Tydlyn van Ilkhanate

Tydlyn van Ilkhanate


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Inhoud

Volgens die historikus Rashid-al-Din Hamadani het Kublai Khan Hulagu (Hülegü) die titel Ilkhan verleen ná sy nederlaag van Ariq Böke. Die term ilkhan beteken hier "khan van die stam, khan van die 'ulus'" en hierdie minderwaardige "khanship" verwys na die aanvanklike eerbied vir Möngke Khan en sy opvolger Great Khans van die Mongoolse ryk. Die titel "Ilkhan", gedra deur die afstammelinge van Hulagu en later ander Borjigin -vorste in Persië, kom eers na 1260 in die bronne voor. [10]

Oorsprong Redigeer

Toe Muhammad II van Khwarazm 'n kontingent handelaars tereggestel het wat deur die Mongole gestuur is, het Genghis Khan oorlog verklaar teen die Khwārazm-Shā-dinastie in 1219. Die Mongole het die ryk oorgeneem en die groot stede en bevolkingsentrums tussen 1219 en 1221 beset. die Mongoolse afdeling onder Jebe en Subutai, wat die gebied in puin gelaat het. Transoxiana het ook ná die inval onder Mongoolse beheer gekom. [11]

Mohammed se seun Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu keer terug na Iran in c. 1224 nadat hy na Indië gevlug het. Die mededingende Turkse state, wat alles van die ryk van sy vader was, het vinnig hul trou aan Jalal verklaar. Hy het die eerste Mongoolse poging om Sentraal -Persië in te neem, afgeweer. Jalal ad-Din is egter oorweldig en verpletter deur die leër van Chormaqan wat deur die Groot Khan Ögedei gestuur is in 1231. Tydens die Mongoolse ekspedisie het Azerbeidjan en die suidelike Persiese dinastieë in Fars en Kerman vrywillig aan die Mongole onderwerp en ingestem om hulde te bring. [12] In die weste is Hamadan en die res van Persië deur Chormaqan beveilig. Die Mongole val Armenië en Georgië in 1234 of 1236 binne, en voltooi die verowering van die Koninkryk Georgië in 1238. Hulle begin die volgende jaar die westelike dele van Groter Armenië, wat onder die Seljuks was, aanval. Teen 1237 het die Mongoolse Ryk die grootste deel van Persië (insluitend die huidige Azerbeidjan), Armenië, Georgië (uitgesluit Abbasid Irak en Ismaili vestings), sowel as die hele Afghanistan en Kasjmir, onderwerp. [13] Na die slag van Köse Dağ in 1243 het die Mongole onder Baiju Anatolië beset, terwyl die Seljuk -sultanaat Rûm en die Ryk van Trebizond vasale van die Mongole geword het. [14]

In 1236 het Ögedei beveel dat Groter Khorasan herstel moet word en die stad Herat herbevolk moet word. Die Mongoolse militêre goewerneurs het meestal kamp opgeslaan in die Mughan -vlakte in die huidige Azerbeidjan. Die heersers van Mosul en die Silisiese Armenië, wat die gevaar van die Mongole besef, het hulle aan die Groot Khan onderwerp. Chormaqan het die Transkaukasiese streek in drie distrikte verdeel op grond van die Mongoolse militêre hiërargie. [15] In Georgië is die bevolking tydelik in agt gewasse verdeel. [16] In 1244 het Güyük Khan ook opgehou om die inkomste uit distrikte in Persië in te samel en belastingvrystellings aan ander aangebied. [17] In ooreenstemming met 'n klag deur die goewerneur Arghun die Ouere (Arghun agha), is Möngke Khan verbied ortog-handelaars (Mongoolse gekontrakteerde Moslem-handelaars) [18] [19] en edeles van die misbruik van aflosstasies en burgerlikes in 1251. [20] Hy het 'n nuwe sensus beveel en besluit dat elke man in die Midde-Ooste wat onder beheer is, in verhouding moet betaal na sy eiendom. Persië was verdeel tussen vier distrikte onder Arghun. Möngke Khan verleen die Kartids-gesag oor Herat, Jam, Pushang (Fushanj), Ghor, Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Gharjistan, Farah, Sistan, Kabul, Tirah en Afghanistan. [21]

Hulagu Khan Edit

Hulagu Khan, derde seun van Tolui, kleinseun van Genghis Khan, en broer van beide Möngke Khan en Kublai Khan, was die eerste khan van die Ilkhanate. Onmiddellik na sy broer Möngke se toetreding as Groot -Khan in 1251, word Hulagu aangestel as administrateur van Noord -China, maar in die daaropvolgende jaar is Noord -China opgedra aan Kublai en Hulagu wat die Abbasid -kalifaat moes verower. Hy het 'n vyfde van die hele Mongoolse leër vir die veldtog gekry, en hy het sy seuns Abaqa en Yoshmut saamgeneem. Hulagu het ook baie Chinese geleerdes en sterrekundiges saamgeneem, van wie die beroemde Persiese sterrekundige Nasir al-Din al-Tusi geleer het oor die wyse van die Chinese berekeningstabelle. [22] 'n Sterrewag is op 'n heuwel van Maragheh gebou. Hulagu, wat in 1255 van Baiju oorgeneem het, vestig die Mongoolse bewind van Transoxiana na Sirië. Hy het die Nizari Ismaili -staat en die Abbasid -kalifaat onderskeidelik in 1256 en 1258 vernietig. In 1258 verklaar Hulagu homself Ilkhan (ondergeskikte khan). Daarna het hy tot in Gaza gevorder en in 1260 Ayyubid Sirië en Aleppo verower. Möngke se dood het Hulagu genoop om na Mongolië terug te keer om die kuriltai vir die volgende Groot Khan by te woon. Hy het 'n klein mag van ongeveer 10 000 agtergelaat in Palestina wat in die slag van Ain Jalut deur die Mamelukke van Egipte verslaan is. [23]

Weens die verdagte dood van drie Jochid -prinse in Hulagu se diens, verklaar Berke van die Golden Horde oorlog in 1262 aan Hulagu. Volgens Mammoet -historici het Hulagu Berke se troepe vermoor en geweier om sy oorlogs buit met Berke te deel. Berke soek 'n gesamentlike aanval met Baybars en sluit 'n alliansie met die Mamluks teen Hulagu. Die Golden Horde het die jong prins Nogai gestuur om die Ilkhanate binne te val, maar Hulagu dwing hom terug in 1262. Die leër van Ilkhanid het daarna die Terekrivier oorgesteek en 'n leë Jochid -kamp opgeslaan, net om in 'n verrassingsaanval deur Nogai se magte te lei. Baie van hulle het verdrink toe die ys op die bevrore Terekrivier gebreek het. [24] [25]

In 1262 gee Hulagu Groter Khorasan en Mazandaran aan Abaqa en die noorde van Azerbeidjan aan Yoshmut. Hulagu het self sy tyd as nomade in die suide van Azerbeidjan en Armenië deurgebring. Tydens sy vroeë bewind het die Ilkhanaat massa -opstand ondervind onder sy onderdane, met die uitsondering van die Seljukids en Artuqids in Anatolië en Mardin. Eers nadat Shams al-Din Juvayni na 1262 as vizier aangestel is, het dinge begin kalmeer en 'n meer volhoubare administrasie geïmplementeer. [26]

Hulagu het in Februarie 1265 siek geword na etlike dae van bankette en jag. Hy is op 8 Februarie oorlede en sy seun Abaqa het hom in die somer opgevolg. [26]

Middelperiode (1265–1291) Redigeer

By die toetreding van Abaqa het hy onmiddellik 'n inval deur Berke in die Golden Horde gekonfronteer, wat geëindig het met die dood van Berke in Tiflis. In 1270 verslaan Abaqa 'n inval deur Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq van die Chagatai Khanate. Abaqa se broer Tekuder het Bukhara as vergelding afgedank. In 1277 val die Mamluks Anatolië binne en verslaan die Mongole in die Slag van Elbistan. Abaqa het die plaaslike regent Mu'in-ad-Din Pervane tereggestel en deur die Mongoolse prins Qongqortai vervang. In 1281 stuur Abaqa Mongke Temur teen die Mamluks, maar ook hy word by Homs verslaan. [27]

Abaqa se dood in 1282 het 'n opvolgstryd veroorsaak tussen sy seun Arghun, ondersteun deur die Qara'unas, en sy broer Tekuder, ondersteun deur die Chinggisid -aristokrasie. Tekuder is deur die Chinggisids tot khan verkies. Tekuder was die eerste Moslemheerser van die Ilkhanate, maar hy het geen daadwerklike poging aangewend om sy koninkryk te bekeer of te bekeer nie. Hy het egter probeer om die Mongoolse politieke tradisies met Islamitiese te vervang, wat die steun van die weermag verloor het. Arghun gebruik sy godsdiens teen hom deur 'n beroep op nie-Moslems om ondersteuning. Toe Tekuder dit besef, het hy verskeie van Arghun se ondersteuners tereggestel en Arghun gevange geneem. Tekuder se pleegseun, Buaq, het Arghun bevry en Tekuder omvergewerp. Arghun is in Februarie 1286 deur Kublai Khan as Ilkhan bevestig. [27]

Tydens die bewind van Arghun het hy aktief probeer om die Moslem -invloed te bekamp, ​​en het hy geveg teen beide die Mamluks en die Moslem -Mongoolse emir Nawruz in Khorasan. Om sy veldtogte te befonds, het Arghun sy viziers Buqa en Sa'd-ud-dawla toegelaat om uitgawes te sentraliseer, maar dit was hoogs ongewild en het veroorsaak dat sy voormalige ondersteuners hom teen hom bekeer het. Beide viziers is dood en Arghun is in 1291 vermoor. [27]

Godsdienstige verskuiwing (1291–1316) Redigeer

Die Ilkhanate het begin verkrummel onder die bewind van die broer van Arghun, Gaykhatu. Die meerderheid Mongole het tot Islam bekeer terwyl die Mongoolse hof Boeddhisties gebly het. Gaykhatu moes die steun van sy volgelinge koop en het as gevolg hiervan die finansies van die ryk verwoes. Sy vizir Sadr-ud-Din Zanjani het probeer om die staatsfinansies te versterk deur papiergeld uit die Yuan-dinastie aan te neem, wat gruwelik geëindig het. Gaykhatu vervreem ook die Mongoolse ou garde met sy beweerde seksuele omgang met 'n seuntjie. Gaykhatu is in 1295 omvergewerp en vervang met sy neef Baydu. Baydu het minder as 'n jaar regeer voordat hy deur Gaykhatu se seun, Ghazan, omvergewerp is. [27]

Die afstammelinge van Hulagu regeer Persië vir die volgende tagtig jaar en verdra verskeie godsdienste, waaronder sjamanisme, Boeddhisme en Christendom, en neem uiteindelik Islam as 'n staatsgodsdiens aan in 1295. Ondanks hierdie bekering het die Ilkhans egter gekant gebly teen die Mamluks, wat verslaan het beide Mongoolse indringers en kruisvaarders. Die Ilkhans het verskeie invalle van Sirië geloods, maar kon nooit 'n aansienlike terrein kry teen die Mamluks nie, en uiteindelik moes hulle hul planne om Sirië te verower, saam met hul wurggreep oor hul vasale die Sultanaat van Rum en die Armeense koninkryk in die steek laat. Cilicia. Dit was grootliks te wyte aan die burgeroorlog in die Mongoolse Ryk en die vyandigheid van die khanate in die noorde en ooste. Die Chagatai Khanate in Moghulistan en die Golden Horde het die Ilkhanate in die Kaukasus en Transoxiana bedreig en uitbreiding weswaarts verhinder. Selfs onder die regering van Hulagu was die Ilkhanate in die Kaukasus met die Mongole in die Russiese steppe besig met 'n oop oorlog. Aan die ander kant was die China-gebaseerde Yuan-dinastie 'n bondgenoot van die Ikhanate en het dit ook dekades lank 'n nominale heerskappy oor laasgenoemde gehad (die keiser was ook Groot Khan). [28]

Ghazan bekeer hom tot Islam onder invloed van Nawrūz en maak van Islam die amptelike staatsgodsdiens. Christelike en Joodse onderdane het hul gelyke status verloor en moes die jizya beskermingsbelasting. Ghazan het Boeddhiste die sterkste keuse van bekering of uitsetting gegee en beveel dat hulle tempels vernietig moet word, alhoewel hy later hierdie erns verslap het. [29] Nadat Nawrūz in 1297 afgesit en vermoor is, het Ghazan godsdienstige onverdraagsaamheid strafbaar gemaak en probeer om die verhouding met nie-Moslems te herstel. [30] [31]

Wat buitelandse betrekkinge betref, het die bekering van die Ilkhanate tot Islam weinig tot geen invloed op sy vyandigheid teenoor ander Moslemstate nie, en konflik met die Mamelukke om beheer oor Sirië het voortgeduur. Die Slag van Wadi al-Khazandar, die enigste groot oorwinning deur die Mongole oor die Mamluks, het 'n paar maande laasgenoemde se beheer oor Sirië beëindig. Die beleid van Ghazan het grotendeels onder sy broer Öljeitü voortgegaan ondanks voorstelle dat hy die Shi'a-handelsmerk van Islam sou kon begunstig nadat hy onder die invloed van die Sjia-teoloë Al-Hilli en Maitham Al Bahrani gekom het. [32]

Öljeitü, wat as 'n baba in die Christendom gedoop is, het met Boeddhisme geflirt, 'n Hanafi -Sunni geword, hoewel hy steeds 'n mate van sjamanisme behou het. In 1309-10 word hy 'n Sjiïtiese Moslem. [33] 'n Armeense skrywer in 1304 merk op die dood van "welwillend en regverdig" Ghazan, wat opgevolg is deur Khar-Banda Öljeitü "wat ook 'n goeie wil aan almal betoon." 'N Kolofoon uit 1306 berig die bekering van Mongole tot Islam en "hulle dwing almal tot bekering tot hul ydele en valse hoop. Hulle vervolg, hulle molesteer en pynig," insluitend "die kruis en die kerk beledig". [34] Sommige van die Boeddhiste wat Ghazan se aanvalle oorleef het, het 'n onsuksesvolle poging aangewend om Öljeitü terug in Dharma te bring, wat toon dat hulle meer as 50 jaar aktief was in die koninkryk. [35]

Die bekering van Mongole was aanvanklik 'n redelik oppervlakkige aangeleentheid. Die vestigingsproses van Islam het nie skielik plaasgevind nie. Öljeitü se historikus Qāshāni skryf dat Qutlugh-Shah, nadat hy geduld verloor het met 'n geskil tussen Hanafis en Shafi'is, sy mening uitgespreek het dat Islam verlaat moet word en Mongole moet terugkeer na die manier van Genghis Khan. Qāshani het ook gesê dat Öljeitü in werklikheid vir 'n kort tydjie teruggekeer het. As Moslems het Mongole 'n duidelike voorkeur vir soefisme getoon by meesters soos Safi-ad-din Ardabili wat gereeld met respek en guns behandel word. [36]

Desintegrasie (1316–1357) Redigeer

Öljaitü se seun, die laaste Ilkhan Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, is in 1316 bekroon. Hy het in 1318 te kampe gehad met rebellie deur die Chagatayids en Qara'unas in Khorasan, en 'n inval deur die Golden Horde op dieselfde tyd. 'N Anatoliese emir, Irenchin, het ook in opstand gekom. Irenchin is verpletter deur Chupan van die Taichiud in die Slag van Zanjan-Rud op 13 Julie 1319. Onder die invloed van Chupan het die Ilkhanate vrede gesluit met die Chagatais, wat hulle gehelp het om die Chagatayid-opstand en die Mamluks te verpletter. In 1327 vervang Abu-Sai Chupan met 'Big' Hasan. [37] Hasan word daarvan beskuldig dat hy probeer het om die khan te vermoor en in 1332 in ballingskap na Anatolië gebring het. Die nie-Mongoolse emirs Sharaf-ud-Din Mahmud-Shah en Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad kry ongekende militêre gesag, wat die Mongoolse emirs ontstel het. . In die 1330's het die uitbarstings van die Swart Dood die Ilkhanaat verwoes en Abu-Sai'd en sy seuns is teen 1335 deur die plaag doodgemaak. [38] Ghiyas-ud-Din het 'n afstammeling van Ariq Böke, Arpa Ke'un, op die troon geplaas, wat 'n opeenvolging van kortstondige khans veroorsaak het totdat "Little" Hasan Azerbeidjan in 1338 ingeneem het. In 1357 het Jani Beg of the Golden Horde het Tabriz in besit van Chupanid vir 'n jaar verower en 'n einde gemaak aan die oorblyfsel van Ilkhanate. [39]

Die howe van Wes -Europa het in die 13de en 14de eeu baie pogings aangewend om 'n alliansie met die Mongole, veral met die Ilkhanaat, te sluit, vanaf ongeveer die tyd van die sewende kruistog (Wes -Europeërs is gesamentlik Franken genoem deur Moslems en Asiërs in die tydperk van die kruistogte). Verenig in hul opposisie teen die Moslems (hoofsaaklik die Mamluks), was die Ilkhanate en die Europeërs nietemin in staat om hul magte teen hul gemeenskaplike vyand bevredigend te kombineer. [40]

In teenstelling met die Chinese Yuan-dinastie, wat die inheemse bevolking uitgesluit het om beheer oor hoë ampte te verkry, het die Ilkhanate hul koninkryk regeer deur 'n Sentraal-Asiaties-Persiese ("Tajik") administrasie in vennootskap met Turco-Mongoolse militêre offisiere. Nie alle Persiese administrateurs was Moslems of lede van die tradisionele gesinne wat die Seljuqs en Khwarazmians bedien het nie (byvoorbeeld die Juvayni -familie). Byvoorbeeld, die Ilkhanate-vizier van 1288 tot 1291 was Sa'd al-Dawla, 'n Jood, terwyl die prominente visier en historikus Rashid-al-Din Hamadani 'n Joodse bekeerling van Islam was. [41]

Die Ilkhanate Mongole het nomadies in hul lewenswyse gebly tot aan die einde van die dinastie. Hul nomadiese roetes het sentraal Irak, Noordwes -Iran, Azerbeidjan en Armenië beslaan. Die Mongole het Irak, die Kaukasus en die westelike en suidelike Iran direk toegedien, met die uitsondering van Georgië, die Artuqid -sultan van Mardin, en Kufa en Luristan. Die Qara'unas -Mongole het Khorasan as 'n outonome koninkryk regeer en nie belasting betaal nie. Herat se plaaslike Kart -dinastie het ook outonoom gebly. Anatolië was die rykste provinsie van die Ilkhanate en het 'n kwart van sy inkomste gelewer, terwyl Irak en Diyarbakir saam ongeveer 35 persent van sy inkomste gelewer het. [42]

In 1330 het die anneksasie van Abchazië gelei tot die hereniging van die Koninkryk Georgië. Hulde wat die Il-Khans uit Georgië ontvang het, het egter tussen 1336 en 1350 ongeveer driekwart gesink weens oorloë en hongersnood. [43]

Die opkoms van die Ilkhanaat het 'n belangrike historiese impak in die Midde -Ooste gehad. Die totstandkoming van die verenigde Mongoolse Ryk het handel en handel in Asië aansienlik verlig. Die kommunikasie tussen die Ilkhanate en die Yuan -dinastie met sy hoofkwartier in China het hierdie ontwikkeling aangemoedig. [44] [45] Die draakklere van die keiserlike China is deur die Ilkhanids gebruik, die Chinese Huangdi (keiser) -titel is deur die Ilkhanids gebruik as gevolg van 'n groot invloed op die Mongole van die Chinese politiekstelsel. Seëls met Chinese karakters is deur die Ilkhanids self geskep, behalwe die seëls wat hulle van die Yuan -dinastie ontvang het, wat verwysings na 'n Chinese regeringsorganisasie bevat. [46]

Die Ilkhanate het ook gehelp om die weg te baan vir die latere Safavid -dinastiese staat, en uiteindelik die moderne land Iran. Hulagu se verowerings het Iran ook vir Chinese invloed uit die ooste oopgemaak. Dit, tesame met die beskerming van sy opvolgers, sal Iran se kenmerkende uitnemendheid in argitektuur ontwikkel. Onder die Ilkhans het Iraanse historici ook oorgegaan van skryf in Arabies na skryf in hul moedertaal. [47]

Die beginsels van dubbele boekhouding is in die Ilkhanate-merdiban beoefen, wat toe deur die Ottomaanse Ryk aangeneem is. Hierdie ontwikkelings was onafhanklik van die rekeningkundige praktyke wat in Europa gebruik is. [48] ​​Hierdie rekeningkundige stelsel is hoofsaaklik aangeneem as gevolg van sosio-ekonomiese noodsaaklikhede wat deur die landbou- en fiskale hervormings van Ghazan Khan in 1295-1304 geskep is.

Ilkhan as 'n stamtitel in die 19de/20ste eeu Iran Edit

Die titel Ilkhan het in die 19de eeu weer onder die Qashqai -nomades van Suid -Iran verskyn. Jan Mohammad Khan het dit vanaf 1818/19 begin gebruik, en al die volgende Qashqai -leiers het dit voortgesit. Die laaste Ilkhan was Nasir Khan, wat in 1954 in ballingskap gedryf is ná sy ondersteuning van Mossadeq. Toe hy terugkeer tydens die Islamitiese Revolusie in 1979, kon hy nie sy vorige posisie herwin nie en sterf hy in 1984 as die laaste Ilkhan van die Qashqai. [49]

Ilkhanate, Lampas met feniks, sy en goud, Iran of Irak, 14de eeu.


Eers Ilkhan

Die werklike stigter van die Ilkhanate -dinastie was Hulagu Khan, kleinseun van Genghis Khan en broer van beide Möngke Khan en Kublai Khan. Möngke het hom gestuur om 'n stewige Toluid -beheer oor die Midde -Ooste te vestig, en beveel hom om terug te keer na Mongolië toe sy taak voltooi is. [12] Nadat hy in 1255 of 1256 van Baiju oorgeneem het, is hy daarvan beskuldig dat hy die Moslem -koninkryke in die weste onderwerp het "tot by die grense van Egipte." Hierdie besetting het daartoe gelei dat die Turkmeens weswaarts na Anatolië verhuis het om van die Mongoolse stamme te ontsnap. Hy vestig sy dinastie oor die suidwestelike deel van die Mongoolse Ryk wat strek van Transoxiana tot Sirië. Hy het die Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins en die Abbasid -kalifaat onderskeidelik in 1256 en 1258 vernietig. Daarna het hy tot by Gasa gevorder en Ayyubid-Sirië kort verower.

Möngke se dood het Hulagu gedwing om uit die Persiese hartland terug te keer vir die voorbereiding van Khuriltai (keuse van 'n nuwe leier). Hy het 'n klein mag agtergelaat om die Mongoolse opmars voort te sit, maar dit is in 1260 in Palestina gestaak deur 'n groot nederlaag tydens die slag van Ain Jalut in die hande van die Mamluks van Egipte. As gevolg van geo-politieke en godsdienstige kwessies en die dood van drie Jochid-prinse in diens van Hulagu, verklaar Berke in 1262 'n oop oorlog teen Hulagu en roep moontlik sy troepe terug in Iran. Volgens Mammoet -historici sou Hulagu Berke se troepe vermoor het en geweier het om sy oorlogs buit met Berke te deel.

Die Yuan -dinastie in die ooste het 'n vriendskaplike verhouding gehad en het 'n nominale heerskappy oor die Ilkhanaat gehad tot die val van die laasgenoemde in die 1330's. [13] [14] Die afstammelinge van Hulagu regeer die volgende tagtig jaar in Persië en verdra verskeie godsdienste, waaronder sjamanisme, Boeddhisme en Christendom, en aanvaar uiteindelik Islam as 'n staatsgodsdiens in 1295. Ten spyte van hierdie bekering, bly die Ilkhans egter gekant teen die Mamluks (wat sowel Mongoolse indringers as kruisvaarders verslaan het). Die Ilkhans het verskeie invalle van Sirië geloods, maar kon nooit 'n aansienlike terrein kry teen die Mamluks nie, en uiteindelik moes hulle hul planne om Sirië te verower, prysgee, tesame met hul wurggreep oor hul vasale die Sultanaat van Rum en die Armeense koninkryk in Cilicia. Dit was grootliks te wyte aan die burgeroorlog in die Mongoolse Ryk en die vyandigheid van die khanate in die noorde en ooste. Die Chagatai Khanate in Moghulistan en die Golden Horde het die Ilkhanate in die Kaukasus en Transoxiana bedreig en uitbreiding weswaarts verhinder. Selfs onder die regering van Hulagu was die Ilkhanate in die Kaukasus met die Mongole in die Russiese steppe besig met 'n oop oorlog.

Hulagu het baie Chinese geleerdes, sterrekundiges en die beroemde Persiese sterrekundige Nasir al-Din al-Tusi saam met hom geleer oor die wyse van die Chinese berekeningstabelle. [15] Die sterrewag is op 'n heuwel van Maragheh gebou.


Iran-Irak oorlog

1980 22 September - Begin van die oorlog tussen Iran en Irak, wat agt jaar duur.

1981 Januarie - Die Amerikaanse gyselaars word vrygelaat en eindig 444 dae in gevangenskap.

1981 Junie - President Bani -Sadr word ontslaan en vlug later na Frankryk.

1985 - Nadat die VSA en die Sowjetunie wapenvoorraad gestaak het, het die VSA probeer om die vrylating van gyselaars in Libanon te wen deur geheime wapentransaksies aan te bied. Dit sou later bekend staan ​​as die Iran-Contra-aangeleentheid.

1988 Julie - 'n Iran Air Airbus word per ongeluk deur die USS Vincennes neergeskiet.


Die Ilkhanaat word Christelik (Nestoriaans of ortodoks) in plaas van Moslem.

Ek sou dus sê dat die beste manier om die Ilkhanate 'n Christen te wees, is om met hul 6de Khan, Baydu, te begin. Baydu het baie uiterlike simpatie met die Christendom gehad, kruise gedra en toegelaat dat Christelike kerke gebou word. Sy heerskappy was egter baie kort, in totaal iewers ongeveer 'n half jaar, totdat hy in 'n burgeroorlog omvergewerp is teen sy neef Ghazan, wat hom volkome tot Islam bekeer het. In die maande voor die burgeroorlog is Baydu aangespoor om van Ghazan ontslae te raak, maar hy het geweier om dit uit familiêre band te doen (hulle was neefs).

Laat ons dus in die alt -tydlyn na Baydu luister na die mense wat hom vertel om van Ghazan ontslae te raak. Baydu laat Ghazan en sy seuns vermoor, wat sy heerskappy oor die Khanate versterk.

Die Ilkhanaat het lankal 'n bondgenootskap met Christelike heersers in die weste begeer om teen hul gemeenskaplike vyande te veg, naamlik die Mamluks van Egipte. Dit het egter nooit werklik gebeur nie, aangesien die Katolieke heersers in die weste geëis het dat die mongole tot Katolisisme sou oorgaan en die Mongole self huldeblyk en onderdanigheid sou eis.

As ons sê dat hulle 'n kompromis bereik, stem Baydu in om amptelik tot die Kerk van die Ooste te bekeer, maar bied vryheid van aanbidding aan alle Christene en beperk dit nie tot proselitisering en pelgrimstogte nie. In ruil daarvoor sweer die laaste oorblyfsels van die kruisvaarderstate vir hom trou en bring hulde. Baydu stem in en neem 'n lid van die Lusignan -dinastie as vrou.

Dit is alles net 'n paar jaar na die val van Akker, en die negende en in ons tydlyn het die laaste kruistog net 20 jaar tevore plaasgevind. op aandrang van die Lusignan -konings van Ciprus roep pous Boniface VIII 'n nuwe kruistog.

King Phillip the Fair of France sluit aan by die kruistog op voorwaarde dat sy skulde aan die Tempeliers afgewys word. Die Tempeliers stem slegs in tot hierdie voorwaardes as die kruistog suksesvol was. Dit was dieselfde skuld wat daartoe gelei het dat Phillip die Tempeliersorde in ons tydlyn vernietig het.

die koninkryk van Frankryk en die Ilkhanate stem in tot 'n plan wat dekades tevore deur Phillips -oupa Saint Louis voorgestel is, Franse magte val Egipte self aan terwyl die Ilkhanate deur Sirië binnedring en die Mamlukiese magte op twee maniere verdeel. Laat ons dus sê dat die twee aanslae suksesvol is, en dat 'n nuwe katolieke kruisvaarderstaat in Egipte tot stand kom terwyl die Ilkhanaat beheer oor die Levant en Sirië neem. Die koning van Ciprus sweer trou aan Baydu, terwyl die nuwe Katolieke koninkryk Egipte jaarliks ​​hulde bring, maar nominaal onafhanklik is.

So waar gaan ons van hier af? Die mense wat deur die Ilkhanate beheer word, is nog steeds grootliks Moslem. Baydu sit 'n geruime tyd voort met die Mongoolse tradisie van godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid, maar dit bevoordeel die Kerk van die Ooste baie, stel stadig belasting op nie -Christelike bevolking in, terwyl hulle nuwe kerke bou en sendingwerk van die Kerk van die Ooste bevorder. Oor dekades het die bevolking stadig oorgegaan tot die Christendom en versprei hulle na Tabriz se hoofstad Ilkhanate.

Hierdie Ilkhanaat gaan op hierdie stadium redelik onstabiel wees; baie oosterse heersers onder die Ilkhanaat sal nie veral daarvan hou om onder 'n Christen te wees nie, wat ek dink in die daaropvolgende dekades iewers 'n burgeroorlog sou veroorsaak. Net soos in ons tydlyn, verval die Ilkhanaat geleidelik in 'n burgeroorlog en verbrokkel dit in talle state, Christene in die westelike gebiede en Islamitiese in die Ooste.

So, wat sou die uitvloeisel wees van die Christen van die Ilkhanaat? In die eerste plek bestaan ​​die nasie Turkye moontlik nie soos ons dit ken nie. Die Sultans of Rum het in ons tydlyn onder die Ilkhanate uitgesterf en in talle Beyliks verbrokkel. 'N Christelike Ilkhan sou Turkse Moslems waarskynlik nie toelaat om hulself te regeer nie, dus sou daar waarskynlik Christelike goewerneurs van die gebied aangestel word, en dit sou Armeniërs wees, aangesien die Armeense koninkryk Cilicië al jare lank 'n vasaal van die Ilkhanaat was. Die hedendaagse Anatolië is in hierdie tydlyn baie meer Armeens as Turks.

Daarbenewens het die Bisantynse Ryk moontlik nie in hierdie tydlyn geval nie, want sonder 'n sterk Turkse Anatolië is daar geen Ottomane nie. Die gebrek aan die Ottomane verander soveel geskiedenis dat ek 'n boek daaroor kon skryf en nog steeds nie alles kon kry nie. Aangesien ek hier 'n volle geskiedenis met 'n lewende Bisantium en Armeense Anatolië gaan, sal ek voortgaan.

Assiriërs sou baie beter vaar in hierdie tydlyn as ons s'n, aangesien hulle reeds die Nestoriaanse Christendom beoefen het. Ek kon sien hoe die leiers van die Ilkhanate en die opvolgstaat die Assiriese kultuur aanneem saam met hul godsdiens, net soos hoe die Seljuks meer en meer Persies geword het ná hul verowering. Daar kan 'n groot Assiriese nasie wees in die huidige Irak en Koeweit. Die hel van die Assiriese staat kan tot vandag toe 'n dinastie uit Mongoolse oorsprong hê. 'N Borjigin -assiriese dinastie wat in Bagdad regeer, klink gek. Sou hulle dit selfs Bagdad noem? Miskien herdoop dit na Babilonië of iets.

Ek het geen idee wat die Levant in hierdie tydlyn sou wou hê nie. Om te begin twyfel ek daaraan dat die Christen -nasies in Europa tot die skepping van Israel sou ingestem het as dit Christene sou verplaas, miskien deel uitmaak van die groter Assiriese staat van voor, of 'n nuwe kultuur wat aspekte van Assiries, Mongools, Arabies versmelt. en die Latynse kultuur kan ontstaan.

Ek is nie seker Egipte sal katoliek bly nie. Ek weet nie wat die etniese en godsdienstige samestelling van Egipte was tydens die teoretiese verowering in hierdie tydlyn nie. Ek weet egter dat die Mamlukiese regering van Egipte baie bekerings van Koptes gedwing het. Aangesien in hierdie tydlyn Mamluk-heerskappy oor Egipte slegs ongeveer 40-50 jaar geduur het, sou daar 'n veel groter aantal Koptes in Egipte wees. Miskien word die kruisvaarder -hoër klas omvergewerp deur hul Koptiese onderdane, of neem hulle Koptiese styl en kultuur aan om hul heerskappy oor die land te vergemaklik.

Oos -Persië en Indië is 'n ander verhaal. Met Christelike nasies in die weste sou Timur dalk nie soveel verower as in ons tydlyn nie, sonder 'n sterk Timuridiese ryk is daar moontlik nie 'n Mughal -ryk nie, wat Indië laat regeer deur verskillende onafhanklike prinse/sultans tot kolonisasie.

Die Tempeliers -orde is nog steeds beskikbaar, nie dat hulle veel doen nie. Hulle sou 'n soortgelyke rol speel as die Knights Hospitaler, ook bekend as die Orde van Malta. Ek kon sien dat die Tempeliers tot die hervorming as 'n soort bank in Rome optree. As ons van Malta praat, word die eiland nooit in ons tydlyn aan die orde gegee nie, aangesien daar geen Ottomane is nie.

Samevattend, as die Ilkhanate dit reggekry het om suksesvol tot die Christendom oor te skakel, verander die hele geskiedenis van die streek dramaties. wat lei tot sterk onafhanklike Armeense en Assiriese state.


Disintegrasie

In die 1330's het uitbrake van die Swart Dood die Ilkhanate-ryk verwoes; Die laaste il-khan Abu Sa'id en sy seuns is deur die plaag doodgemaak. [21]

In 1330 het die anneksasie van Abchazië gelei tot die hereniging van die Koninkryk Georgië. Hulde wat die Il-Khans uit Georgië ontvang het, het egter tussen 1336 en 1350 met ongeveer driekwart gesink weens oorloë en hongersnood. [22] Ook Anatoliese Beyliks bevry van Ilkhanate suzerenaity. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Na die dood van Abu Sa'id in 1335, het die Ilkhanate vinnig begin ontbind en verdeel in verskeie mededingende opvolgerstate, veral die Jalayirids. Hasar se afstammeling Togha Temür, wat die laaste van die obskure Ilkhan -pretenders was, is in 1353 deur Sarbadars vermoor. Timur het later 'n staat uit die Jalayirids gesny, oënskynlik om die ou khanaat te herstel. Die historikus Rashid-al-Din Hamadani het ongeveer 1315 'n universele geskiedenis vir die khans geskryf wat baie materiaal vir hul geskiedenis bied. In 1357 verower die Golden Horde die Tabriz wat in Chobanid gehou is, vir 'n jaar, en maak 'n einde aan die laaste hoop vir die terugkeer van die Ilkhanate. Na die afsterwe van Ilkhanate het die Armeense koninkryk Cilicië die Mongoolse beskerming teen Mamluks verloor en in 1375 deur hulle vernietig.


Nalatenskap

Geskiedenis van die Mongole
Voor Genghis Khan
Khamag Mongool
Mongoolse Ryk
Khanates
- Chagatai Khanate
- Golden Horde
- Ilkhanate
- Yuan -dinastie
Noord -Yuan
Timuridiese Ryk
Mughal -ryk
Krim Khanate
Khanate van Sibir
Nogai Horde
Astrakhan Khanate
Kazan Khanate
Zunghar Khanate
Mongolië tydens Qing
Buiten-Mongolië (1911-1919)
Republiek van China (besetting van Mongolië)
Mongoolse Volksrepubliek (Buiten -Mongolië)
Moderne Mongolië
Mengjiang (Binne -Mongolië)
Volksrepubliek China (Binne -Mongolië)
Republiek van Burjatië
Kalmyk Republiek
Hazara Mongole
Aimak Mongole
Tydlyn
redigeer boks

BCE
Voorgeskiedenis
Proto-Elamitiese beskawing 3200–2800
Elamitiese dinastieë 2800–550
Bactria-Margiana-kompleks 2200–1700
Koninkryk van Mannai 10de – 7de en#160 sent.
Mediaan Ryk 728–550
Achaemenidiese Ryk 550–330
Seleukiede Ryk 330–150
Grieks-Baktriese koninkryk 250-125
Partiese Ryk 248 – CE 𧇠
CE
Kushan Ryk 30–275
Sassanidiese Ryk 224–651
Heftalitiese Ryk 425–557
Kaboel Shahi koninkryk 565–879
Patriargale kalifaat 637–651
Umayyad kalifaat 661–750
Abbasidiese kalifaat 750–1258
Tahirid -dinastie 821–873
Alavid -dinastie 864–928
Saffarid -dinastie 861–1003
Samanid -dinastie 819–999
Ziyarid -dinastie 928–1043
Buyid -dinastie 934–1055
Ghaznavid Ryk 975–1187
Ghurid -dinastie 1149–1212
Seljuq -ryk 1037–1194
Khwarazmian -dinastie 1077–1231
Ilkhanate 1256–353
Kartids -dinastie 1231–389
Muzaffarid -dinastie 1314–1393
Chupanid -dinastie 1337–1357
Jalayerid -dinastie 1339–1432
Timuridiese Ryk 1370–1506
Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468
Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans 1378–1508
Safavid Ryk 1501–1722
Mughal -ryk 1526–1857
Hotaki -dinastie 1722–1729
Afsharid -dinastie 1736–1750
Zand -dinastie 1750–1794
Durrani -ryk 1794–1826
Qajar -dinastie 1794–1925

Die opkoms van Ilkhanate het 'n belangrike impak in hierdie streek gehad. Die Mongoolse Ryk het die handel en handel in Asië aansienlik verlig. Die kommunikasie tussen Ilkhanate en die Yuan -dinastie met sy hoofkwartier in China het hierdie ontwikkeling aangemoedig. [20] [21]

Die Ilkhanate het ook gehelp om die weg te baan vir die latere Safavid -dinastiese staat, en uiteindelik die moderne land Iran. Hulagu se verowerings het Iran ook vir Chinese invloed uit die ooste oopgemaak. Dit, tesame met die beskerming van sy opvolgers, sal Iran se kenmerkende uitnemendheid in argitektuur ontwikkel. Onder die Il Khans het Iraanse historici ook oorgegaan van skryf in Arabies, na skryf in Persies. [22]

Die basiese beginsels van dubbele inskrywing is in die Ilkhanate-merdiban uitgevoer, wat toe deur die Ottomaanse ryk aangeneem is. Hierdie ontwikkelings was onafhanklik van die rekeningkundige praktyke wat in Europa gebruik is. [23] Hierdie rekeningkundige stelsel is hoofsaaklik geskep uit sosio-ekonomiese noodsaaklikhede wat veroorsaak is deur landbou- en fiskale hervormings van Ghazan Khan in 1295-1304.


Die Republiek van Turkye is 'n parlementêre demokrasie. All Turkish citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote.

The head of state is the president, currently Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The prime minister is head of government Binali Yıldırımis the current prime minister. Since 2007, presidents of Turkey are directly elected, and the president appoints the prime minister.

Turkey has a unicameral (one house) legislature, called the Grand National Assembly or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi, with 550 directly elected members. Parliament members serve four-year terms.

The judicial branch of government in Turkey is rather complicated. It includes the Constitutional Court, the Yargitay or High Court of Appeals, the Council of State (Danistay), the Sayistay or Court of Accounts, and military courts.

Although the overwhelming majority of Turkish citizens are Muslims, the Turkish state is staunchly secular. The non-religious nature of Turkish government has historically been enforced by the military since the Republic of Turkey was founded as a secular state in 1923 by General Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.


Ilkhanate Timeline - History

4200 BC : Susa is founded in western Persia
3100 BC : Tables in proto-Elamite script
2700 BC : a first dynasty creates the Elamite kingdom (non Semitic) in western Persia with capital in Susa
2350 BC : The Akkadians conquer Susa
2180 BC : the Akkadian empire is destroyed by the Guti, who invade from the north, and the Elamites of Susa regain their independence
2007 BC : the Elamites of Susa capture Ur
2000 BC : the game of chess ("shatranj") develops in Persia
1340 BC : King Untash-Napirisha of Elam founds a new capital at Chogha Zanbil
836 BC : Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria, defeats the Medes, who rule in Persia
722 BC : Dayaukku/De oces founds the Median dynasty
710 BC : Daiukku founds the new capital of the Medians/Persians at Hakmataneh/Ecbatana (Hamadan)
700 BC : Achaemenes founds the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia in Anshan, subject to Media
675 BC : Khshathrita/ Phraortes unites the Median tribes and expels the Assyrians from northeastern Iran
653 BC : the Scythians invade the Median empire (northeast Persia)
646 BC : king Ashurbanipal of Assyria raids the Elamite capital Susa in Persia
626 BC : the Medians/Persians defeat the Scythians
625 BC : Median king Cyaxares moves the capital to Ecbatana (Hamadan)
615 BC : the Medes capture Assyrian cities
612 BC : the Babylonians, led by king Nabopolassar, and their allies the Medes, led by Cyaxares, destroy the Assyrian capital of Nineveh (as well as Nimrud) and split the Assyrian empire (Mesopotamia to Babylon and Elam to Media) while Egypt recovers control of Palestine and Syria
600 BC : Zarathustra forms a new religion in Persia
559 BC : Cyrus Achaemenian unifies Elam, and moves the capital of the Achaemenids to Susa
550 BC : Cyrus Achaemenian defeats Astyages, emperor of the Medes, conquers its capital Ecbatana (Hamadan), and unifies Media and Elam in the Persian empire
546 BC : Cyrus overthrows Croesus of Lydia
539 BC : Cyrus of Persia sacks Babylon and frees the Jews
530 BC : Cambyses becomes king of Persia
525 BC : Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium
522 BC : Cambyses dies and civil War erupts in Persia
521 BC : Darius becomes king of Persia and divides Persia into satrapies
521 BC : Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River
518 BC : Darius founds the new capital of Persia, Persepolis
514 BC : the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia
500 BC : Darius makes Aramaic the official language of the Persian empire
499 BC : Ionian cities revolt against Persian domination
498 BC : Ionian cities helped by Athens sack Sardis but are beaten at the Battle of Ephesus
492 BC : Darius of Persia attacks Thrace and Macedonia but the fleet is destroyed by a storm before it can reach Athens
490 BC : Darius invades mainland Greece to punish Athens but loses at the battle of Marathon
486 BC : The satrapy of Egypt and Judah revolt
485 BC : Darius dies and Xerxes becomes king of Persia
480 BC : Xerses, king of Persia, invades Greece and wins the battle of Thermopylae, but is defeated at the naval battle of Salamis because the Greeks employ the faster trireme boats
479 BC : The Greeks defeat the Persians at the battle of Plataea and expel the Persians from Europe
465 BC : Artaxerxes I Longimanus becomes king of Persia
424 BC : Xerxes II becomes king of Persia
404 BC : Artaxerxes II Mnemon becomes king of Persia and loses Egypt
358 BC : Artaxerxes III Ochus becomes king of Persia
343 BC : Artaxerxes III destroys Sidon that has revolted and invades Egypt
336 BC : Darius Codomannus becomes king of Persia
334 BC : Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles
333 BC : Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine
331 BC : Alexander the Great conquers Persia and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty
329 BC : Artaxerxes V dies, last of the Achaemenians
323 BC : Alexander the Great dies at Babylon and his empire is carved into three empires: Cassander rules over Greece and Macedonia, Lysimachus rules over Thracia and Asia Minor, Ptolemy rules over Egypt, Judea, Syria, Mesopotamia and India
312 BC : Ptolemy's general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, declares himself satrap of Babylon
305 BC : Seleucus Nicator establishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty with capital in Seleucia (Iraq)
303 BC : Seleucus grants Punjab and Afghanistan to Chandragupta Maurya
282 BC : Seleucus defeats and kills Lysimachus and thereby conquers Asia Minor
281 BC : Seleucus is murdered by the king of Thracia and is succeeded by his son Antiochus who transfers the capital to Antiochia
250 BC : Diodotos, a Macedonian ruler of the satrapy of Bactria (Afghanistan), declares its independence from the Seleucids
250 BC : the Parni invade the satrapy of Parthia (northern Iran) and found the Parthian empire with capital in Ctesiphon (near Seleucia) and Arsaces as ruler (founder of the Arsacid dynasty)
248 BC : Tiridates leads the Parthians to independence from the Seleucids
246 BC : defeated by Ptolemy III Euergetes, the Seleucid empire loses eastern lands to the Parthians and to Pergamum
239 BC : Bactria declares independence from the Seleucids
198 BC : the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine and Phoenicia from the Ptolemaics
192 BC : the Seleucids under Antiochus III are defeated by the Romans in Thracia
190 BC : Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia
188 BC : Pergamum conquers the Seleucid lands of Lydia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pisidia
185 BC : Parthians under Priapatius expand into Seleucid eastern Iran
175 BC : Mithraism (an offshoot of Zoroastrianism that worships Ahura Mazda as the sole and creator god) is born in Bactria
170 BC : Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
155 BC : Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India
145 BC : the Kushan (Yuezhi), nomadic tribes expelled from China by the Hsiungnu (Huns), overthrow the kingdom of Bactria and pushes the Scythians south to Iran and India
141 BC : the Parthians of Mithradates I conquer Media and Elam from the Seleucids, while Edessa becomes de-facto independent
135 BC : the Kushan establish their capital in Kabul
127 BC : the Parthians under Phraates II are defeated by the Scythians
126 BC : the Parthians under Artabanus II conquer Babylonia from the Seleucids, who now control only Syria
124 BC : the Parthians under Artabanus II are defeated again by the Scythians and Mithridates II succeeds Artabanus II as king of Parthia
53 BC : the Parthians led by Orodes II defeat the Romans at Carrhae (Syria)
20 BC : a treaty between Rome and the Parthians fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river (Iraq)
78 AD : Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism instead of Zoroastrianism
116 : Roman emperor Trajan defeats the Parthian king Vologezes III and conquers Mesopotamia, including the Parthian capital Ctesiphon
224 : Ardashir, descendant of the priest Sassan, seizes the throne of Persia/Parthia, ends the Arsacid dynasty, and becomes the first Sassanid king with capital in Istakhr (near Persepolis) and Zoroastrianism as the official religion
225 : Ardashir I Sassanid defeats Artabanus V, last Parthian ruler, and moves the capital to Ctesiphon
233 : Ardashir I Sassanid conquers Kushan
244 : Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Rome
250 : Shahpur I establishes the library of Jondi Shahpur, one of the largest in the world
256 : the Persians/Sassanids conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia
241 : Mani, a thinker from Ecbatana, begins to preach in Seleucia-Ctesiphon
276 : Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion ("manicheism")
298 : the Sassanids sign a peace treaty with Rome
363 : the Sassanid king Shapur II defeats the Roman emperor Julian and recapture Nisibis and Armenia
379 : Shapur II died after conquering Arabia and reaching the border with China
451 : Zoroastran Persia (Sassanids) defeats Christian Armenia
460 : Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews, who emigrate to Arabia
484 : Zoroastran Persia and Christian Armenia sign a treaty that allows the Armenians to keep their religion
528 : the Sassanid intellectual Mazdak advocates the abolition of private property, the division of wealth, nonviolence and vegetarianism
531 : Khusro I ascends to the Sassanid throne and is influenced by Mazdakism
560 : the Sassanid king Khusro I builds the Palace of the Great Arch in Ctsiphon
579 : the Sassanid king Khusro I dies and is succeeded by Khusro II
590 : the Sassanid king Khusro II launches a new attack against Byzantium
600 : the Zoroastrian high priest Tanar establishes the canon of the Avesta
614 : the Sassanids capture Jerusalem from Byzantium
619 : the Sassanids capture Egypt from Byzantium
623 : Byzantine troops destroy the fire temples of Persia (in revenge for the Persian desecration of Jerusalem)
626 : the Sassanids besiege Byzantium
627 : the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh
628 : Khusrau II is assassinated by his troops while the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids
632 : the Sassanid queen Purandokht signs a peace treaty with Byzantium
636 : the Arabs capture Ctesiphon, the last Sassanid is assassinated in Merv and the Sassanid empire ends
600 : Steel is invented in Iran (Persia)
600 : Steel is invented in Iran (Persia)
630 : Seven emperors are raised to the throne of Iran in four years
632 : Abu Bakr, one of Mohammed's followers and the first Muslim caliph ("prophet's successor"), quells upheavals throughout Arabia and declares war on the Roman and Persian (Sassanid) empires
650 : the Arabs conquer the whole of Persia
697 : the Arabs force the Persians to abandon the Pahlavi alphabet in favor of the Arabic script
720 : the Zayids do not recognize the imam Baqir and cause a split within the shiites
749 : Abu 'l-'Abbas Saffah, whose army is led by the Persian general Abu Muslim Khorasani, replaces the Umayyad dynasty with the Abbasid dynasty
840 : Sibovayh, a Persian scholar, codifies the Arabic grammar and writes the first Arabic dictionary
850 : the Persian mathematician Khwarazmi founds Algebra and invents the Arabix numerals
867 : the Saffarids (shiite) in eastern Persia become virtually independent
879 : the Safarid ruler Yaqub Leys revolts against the Arabs and unifies most of Persia
899 : the Samanids defeat the Saffarids and expand their empire to Persia but adopt the Persian language
945 : the Buyids (shiite) descend from the Caspian Sea, and invade Abbasid Persia
949 : Adud Dawla of the Buyid dynasty adopts the Persian imperial title shah
950 : Pahlavi, the language of Persia, is reformed according to the Arabic script
962 : the Ghaznavid kingdom is founded in Afghanistan (at Ghazni) by Alp-tegin, a Turkic slave soldier of the Samanids
977 : the Buyid shah Adud Dawla conquers Baghdad and seizes effective control of the caliphate from the Abbasids
977 : Sebaktigin, king of the Ghaznavid kingdom, invades northern India and Central Asia
999 : the Ghaznavids of Afghanistan defeat the Samanids of Persia in Khurasan and the Qarakhanids seize Bukhara
1030 : Mahmud Ghazni dies and the Ghaznavid empire declines
1038 : the Seljuks, led by Toghrul Beg, defeat the Ghaznavids near Merv and invade Persia, moving their capital to Isfahan
1055 : the Seljuks defeats the Buyids, invade Mesopotamia and install themselves in Baghdad under the suzerainty of the Abbasids
1091 : the Seljuqs move their capital to Baghdad
1092 : Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia (Rum)
1118 : Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia
1153 : the Khwarazmis conquer Persia from the Seljuqs
1194 : the last Persian Seljuq ruler dies and Seljuq power collapses in Iran
1220 : the Mongols invade Transoxania (Bukhara and Samarkand) and Iran/Persia
1258 : the Mongols destroy the Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad (killing 800,000 people including the last Abbasid caliph), conquer Persia, Mesopotamia and Syria and establishing an Ilkhanate with capital in Baghdad
1260 : the Mamluks stop the Mongols in Syria and annex Syria
1263 : the Mongol leader Hulegu assumes the title of "Ilkhan" as ruler of Persia
1274 : the Persian astronomer Nasir Al-Din Tusi builds the Maraghah observatory
1294 : Kublai Khan dies and the empire fragments in khanates, one of them being the Ilkhanate, descendants of Hulegu, with capital in Tabriz
1295 : Ghazan, the Ilkhan, converts to Shia Islam, and the Ilkhanate becomes a sultanate
1301 : Shaykh Safi al-Din, of Kurdish descent, founder of the Safavid dynasty, founds a Sunni Sufi order in Uzbekistan, the Safaviyya
1334 : Sadr al-Din, Safi's son, claims to be a descendant of the founder of Islam, Mohammed
1335 : Abu Said dies and the Ilkhanate disintegrates
1365 : the turkic-speaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran (Persia), the old Ilkhanate, establishing his capital in Samarkand
1351 : the turkic-speaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty establishes itself over northwestern Iran
1365 : the turkic-speaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran (Persia), the old Ilkhanate, establishing his capital in Samarkand
1406 : the turkic-speaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty moves its capital to Tabriz
1413 : Timur's empire begins to disintegrate
1447 : the turkic-speaking Qara Quyunlu under Jahanshah conquer Shiraz
1447 : The Safaviyya master Shaykh Junayd transforms the Sufi order into a military movement and fights Christians in Georgia and Trebizond
1469 : The Turkic-speaking Aq Quyunlu dynasty takes control of most of Persia from the Timurids
1500 : The Shaybanid dynasty seizes Transoxania
1501 : Shah Ismail I (a 14-year old boy from the northwest who claims to be the hidden imam, a descendant of the seventh imam, a reincarnation of Khird, the mahdi and the spirit of Jesus and even assimilates legends from Buddhism and Zoroastrianism) founds the Safavid dynasty and declares Twelveer Shiism as the state religion persecuting Sunni Muslims
1502 : Ismail I conquers Tabriz
1509 : Ismail I conquers Baghdad, massacres Sunni Muslims and imposes Shia Islam on the Safavid empire
1510 : Ismail I conquers Herat
1514 : The Ottomans of Selim I defeat Shah Ismail I Safavid army at Chaldiran (Iran/Persia) thereby conquering Kurdistan and Armenia
1514 : Portugal conquers the port of Comorao (Bandar Abbas) to control trade in the Persian Gulf
1515 : Portugal conquers the port of Hormuz to control trade in the Persian Gulf
1524 : Ismail dies having united Iran/Persia and most of Afghanistan
1534 : the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Safavids, helped by a popular insurrection of the Sunnis, but the Safavids survive in eastern Iran, Azerbajan and the southern Caucasus
1555 : the Ottoman empire conquers Mesopotamia from the Safavid empire with the Peace of Amasya
1587 : Safavid king Shah Abbas I creates a gunpowder-based military force with a slave army and economic revival
1597 : Safavid king Shah Abbas I moves the capital to Isfahan
1598 : Collapse of the Shaybanid dynasty in Transoxania, replaced by the Astrakhanid dynasty
1614 : The Safavids conquer Comorao (Bandar Abbas) from Portugal
1616 : The English East India Company acquires rights to trade freely in Iran
1622 : The Safavids take Hormuz from the Portuguese with help from the British
1623 : The Safavids capture Baghdad from the Ottomans and begin a 16-year war
1629 : The great mosque of Isfahan is completed
1638 : the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Safavids
1639 : The Ottomans and the Safavids sign the Treaty of Zuhab that returns Mesopotamia to the Ottomans and gives the Caucasus to Iran
1642 : Safavid ruler Abbas dies and is succeeded by Abbas II that continues his construction projects
1656 : Safavid ruler Abbas II orders the forced conversion of Jews
1666 : Isfahan has 162 mosques, 48 colleges, 182 caravansaries, 273 public baths
1722 : Mahmoud Khan, an Afghan chieftain, revolts against the Safavids, invades Iran/Persia and captures Isfahan, thus ending the Safavid dynasty
1723 : Russia invades Iran from the north (Baku) and the Ottomans invade from the west
1725 : Mahmoud Khan of Persia is murdered by his cousin Ashraf
1725 : The Ottomans conquer Tabriz, Armenia and Georgia from Iran
1729 : Iranian/Persian general Nadir Kuli of northeastern Iran expels the Afghans and reinstates the Safavids to power
1735 : Nadir's Persian army defeats the Ottomans and regains Armenia, Georgia and Tabriz
1736 : The last Safavid dies and Nadir proclaims himself the new shah of Iran/Persia
1739 : Iranian/Persian general Nadir Shah invades India and sacks Delhi, stealing the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-noor diamond
1740 : The Astrakhanid dynasty collapses and Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan are absorbed into Iran/Persia
1747 : Nadir Shah is assassinated and Iran/Persia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan disintegrate
1747 : Ahmad Shah Duran, the Afghan commander of Nadir's bodyguard, proclaims himself the ruler of Afghanistan with capital in Kandahar and founds the Durrani dynasty
1750 : Karim Khan of the Zand tribe wins the civil war in Iran/Persia and establishes the Zand dynasty
1779 : Agha Mohammad Qajar of a Turkic tribe (a former slave who had been castrated) defeats the Zand and creates his own kingdom with capital in Tehran
1785 : The Astrakhanid dynasty is replaced by the Mangit dynasty in Bukhara
1794 : Agha Mohammad Qajar conquers all of Iran/Persia
1796 : Agha Mohammad Qajar crowns himself shah, thus terminating the Zand dynasty and founding the Qajar dynasty, and unifies Iran/Persia, Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan with farsi as the official language and Shiite Islam as the official religion
1797 : Agha Mohammad Qajar is murdered by his servants and succeeded by his nephew Fath Ali, who suppresses the Sufi order in Iran
1804 : Russia and Iran go to war over the Caucasus
1808 : France helps Iran train a new army
1813 : Iran loses the war against Russia and recognizes Russian rule over Georgia and Azerbajan (Treaty of Gulistan)
1814 : Britain and Iran ally at the Treaty of London
1823 : Ottoman Empire and Iran sign a peace treaty defining their borders
1828 : Iran (Persia) loses the Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) to Russian (Treaty of Turkmanchay)
1834 : Fath Ali dies and his grandson Muhammad, with help from Britain and Russia, becomes shah of Iran and appoints his Sufi master Hajji Mirza Aqasi as prime minister, thus rehabilitating Sufism against the opposition of the ulema
1839 : Massacre of Jews in Meshed (Iran)
1844 : Sayyid Ali Muhammad proclaims himself to be the Bab (and later the Mahdi), the manifestation of the 12th imam and starts a new religion
1847 : Iran and the Ottomans sign the treaty of Erzurum
1848 : Muhammad dies and the 16-years old prince Nasir al-Din becomes shah of Iran with help from Britain
1849 : Shaykh Murtada/Morteza Ansari is recognized as the spiritual leader of all Shiites, the first time that religious leadership is concentrated in one person
1850 : The Bab is executed
1852 : Babists try to assassinate the shah and are massacred throughout Iran, they move to Ottoman Palestine and found the Baha'i faith
1856 : Britain defeats Iran at Herat in Afghanistan
1867 : Massacre of Jews in Barfurush (Iran)
1868 : Russia conquers Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan
1869 : Two million people die in Iran in three years of famine
1872 : Iran grants Baron DeReuter railway monopoly, mining rights and control of customs revenues
1879 : Britain invades Afghanistan which becomes, de facto, a British colony
1881 : Persia loses Turkmenistan to Russia
1889 : Pan-Islamic activist Jaman al-Din al-Afghani returns to Iran from the Ottoman land
1890 : Iran grants Britain a monopoly on tobacco but the population rises in protest
1896 : Nasir al-Din is assassinated by a follower of Jaman al-Din al-Afghani and Muzaffar al-Din becomes the new Iranian shah
1897 : Iran opens the first public school for girls
1905 : Constitutional revolution in Iran
Dec 1906 : The first democratically elected parliament in Iran approves a parliamentary constitution and appoints Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh as leader of the parliament
Jan 1907 : Muzaffar dies and his pro-Russian son Muhammad Ali becomes the new shah of Iran
1907 : Britain and Russia sign a treaty (Convention of St Petersburg) dividing Iran, Central Asia and Afghanistan into respective spheres of influence
May 1908 : The first oil well is drilled in the Middle East (Iran) by a British company
Jun 1908 : The shah Muhammad Ali crushes an insurrection with help from Russia and suspends the constitution
1909 : Britain organizes the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company to exploit the Iranian oil fields
Jul 1909 : A revolution led by Najaf Quli Khan deposes the shah and restores the constitution
Feb 1911 : Two Russian hitmen kill Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh
1911 : Russia invades the northern provinces of Iran and forces Iran to dissolve parliament and to restore the power of the shah
1915 : Refineries are constructed at Abadan
1918 : The first public school for girls opens in Iran
1919 : An Anglo-Iranian treaty turns Iran into a de-facto protectorate of Britain
1919 : Afghanistan gains independence from Britain
Feb 1921 : Cossack general Reza Khan seizes power in Iran with a coup and becomes war minister
1922 : Iran hires the US economist Arthur Millspaugh to run its finances
1925 : Reza Khan appoints himself as Shah of Persia, the Qajar dynasty ends and the Pahlavi dynasty begins, with a program of economic and cultural Westernization with a secular educational system
1927 : Iran opens a national bank under German management
1928 : Iran introduces a law code that replaces Islamic shariia
1929 : Iran's population is about 12 million and Tehran has about 250,000 people
1930 : The first Iranian-made film
1933 : Zahir Shah becomes king of Afghanistan
1935 : Reza changes Persia's name to Iran
1935 : Tehran University is founded
1936 : Iran bans the Islamic veil for women
1938 : A railway opens connecting the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf
1939 : Over 40% of Iran's foreign trade is with Germany
1940 : The Middle East produces only 5% of the world's oil
Aug 1941 : The 20-year old Reza Shah Pahlevi ascends to the throne of Iran when his father is deposed by British and Soviet troops for refusing to expel the many German advisors, and Iran becomes the main transit point for supplies going to the Soviet Union
Sep 1943 : Iran declares war on Germany
1946 : Britain and the Soviet Union withdraw from Iran
1951 : Mohammad Mossadegh becomes prime minister of Iran and nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company
1953 : the USA's and the British secret services engineer a coup to remove Iran's prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh, and the USA replaces Britain as the main player in the Middle East
1955 : Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Britain sign the Baghdad Pact that de facto asserts British influence in the Middle Eastagainst the Soviet Union
1956 : Iran has 20 million people
1960 : Oil developing countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela) found the OPEC
1962 : the shah Reza Pahlevi of Iran introduces a series of reforms (including women's suffrage) called "white revolution"
1963 : Iran begins an economic recovery during which GDP per capite will increase fives times in 15 years
1972 : The price of oil is $3 per barrel, double the price of 1970
Dec 1973 : The price of oil reaches $11.65 per barrel, almost four times what it was a year earlier
1973 : Iran cancels DeReuter's concessions under pressure from the religious establishment
1975 : The shah bans all political parties except the Iranian People's Resurence Party of prime minister Hoveyda
1976 : Iran has 34 million people
1977 : There are more university students from Iran than any other nationality in the USA
Jan 1978 : An anti-Khomeini article causes widespread anti-government demonstrations during which dozens of people are killed by the police
Feb 1978 : Riots erupt in Tabriz (Iran)
Aug 1978 : More than 420 people are killed when Islamists set fire to a movie theater in Abadan
Dec 1978 : One million people demonstrate in Tehran against the shah
Jan 1979 : The shah Reza Pahlevi leaves Iran
Feb 1979 : Iran becomes a theocratic republic led by the ayatollah Khomeini with a strong anti-USA posture ("Islamic Revolution") and strict Islamic laws (girls can legally be forced into marriage at the age of 13)
1980 : Iraq (Saddam Hussein) attacks Iran (Khomeini)
1980 : Iran's fertility rate is 6.5
1980 : Two women are elected to Iran's parliament
1981 : Ali Khamenei is appointed president of Iran
1982 : the Hezbollah is founded by a radical shiite group with the mission of creating an Iranian-style Islamic republic in Lebanon
1983 : Iraq uses chemical weapons against Iranian troops
1985 : Hezbollah suicide commandos organized by Iran blow up the US and French barracks killing 241 marines and 58 French soldiers
1985 : Husain Ali Montazeri and Hashimi Rafsanjani compete for power in Iran's parliament
1988 : a missile fired by a US warship downs an Iranian civilian airplane and kills all 290 passengers aboard
1988 : terrorists backed by Libya blow up a Pan Am plane over Scotland killing 259 people probably on behalf of Iran
1988 : the war between Iraq and Iran that has cost about one million lives ends with no winner
Jun 1989 : Khomeini dies and is replaced by Khamenei as supreme leader, while Rafsanjani wins the presidency over Montazeri
1989 : GDP increases 7% yearly on average through the mid 1990s
1992 : Riots against the regime
1992 : Iranian agents kill Sadegh Sharafkandi, the leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran, in Berlin, Germany
1992 : The border with Turkmenistan reopens after 70 years
1995 : The population of Iran is 61 million
1997 : Mohammad Khatami, a reformist, is elected president of Iran, but the ayatollahs still control the army
1997 : Iranian cleric Hoseyn Ali Montazeri criticizes Ali Khameini's dictatorship and is placed under house arrest
Apr 1997 : Iranian intelligence agents murder four Iranian Kurds in Germany
1998 : The Iranian Tunneling Association is founded in Iran
1999 : A raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and right-wing vigilantes triggers student riots
1999 : a raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and right-wing vigilantes triggers student riots
2000 : Iranian reformist leader Saeed Hajjarian is almost killed in an assassination attempt
2002 : The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a secret underground nuclear plant at Natanz
2002 : Qassem Suleimani is appointed to lead the al-Quds force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards
2003 : Abdolmalek Rigi founds the Sunni terrorist group Jundullah to fight against the Iranian regime
2003 : students demonstrate in Teheran against the Iranian regime, helped by USA-based television stations and by radio stations run by Iranian exiles
2004 : A train accident kills 295 people in Iran
2004 : Iran's ayatollahs outlaw most of the opposition candidates so that parliamentary elections are won by the conservative party
2004 : Iran is accused by the USA of trying to build a nuclear weapon and accepts to stop enriching uranium
2004 : Qassem Suleimani's al-Quds funds and arms the Shiite militias in Iraq like the Mahdi Army to fight the USA
2005 : The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a network of tunnels to connect 14 secret nuclear weapon sites
2005 : Anti-USA conservative politician Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (a former member of the Revolutionary Guard) wins presidential elections in Iran, refuses to dismantle Iran's nuclear program and calls for the destruction of Israel
2005 : Russia sells "defense" missiles to Iran
Mar 2006 : Sunni militants kill 22 people in Iran's Baluchi region
2006 : the Sunni group Jundullah kills 21 members of the security forces on a highway outside Zahedan, Iran
Feb 2007 : Sunni militants kill 11 people in Iran's Baluchi region
2007 : the USA accuses Iran of helping insurgents kill USA soldiers in Iraq
Mar 2008 : Iran's Suleimani helps arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and the Mahdi Army
Dec 2008 : A suicide bomber of the anti-Iranian group Jundaliah kills four people in Iran
May 2009 : Iran blames the Sunni group Jundullah for a suicide attack on a mosque of Zahedan that kills 25 people
Jun 2009 : supporters of opposition leader Mir Hossein Moussavi protest against rigged elections in Iran won by incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Aug 2009 : Show trials of opposition leaders are broadcast live on television in Iran in the biggest purge since the founding of the Islamic Republic
Sep 2009 : The USA, Britain and France discover that Iran has built a secret uranium-enrichment facility near Qum
Oct 2009 : 42 people including several members of Iran's Revolutionary Guards are killed in a suicide bombing in the Baluchi region by Sunni group Jundallah
Jan 2010 : Iranian physicist Massoud Ali Mohammadi is assassinated
Sep 2010 : A bomb kills ten people in northwest Iran
Nov 2010 : Iranian nuclear scientist Majid Shahriari is killed and Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is wounded
Dec 2010 : Two suicide bombers of the Sunni Muslim group Jundollah kill 35 people in southeastern Iran during a Shiite ceremony in retaliation for the execution of the group's leader
Feb 2011 : Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is appointed to lead Iran's nuclear program
Jul 2011 : About two thirds of Iraq's counterterrorism missions are aimed at Iranian-backed militias
Sep 2011 : Iran's first nuclear plant goes into operation
Sep 2011 : Russia and China are the only countries to support Syria's crackdown on dissidents while even Syria's ally Iran distances itself from Assad's regime
Oct 2011 : The USA foils a plot by the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the USA and to bomb the embassy of Saudi Arabia in the USA
Nov 2011 : An explosion kills Hassan Moqqadam, the head of Iran's missile program
Dec 2011 : The Iranian rial drops to its lowest level ever against the dollar due to increased sanctions by the USA
Jan 2012 : Iranian nuclear scientist Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan is assassinated
Dec 2012 : Marziyeh Vahid Dastjerdi, the only female minister in 30 years of Iran's Islamic republic, is removed from office after a dispute with president Ahmadinejad
2012 : Qasem Soleimani leads Iran's efforts to help Assad of Syria against the rebels
Jun 2013 : Hassan Rouhani is elected president of Iran but real power remains in the hands of ayatollah Ali Khameini
Sep 2013 : For the first time since 1979 the president of the USA and the president of Iran speak on the phone
Oct 2013 : Sunni rebels kill 14 Iranian guards on the border with Pakistan and Iran retaliates by hanging 16 prisoners
2013 : Iran's fertility rate is 1.9
Apr 2015 : Iran signs a nuclear deal with the world powers
Apr 2015 : Sunni rebeles of Jaish-ul Adl kill 8 Iranian border guards
Jul 2015 : Iran signs a deal limiting its nuclear program in return for the United Nations to remove economic sanctions
Aug 2015 : Oil prices fall below $40 a barrel for first time since 2009
Feb 2016 : The first train to connect China and Iran takes 14 days through Kazakstan and Turkmenistan
Feb 2016 : Reformists allied with Rouhani make huge gains in the Assembly of Experts
Jun 2017 : ISIS's first attacks in Iran kill 12 people at Tehran's parliament and Khomeini mausoleum
Nov 2017 : Iranian dissident Ahmad Mola Nissi is assassinated in the Netherlands
Jun 2018 : Police in three European countries arrest an Iranian diplomat who was about to carry out a terrorist attack against Iranian dissidents
Dec 2017 : Popular protests erupt in Mashad and then spread to other cities after a leak reveals that the government spends billions of dollars on military and clerical agencies
May 2018 : Israel launches a wave of missile strikes on Iranian forces in Syria, after coming under rocket fire
Aug 2018 : Iran's rial falls 140% to the dollar
Sep 2018 : Terrorists of the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahvaz (ASMLA) attack a military parade and kill 25 people, mostly members of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard
Nov 2018 : The USA reneges on the nuclear deal with Iran and reimposes sanctions on Iran, which has complied with the deal
2018 : Amnesty International accuses Iran of arresting 7,000 political dissidents in 2018
Feb 2019 : A suicide bomber kills 41 members of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards in southeast Iran
Mar 2019 : Iran human-rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh, arrested after defending women who remove their headscarves, is sentenced to 38 years in prison and 148 lashes
Oct 2019 : Exiled dissident blogger Ruhollah Zam is lured to Iraq, arrested and deported to Iran
Nov 2019 : Anti-government protests spread following an increase in gasoline prices and more than 180 people die
Jan 2020 : A US drone kills Qasem Soleimani, the head of Iran's elite Quds Force, while he is in Iraq, and an Iranian defense missile by mistake downs a passenger airplane killing 176 people
Mar 2020 : Iran becomes an epicenter of the covid-19 pandemic, the worst affected country in the Middle East
May 2020 : Romina Ashrafi is killed by her father in an honor killing that shocks Iran
Jun 2020 : Iran issues an arrest warrant for Trump over the murder of general Soleimani
Jul 2020 : Iran accidentally shoots down a Ukrainian airplane killing 176 people
Nov 2020 : Iran's top nuclear scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh is assassinated by Israeli agents in Tehran
Dec 2020 : Iran executes dissident blogger Ruhollah Zam
Jan 2021 : Iran outlaws violence against women
Mar 2021 : China and Iran sign a 25-year commercial deal
Apr 2021 : Israel sabotages Iran's Natanz nuclear facility
Apr 2021 : A leaked tape by Iran's foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif reveals that Iran entered the Syrian civil war at the behest of Russia and that Russia maneuvered to make sure that Iran would not make peace with the West


The Exploration Age-1411-1580

After the death of Alayskhun Khan (Alaysk’s Son who had reigned from 1380-1411), the new Khan, Abusidya Khan , made measures of bureaucratizing and centralizing his empire, allowing different tribes to elect representatives to regional councils who would send representatives to the main council in the new capital of Karakorum. Vast sanitation systems and civil engineering projects were undertaken as Mongol scientists had discovered a link between sanitation and the spread of the black plague. Relations increased with Tamil peoples in southern India as well as the Delhi Sultanate in Northern India, but the Vedic kingdoms in the middle were still a mystery. The Mongols maintained a very good relationship with the various caliphates of northern Africa and supplied Morocco with weapons to help with the second Muslim conquest of Iberia in 1442. Mongol trading ships also made contacts with several nations on the east coast of Africa, establishing the colony of Malagasystan in OTL Madagascar. Women accomplished most of the reforms as they held most of the positions in government while men held military positions. Abusidya’s daughter, Vulvuska, became the first female Great Khan (Khatun) of the empire. She set out to find Alaska using new technology developed by various reforms to science and the various renaissance scientists which(in this timeline) resided in Mongol Vassaldoms. In 1460, an African nation known as the Congo Empire which included much of east and central Africa had prevented Mongolia from getting rubber, so Christopher Columbus(born in the Mongol Vassal of Italistan) proposed a trade route that went around the world and to the other side of Africa to get rubber from there. She agreed and sent Columbus to a port in Malagasystan with a fleet of Mongol Treasure Ships(the size of modern cruise ships) to travel around the world to the west coast of Africa. He landed on the coast of Australia, which he named East Congostan as he thought that’s where he was. He quickly befriended the native population and built up several cities, exploiting a variety of natural resources on the continent.( In OTL, he enslaved populations. But as the Yassa banned slavery, in this Timeline he doesn't). He realized that this was not in Africa and continued on his voyage. He eventually landed near the Inca Empire where he established a colony. This colony quickly came to clash with the Incas and, after a bloody war, the Mongols had secured vassaldom over the Inca. This area came to be known as Incastan. In 1512, Vulvuska sent traders out to north Russia to create second route between Incastan and Yuan. They discovered that this land was indeed called Alaska by the native Aleutians, thus making it the Mongols’ “promised land”. The land was quickly conquered as the Mongol Armies travelled farther inwards, assimilating the small nomadic encampments of people in modern Canada. This was until they came to clash with a large political body known as the Iroquois Confederacy. By the end of this era, they had established the colony of Alaska in OTL Alaska in California, as well as Incastan on the west coast of South America.

Mongol Empire by the end of the Exploration Age. Dark Red=Main Empire, Light Red=Vassal, Orange=Ally, Yellow=Explored, Blue=Hostile,


Kyk die video: Mongol Invasions - Mamluk-Ilkhanate Wars DOCUMENTARY