surrounds the complex on the west and south sides. The tombs were placed in the arcosolia, built along the outer walls of the structure. The façades of the exonarthex en die parecclesion closely follow the style of the two churches.

44-45. Rotunda and Church of Myrelaion

Aksaray Caddesi, Mesihpaşa Caddesi, Laleli Caddesi & Şair Haşmet Sokak, Laleli

We can distinguish two surviving structures in the Myrelaion complex: a rotunda (cistern) and a church (mosque).

44. Rotunda of Myrelaion

5th century converted into a cistern in early 10th century

In around 920, Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos bought a property in the Myrelaion neighbourhood of Constantinople. (Myrelaion means ‘place of myrrh’ in Greek.) His intention was to build here a new imperial residence, as a replacement of the Great Palace.

On the site that he acquired stood a giant rotunda from the 5th century. With its diameter of 41.8 m, it was the largest circular building in the city en die second largest in the ancient world (after the Pantheon of Rome, which measures 43.3 m). The identity and the original function of the rotunda is unclear. It has been suggested that it was the palace of the Theodosian princess Arcadia. Its sigma-shaped portico (destroyed) may be identified as the Amastrianon, which served as a market and a place for public executions in the Medieval period.

The rotunda was converted, possibly by Romanos himself, into a cistern. Its dome was destroyed, and its surface was levelled. The interior was filled with kolomme to support a vaulted system. This structure can be visited in the bazaar that it houses. The capitals of the columns are very beautiful, especially when considering their current surroundings.

On the surface of the cistern Romanos built the Palace of Myrelaion. It resembled a Roman corridor villa and was much smaller than the rotunda. Later he turned the palace into a nunnery and the substructure into a burial chapel. Almost nothing remains of the palace today.

In the 1960s, archaeologists discovered a fragment of a porphyry sculpture from the rotunda. It turned out to be the missing heel of the Portrait of the Tetrarchs, which had been stolen from Constantinople and brought to Venice during the Fourth Crusade (now displayed at a corner of the façade of St Mark’s Basilica). This statue probably originates from the Philadelphion, a square close-by, where the Mese branched in two, considered the physical centre, or the mesomphalos, of the city.

45. Church of Myrelaion

A church was attached to the Palace of Myrelaion. In 922, Theodora, the wife of Romanos, died and was buried here, followed in 931 by his eldest son and co-emperor Christopher. By burying his family in the Church of Myrelaion, Romanos broke a tradition that had started from Constantine the Great, whereby all the Byzantine emperors were supposed to be laid to rest in the Church of the Holy Apostles. In 948, Romanos himself was buried here. His example was followed by later Komnenian and Palaiologan emperors, who, too, preferred private burial churches.

The Church of Myrelaion is one of the first churches in the city with the cross-in-square plan, after the Nea Ekklesia of the Great Palace and the northern church of the Monastery of Lips.

The church has a naos surmounted by a dome with a fluted surface, forming the so-called umbrella dome, of die pumpkin dome. The cross arms of the naos are topped by groin vaults. Die naos was originally partitioned by four columns (replaced by piers in the Ottoman period). To the east is a sanctuary with three polygonal apses (the bema, die prothesis, en die diaconicon). To the west is a narthex with a dome on its central bay. Originally, the church also had an exonarthex, but that was replaced by a wooden portico in the Ottoman era. The mosaics and marble that decorated the interior have totally disappeared.

On the outside, unusual elements include semi-cylindrical buttresses, which create a flowing effect on the façades, and small rounded windows. Rare is also the fact that the masonry is entirely made of bricks.

In around 1500 the church was converted into a mosque and named after its substructure (‘bodrum’ means basement in Turkish).

46-47. Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

In the 9th and 10th century there was a monastery near the Cistern of Aetius on the Sixth Hill of Constantinople. It has been, for long time, identified as the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra, but there is no conclusive evidence to prove that. The structures today known as the Odalar Mosque, Kasım Ağa Mosque and İpek Bodrum Cistern were probably all part of that monastery, with the first being its katholikon, the second an annex, and the third its water source.

46. Katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Odalar Mosque
Müftu Sokaĝi 20-22, Karagümrük
First church – 9th or 10th century second church – mid- or late-12th century

Die eerste katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra was erected in the 9th or 10th century. It had a square plan with three apses. Under it was a basement composed of 24 vaulted rooms and a vaulted crypt with an apse. These spaces may have had a profane use before. These were later turned into a cistern.

The second church was built in the middle or at the end of the 12th century. It used 16 rooms of the basement of the old church as a substructure, and its floor was 3.3 m above that of the first church. The plan was cross-in-square, with the typical dome, four columns, tripartite naos and narthex. Atypical was the diaconicon, which was larger than the prothesis. The walls were build up of stone and bricks, the recessed-brick technique being used with the latter.

Several frescoes survive from the two churches, depicting the Theotokos Enthroned, the Deesis, the Prophets, the Life of Mary, and Saint Mercurius. Some are now in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

In 1475, when the Ottomans conquered the Genovese city of Caffa (today Feodosia) in Crimea, this neighbourhood was populated with Christian settlers. The church was given to the Dominicans, who had brought a large icon of the Hodegetria type with them and who dedicated the church to Saint Mary of Constantinople. By the beginning of the 16th century, the area had become predominantly Italian. Sultan Murad IV decided to move all the foreigners that were not Ottoman subjects to Galata and Pera, as a result of which, in 1636, the church was closed and, in 1640, turned into a mosque. The icon found its way to the Church of SS Peter and Paul in Galata. The mosque got its current name after 1782, when married Janissaries moved to the neighbourhood (with ‘oda’ meaning ‘room’ in Turkish). The building was destroyed in a fire in 1919 and has fallen in ruin since then.

47. Annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Kasım Ağa Mosque
Koza Sokak, Karagümrük
13th-15th century

This small building was probably an annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra. It was roughly square in plan, with a single nave preceded by an atrium in the north east and a projecting room in the east. It has no apse. Its masonry suggests that it was a Palaiologan structure, but also that there were different construction phases. It seems to have fallen in ruins by 1453, and a mosque was built in its place in 1460 or 1506.

48. Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae

Atik Mustafa Paşa Mosque / Hazreti Cabir Mosque
Çember Sokak, Ayvansaray
Mid-9th century 1059

For a long time it was thought that this church was dedicated to Saints Peter and Mark. It is more probable, however, that it is, instead, the Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae.

In the middle of the 9th century, Princess Thekla, a daughter of Emperor Theophilus (829-842), is known to have enlarged an oratory located some hundred meters east of the Church of the Saint Mary of Blachernae and dedicated it to her patron saint. Because the church displays many archaic elements it is sometimes suggested that it dates from that time. Examples of the archaic elements include the L-shaped piers, which form the internal side of the cross to support the dome, and simple, barrel-vaulted corner bays. If the church can be dated to this period, it would be the earliest surviving post-Iconoclast church and the first cross-in-square type of a church in the city.

It is known that in 1059, Isaac I Komnenos built a larger church around here, to commemorate his surviving a hunting accident. That church was famous for its frescoes and mosaics. Anna Komnene writes that her grandmother Anna Dalassene used to come here often to pray. It may be that the church as we see it today dates from this (or an even later) period.

The church is oriented to north-east and south-west. On the south-east side it has three polygonal apses. Originally the church looked much lighter than today, as the floor was 1.50 metres lower and the dome was taller and filled with windows. The dome was heavily damaged in the 1509 earthquake, after which the church was turned into a mosque. The current dome is from the Ottoman period, as are the roof, the cornice, and the porch. The windows were later thoroughly reworked. The interior was plastered over as well, including the early-15th-century frescoes depicting the Archangel Michael and Saints Cosmas and Damian.

The mosque is important for Muslims, because of the türbe attributed to a companion of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Eyüp), who fell during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674-678).

49. Church of Saint Mary of the Mongols

Tevkii Cafer Mektebi Sokak 1, Fener
Original church – 11th century narthex – 1281-1285 current modification – 18th century

This church stands near the Phanar Greek Orthodox College. Its earliest stage is the 11th century, when it was part of a male monastery dedicated to Theotokos Panagiotissa. Dit was n tetraconch church with a central dome. Each of the four sides of the central square were flanked with semicircular apses, each having three apsidioles. This type of a ground plan is uncommon in the area around Constantinople, but it is still not the only example: the Church of Panagia Kamariotissa on Heybeliada is also a tetraconch church.

The monastery was abandoned after the Fourth Crusade. In 1261 it was re-established by Isaac Doukas, uncle of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. The complex was renovated in 1266-1267. In 1281, it was renovated again by Maria Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Michael VIII, who established it as a nunnery. She added a three-bay narthex to the church and 33 cells, a bath, gardens, and vineyards for the nuns. Maria had been a consort of Abaqa Khan, the second ruler or the Mongol Il-khanate, from which the Greek name of the church, Panagia Mouchliotissa, derives.

This church is known in Turkish as Kanlı Kilise (the Bloody Church). The name comes from the fact that the last resistance of the Byzantines against the Ottomans took place on May 29, 1453 in its surroundings.

Tradition has it that Sultan Mehmed II gave the church to the mother of Atik Sinan, or Christodoulos, the Greek architect of the Fatih Mosque, in acknowledgment of his work. The grant was later confirmed by Sultan Bayezid II. Copies of the firmans ensuring its survival are still preserved inside the church. Even though there were some later attempts to convert the church into a mosque, the earlier grants prevented it from falling from the hands of the Greeks. That makes it the only church in Istanbul that has been continuously used by the Greek Orthodox Church.

The church was modified heavily in the 18th century. It lost its southern semi-dome and the southern bay of the narthex, over which three aisles were built. The only surviving Byzantine features are the eastern and northern apses and the two northern bays of the narthex.

The original interior of the church is gone as well. A mosaic icon of the Panagia Mouchliotissa is housed in the church, dating from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. The traces of the mural painting visible today, depicting the Last Judgment, originate from the post-Byzantine period.

50. Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes

Eski Imaret Mosque
Küçük Mektepli Sokak 11, Zeyrek
1085

This church was the katholikon of a monastery established by Anna Dalassene in around 1085. Dedicated to Christ the All-Seeing, it is unique in the Byzantine history in that, as far as it is known, no other monastery in the empire of all those dedicated to Christ ever bore this epithet. For Anna Dalassene, the monastery was a major symbol of his family’s struggle for supremacy, which had culminated in the accession to power of his son Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. As an extremely powerful woman and the mother of the Komnenoi, she was also called Pantepoptes by her descendants. She later retired in this monastery, where she died and was buried.

The church has a cross-in-square plan, with four vaulted crossarms. It has two narthexes: the esonarthex is original, while the exonarthex may be a Palaiologan addition, replacing an open portico. Over the narthex and the two western bays of the quincunx runs a gallery, probably built for the private use of Anna Dalassene. It was endowed with two rooms and possibly connected with outside structures. Chapels may have stood above the prothesis en diaconicon. Of the original interior nothing remains, except for some red marble around the doorways and some columns.

In the exterior, elements typical of Byzantine architecture under the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) co-exist with innovations which where to become commonplace in the Komnenian era (1081-1185). Die scalloped roofline of the 12-sided dome, for example, is typical of the Macedonian architecture, while the small recessed niches in the walls represent the Komnenian period.

This church is the oldest extant building in Istanbul where the use of the recessed-brick technique kan gesien word. This technique, a trademark of the middle-period Byzantine architecture, means the placement of a band of bricks in a way that it is slightly recessed, while placing another band, as usual, on the outer line of the wall. The recessed bricks are covered with mortar, which creates the alternation of red (brick) and light-coloured (mortar) bands on the walls. In the upper parts, stone is used.

The church is also notable for the use of cloisonné masonry, i.e dressed stones laid in regular courses and framed by bricks horizontally and vertically. This technique was typical in Greek architecture of the period (cf. the Byzantine churches of Athens ), but virtually unknown in Constantinople. Decorative motifs such as sunbursts, meanders and basket-weave patterns can be found on the façades. Dog-tooth frets decorate the cornices. Unique is also the brick-tiled roofing, as in Constantinople churches were normally roofed with lead.

After the conquest of 1453, the complex was known for the soup kitchen (imaret) it housed. The mosque that the church has been converted to is still called Eski İmaret Camii, or the Mosque of the Old Soup Kitchen.

51. Chapel of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora / Chapel of the Monastery of Kyra Martha

Manastır Mescidi (Monastery Mosque)
Turgut Özal Millet Caddesi & Karanfilli Çavuş Sokak, Topkapı
Late 11th century or the Palaiologan era

It has been speculated that this cute building, located near the Gate of Saint Romanos, was part of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora. Others have suggested that it was an annex of the Monastery of Kyra Martha. Its size indicates that it was a chapel within a monastery rather than its katholikon.

The original plan of the building is not known. The current structure has a single nave, a tripartite bema in the east and a vaulted narthex in the west. Two carved capitals separate the naos from the narthex. Foundations of columns have been found in the naos, which may suggest that it was originally a cross-in-square building. It may have also had an exonarthex, a chapel in the south (with its own narthexes on three sides), and an open portico.

52. Church of Hagia Theodosia / Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio / Church of Christos Euergetes

Gül Mosque
Vakıf Mektebi Sokak 16, Ayakapı
Late 11th or early 12th century

This church has traditionally been identified as the church of the Monastery of Hagia Theodosia. Theodosia was one of the nuns who gathered on January 19, 729 to prevent the removal of the icon of Christ which stood over the Chalke Gate at the Great Palace of Constantinople. She let the man executing the order given by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian to fall from the ladder, causing his death. She was captured and executed. After the end of Iconoclasm, Theodosia was recognised as a martyr, and she soon became one of the most venerated saints in Constantinople.

It has also been argued that the building was the Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio. Some suggest that the church was part of the Monastery of Christos Euergetes (Christ the Benefactor).

The church lies on a high vaulted basement, which gives it an impressive look. Its masonry shows the use of the technique of the recessed brick, which makes it probable that it dates from the late 11th or early 12th century. Another element that contributes to the credibility of this dating are its side apses, which consist of five niches divided into four tiers and decorated with ornamental brickwork and a cornice. This makes the church stylistically very similar to the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator, which was built between 1118 and 1136. The plainer central apse is probably a later Byzantine reconstruction.

The church has a cross-domed plan (cf. the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa). It is surmounted by five domes, one big in the centre and four smaller ones at the corners. The central dome, which has a low external drum and no windows, and the broad pointed arches that carry it are from the Ottoman period.

Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome was supported by piers, and not columns. The eastern piers are interesting because they contain both a small chamber. One of them may have contained the tomb of Saint Theodosia, but later also the tomb of the Ottoman saint Gül Baba according to some. (The more famous türbe of Gül Baba is located in the Rózsadomb neighbourhood in Budapest.) The inscription in Ottoman Turkish above the entrance (‘Tomb of the Apostle, disciple of Jesus, peace with him’), bears witness to the religious syncretism of the 16th-century Constantinople.

Another interesting elements is the upper gallery. It occupies three walls of the naos, running from the chapel located atop the prothesis to the one that lies above the diaconicon. It is possible that the gallery is a Palaiologan addition.

The church was turned into a mosque in around 1490. It became to be known as the Gül Mosque. That name may be explained by the presence of the tomb of Gül Baba or, more probably, by the fact that during the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 the church was adorned with garlands of roses (‘gül’ means ‘rose’ in Turkish). The night before, Emperor Constantine XI and Patriarch Athanasius II had participated at the feast of Saint Theodosia in the church and prayed for the city. The next morning, the Ottomans found many people still gathered in the church. They took them as prisoners of war, threw away the relics and cast the body of the saint to the dogs.

53.(-55.) Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Zeyrek Mosque
İbadethane Arkası Sokak, İbadethane Sokak & Fazilet Sokak, Zeyrek
1118-1136

In 1118, Empress Irene of Hungary founded a monastery dedicated to the Christ Pantocrator on an eastern slope of the Fourth Hill of Constantinople. To the north of its katholikon, Emperor John II Komnenos soon added another church, dedicated to the Theotokos Eleousa (Merciful Mother of God). He also built a large funerary chapel, dedicated to Archangel Michael, to connect the two churches. These three structures must have been completed by October 1136, when the typikon of the monastery, one of the very few surviving, was issued.

The monastery is special in that no other Byzantine church, only the Church of the Holy Apostles excluded, received as many imperial burials. Both John II and Irene were buried here (in 1143 and 1134, respectively), followed by Emperor Manuel I (1180) and Empress Bertha of Sulzbach (1159). The tradition continued in the Palaiologan era, when emperors Manuel II (1425) and John VIII (1448) were laid to rest here. Die typikon of the monastery describes the funerary chapel as a heroon, a term reserved for the mausoleum of Constantine the Great and his successors at the Church of the Holy Apostles, showing the imperial ambitions of the Komnenoi. The reputation of the monastery was further raised, when the icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria – the city’s most revered icon – was brought here.

The complex of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator is the second largest religious edifice built by the Byzantines still standing.

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Chapel of Archangel Michael (on the left) and Church of Theotokos Eleousa (north church on the right)

The churches are both typical examples of the Middle Byzantine architecture. They have a cross-in-square plan: a nine-bay naos, a central dome supported by four columns (changed in the Ottoman era), a tripartite bema, and a narthex. They both had a matroneum, or a women’s gallery, above the narthex. In the south church, the central bay of the matroneum is also covered by a dome. The north church has only one dome, which is oval.

The Chapel of Archangel Michael has two bays. It is possible that the bay on the east functioned as a liturgical area, while the one on the west was a funerary space. The both bays of the chapel are capped by an elliptical dome.

All the three structures have polygonal apses with windows and niches. The south church, which is larger, also has an exonarthex and a courtyard, which were added together with the north church and the chapel.

The masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. It is slightly sloppy, incorporating bricks of different sizes. This may be explained by the fact that the building material comes from a much older structure, as hinted by the many Early Byzantine brick stamps that have been found here.

Brickwork on the apses of the chapel and the north church

Brickwork on the apse of the chapel

The two churches and the chapel were richly decorated. The most beautiful decorative element that remains is the colourful opus sektiel vloer, covering the naos of the southern church. Motifs that are commonly found in imperial palaces can be seen here, such as birds of prey, fantastic beasts, and the wheel of the zodiac. Scenes from the life of Samson are also displayed. The floor is now, unfortunately, hidden under the carpet of the mosque.

Fragments of coloured glass have been found from the south church as well, suggesting the presence of stained-glass windows. The north church has intricate sculptural decorations, for example, on the capitals and cornices, which show traces of Armenian bole and gold leaf. Some traces of mosaics can also be found in the complex. Daar is ook spolia from the Church of Saint Polyeuctus.

Cornice and traces of mosaics in the north church

Capitals in the north church

Marble revetments in the south church

Volgens die typikon, the monastery complex included a 50-bed hospital, a home for 24 elderly men, a medical school, and a leprosarium.

It has been suggested that, during the Fourth Crusade, the treasury of the monastery was raided and its contents was carried off to Venice. It may be that some panels of the Pala d’Oro, now serving as the altar retable in Saint Mark’s Basilica in Venice, comes from the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. During the Latin occupation in 1204-1261, the monastery served as the Venetian headquarters of Constantinople.

54. Library of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Şeyh Süleyman Mosque
Zeyrek Caddesi 24, Zeyrek

The library of the monastery may have located 120 m south-west of the katholikon, in a building known today as the Şeyh Süleyman Mosque.

It is not clear when that building was constructed. It consists of a square substructure and a hexagonal superstructure with a dome supported by pendentives. The lower part is made of ashlar masonry, while in the upper part bricks are used. It is sometimes argued that it is a Palaiologan structure, but the masonry indicates that it is an older building. It may have been an Early Byzantine mausoleum. The pointed arches on the façade are part of an Ottoman renovation.

55. Pantocrator Cistern / Unkapanı Cistern

Atatürk Bulvarı, northeast of the katholikon
6th or early 12th century

The monastery was supplied with water by a number of cisterns. The largest of them covers an area of 18 m and 55 m. It is built inside a hill, and it has an exposed wall with a series of niches. According to some, its roots go back to the 6th century. The other cisterns here were built at the same time with the monastery.

56. Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos in Troullo

Hirami Ahmet Paşa Mosque
Koltukçu Sokak 4, Çarşamba
9th or 12th century

This small church dedicated to John the Baptist is located near the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos in the conservative Çarşamba neighbourhood of Istanbul. Its appellation ‘en to Troullo’ (‘trullus’ means ‘dome’ in Latin) may be related to the vicinity of a domed palace.

The church is usually dated to the 12th century. Dit is 'n cross-in-square church with a tripartite bema and a narthex. Four columns support an octagonal drum which bears the dome. The arms of the cross to the north and south are covered with barrel vaults. The central apse, which projects boldly outside, is opened by a large window, divided in three by two pillars with capitals. There are other tripartite windows that lit the interior.

Some date the church to the 9th century. This may be due to the unadorned semicircular apses en die circular drum of the dome, which were common in the provinces in the 9th and 10th centuries. Dit is waarskynlik dat die bema extended west in some period, to include the three eastern bays of the naos. Another factor that contributes to an earlier dating is the alternation of bands of ashlar and brick, which was typical in Constantinople from the 8th to the 10th century, but not thereafter, when the recessed-brick masonry dominated.

The church had primarily a funerary purpose. The narthex had at least four arcosolia. Nog twee arcosolia were located in the naos.

Since 1456 the church served as a convent for nuns who had been evicted from the nearby Church of Pammakaristos, which had been made the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople. It was converted into a mosque between 1587 and 1598. The mosque has no minaret.

57. Church of Hagios Theodoros in Karbounaria

Vefa Mosque / Molla Gürani Mosque
Tirendaz Sokak, Molla Şemsettin Cami Sokak & Divan Efendi Sokak, Vefa
Church proper – 11th or 12th century exonarthex – 13th or 14th century

This church, located in the Byzantine neighbourhood named after the coal market (karbounaria), is traditionally identified as the Church of Hagios Theodoros. It is a typical middle-Byzantine church. Dit het 'n cross-in-square plan. Its masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. The exterior has occasional decorative motifs, such as snake patterns. The apse is interrupted by windows and niches.

Several structures were added to the church in the Palaiologan era. The most important of them was the five-bay exonarthex. It has a bipartite façade. The lower part has triple arcades (originally open), while on the upper part there are windows framed by large semicircular blind arcades. The masonry consists of alternating courses of red bricks and white stones, especially remarkable on the north façade.

Die exonarthex has three domes. All of these were originally covered with mosaics, traces of which survive. The best preserved is the image of the Theotokos with Child Christ surrounded by eight prophets on one of the domes. Die exonarthex is further decorated with columns, capitals, and closure slabs – all reused material from the Early Byzantine period.

To the south-west corner of the church a belfry was added at the same time with the exonarthex. Similarly to the Chora Church, a two-storey annex on the north side can be found. Remains of underground cisterns have also been found under the south and west sides of the church, hinting to the existence of a monastery in the Byzantine period.

58. Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa

Kalenderhane Mosque
16 Mart Şehitleri Caddesi & Medrese Sokak, Vefa
1190s sanctuary – 6th-12th centuries

This church, constructed at the end of the 12th century, was most probably dedicated to Theotokos Kyriotissa (Enthroned Mother of God). It is one of the most impressive Middle Byzantine buildings in Istanbul.

Dit is 'n cross-domed church (like the church housing the Gül Mosque and Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki). The central bay of the naos is covered by a dome with the diameter of 8 m and with 16 ribs. Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome is supported by four massive piers instead of four slender columns as in a typical cross-in-square church. Deep barrel vaults form the side-arms of the cross. In the west, there is a narthex, which was originally surmounted by an upper gallery, like in the churches of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. 'N exonarthex was later added to the structure.

The interior is dominated by polychrome marble panels and mouldings. Only a third of these seen today are original. The rest is either secondary revetment or plaster imitating marble.

The masonry of the church is made of alternating layers of brick and stone.

The oldest parts of the church are the bema, die prothesis, en die diaconicon. Die prothesis is the apse of a church that was built on this site in the 6th century. That church may have been connected to a 4th- or 5th-century bathhouse. Die bema of the 12th-century church uses the apse from a church which was built in the 7th century south of the older church. Die diaconicon consists of two chapels, known as the Francis Chapel en Melismos Chapel, built in the Middle Byzantine period before the main church. The masonry of the Francis Chapel is similar to that of the northern church of the Monastery of Lips. The Melismos Chapel is made in the recessed-brick technique, which was common from the late 11th century on.

Die bema was home to a mosaïek representing the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. It probably comes from the earlier church and dates back to the 6th or 7th century, being the only surviving religious mosaic from the pre-Iconoclastic period in Constantinople, en die earliest surviving representation of the hypapante in Byzantine art.

Mosaic of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple from the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa (late 6th or early 7th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

The Francis Chapel housed a fresco cycle portraying the life of Saint Francis of Assisi. It is the oldest representation of the saint, painted only some years after his death, in the mid-13th century, when the church was being used by the Franciscans. The fresco cycle, too, can be found in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.

After the Fall of Constantinople the church was given by Sultan Mehmed II to the Kalenderi sect of dervishes, after whom today’s mosque is named.


Opus Sectile Flooring [Rosettes] - History

A reconstructed tile from the Second Temple.. (photo credit:ZACHI DVIRA/TEMPLE MOUNT SIFTING PROJECT)

For the first time since its destruction at the hands of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago, archaeologists announced on Tuesday that they have reconstructed several floor tiles from Jerusalem’s Second Temple’s courtyard.

According to Dr. Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Dvira, co-founders and co-directors of the Temple Mount Sifting Project, the reconstruction is unprecedented.

“This represents the first time that archaeologists have been able to successfully restore an element from the Herodian Second Temple complex,” said Dvira at an unveiling of the tiles at the project’s headquarters in Tzurim Valley National Park, located on the western slopes of Mount Scopus.

The regally-designed ancient tiles likely featured prominently in the courtyards of the holy Temple during King Herod’s reign between 37 to 4 BCE, added Barkay.

“It enables us to get an idea of the Temple’s incredible splendor,” he said.

The Temple Mount Sifting Project, supported by the City of David Foundation and the Israel Archaeology Foundation, was established in response to the illegal removal of tons of antiquities-rich earth from the Temple Mount by the Islamic Waqf in 1999.

It is run under the auspices of Bar-Ilan University and the Israel Parks & Nature Authority.

Frankie Snyder, a member of the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s team of researchers, and an expert in the study of ancient Herodian-style flooring, said they succeeded in restoring the ornate tile patterns using geometric principles, and through similarities found in tile design used by Herod at other sites.

“This type of flooring, called ‘opus sectile’ (Latin for ‘cut work’) is very expensive, and was considered to be far more prestigious than mosaic tiled floors,” said Snyder, who has an academic background in mathematics and Judaic Studies.

“So far, we have succeeded in restoring seven potential designs of the majestic flooring that decorated the buildings of the Temple Mount,” added Snyder, noting that there were no opus sectile floors in Israel prior to the time of King Herod.

“The tile segments were perfectly inlaid, such that one could not even insert a sharp blade between them,” he explained.

To date, approximately 600 colored stone floor tile segments have been uncovered, with more than 100 of them definitively dated to the Herodian Second Temple Period.

“This style of flooring is consistent with those found in Herod’s palaces at Masada, Herodian, and Jericho, among others – as well as in majestic palaces and villas in Italy, also attributed to the time of Herod,” said Snyder.

The tile segments – mostly imported from Rome, Asia Minor, Tunisia, and Egypt – were created from polished multicolored stones, cut in a variety of geometric shapes.

“A key characteristic of the Herodian tiles is their size, which corresponds to the Roman foot, approximately 29.6 cm,” noted Snyder.

The possibility that large expanses of the Temple Mount during the Second Temple Period were covered with opus sectile flooring was first raised in 2007 by archaeologist Assaf Avraham, director of the Jerusalem Walls National Park, with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

Avraham’s theory was based on a description given by the Romano-Jewish historian Josephus (1st Century CE), who wrote, “…the uncovered [Temple Mount courtyard] was completely paved with stones of various types and colors… (The Jewish War 5:2).”

Moreover, Talmudic literature records the meticulously-planned construction of the Temple Mount, describing rows of marble in different colors, including green, blue and white.

“Now, as a result of Frankie Snyder’s mathematical skills, we have succeeded in recreating the actual tile patterns,” said Barkay.

“Referring to the Temple that Herod built, the Talmud says that, ‘Whoever has not seen Herod’s building, has not seen a beautiful building in his life,’” he continued. “Though we have not merited seeing the Temple in its glory, with the discovery and restoration of these unique floor tiles, we are now able to have a deeper understanding and appreciation for the Second Temple, even through this one distinctive characteristic.”

Since the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s inception in 2004, more than 200,000 volunteers from around the world have taken part in the sifting, representing an unprecedented phenomenon in the realm of archaeological research.

The restored tiles will be presented to the general public on Thursday at the 17th Annual City of David Archaeological Conference.


Mus e de Beaux-Arts et d'Arch ologie de Vienne: bronze statue of Caius Julius Pacatianus (?) and an ivory jewel box in the foreground

The museums of Saint-Pierre and Saint-Romain-en-Gal are not the only ones at Vienne which show works of art of the Roman period. A limited number of relatively small exhibits are on display in a museum which was inaugurated in 1895 mainly to house paintings and faience. The statue of Pacatianus was found in 1874 broken into very many small pieces. Similar to that of the God of Coligny at Lyon it was reassembled. The head is clearly too small for the body, so either the fragments belonged to two statues or the head (which is less old than the body) replaced a previous one. A separate bronze inscription which was found in the same location suggested that the statue portrayed Caius Julius Pacatianus, a magistrate from Vienne who held many offices at the time of Emperor Septimius Severus and was the patron of Italica, but the inscription could refer to another statue.


Kyk die video: Byzantine Opus Sectile Floors in the Levant presented by Frankie Snyder