Groundhog was eens op die spyskaart van Punxsutawney

Groundhog was eens op die spyskaart van Punxsutawney


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Op 2 Februarie 1887 - 'n paar maande nadat 'n inferno 'n derde van die kommersiële geboue in Punxsutawney tot as verlaag het - het 'n klein groepie mans 'n beboste gebied 'n kilometer buite die klein westelike Pennsylvania -steenkoolstad bestyg op soek na 'n plaaslike knaagdier. meteorologiese voorspellingsbevoegdhede te besit.

'Totdat die dier gaan druk het, het sy skaduwee nie gesien nie,' het die Punxsutawney Spirit moedeloos aan sy lesers gerapporteer. Later die dag het die manne van die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club egter een van die plaaslike bosluise gewaar en aan die stad gerapporteer dat dit sy skaduwee gesien het, wat beteken dat dit nog ses weke winter is.

LEES MEER: Beyond Punxsutawney: Ontmoet die ander Groundhogs

Die Duitse immigrante wat in die laat 1800's na die weste van Pennsylvania gekom het om in die steenkoolvelde en fabrieke te werk, het die tradisie van die midwintervakansie meegebring, wat sy oorsprong het in die Christelike tradisie van Kersfeesdag, 'n fees ter herdenking van die halfpad tussen die wintersonstilstand en lente-equinox toe geestelikes seënde kerse geseën en versprei het vir donker wintersaande.

Volgens die legende sou 'n sonnige kersfees nog 40 dae se koue en sneeu beteken het. ('Soos die son skyn op Kersfeesdag, so ver sal die sneeu in Mei draai', lui 'n gewilde gesegde.) Duitsers het krimpvarkies aangeneem as voorspellers van die weer op Kersfees en die meer algemene inheemse grondhokke vervang toe hulle inkom Amerika.

In die laat 1800's en vroeë 1900's het die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club egter op die harige knaagdiere staatgemaak vir meer as net hul vaardighede in weervoorspelling. Hulle het hulle ook geëet.

In die beginjare van die klub het 'n jaarlikse Groundhog Hunt elke September 'n meer prominente plek op die burgerkalender van Punxsutawney as die weervoorspellings van Groundhog Day. Met die aankoms van die spoorweg wat Pittsburgh in 1899 met Punxsutawney verbind, het politici en verslaggewers begin om die jaarlikse trek te maak, en elke jaar het die jag en die daaropvolgende banket meer uitgebrei geword.

LEES MEER: Geskiedenis en feite van Groundhog Day

The Punxsutawney Spirit berig dat meer as 150 mense opgedaag het vir die Groundhog Hunt in 1910 buite die stad op Gobbler's Knob. Die klub het sy feestelikhede geopen deur die amptelike groundhog -liedjie wat deur sy oudste lid geskryf is, te gebruik:

'Ons het 'n tert gehad wat alles van rog gemaak was
En Groundhog was die vleis,
Ons het genoeg, en ook baie,
En meer as wat ons kan eet. ”

Die klublede was nie gewapen met gewere en honde nie - maar met grawe, skoffels en rubberpype om onder die grond te luister. Toe die bekende grondhok wat die inwoners gebruik om elke 2 Februarie die weer te voorspel, later bekend as "Punxsutawney Phil", sy kop uit die grond steek, het die jagleier gebulder: "Die amptelike bosluis is gat!"

Die jagters in hul pakjasse en -hoede spring na die gat en begin woedend grawe voordat hulle uiteindelik die puddy wese opgediep het. Nadat hulle 'n foto met die groundhog gemaak het, het die klublede dit laat los vir 'n jaagtog. 'Die ou chuck het bewys dat hy 'n naelloper was,' het die Punxsutawney Spirit gerapporteer. Die grondhond het vyf minute lank die vangstap ontwyk voordat dit uiteindelik aan sy stert gekorrelleer is. Die mans gooi toe 'groundhog punch' - 'n eliksir gemaak van vodka, melk en lemoensap wat gesê word dat dit sewe jaar by Phil se lewe sou voeg - in die keel van die dier.

Terwyl die plaaslike weervoorspeller met tuisgemaakte bier en pampoen gerooster is, het ander van Punxsutawney se bosluise dit nie so goed reggekry nie. Na die jagtog het die manne gesmul aan 41 grondhokke wat reeds gevang, doodgemaak en gemarineer is. Groundhog was destyds so 'n kulinêre lekkerny in Punxsutawney dat die Philadelphia Inquirer berig het dat 'woodchuck steak' die 'gastronomiese hoogtepunt' was van 'n banket ter ere van die goewerneur van Pennsylvania, Edwin Stuart, tydens die Old Home Week in die stad in 1909.

Cleveland's Gewone handelaar koerant berig in September 1913 dat 100 grondvarkies tydens die jaarlikse jag doodgemaak is. 'As die mense nie versigtig is nie, sal hulle volgende Februarie hulself bevind sonder om te voorspel hoe lank die winter gaan aanhou,' het die koerant geredigeer. In die daaropvolgende jare het die klub die jag laat vaar, aangesien die voorspellende houtkapper meer opskrifte begin haal het.

Reeds in 1910 het verhale oor die herdenking van die Groundhog Day in die stad in koerante regoor die land begin verskyn. Druk - en later radio en televisie - het verslaggewers elke 2 Februarie jaarliks ​​na Punxsutawney begin pelgrimstogte maak.

Behalwe dat hy een keer per jaar uit winterslaap geritsel het, het Punxsutawney Phil dit baie makliker as sy voorvaders. Die Groundhog -klub hou nie meer 'n jaarlikse jag nie, maar dit hou wel 'n jaarlikse piekniek waar sy beroemde houtkapper die magiese 'groundhog punch' kan deurdrenk.


Grondhokke op die spyskaart? Die wilde geskiedenis van Punxsutawney Phil

Punxsutawney Phil weet dit miskien nie, maar grondhokke was deel van die spyskaart op Groundhog Day in die laat 1800's.

Blykbaar was grondhokke op daardie dag die 'ander wit vleis'.

Deesdae hoef Punxsutawney Phil nie bekommerd te wees dat hy op 'n skottel beland nie. Revelers kom bymekaar in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, waar hulle met 'n lang asem wag om te sien of Phil sy skaduwee sien, wat daarop dui dat die winter nog ses weke sal duur. As hy nie sy skaduwee sien nie, is daar 'n vroeë lente, sê folklore. [Bonatuurlike magte? Verhale van 10 historiese voorspellings]

Die jaarlikse vakansie van 2 Februarie het eintlik sy oorsprong in die Middeleeuse Europa, volgens 'n verslag van 1985 in die Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine.

Die winter is halfpad verby wanneer 2 Februarie omdraai. (Dit is die middelpunt tussen die wintersonstilstand en die lente -ewening.) Histories was hierdie dag bedoel om 'skuld te bereken en kontrakte tussen grondeienaars en huurders te vestig' in die Middeleeuse Europa, het historikus Christopher R. Davis in die verslag geskryf.

Boonop is 2 Februarie ook 'n Kersfees, 'n Christelike vakansiedag wat onthou toe Maria die Christuskind aangebied het en haar rituele reiniging gehad het. Diegene wat die dag waarneem, ontvang geseënde kerse by die kerk.

'N Ou Engelse liedjie bind kersfees en die lang lewe saam, sê die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club.

As Kersfees regverdig en helder is, kom, Winter, vlug weer. As Kersfees wolke en reën bring, gaan Winter, en kom nie weer nie.

'N Skotse rympie het 'n soortgelyke boodskap, het die klub gesê:

As kersdag se dag droog en regverdig is, die helfte van die winter wat kom en beswyk, as die kersdag nat en vuil is, is die helfte van die winter by Yule verby.

Die twee verse sê basies dieselfde en as die weer op 2 Februarie sonnig is, sal die winter nog 'n rukkie bly. Maar as dit bewolk is op daardie dag, is die winter op pad uit.

Kersfees het in die 1800's verander na die Amerikaanse Groundhog Day, toe Duitse immigrante hulle in Pennsylvania gevestig het, lui die verslag. Mense was geneig om dakke as hul weervoorspellers in die ou land te gebruik, maar grondhokke (ook bekend as bosluise, marmotte of fluitvarke) was volop in Pennsylvania, en daarom is daar 'n oorskakeling gemaak.

Ongelukkig vir die houtkapper (Marmota monax), dit het ook lekker gesmaak.

"Aandete -gaste was na bewering verheug oor hoe sag die marmotvleis was wanneer dit behoorlik voorberei is, soos 'n kruising tussen vark en hoender," het Davis in die verslag geskryf.

Groundhog Day het amptelik op 2 Februarie 1886 begin, het Katie Donald, die uitvoerende direkteur van die Groundhog Club, gesê. Deesdae duur die viering vier dae lank en geniet dit wêreldwyd aandag, grootliks danksy die blockbuster -film "Groundhog Day" uit 1993 met Bill Murray.

Amptenare beweer dat Punxsutawney Phil 130 jaar oud is, maar grondhonde leef gewoonlik ongeveer 6 jaar in die natuur, volgens Professional Wildlife Removal.

As Phil nie sy beroemdheid op Groundhog Day wys nie, woon hy in 'n omheining saam met sy vrou, Phyllis, en 'n paar ander grondhokke. Maar hy neem ook deel aan ander geleenthede, insluitend parades, feeste en sportbyeenkomste, en besoeke by bejaardesorgfasiliteite en skole, het Donald gesê.

'Hy geniet dit om nuwe vriende van regoor die wêreld te ontmoet,' het Donald in 'n e -pos aan WordsSideKick.com gesê. "Hy is oor die algemeen baie saggeaard."

Koel maar gedeeltelik sonnige weer word verwag vir die historiese 130ste Groundhog Day -vieringe in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, môre. Gaan terug na Live Science om te sien of die groundhog hierdie jaar die voorspelling regkry.


Groundhog Day: historiese vakansie of 'n sinnelose gebeurtenis?

Verstaan ​​die konteks van hierdie bisarre viering deur sy lang verlede.

Darin Hinshaw, verslaggewer | 31 Januarie 2021

Met die einde van Januarie, en Februarie binnekort, so ook die jaarlikse Groundhog Day -vakansie. Die idee dat 'n grondvark wat die weer voorspel, kan egter vreemd lyk, maar miskien kan die antwoord op hierdie gebeurtenis in die geskiedenis van 134 jaar gevind word.

Soos genoem, was Groundhog Day al meer as 'n eeu 'n vakansie in Amerika, die eerste wat in 1887 in Punxsutawney gehou is. Maar interessant is dat die geskiedenis van die praktyk nog verder teruggaan. Die verste geskiedenis vertel dat die praktyk afkomstig is van die Christelike vakansie, bekend as Candlemas Day, deur die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club.

'Die viering het in die Christendom begin op die dag (2 Februarie) toe Christene hul kerse na die kerk sou neem om hulle te seën', volgens die amptelike klub. 'Hulle het gevoel dat dit hulle huishouding seën vir die oorblywende winter.'

Deur hierdie praktyk het baie Europeërs die versekering gehad dat hulle die uitmergelende winter sou kan oorleef. Maar sodra hierdie praktyk in die hande van Duitsland was, was dit toe 'n dier betrokke geraak het. In plaas van 'n grondvark, was dit 'n krimpvarkie, en op dieselfde manier sou hy ook op Candlemas Day na sy skaduwee kyk. Maar toe hierdie Duitsers uiteindelik in die nuwe Verenigde State kom, het die praktyk verander.

'Soos die Duitse setlaars in die Verenigde State gekom het, het hul tradisies en folklore ook gekom. Met die afwesigheid van krimpvarkies in die Verenigde State, is 'n soortgelyke winterslaap gekies (die grondvark), 'volgens die amptelike klub.

Terwyl die tye verander het en die winter dekades gelede nie meer die bedreiging was nie, het die redenasie om die vakansie te vier, verander. Soos gesê, is die eerste Groundhog -dag in 1887 opgeneem, en sedertdien was dit 'n verskoning vir 'n viering in Pennsylvania. Met meer as duisend besoekers wat ingestroom het om Phil self te sien en saam met die plaaslike inwoners fees te vier. Dit het egter alles verander met die suksesvolle komediefliek uit 1993 Groundhog Day en dwarsoor die land het mense na Punxsutawney gestroom.

'Die fliek het alles in die wiele gery. Ons het die volgende jaar van 'n paar duisend na 10 000 gehad, en dit het net groter geword, 'sê John Griffiths, 'n hanteerder van Phil.

Deur die eeu van hierdie tradisie, wat verder na die stad en die tuiste van Punxsutawney Phil verhuis het, is die groep wat bekend staan ​​as die binnekring diegene wat na die grondhok omsien. Hulle bestaan ​​slegs uit mans, met pakke en hoede aan, en bestuur die feeste in Punxsutawney elke jaar. Hulle bestuur ook die amptelike klub vir die geleentheid, en elke lidstaat maak aanspraak op die ware mag agter Phil, insluitend Phil self.

'Phil voorspel al meer as 120 jaar die weer. Hy is 100% akkuraat, ”volgens die binnekring. '… meteoroloë is ongeveer 70% van die tyd korrek. Phil is altyd reg. ”

Ongeag of hierdie bewerings waar is of nie, is dit min vir die algemene energie van die vakansie, waar inwoners en Pennsylvania en oral hulself as 'n verskoning vir 'n viering geniet. Maar wat van terug hier in Kentucky? Verander die opinie oor die vakansie sonder 'n magiese grondhok? Ons lede van Dunbar gee hul mening oor die ervaring.

'Groundhog -dag, ek het regtig nie veel daarvan gehoor nie, behalwe op skool,' het senior Christian Sanchez gesê. 'Ek onthou ook nie veel daarvan nie, want ek het nie regtig gedink dat dit so belangrik was nie.'

Dit is natuurlik nie 'n skok om te verstaan ​​hoe 'n vakansie wat op 'n paar geselekteerde plekke gevier word, nie sal aanklank vind by diegene wat nie daardeur geraak word nie. Maar miskien kan hierdie jaar anders wees. Aangesien die COVID-19-pandemie op vrye voet is, en dit (hopelik) die eerste Groundhog-dag onder COVID-19 is, is daar 'n kans dat diegene tuis kan wag om te sien wat die groundhog te sê het?

'Ek sou dink (mense sal dit kyk), net omdat ons tuis is en daar minder dinge is om te doen,' het Paula Aseltyne, onderwyseres in sosiale studies, gesê.


Oor Punxsutawney

Punxsutawney is 'n tipiese klein dorpie in Pennsylvania, op die kruispad van PA -roete 36 en Amerikaanse roete 119, in Jefferson County (1 uur en 12 uur noordoos van Pittsburgh).

Met die Mahoning Creek wat dwarsdeur die stad loop en as die suidwestelike ingang na die PA Wilds and the Great Outdoors, is Punxsutawney omring deur natuurlike skoonheid en hulpbronne wat dit die perfekte plek maak vir 'n besoeker of inwoner om 'n gemaklike leefstyl te vind.

Punxsutawney in die middestad

Die sentrum van Punxsutawney is 'n skoon, pragtige woonbuurt met 'n sakegebied waar generasie -ondernemings plaaslik gegroei en trots is. Dit is 'n historiese middestad wat sy laat Victoriaanse en Romaanse herlewing -argitektoniese style in plaaslike geboue vier.

Die stad word lewendig wanneer die kunste, kultuur en erfenis gevier word deur geleenthede en aktiwiteite oor die hele gemeenskap.

Die tradisie van die Groundhog Day

Die bekendste inwoner van Punxsutawney en rsquos, Punxsutawney Phil, wat bekend is vir sy jarelange viering van Groundhog Day op 2 Februarie, voorspel sedert die laat 1880 'n vroeë lente of nog ses weke winter vir die res van die land. Besoek die Groundhog-dag of geniet die hele jaar deur feeste om die unieke geskiedenis van Punxsutawney te beleef.

Die hele jaar deur aktiwiteite

Neem 'n boot of gaan visvang op Cloe Lake, stap, fiets of langlauf langs die Mahoning Shadow Trail, kajak langs die Mahoning Creek, of verken die omliggende natuurlike habitats. Ontspan daarna by plaaslike wynkelders of geniet 'n rustige gholfspel. Punxsutawney bied 'n verskeidenheid buitelug -ontspanningsopsies vir avonturiers van alle ouderdomme.

Fantastiese Phil's

Beplan u besoek!

Van blyplekke tot ander plaaslike besienswaardighede, laat ons u help met die beplanning van u reis na Punxsutawney! Ons het baie hulpbronne om dit 'n onvergeetlike wegbreek te maak.


Groundhog Day Geskiedenis

Op 2 Februarie 1887 word Groundhog Day, met die oog op 'n knaagdier -meteoroloog, vir die eerste keer gevier by Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania.

Volgens oorlewering, as 'n grondhaas op hierdie dag uit sy gat kom en sy skaduwee sien, word hy doodsbang en hardloop hy weer sy hol in, en verwag ses ekstra weke se winterweer, en geen skaduwee impliseer 'n vroeë lente nie.

Groundhog Day het sy wortels in die ou Christelike tradisie van Kersfees, toe die bediening die kerse wat vir die winter benodig word, seën en versprei. Die kerse dui aan hoe lank en koud die winter sou wees.

Duitsers het hierdie idee ontwikkel deur 'n dier - die krimpvarkie - te kies as 'n metode om die klimaat te voorspel. Toe hulle na Amerika kom, het die Duitse pelgrims in Pennsylvania die tradisie aangegaan, al het hulle van egels na grondhokke verander, wat in die Keystone -staat volop was.

In 1887 kondig 'n koerantredakteur aan wat deel uitmaak van 'n groep groundhog trackers van Punxsutawney, die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club, dat Phil, die Punxsutawney groundhog, Amerika se enigste ware weervoorspelling is.

Die reeks grondhokke wat sedertdien bekend gestaan ​​het as Phil, is moontlik die bekendste grondhokke van Amerika, maar verskillende dorpe in Noord-Amerika het tans hul eie weervoorspellende knaagdiere, van Birmingham Bill tot Staten Island Chuck tot Shubenacadie Sam in Kanada.

In 1993 bevorder die film Groundhog Day met Bill Murray die gebruik van “groundhog day ” om iets te beteken wat telkens herhaal word.

Vandag sluit 'n groot aantal individue elke 2 Februarie aan by Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney om die voorspelling van Phil te volg. Die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club het 'n drie dae lange viering met vermaak en aktiwiteite.


'N Somber Groundhog Day: Punxsutawney Phil sê meer winter

Daar sal nog ses weke se winter wees, het Punxsutawney Phil voorspel toe hy op 'n sneeuagtige Dinsdagoggend uit sy hol kom om sy pligte op Groundhog Day te verrig.

Lede van Phil se 'binnekring' het die harige wakker om 07:25 by Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, wakker gemaak om te sien of hy sy skaduwee sou sien of nie.

Kort nadat hierdie jaar se voorspelling onthul is, het een van die lede van die binnekring 'n boodskap gedeel wat hy gesê het Phil vroeër die dag vir hom gesê het: 'Na die winter sien u uit na een van die mooiste en helderste bronne wat u' het ek nog ooit gesien. ”

'N Ander lid van die' binnekring 'het kennis geneem van die uniekheid van die afgelope jaar.

'Mense verwys na Groundhog Day. Dit het soms gevoel asof ons almal dieselfde dag oor en oor lewe, ”het een van die lede gesê. 'Groundhog Day wys ons ook dat die eentonigheid eindig. Die siklus sal verbreek word. ”

'Vandag is eintlik Groundhog Day, daar is net een,' het hy bygevoeg. 'Daar kom letterlik 'n nuwe dag oor die horison.'

Die skouspel wat Groundhog -dag is, het nog steeds aangegaan, maar as gevolg van die pandemie van die coronavirus kon die feesgangers Phil nie persoonlik sien en vier nie: Hierdie jaar was dit alles virtueel.

'N Regstreekse uitsending, met meer as 15 000 kykers op 'n stadium, het beeldmateriaal van vorige Groundhog -dag gespeel voor die groot onthulling.

Natuurlik het die voorspeller van voorspellers - bygestaan ​​deur sy binnekring - met dagbreek na vore gekom. Die woord is dat as hy sy skaduwee sien soos hierdie jaar, daar nog ses weke winter sal wees. As hy dit nie doen nie, kom die lente vroeg.

Die lewendige stroom van Gobbler's Knob, 'n piepklein heuwel net buite Punxsutawney, ongeveer 65 kilometer noordoos van Pittsburgh, word moontlik gemaak deur die Pennsylvania Tourism Office se Holi-stay PA. Die geleentheid daar - altyd 2 Februarie - dateer uit 1887.

Lede van die klub het Phil uit 'n nuwe boomstomp geroep en die hoede gedra.

'Jy lyk pragtig', het die president van die klub, Jeff Lundy, aan Phil gesê, wat lede na een van twee boekrolle gestuur het.

Groot sneeustorm klap noordoos, stormstop en onderbrekings

FOTO'S: Nor 'easter gooi sneeu op NYC, Tri-State

'N Klublid het aangekondig:' Ons het almal deur die donkerte van die nag gegaan, maar sien nou hoop in die oggend se helder lig. Maar as ek nou omdraai om te sien, is daar 'n perfekte skaduwee van my. "

Die lewendige stroom van Gobbler's Knob, 'n klein heuwel net buite Punxsutawney, ongeveer 105 kilometer noordoos van Pittsburgh, word moontlik gemaak deur die Pennsylvania Tourism Office se Holi-stay PA. Die geleentheid daar - altyd 2 Februarie - dateer uit 1887.

Phil het hierdie jaar, soos baie jare in die verlede, sy voorspelling gegee tydens 'n groot sneeustorm wat die hele noordooste getref het.

Die jaarlikse gebeurtenis het sy oorsprong in 'n Duitse legende oor 'n harige knaagdier. Uit rekords uit die laat 1800's blyk dit dat Phil meer as 100 keer langer winters voorspel het. Die voorspelling vir 2020 vra vir 'n vroeë lente - maar Phil het niks gesê oor 'n pandemie nie.

In sy 135 jaar lange geskiedenis het Phil die winter 106 keer en die lente 20 keer voorspel, het die klub gesê. Tien jaar het verlore gegaan omdat daar geen rekords gehou is nie.

Punxsutawney Phil is moontlik die beroemdste siener van die grondhok, maar hy is beslis nie die enigste een nie. Daar is twee ander hoëprofiel "bedrieërs", soos die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club dit in die streek noem.

Staten Island Chuck het 'n ander tydlyn vir die einde van die winter voorspel, en profeteer dat New York vroeg in die lente was toe hy nie sy skaduwee Dinsdagoggend in die Staten Island Zoo sien nie. Die geleentheid is op Facebook gestroom sedert die dieretuin gesluit is.

Chuckles, die amptelike staatshoof van Connecticut, sal ook sonder fanfare 'n voorspelling van die huis af maak: die Lutz Children's Museum in Manchester. Dit sal ook op Facebook gestroom word. Chuckles X is in September dood, en dit moet nog gesien word of 'n gesalfde Chuckles XI Dinsdag sal verskyn.


Groundhog Day 2011: Punxsutawney Phil sien geen skaduwee nie

Op die 125ste bestaansjaar groet Punxsutawney Phil hartlik.

"Die lug is helder. Berei voor vir warmte!" Met die opwindende woorde Woensdagoggend het die wêreld se beroemdste grondhond, Punxsutawney Phil, miljoene Amerikaners 'n hoop hoop gegee vir miljoene Amerikaners wat deur 'n monsterwinterstorm gebuk gaan. (Sien foto's van Groundhog Day.)

Deur geen skaduwee te sien toe hy op Groundhog Day 2011 uit sy seremoniële hol in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, verskyn nie, word volgens tradisie Phil 'n vroeë lente voorspel.

"Groundhog Day is baie soos 'n rock -konsert, maar die mense gedra hulle beter en daar is 'n groundhog betrokke," het Tom Chapin, redakteur van die Punxsutawney Spirit -koerant, aan National Geographic News gesê.

'Daar is musiek en vermaak, spoofs van speletjiesprogramme en mense wat t-hemde en Beanie Babies skiet', het hy gesê.

Volgens die legende, as Punxsutawney Phil op 2 Februarie uit sy tydelike hol kom - 'n gesimuleerde boomstomp op die platteland van Gobbler's Knob - en sy skaduwee sien, sal die winterweer nog ses weke in die Verenigde State voortduur. Maar as Phil nie sy skaduwee sien nie, dan is die lentetemperature om die draai.

Ongeag die weervoorspelling, op Groundhog -dag "praat" Phil met sy menslike versorgers, bekend as die binnekring, in Groundhogese en vertel hulle sy voorspelling. Die binnekring vertaal dan Phil se woorde sodat die wêreld dit kan hoor - of so sê hulle. (Verwant: "Groundhog Sees More Winter Ahead" [2006].)

Op Groundhog Day 2011 het 'onsterflike' Punxsutawney Phil-vermoedelik nie later as die 19de eeu gebore nie-sy boodskap op 'n besliste 21ste-eeuse manier gebring deur sy voorspelling te stuur (om aan te meld, 'groundhog' na 247365 te stuur) en, natuurlik, die opdatering van sy Facebook-status en die Pennsylvania-toerisme Twitter-feed.

Video: Wild Groundhog in "Aksie"

Oorsprong van Groundhog Day

Volgens die amptelike Punxsutawney Phil Groundhog Day -webwerf is Groundhog Day die gevolg van 'n mengsel van antieke Christelike en Romeinse gebruike wat in Duitsland bymekaar gekom het.

In die vroeë dae van die Christendom in Europa sou die geestelikes op 2 Februarie geseënde kerse aan die gelowiges uitdeel ter ere van Kersfees, 'n vakansiedag wat die maagd Maria se aanbieding van Jesus in die tempel in Jerusalem 40 dae na sy geboorte vier.

Onderweg het 2 Februarie ook verband gehou met weervoorspelling, miskien vanweë die nabyheid aan die heidense Keltiese fees van Imbolc - ook 'n tyd van meteorologiese bygeloof - wat op 1 Februarie plaasvind.

Volgens die tradisie was die weer op Kersfees belangrik: helder lug beteken 'n lang winter.

Volgens die legende het die Romeine ook geglo dat toestande gedurende die eerste dae van Februarie goeie voorspellers van toekomstige weer was, maar die ryk het na krimpvarkies gekyk vir hul voorspellings.

Hierdie twee tradisies het in Duitsland versmelt en is deur Duitse immigrante wat hulle in Pennsylvania gevestig het, na die Verenigde State gebring. By gebrek aan egels vervang die Duitse setlaars inheemse grondhokke in die ritueel, en Groundhog Day is gebore.

(Laai 'n National Geographic groundhog -prent as agtergrond af.)

Punxsutawney Phil. Wil. Nie. Sterf.

In 1887 noem 'n groep grondvarkjagters van Punxsutawney (kaart) hulself die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club en verklaar hul harige orakel, Punxsutawney Phil, die enigste "amptelike" weervoorspelling van die grondhok. Die Punxsutawney -seremonie het ongeveer dieselfde tyd ontstaan.

Meer as honderd jaar later bly Punxsutawney Phil die ster van Groundhog Day, alhoewel mededingers soos Staten Island Chuck en genl. Beauregard Lee plaaslike roem behou. (Sien "Groundhogs Disumree on Winter Prognosis" [2009].)

Volgens Punxsutawney -folklore het Phil sy lang lewensduur te danke aan 'n 'lewenseliksir' wat elke somer bedien word by die jaarlikse Groundhog -piekniek, waarvan daar vreemd genoeg geen foto's is nie.

Ondanks die bewerings van die binnekring, sou so 'n lang lewensduur Punxsutawney Phil 'n statistiese afwyking maak, om die minste te sê - grondhonde in gevangenskap leef gewoonlik nie langer as ongeveer tien jaar nie, wat dui op die naam van Phil, soos "Lassie", wat moontlik die enigste onsterflike is ding oor hom. Die huidige Phil, wat 9 kilogram weeg, teenoor die gewone 13 kilogram, is alles behalwe normaal.

As hy nie die weer voorspel nie, gaan Punxsutawney Phil tuis in die Groundhog -dieretuin, 'n aanhangsel van die stadsbiblioteek.

Grondhokke, ook bekend as houtkappe, is knaagdiere van die marmotgeslag. Inheems in die grootste deel van Kanada en die ooste van die VSA, kloof grondhokke hulself die hele somer en slaap dan tussen die herfs se eerste ryp en die begin van die lente - met aansienlik laer hartklop en liggaamstemperatuur. Hierdie eekhorings -neefs, hoofsaaklik rondom velde, strome en paaie, smul hoofsaaklik aan grasse en ander plante, sowel as vrugte en boombas.

Groundhog Day 2011 -voorspellings: 'n muntstuk meer akkuraat?

Terwyl Phil se voorstanders beweer dat sy voorspellings 100 persent akkuraat is, het die Amerikaanse National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) geraam dat Phil ongeveer 40 persent van die tyd korrek is.

Die NCDC het tot sy gevolgtrekking gekom deur die voorspellings van Phil te neem en dit te vergelyk met die gemiddelde temperatuur in Februarie en Maart. In baie jare toe Phil's nog ses weke se winterweer voorspel het, blyk dit dat Februarie en Maart warmer as die gemiddelde was.

Maar om te obsesseer oor die akkuraatheid van Phil se voorspellings, is om die punt te mis, het Chapin gesê. "Dit gaan meer oor pret."

Groundhog Day -robot om Punxsutawney Phil te vervang?

Maar nie almal vind die jaarlikse geleentheid vermaaklik nie.

Mense vir die etiese behandeling van diere (PETA) het in 2010 'n brief aan die president van die binnekring gestuur waarin hulle daarop dui dat hulle Phil na 'n heiligdom gaan terugtrek en hom vervang met 'n elektroniese grondvark.

'Ander gewilde uitstallings bevat robotpikkewyne en dolfyne wat swem en kommunikeer net soos regte diere', lui die brief, 'en ons dink dat 'n animatroniese grondvark 'n skare vol nuuskierige toeskouers in Punxsutawney sou betower.

Chapin, die Punxsutawney Spirit -redakteur en —joernalistieke objektiwiteit verdoem dit — ’n onbeskaamde Punxsutawney Phil -aanhanger, het PETA se brief as ’n reklamestunt afgemaak.

'Die ding met PETA is dat hulle slegs een keer per jaar bekommerd is oor Punxsutawney Phil,' het Chapin gesê. 'Die ander 364 dae van die jaar sê hulle niks,' het hy gesê. 'Dit is 'n interessante idee, maar ek vermoed nie dat Phil binnekort gaan uittree nie.'


Groundhog Day Geskiedenis

Op 2 Februarie 1887 word Groundhog Day, met die oog op 'n knaagdier -meteoroloog, vir die eerste keer gevier by Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania.

Volgens oorlewering, as 'n grondhaas op hierdie dag uit sy gat kom en sy skaduwee sien, word hy doodsbang en hardloop hy weer sy hol in, en verwag ses ekstra weke se winterweer, en geen skaduwee impliseer 'n vroeë lente nie.

Groundhog Day het sy wortels in die ou Christelike tradisie van Kersfees, toe die bediening die kerse wat vir die winter benodig word, seën en versprei. Die kerse dui aan hoe lank en koud die winter sou wees.

Duitsers het hierdie idee ontwikkel deur 'n dier - die krimpvarkie - te kies as 'n metode om die klimaat te voorspel. Toe hulle na Amerika kom, het die Duitse pelgrims in Pennsylvania die tradisie aangegaan, al het hulle van egels na grondhokke verander, wat in die Keystone -staat volop was.

In 1887 kondig 'n koerantredakteur aan wat deel uitmaak van 'n groep groundhog trackers van Punxsutawney, die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club, dat Phil, die Punxsutawney groundhog, die enigste ware weervoorspelling van Amerika is.

Die reeks grondhokke wat sedertdien bekend gestaan ​​het as Phil, is moontlik die bekendste grondhokke van Amerika, maar verskillende dorpe in Noord-Amerika het tans hul eie weervoorspellende knaagdiere, van Birmingham Bill tot Staten Island Chuck tot Shubenacadie Sam in Kanada.

In 1993 bevorder die film Groundhog Day met Bill Murray die gebruik van “groundhog day ” om iets te beteken wat telkens herhaal word.

Vandag sluit 'n groot aantal individue elke 2 Februarie aan by Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney om die voorspelling van Phil te volg. Die Punxsutawney Groundhog Club het 'n drie dae lange viering met vermaak en aktiwiteite.


Ground Hog Day-Groundhog Day Geskiedenis en viering

Die koms van die lente word bepaal deur die Ground Hog wat uit sy hol kom. Terwyl dit uit sy hol is, sien dit toevallig sy skaduwee en trek terug na sy woning, dit beteken dat die lente nog ses weke weg is. As dit so gebeur dat die grondhok nie sy skaduwee sien nie en bo die grond bly, word verwag dat die lente aangebreek het.

Die Ground Hog Day is 'n eeue oue tradisie wat sy oorsprong herhaal. Daar word geglo dat die Romeinse legioene verantwoordelik was vir die bekendstelling van hierdie tradisie aan die Duitsers, wat op sy beurt by ontvangs tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat as die son op Kersfeesdag verskyn en as 'n krimpvarkie sy skaduwee gooi, die winter verleng nog ses weke.

Ground Hog Day -viering

Groundhog -dag word in die Verenigde State en die gewildste in Punxsutawney gevier.

Iewers in die 1800's het die eerste Groundhog Day in Punxsutawney plaasgevind. Die eerste trek na Globber's Knob, waar die Groundhog sou verskyn, is op 2 Februarie 1887 uitgevoer.

Die dag word gevier met Fersommlinge-sosiale geleenthede, insluitend skets en toneelstukke en heerlike kos. 'N Aura van feestelikheid omhul die land.

In Pennsylvania, op daardie dag, praat mense slegs die Duitse dialek, wat die Engelse taal voorafgaan. Almal wat Engels gepraat het, betaal 'n boete van gewoonlik 'n nikkel, sent of 'n kwart per Engelse woord.

Die tradisie van Groundhog Day in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, word uitgevoer deur 'n groep mense genaamd die Binnekring, wat plaaslike hooggeplaastes is. Hulle is verantwoordelik vir al die aktiwiteite wat verband hou met die Groundhog Day. Hulle is ook verantwoordelik vir die voeding van die Punxsutawney Phil.

Punxsutawney Phil

Punxsutawney Phil word beskou as die enigste Groundhog, wat die weer voorspel, terwyl die ander as bedrieërs beskou word. Ground hog Day 2011 is spesiaal, want dit is Punxsutawney Phils 125 voorspelling!

Hy word gewoonlik elke somer op Groundhog Picnic gevoed met 'n eliksir, wat veronderstel is om sy lewe nog sewe jaar te verleng. Daar word geglo dat daar slegs een Phil is wat 125 jaar lank die weervoorspelling voorspel het.

Punxsutawney Phil emerges out of his burrow on Globber's Knob, in the presence of thousands of folowers to make his weather forecast. It is believed that he speaks to the Groundhog Club president in his Groundhogese language, a language only understood by the president of the Inner Circle. The prediction is then proclaimed to the world.

For those who are doubtful of Punxsutawney Phil's accuracy in prediction, it is affirmed that he has been making hundred percnt accurate predictions, while the meterologists' is about 70% accurate.


Inhoud

Oorsprong Redigeer

The Pennsylvania Dutch were immigrants from Germanic-speaking areas of Europe. The Germans already had a tradition of marking Candlemas (February 2) as "Badger Day" (Dachstag), where if a badger emerging found it to be a sunny day thereby casting a shadow, it foreboded the prolonging of winter by four more weeks.

Duitsland Redigeer

Candlemas is a primarily Catholic festival but also known in the German Protestant (Lutheran) churches. In folk religion, various traditions and superstitions continue to be linked with the holiday, although this was discouraged by the Protestant Reformers in the 16th century. [3] Notably, several traditions akin to weather lores use Candlemas' weather to predict the start of spring.

The weather-predicting animal on Candlemas usually was the badger, although regionally the animal was the bear or the fox. [4] The original weather-predicting animal in Germany had been the bear, another hibernating mammal, but when they grew scarce the lore became altered. [5]

Similarity to the groundhog lore has been noted for the German formula "Sonnt sich der Dachs in der Lichtmeßwoche, so geht er auf vier Wochen wieder zu Loche" (If the badger sunbathes during Candlemas-week, for four more weeks he will be back in his hole). [a] [6] A slight variant is found in a collection of weather lore (bauernregeln, aangesteek. "farmers' rules") printed in Austria in 1823. [7]

Groundhog as badger Edit

So the same tradition as the Germans, except that winter's spell would be prolonged for six weeks instead of four, was maintained by the Pennsylvanians on Groundhog Day. [8] In Germany, the animal was dachs or badger. For the Pennsylvania Dutch, it became the dox which in Deitsch referred to "groundhog". [b] [9] [10]

The standard term for "groundhog" was grun′daks (from German dachs), with the regional variant in York County being grundsau, a direct translation of the English name, according to a 19th-century book on the dialect. [11] The form was a regional variant according to one 19th century source. [11] However, the weather superstition that begins "Der zwet Hær′ning is Grund′sau dåk. Wânn di grundau îr schâtte sent . ("February second is Groundhog day. If the groundhog sees its shadow . )" is given as common to all 14 counties in Dutch Pennsylvania Country, in a 1915 monograph. [c] [12]

In The Thomas R. Brendle Collection of Pennsylvania German Folklore, Brendle preserved the following lore from the local Pennsylvania German dialect:

Wann der Dachs sei Schadde seht im Lichtmess Marye, dann geht er widder in's Loch un beleibt noch sechs Woche drin. Wann Lichtmess Marye awwer drieb is, dann bleibt der dachs haus un's watt noch enanner Friehyaahr. (When the groundhog sees his shadow on the morning of February 2, he will again go into his hole and remain there for six weeks. But if the morning of February 2 is overcast, the groundhog will remain outside and there will be another spring.) [13]

The form grundsow has been used by the lodge in Allentown and elsewhere. [14] Brendle also recorded the name "Grundsaudag" (Groundhog day in Lebanon County) and "Daxdaag" (Groundhog day in Northampton County). [15]

Victor Hugo, in "Les Misérables," (1864) discusses the day as follows:

". it was the second of February, that ancient Candlemas-day whose treacherous sun, the precursor of six weeks of cold, inspired Matthew Laensberg with the two lines, which have deservedly become classic:

'Qu'il luise ou qu'il luiserne, L'ours rentre en sa caverne.'

(Let it gleam or let it glimmer, The bear goes back into his cave.)"

– Hugo, Victor. "Les Misérables." Trans. Fahnestock and MacAfee, based on Wilbour. Signet Classics, NY, 1987. p. 725.

Bear-rat Edit

The groundhog was once also known by the obsolete Latin alias Arctomys monax. The genus name signified "bear-rat". [16] [17] The European marmot is of the same genus and was formerly called Arctomys alpinus. It was speculated that the European counterpart might have lore similar to the groundhog attached to it. [16] [d]

Simpler Candlemas lore Edit

The German version, with the introduction of the badger (or other beasts) was an expansion on a more simple tradition that if the weather was sunny and clear on Candlemas Day people expected winter to continue. [8] The simpler version is summarized in the English (Scots dialect) couplet that runs "If Candlemas is fair and clear / There'll be twa winters in the year", [e] [f] with equivalent phrases in French and German. [19] And the existence of a corresponding Latin couplet has been suggested as evidence of the great antiquity of this tradition. [g] [19]

The use of candles on the Christian Candlemas was inspired by the Roman rite for the goddess Februa, in which a procession of candles was done on February 2, according to Yoder. The Roman calendar, in turn, had Celtic origins. Candlemas concurs with Imbolc, one of the Celtic 'cross-quarter days', the four days which marked the midpoints between solstice and equinox. [21] [20]

British and Gaelic calendars Edit

Scholar Rhys Carpenter in 1946 emphasized that the Badger Day tradition was strong in Germany, but absent in the British Isles, and he referred to this as a reason that the U.S. Groundhog Day was not brought by immigrants from these places. [22]

There did exist a belief among Roman Catholics in Britain that the hedgehog predicted the length of winter, or so it has been claimed, but without demonstration of its age, in a publication by the Scotland-born American journalist Thomas C. MacMillan in 1886, [19] and American writer/journalist Samuel Adams Drake's book published in 1900. [23] [h]

In the Gaelic calendar of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, Brigid's Day (February 1) is a day for predicting the weather. [24] [25] While in Scotland the animal that heralds spring on this day is a snake, [i] and on the Isle of Man a large bird, [27] in Ireland folklorist Kevin Danaher records lore of hedgehogs being observed for this omen:

In Irish folk tradition St. Brighid's Day, 1 February, is the first day of Spring, and thus of the farmer's year. . To see a hedgehog was a good weather sign, for the hedgehog comes come out of the hole in which he has spent the winter, looks about to judge the weather, and returns to his burrow if bad weather is going to continue. If he stays out, it means that he knows the mild weather is coming. [24]

Verenigde State Redigeer

The observance of Groundhog Day in the United States first occurred in German communities in Pennsylvania, according to known records. The earliest mention of Groundhog Day is an entry on February 2, 1840, in the diary of James L. Morris of Morgantown, in Pennsylvania Dutch Country, according to the book on the subject by Don Yoder. This was a Welsh enclave but the diarist was commenting on his neighbors who were of German stock. [j] [k] [20] [28]

Punxsutawney beginnings Edit

The first reported news of a Groundhog Day observance was arguably made by the Punxsutawney Spirit newspaper of Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, in 1886: [l] "up to the time of going to press, the beast has not seen its shadow". However, it was not until the following year in 1887 that the first Groundhog Day considered "official" was commemorated there, [29] with a group making a trip to the Gobbler's Knob part of town to consult the groundhog. People have gathered annually at the spot for the event ever since. [30] [18]

Clymer Freas (1867–1942) [m] who was city editor at the Punxsutawney Spirit is credited as the "father" who conceived the idea of "Groundhog Day". [31] [n] It has also been suggested that Punxsutawney was where all the Groundhog Day events originated, from where it spread to other parts of the United States and Canada. [33]

The Groundhog Day celebrations of the 1880s were carried out by the Punxsutawney Elks Lodge. The lodge members were the "genesis" of the Groundhog Club formed later, which continued the Groundhog Day tradition. But the lodge started out being interested in the groundhog as a game animal for food. It had started to serve groundhog at the lodge, and had been organizing a hunting party on a day each year in late summer. [34]

The chronologies given are somewhat inconsistent in the literature. The first "Groundhog Picnic" was held in 1887 according to one source, [31] but given as post-circa-1889 by a local historian in a journal. The historian states that around 1889 the meat was served in the lodge's banquet, and the organized hunt started after that. [34]

Either way, the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club was formed in 1899, and continued the hunt and "Groundhog Feast", which took place annually in September. [35] [36] The "hunt" portion of it became increasingly a ritualized formality, because the practical procurement of meat had to occur well ahead of time for marinating. A drink called the "groundhog punch" was also served. [o] [37] [38] The flavor has been described as a "cross between pork and chicken". [39] The hunt and feast did not attract enough outside interest, and the practice discontinued. [35]

The groundhog was not named Phil until 1961, possibly as an indirect reference to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. [40]

Punxsutawney today Edit

The largest Groundhog Day celebration is held in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, where crowds as large as 40,000 gather each year [41] (nearly eight times the year-round population of the town). [42] The average draw had been about 2,000 until the 1993 movie Groundhog Day, which is set at the festivities in Punxsutawney, after which attendance rose to about 10,000. [35] The official Phil is pretended to be a supercentenarian, having been the same forecasting beast since 1887. [35]

In 2019, the 133rd year of the tradition, the groundhog was summoned to come out at 7:25 am on February 2, but did not see its shadow. [43] Fans of Punxsutawney Phil awaited his arrival starting at 6:00 am, thanks to a live stream provided by Visit Pennsylvania. The live stream has been a tradition for the past several years, allowing more people than ever to watch the animal meteorologist. [44]

2021 was the 135th, and for the first time, much of the Inner Circle members were required to wear a mask. The groundhog was summoned at 7:25 am on February 2 and saw its shadow. [45] Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ceremony was held behind closed doors, with no fans allowed to attend.

Verenigde State Redigeer

The Slumbering Groundhog Lodge, which was formed in 1907, has carried out the ceremonies that take place in Quarryville, Pennsylvania. [46] It used to be a contending rival to Punxsutawney over the Groundhog Day fame. It employs a taxidermic specimen (stuffed woodchuck). [35]

In Southeastern Pennsylvania, Groundhog Lodges (Grundsow Lodges) celebrate the holiday with fersommlinge, [47] social events in which food is served, speeches are made, and one or more g'spiel (plays or skits) are performed for entertainment. The Pennsylvania German dialect is the only language spoken at the event, and those who speak English pay a penalty, usually in the form of a nickel, dime, or quarter per word spoken, with the money put into a bowl in the center of the table. [48]

In Milltown, New Jersey, Milltown Mel predicts the weather at the American Legion in an early morning ceremony. The event has gained much attention and each year grows larger and larger. During weekdays, people will often attend before school or work. Coffee and Doughnuts are donated by the event's sponsor Bronson & Guthlein Funeral Home. Mel is housed year round at the funeral home. She has an outdoor area as well as an indoor, climate controlled, cage. She is cared for by the owner of Bronson and one of his tenents, who is a volunteer EMT with the local rescue squad. [49]

In the Midwest, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, is the self-proclaimed "Groundhog Capital of the World". [50] This title taken in response to The Punxsutawney Spirit's 1952 newspaper article describing Sun Prairie as a "remote two cow village buried somewhere in the wilderness. " [51] In 2015, Jimmy the Groundhog bit the ear of Mayor Jon Freund [52] and the story quickly went viral worldwide. The next day a mayoral proclamation absolved Jimmy XI of any wrongdoing. [53]

Buckeye Chuck, Ohio's official State Groundhog, is one of two weather predicting groundhogs. He resides in Marion, Ohio.

Staten Island Chuck is the stage name for the official weather-forecasting woodchuck for New York City, housed in the Staten Island Zoo. [54] In 2009, Chuck bit then NYC Mayor Mike Bloomberg, prompting zoo officials to quietly replace him with his daughter Charlotte. In 2014, NYC Mayor Bill de Blasio, famously dropped Charlotte during the ceremony, visibly disturbing many of the children present for the event. [55] Charlotte's untimely death a week later prompted rumors she was killed by the fall. ^ As a result, Bill de Blasio has not participated in the tradition since. [56]

Dunkirk Dave (a stage name for numerous groundhogs that have filled the role since 1960) is the local groundhog for Western New York, handled by Bob Will, a typewriter repairman who runs a rescue shelter for groundhogs. [57] [58]

In Washington, D.C., the Dupont Circle Groundhog Day event features Potomac Phil, another taxidermic specimen. From his first appearance in 2012 to 2018, Phil's spring predictions invariably agreed with those of the more lively Punxsutawney Phil, who made his predictions half an hour earlier. In addition, Phil always predicted correctly six more months of political gridlock. However, after being accused of collusion in 2018, Potomac Phil contradicted Punxsutawney Phil in 2019 and, further, predicted two more years of political insanity. [59]

In Raleigh, NC, an annual event at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences includes Sir Walter Wally. According to museum officials, Wally has been correct 58% of the time vs. Punxsutawney Phil's 39%. [60]

Elsewhere in the American South, the General Beauregard Lee makes predictions from Lilburn, Georgia (later Butts County, Georgia). The University of Dallas in Irving, Texas has boasted of hosting the second largest Groundhog celebration in the world. [61]

Kanada Redigeer

The day is observed with various ceremonies at other locations in North America beyond the United States. [62]

Due to Nova Scotia's Atlantic Time Zone, Shubenacadie Sam makes the first Groundhog Day prediction in North America. [63] "Daks Day" (from the German dachs) is Groundhog Day in the dialect of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. [1]

In French Canada, where the day is known as Jour de la marmotte, Fred la marmotte of Val-d'Espoir [64] [65] has been the representative forecaster for the province of Quebec since 2009. [65] [66] A study also shows that in Quebec, the marmot or groundhog (siffleux) are regarded as Candlemas weather-predicting beasts in some scattered spots, but the bear is the more usual animal. [67] [p]

Balzac Billy is the "Prairie Prognosticator", a man-sized groundhog mascot who prognosticates weather on Groundhog's Day from Balzac, Alberta. [69]

In Pennsylvania, Punxsutawney Phil has become a popular tradition. On February 2, people within the city will gather to find out whether or not Phil's shadow is revealed. With that, he will allegedly determine whether spring will soon begin by not seeing his shadow, or if winter will ensue for six more weeks.

Statistics Edit

Punxsutawney Phil's statistics are kept by the Pennsylvania's Groundhog Club which cares for the animal. Phil has predicted 103 forecasts for winter and just 17 for an early spring. [70] Most assessments of Phil's accuracy have given accuracy lower than would be expected with random chance, with Stormfax Almanac giving an estimate of 39%, [71] and meteorologist Tim Roche of Weather Underground giving a 36% accuracy rate between 1969 and 2016 (a range chosen because local weather data was most reliable from 1969 onward) and a 47% record in that time span when predicting early spring. [70] The National Centers for Environmental Information, using a basic metric of above-normal temperatures for early spring and below-normal temperatures for more winter, placed Punxsutawney Phil's accuracy at 40% for the ten-year period preceding 2019. [72] Other poor results from analysis are reported by the Farmer's Almanac (which itself has been known for forecasts of questionable accuracy) as "exactly 50 percent" accuracy, [73] and The National Geographic Society reporting only 28% success. [74] But a Middlebury College team found that a long-term analysis of temperature high/low predictions were 70% accurate, although when the groundhog predicted early spring it was usually wrong. [75] Canadian meteorologist Cindy Day has estimated that Nova Scotia's "Shubenacadie Sam" has an accuracy rate of about 45% compared to 25% for Wiarton Willy in Ontario. [76]

Part of the problem with pinning down an accuracy rate for the groundhog is that what constitutes an early spring is not clearly defined. Assessments of the accuracy of other groundhogs such as Staten Island Chuck do use an objective formula (in Chuck's case, a majority of days that reach 40 °F (4 °C) in New York City between Groundhog Day and the March equinox). [77]

Pseudoscientific evaluation Edit

Prediction based on an animal's behavior used to be given more credence in the past when stores of food became scarce as winter progressed. [78]

One theory states that the groundhog naturally comes out of hibernation in central Pennsylvania in early February because of the increasing average temperature. Under this theory, if German settlement had been centered further north, Groundhog Day would take place at a later date. [79] However, the observed behavior of groundhogs in central New Jersey was that they mostly come out of their burrows in mid-March, regardless of Groundhog Day weather. [80]

There are several different ways of defining when spring begins, but by some common methods of doing so, the first day of spring is around March 20, which is always just under seven weeks after February 2, even in leap years. Also the idea of "spring arriving early" is a highly subjective notion which could arguably refer to almost anything, from several days to several weeks. At any rate, Groundhog Day serves as a convenient and whimsical milestone to mark the end of the darkest three months of the year (November, December, and January in the Northern Hemisphere), and bookends nicely with Halloween, the two holidays being opposite and roughly equidistant in time from the Winter Solstice, with Halloween festivities starting after sunset and taking place in the nighttime, and Groundhog Day being a celebration of sunrise and morning. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In Croatia and Serbia, Orthodox Christians have a tradition that on February 2 (Candlemas) or February 15 (Sretenje, The Meeting of the Lord), the bear will awaken from winter dormancy, and if it sees (meets) its own shadow in this sleepy and confused state, it will get scared and go back to sleep for an additional 40 days, thus prolonging the winter. Thus, if it is sunny on Sretenje, it is a sign that the winter is not over yet. If it is cloudy, it is a good sign that the winter is about to end. [81]

Similarly in Germany, on the June 27, they recognize the Seven Sleepers' Day (Siebenschläfertag). If it rains that day, the rest of summer is supposedly going to be rainy. As well, in the United Kingdom, July 15 is known as St. Swithin's day. [82] It was traditionally believed that, if it rained on that day, it would rain for the next 40 days and nights. [82]

The holiday gained more prominence with the release of the 1993 comedy Groundhog Day with Bill Murray and Andie MacDowell. The movie became the 13th highest grossing of the year, with over $70 million at the box office. [83] Over time, the movie became a cult classic and significantly increased awareness and attendance at Groundhog Day events. [35]

Thig an nathair as an toll /
Là donn Brìde, /
Ged robh trì troighean dhen t-sneachd /
Air leac an làir.

The serpent will come from the hole /
On the brown Day of Bríde, /
Though there should be three feet of snow /
On the flat surface of the ground.


20 questions on Groundhog Day

Since the Lehigh Valley enthusiastically celebrates the Pennsylvania Dutch tradition of Groundhog Day, you'd think we would all be experts on this wonderful folk holiday. Yet most of us fall short in our knowledge of the esteemed weather prognosticator.

To address this woeful state of affairs on Groundhog Day 2004, The Morning Call consulted Don Yoder, former University of Pennsylvania professor of folklife studies and Pennsylvania Folklife Society co-founder.

Yoder, a premier authority on hex signs and other things Dutch, last year published "Groundhog Day," (Stackpole Books, $19.95, 144 pp.) a book detailing the glorious history and traditions of this celebration, based on his research and contacts among devotees of the groundhog.

Alas, there can be no prize for getting the answers right to this quiz, developed from information in Yoder's book.

But as we face the rest of a particularly bone-chilling winter, here's hoping knowing more about our furry, fair-and-foul weather friend will soften the blow.

1. If it weren't for the Lehigh Valley, there might not be Groundhog Day celebrations in Punxsutawney.

2. The Old Order Amish, who shun worldly ways, shun groundhog lore.

3. There's a connection between the Virgin Mary and the groundhog.

4. When Punxsutawney first had groundhog celebrations, celebrants ate groundhog.

5. General Beauregard Lee was a Confederate Civil War general known for shooting groundhogs on the parade ground.

6. There's a dance called the Groundhog Roll.

7. The Number One groundhog lodge was born in Allentown.

8. The Punxsutawney groundhog always has been named Phil.

9. Pennsylvania's Quakers believed in religious tolerance and groundhogs.

10. When a new groundhog celebration began near Doylestown in 2000, a Beanie Baby stood in for a groundhog.

11. The 1993 Bill Murray movie "Groundhog Day" was filmed in Punxsutawney.

12. A dictionary of grounhogese has been published.

13. Punxsutawney is an Indian word for "place where college students go on a road trip to get drunk once a year."

14. In Quarryville, Lancaster County, devotees dress in drag to greet the groundhog.

15. Only men can be members of groundhog lodges.

16. There are groundhog carols sung to Christmas tunes.

17. The answer to "Wu iss Dahn die Mary?" is known by Lehigh Valley groundhog enthusiasts.

18. Gretchen Groundhog is the villain of a children's book.

19. Pennsylvania Dutch soldiers used to carry letters signed by the groundhog in their pocket to protect them from disasters related to weather and fire.

20. There will be six more weeks of winter.

1. True. Celebrations in Punxsutawney in Jefferson County didn't begin in earnest until 1899, when the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club was organized by Clymer Freas, city editor of the Punxsutawney Spirit newspaper. He was the great-grandson of John and Dorcas Freas, who lived in Upper Mount Bethel Township in Northampton County until 1795.

2. False. The Old Order Amish reject the Christmas tree and the Easter bunny. But mentions of the groundhog's weather-forecasting abilities appear in the Budget, the national Amish newspaper, as early as 1892. Granted, the mentions are brief and don't necessarily take the groundhog forecasts seriously. But they're there, along with regular reports of weather and the state of crops in the various Amish settlements.

3. True. Groundhog Day shares Feb. 2 with Candlemas Day, a festival devoted to the Virgin Mary called Maria Lichtmess in medieval Germany. It is one of two days that Europe's early Christianizers appropriated to honor Mary from even earlier Celtic calendar traditions, in which Feb. 1 (the point halfway between winter solstice and spring equinox) and May 1 were the turning points of a four-part year. Candlemas Day, the 40th day after Christmas, commemorates when Mary and Joseph would have presented their

son in the Temple and offer sacrifice. In pre-Protestant Europe, people brought candles to church to be blessed -- tradition held that if the sun came out on Candlemas Day, the second half of winter would be cold and stormy.

4. True. The practice is noted at the 1899 celebration. Groundhog also was on the menu in early celebrations in the Allentown area. The practice may be seen as a type of totemism in which the totemic (symbolic) animal is "ritually slain and eaten in a sacramental meal," Don Yoder writes in "Groundhog Day."

5. False. He's the groundhog who is Georgia's Official Weather Prognosticator and carries out his duties from Yellow River Game Ranch in Lilburn, Ga. He is one of at least 28 other out-of-state and Canadian groundhogs who have risen to the level of "famous."

6. True. In 1913, newspaper coverage attested that couples attending the Groundhog Day Dance in Punxsutawney demonstrated the Groundhog Roll. The scribe apparently did not record the steps.

7. True, true, true! And a marvelous distinction it is. The Allentown area is home to Grundsow Lodge Nummer Ains on da Lechaw (Groundhog Lodge Number One on the Lehigh), one of at least 19 active Pennsylvania Dutch lodges. The lodge's first planning session was held at the Allentown home of William S. ("Pumpernickle Bill") Troxell, who wrote Pennsylvania Dutch dialect columns that appeared in The Morning Call for 30 years. The lodge's first Fersammling (festival meeting) was Feb. 2, 1934, at the Republican

Club Rooms in Northampton. More than 300 men, all dressed in suits and ties and seated at long banquet tables, took the Groundhog Oath.

8. False. In 1915, he is referred to as Wiley William Woodchuck.

9. False. Quakers generally rejected their Pennsylvania Dutch neighbors' weather lore and calendar beliefs, which the believers in the Inner Light considered superstition. A reminiscence from a Quaker family from Bucks County who moved to Virginia notes: "in our settlement the people had no faith in signs and wonders. The ground hog was laughed at, and the wet and dry moon was equally in contempt."

10. True. A real groundhog, Progress Patty, was consulted for weather prognostication, but she was joined by her "daughter," Peppermint, a Beanie Baby hedgehog. Friends of the event's founder, Peggy George, sang a song and went inside to coffee and pastries.

11. False! Those Hollywood hoaxers picked Woodstock, Ill., over the real thing! And everyone knows the real Phil sees his shadow on Gobbler's Knob, not the town square! Shame, shame, shame!

12. True. This is the assertion of Yoder, who provides no details. Groundhogese is the language in which the groundhog whispers his weather prophecy and other wisdom to the president of the Punxsutawney Inner Circle groundhoggers, who interprets and translates it.

13. False. Come now, many people who go on a road trip to Punxsutawney once a year to get drunk are not college students. And many of the 40,000 or so people who drop by each year just get cold, not drunk. The name actually is an old Indian word for: "place of the sand flies."

14. False. The celebration in 2002 did include a cross-dressing Miss Orphie contest, named in honor of the Quarryville groundhog, a 50-plus-year-old stuffed example of the species named Octoraro Orphie. But the official Quarryville Slumberers wear white nightshirts and top hats. No tails. It's the members of the Punxsutawney crowd who stand on formality.

15. False. Yes, this traditionally has been the case, but there are now at least two lodges who admit only women. The Lehigh Valley area is the hotbed of female marmotry -- the Ladies Grundsow Lodge is in the Upper Perkiomen area of Montgomery County and the Tri-County Women's Assembly is based in Fogelsville.

16. True. They are in the tradition of Pennsylvania Dutch dialect songs and poetry, which have been Fersammling mainstays for decades. The carols' words, however, are in English. They include "Jimmy, the Little Brown Groundhog" (to "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer"), "Punxsutawney Phil Looked Out (to "Good King Wenceslas") and "Hark How He Tells" (to "Carol of the Bells"). John and Jan Haigis published a collection in 1997.

17. True. Extra credit if you know that the answer to the question about Mary's whereabouts in this dialect song often sung in the area's groundhog lodge meetings is "drunne in Macungie" ("down in Macungie.")

18. False. She's actually the heroine in a charming 1978 book, "Gretchen Groundhog, It's Your Day" written by Abby Levine and illustrated by Nancy Cote.

19. False. But they often did carry a "Letter from Heaven." These letters, believed to be a post-Biblical revelation from Jesus, were part of Pennsylvania Dutch weather lore just as strange.

20. Who knows? Do we look like a groundhog to you? Hold your horses. We'll all know by the end of the day.


Kyk die video: Punxsutawney Phil