Slag van Fehrbellin, 18/28 Junie 1675

Slag van Fehrbellin, 18/28 Junie 1675


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Slag van Fehrbellin, 18/28 Junie 1675

In die slag van Fehrbellin het Frederic William, keurvorst van Brandenburg en hertog van Pruise, 'n Sweedse leër onder Karl Gustav Wrangel verslaan wat Brandenburg laat in 1674 binnegeval het (Scania -oorlog). Frederick William het op die inval gereageer met 'n beleid van verskroeide aarde, die verwydering van alle voedsel uit die gebiede waardeur die Swede marsjeer en sy mense beveel om alle kontak met die indringers te vermy. Hierdie beleid het gewerk, en teen Mei 1676 het Wrangel berig dat sy manne kla oor 'n gebrek aan brood. Dit het hom gedwing om sy leër te verdeel, wat aan die begin van die inval slegs 13 000 man sterk was. In Junie 1675 was hy wes van Berlyn, met die grootste deel van sy leër by Alt-Brandenburg aan die Havelrivier, en 'n losband onder sy halfbroer Volmar in die noorde by Havelsberg.

Frederick William het die gaping raakgesien en sy leër na Rathenow verskuif en 'n ongeskonde brug oor die Havel versper. Wrangel het Volmar beveel om na die ooste te sirkel en 'n brug by Fehrbellin oor te steek, maar die brug is vernietig. Terwyl die Swede die brug herstel, kom die Brandenburgers uit die weste aan en neem 'n sterk posisie in op 'n hoër grond met uitsig op die Sweedse posisie. Ten spyte van hierdie sterk posisie, kon die Brandenburgers die Swede nie 'n swaar nederlaag toedien nie. Terwyl die Sweedse regtervleuel die aanval op Brandenburg afgehou het, kon die res van die leër 'n geïmproviseerde brug oorsteek, gevolg deur die regterkant, wat dan die terugtog bedek het. Die Swede het 600 man in die geveg verloor, maar die twee dele van die leër kon herenig.

Frederick William het die geringe oorwinning van relatiwiteit by Fehrbellin in 'n groot publisiteitsoorwinning verander. Dit het rampspoedige gevolge vir Swede gehad, en het die keiser Leopold, die Nederlanders en die Denen aangemoedig om aan die geveg deel te neem. Dit was egter nie so deurslaggewend soos wat dit soms uitgebeeld word nie - die Sweedse posisie in Pommeren het nie onmiddellik in duie gestort nie, en hul laaste voet in Duitsland, by Greifswald, 100 myl noord van Berlyn, het eers in November 1678 geval, maar was eers keer terug na Swede in die vrede van St. Germain (29 Junie 1679).


Fehrbellin

Fehrbellin is 'n munisipaliteit in Duitsland, 60 km noordwes van Berlyn geleë. Dit het vanaf 2005 9 310 inwoners gehad, maar het sedertdien afgeneem tot 8,606 inwoners in 2012.


Slag van Fehrbellin, 18/28 Junie 1675 - Geskiedenis

Deur Louis Ciotola

Byna twee en 'n half eeue het Pruise 28 Junie gevier as 'n soort verjaardag. Op daardie datum in 1675 het die Pruise die begin van hul trotse militêre tradisie bereik. Die staat was toe bekend as Brandenburg, geregeer deur 'n kieser van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk, Frederick William. 'N Klein speler op 'n Europese vasteland wat nog aan die herstel was van die rampspoedige dertigjarige oorlog, Brandenburg en sy kieser was op die punt om die geskiedenis te verander.

Gekonfronteer deur 'n indringende leër uit Swede, een van die belangrikste moondhede van die dag, het die Brandenburgers voorberei vir die geveg in die klein stad Fehrbellin, noordwes van Berlyn. Hulle was daar om die toekoms van hul staat te besluit. Victory beloof ongekende groei, terwyl nederlaag byna verseker het dat Brandenburg 'n klein eenheid sou wees wat nie groter is as baie ander wat oor Duitsland versprei is nie. Aan die ander kant van die lyne was die Swede ook op 'n kruispad. Hulle magtige ryk is uitgebrei tot meer as wat sy karige hulpbronne kon verdedig, en hulle het geveg om 'n taai oppergesag in Noord -Europa te handhaaf. Dit was aan beide kante duidelik dat sodra die rook by Fehrbellin verdwyn, 'n groot verskuiwing in die Europese magsbalans sou plaasvind.

The Sun King, Frederick William en die Young King Charles XI

Sonder twyfel was Frankryk onder die groot 'Sun King', Louis XIV, die dominante mag in Europa gedurende die derde kwart van die 16de eeu. Na die einde van die Dertigjarige Oorlog in 1648, het Frankryk die sterkste koninkryk op die vasteland geword, wat dit onvermydelik maak dat die ambisieuse Louis die eb en vloei van die Europese politiek vir die komende jare sou bepaal. In konflikte het state met Frankryk óf teen haar geveg. Gevegte aan die kant van Lodewyk XIV bied die luukse verbintenis tot die magtigste monarg in Europa, maar dit het ook die bedreiging meegebring om 'n blote Franse satelliet te word. Trouens, teen die magtige leërs van Frankryk was daar 'n ramp. As die oorwinning egter op een of ander manier behaal kon word, was die vooruitsigte om 'n mens se aansien en invloed te vergroot geweldig. In 1672, toe Louis 'n veroweringsoorlog teen die Nederlandse Republiek begin het, was twee baie verskillende state gedwing om die moeilike keuse te maak.

Die grootste van hierdie state, Swede, het reeds 'n sterk tradisie as 'n Franse bondgenoot. Die alliansie van Swede en Frankryk het die swelende krag van die Hapsburgers tydens die dertigjarige oorlog nagegaan. Die gevolglike Verdrag van Westfalen het die Sweedse beheer oor die Oossee uitgebrei, veral in Duitsland, waar Swede 'n groot deel van Pommere ontvang het. Swede se daaropvolgende militêre sukses teenoor sy bure het die Sweedse koninkryk verder laat uitbrei. Teen 1672 het die grootte van die ryk 'n dilemma aan die jong koning Charles XI gebied. Swede se skerp gebrek aan hulpbronne en fondse het sy onlangse verowerings uiters kwesbaar gemaak. Slegs deur voortdurende uitbreiding kon dit daarin slaag om homself te beskerm, maar met 'n rustige regering wat die jeugdige koning kon bewaak, was verowering nie 'n opsie nie. Die Swede sou net hard moes werk om hul besittings te behou, veral in Duitsland, waar Pommeren en ander gebiede as 'n bykomende front gedien het teen toekomstige aanvallers. Gegewe hul verlammende finansiële krisis, was dit duidelik dat die Swede hulp van buite nodig sou hê as hulle al die stukke van hul ryk wou vashou.

Die ander toestand was aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die spektrum. Brandenburg was 'n arm gebied in die noordoostelike hoek van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk. Dit het min besittings van buite gehad en byna geen invloed behalwe sy status as kieserskorps van die ryk nie. Sy huidige heerser, die keurvorst Frederick William, wat tydens die Dertigjarige Oorlog aan bewind gekom het, het die vernedering beleef omdat hy nie kon verhoed dat buitelanders deurtrek en sy lande verwoes nie. Hy het desperaat probeer om die situasie reg te stel. In sy gedagtes was die enigste oplossing om 'n formidabele weermag te skep wat kon meeding met die groot Europese moondhede om hom. 'N Paar jaar tevore, in 1667, het hy sy seun dit duidelik gemaak en beklemtoon dat die enigste manier om 'n staat' aansienlik 'te word, is om 'n sterk leër te beveel.

Gedurende die daaropvolgende jare het Frederick William stappe in die rigting geneem. Na 'n kort Tartaar -inval in sy oostelike gebied van Pruise, kon die kieser die geld insamel vir 'n staande leër in vredestyd. Hierdie weermag, uitgebrei en wreed gedissiplineerd, was talentvol genoeg om die aandag van baie tydgenote in Duitsland te trek, hoewel dit nog te klein was om die respek van sy groter Europese bure te verdien. Brandenburg het nou 'n offisierkorps gehad wat gekoppel was aan die belange van die staat eerder as om slegs te funksioneer as 'n groep huursoldate wat hul eie loopbane en finansiële gewin behartig.

Iets van die nuwigheid in die tydperk, Frederick William het altyd 'n punt daarvan gemaak om sy offisiere te raadpleeg in tye van oorlog. Brandenburg was goed op pad om 'n leër te stig wat uiteindelik 'n uitdaging vir enige teenstander sou wees. Dit kon egter skaars sy doelwitte alleen bereik. In 1672 was dit steeds belangrik dat Brandenburg hom verbind het tot bondgenootskappe met buitemagte wat bereid was om die nodige subsidies te gee om 'n vergrote weermag te kan bestaan. Die jaar val die geleentheid om sulke subsidies te bekom en die nuwe weermag in aksie te toets, in die skoot van Frederick William.

Benut Leopold teen Lodewyk XIV

Die kieser was geen vriend van Frankryk nie. Hy beskou Lodewyk XIV as 'n voortdurende dreigende bedreiging vir Duitsland. Toe 'n Franse leër Holland aanval, met die aanvang van die Frans-Nederlandse oorlog, was Frederick William vinnig besig om sy steun aan die Nederlandse Republiek te belowe. Sy dienste het egter 'n prys gehad. Die welgestelde Nederlanders, wat bondgenote baie nodig gehad het, was maar te bereid om hom te akkommodeer en het ingestem om vir die helfte van die 20.000 man Brandenburger-weermag te betaal. Maar die vooruitsig om die ontembare Franse oorlogsmasjien alleen in die gesig te staar, was skrikwekkend. Gelukkig vir Frederick William het 'n sterk bondgenoot in die vorm van die Oostenrykse Hapsburgs ontstaan ​​om die Franse ook uit te daag. Die kieser het gewerk om die Heilige Romeinse keiser Leopold te oorreed om saam met hom Louis te bestry, en hy was verheug toe die keiser 'n leër na die Ryn gestuur het onder Raimondo Montecuccoli, 'n talentvolle bevelvoerder en 'n held van die Dertigjarige Oorlog.

Anders as die kieser, is Leopold deur Franse wapens geïntimideer en het hy min belangstelling daarin gehad om die beleërde Nederlanders te red. Die keiser wou slegs Duitsland beskerm, en in ooreenstemming met hierdie wens beveel hy Montecuccoli om konserwatief op te tree en die vyand te betrek slegs as die oorwinning verseker kon word. Hy het selfs in die geheim vir Louis ingelig dat hy die Oostenrykse leër agter die Ryn sou hou. Alhoewel hy deeglik bewus was van Leopold se standpunt, was Frederick William vol vertroue dat hy Montecuccoli kon oortuig om op te tree. Boonop het hy weinig ander keuse gehad as om met die Oostenrykers saam te werk as hy 'n kans sou kry om te veg - om net 'n poging aan te gaan om die Franse te beveg was niks anders as selfmoord nie.

Frederick William het verwag dat die Nederlanders vir 'n aansienlike tyd sou uithou, maar toe die republiek tydens 'n blitsvinnige veldtog byna heeltemal deur Frankryk geabsorbeer is, het die behoefte om beslissend op te tree, steeds dringender geword. Die kieser het sy Oostenrykse bondgenoot gesmeek om op te tree teen Henri Turenne, die groot Franse generaal wat die vyandelike magte in Westfalen lei, maar Montecuccoli wou nie ontwyk nie. Sy toenemende frustrasie het Frederick William probeer om die Oostenrykers in die oorlog te stoot en hulle te oortuig dat hy 'n kieser van die Ryk was, in die algemeen. Hy het daarin geslaag om die leër na Westfalen te lei, maar Turenne was nie bereid om te veg nie en het 'n haastige terugtog verslaan. Kort daarna het Montecuccoli weer beheer oor sy eie leër gekry en die kort offensief beëindig. Die geallieerde weermag, wat ledig gesit het, het gevolglik baie gebuk gegaan onder 'n gebrek aan voorsiening.

In teenstelling met die voorkoms, was Montecuccoli baie ontsteld oor sy bevele. Hy het, net soos Frederick William, verkies om aan te val, maar die keiser het sy hande vasgemaak. Uiteindelik kon die ou veteraan nie meer sy oneerlike rol beklee nie en die veld verlaat. Sy plaasvervanger, Alexander Graf von Bournonville, was ten volle bereid om die verdedigende stand van die bondgenote te behou en het selfs teruggetrek na 'n kortstondige Franse offensief. Frederick William was ontsteld. Hy skryf ontsteld aan Leopold: "Ek is bevrees dat die Franse ons sal volg en my lande heeltemal verwoes en my vestings verlore gaan, en ek sal 'n vernederende vrede moet sluit." Dit was geen ledige bedreiging nie. Met sy Oostenrykse bondgenote wat nou amper heeltemal uit die prentjie was, het die ellendige kieser ineengestort en Louis vroeg in 1673 om vrede gevra.

Ondanks die bestaande Oostenrykse steun en afnemende Nederlandse subsidies, was dit steeds 'n moeilike besluit. Frederick William is met ontsteltenis oorweldig. Hy het 'n jaar tevore in hoë gemoedere deur Duitsland getrek, maar nou, heeltemal alleen, het hy weinig ander keuse gehad as om die oorlog te laat vaar. Louis, daarenteen, was verheug om te sien hoe een van sy vyande die Franse oppergesag aanvaar, en hy het vinnig ingestem tot die keur se aanbod om vrede. Die twee partye het daarna die Vrede van Vossem gesmee, waarin Louis niks van Brandenburg gevra het nie en selfs belowe het om die kiesers subsidies te gee, 'n voor die hand liggende poging om dit te weerhou van 'n herbetreding in die konflik.

Die Vrede van Vossem verbreek

Alhoewel hy redelik ongedeerd aan 'n potensieel dodelike situasie ontsnap het, kon Frederick William nie die gevoel van skande wat hy beleef het, afskakel deur die Vrede van Vossem te onderteken nie. Binne maande na die verdrag was hy op soek na 'n verskoning om dit te verbreek. Die Franse kon reeds nie die beloofde subsidies lewer nie, en toe Montecuccoli terugkeer om die beheer oor die Oostenrykse leër oor te neem en eintlik die offensief aan te gaan, besluit die kieser om sy oorlog met Frankryk te hervat. Louis het op sy beurt Duitsland binnegeval en 'n nog groter bedreiging geword.

'N Ontwikkelende bedreiging vir sy agterdeur deur Swede het niks gedoen om Frederick William se entoesiasme vir oorlog te verminder nie. Sedert 1672 betaal Louis die Swede om 'n leër van 16 000 man in Pommeren te onderhou met die uitsluitlike doel om Brandenburg te intimideer, maar Frederick William voel dat hy hom min hoef te bekommer. Voorlopig was hy korrek in hierdie aanname. Swede was bang om sy brose houvas op sy gebiede langs die Noord -Duitse kus in gevaar te stel, en het geen belangstelling gehad om met Brandenburg oorlog te voer nie. Trouens, Sweedse gesante het gretig gehelp om oor die bepalings van die Vrede van Vossem te onderhandel. Maar om seker te wees, het Frederick William 'n nie -aggressiewe ooreenkoms met die Swede gesluit voordat hy weer in oorlog met Frankryk sou duik.

“Om die konings te leer die respek wat hulle behoort te hê ”

Ondanks die nuwe verdrag, was die kieser se posisie steeds gevaarlik. Daar was geen waarborg dat die Oostenrykers en die Nederlanders sy terugkeer sou verwelkom nie. Die Oostenrykers was onseker oor die bedoeling van die kieser en was bang dat Brandenburg weer die saak sou laat vaar, terwyl die Nederlanders min rede gehad het om te glo dat 'n nuwe offensief hul geld waardig was. Uiteindelik was dit 'n risiko wat die Nederlanders moes neem, en hulle het ingestem om weer die leër van Brandenburg gedeeltelik te subsidieer. Op 1 Julie 1674 sluit Frederick William amptelik weer aan by die koalisie teen Frankryk en marsjeer terug na die Ryn met 16.000 man. Die kieser betree die oorlog vir die tweede keer net so entoesiasties as die eerste, en verklaar trots dat hy aangekom het "om die konings die respek te leer wat hulle vir die keurders van die Ryk behoort te hê." Soos dit blyk, was die kieser weer te optimisties. Die Brandenburgers was die eerste paar maande onafhanklik en was te swak om Turenne te tref. Teen die tyd dat hulle ooreengekom het om in Oktober met die Oostenrykers te herenig, het Montecuccoli vir die tweede keer in soveel jare afgetree, maar weer vervang deur die lomerige Bournonville.

Soos in sy vorige veldtog, het Bournonville geweier om die offensief te neem, ondanks die feit dat hy numeries beter was as Turenne. Selfs toe die kans ontstaan ​​om 'n beslissende oorwinning op Marlenheim te behaal, het die Oostenrykse bevelvoerder getwyfel. Frederick William, saam met sy betroubaarste generaal, die Oostenrykse Georg von Derfflinger, het Bournonville gesmeek om aksie te neem, maar sonder sukses. In plaas daarvan beweer die keiser se gekose generaal dat sy troepe uitgeput is, 'n heeltemal belaglike bewering, gegewe die volledige traagheid van die leër gedurende die voorafgaande weke. Die Brandenburgers het ontstoke besluit om Turenne onafhanklik aan te val, maar sonder die ondersteuning van hul bondgenote kon hulle niks bereik nie.

Nagenoeg dieselfde het gebeur in Oktober naby Straatsburg, waar die Brandenburgers die Franse aangeval het, maar weer tekort skiet toe die Oostenrykers die aanval nie kon ondersteun nie. Hierdie keer het dit die lewe van Frederick William se eie seun, Carl Emil, gekos. Die grootste ramp het egter daardie winter in Turkheim plaasgevind, waar Turenne 'n verrassingsaanval geloods het teen 'n bondgenoot wat nou ernstig gebuk gaan onder voedsel- en voorraadtekorte wat direk deur sy ledigheid veroorsaak is. Alhoewel die Brandenburgers 'n dapper weerstand gebied het, het Bournonville se besluit om die volgende dag terug te trek eerder as om die geveg te hernu, die wonderlike prestasie van die kiesers se mans bederf. Die Oostenrykers het die saamgestelde sake deurgaans die droewige uitkoms van die veldtog direk op Frederick William blameer. Die geeste van die Brandenburgers en hul heerser, wat einde 1674 in die winterkwartiere gevestig was, was amper verpletter. Dit sal niks minder as 'n wonderwerk verg om hulle te laat herleef nie.

Swede oortree die nie -aggressiewe verdrag

Daardie wonderwerk sou binnekort plaasvind. Twee jaar tevore het die Sweedse kanselier, Magnus de la Gardie, die ryk tot 'n alliansie met Frankryk gedruk. Hy het oortuigend geargumenteer dat Swede dringend kontant benodig en dat dit nie in staat sou wees om Frankryk te verklaar en geld te gryp nie, dan sou sy gehate mededinger, Denemarke, dit in die plek daarvan doen. Terselfdertyd het die jong en indrukwekkende koning Charles XI pas die ouderdom van legitimiteit bereik en het hy die mag oorgeneem van 'n regentskapregering. Onwillig om iets aan die veragte Dene op te offer, aanvaar Charles die advies van sy kanselier, maar beperk die omvang van die Sweedse betrokkenheid tot die behoud van 'n sterk garnisoen in Pommeren. Niemand in Swede wou onnodige risiko's neem nie. Teen die tweede helfte van 1674 het 'n kombinasie van logistieke probleme en Franse druk egter 'n ongewenste oorlog met Brandenburg moontlik gemaak.

Louis het inderdaad ongeduldig geraak met sy noordelike bondgenoot, en vermoed dat die Swede tevrede was om sy koffers selfsugtig te dreineer sonder om 'n vinger op te lig om hom te hulp te kom. Die Franse monarg het die verhale van Brandenburger grit by Turkheim gehoor en getwyfel dat die kieser die oorlog gewillig sou verlaat. Louis het gevolglik die Swede gedruk om Brandenburg binne te val om Frederick William van die Ryn af te trek.

Ondanks die feit dat hy lief was vir oorlog, was Charles XI nie gretig om aan die Franse eis te voldoen nie. Ongelukkig vir die jong koning het die werklikheid op die grond sy hand geroep. Gegewe die ernstige toestand van sy uitgebreide koninkryk, was meer Franse subsidies noodsaaklik. Die situasie was veral erg in Duitsland, waar die koste van die verskaffing van die garnisonale Sweedse leër in Pommeren te veel geword het om te dra. Dit het gou duidelik geword dat die weermag, om te oorleef, na Brandenburg moes vorder en die nodige met geweld moes begin neem. Nadat hy so lank as moontlik uitgestel het, het Charles uiteindelik die bevel gegee om die offensief aan te gaan. Dit was Kersdag, 1674.

'N Bekende held van die Dertigjarige Oorlog, Karl Gustav Wrangel, het die 20 000 man van die Sweedse leër van Pommeren na Brandenburg gelei. Die Swede het skaars besin oor hul oortreding van die nie -aggressiewe verdrag met Brandenburg, en beskou dit as 'n militêre noodsaaklikheid. Die tydsberekening vir die oorlog was ideaal. Frederick William het sy hulpbronne tot die uiterste gestrek om veldtog teen Frankryk te voer, en Brandenburg was feitlik weerloos. Slegs die swaer van die kieser, John George, prins van Anhalt-Dessau, het nog te kampe gehad met die verrassing van die Sweedse inval. Hy kon niks doen nie, behalwe om nederig te vra dat Wrangel terugkeer. Uiteraard het nóg Wrangel nóg sy jonger broer Waldemar, wat die weermag soms beheer het weens die herhalende geval van jig, selfs oorweeg om aan die versoek te voldoen. In plaas daarvan, sonder ernstige opposisie, het die Swede dwarsoor Brandenburg gewaai om die platteland te plunder en hul leër aan te vul.

Die daaropvolgende verwoesting het tot by die hekke van Berlyn self gekom. Stadig het die Sweedse leër na die Elbe gegaan. Frederick William het sy leër diep in Franconia opgeslaan toe die nuus van die Sweedse inval hom vroeg in Januarie bereik. Hy het voorheen aangeneem dat Swede van hierdie verskuiwing sou wegkom vanweë die verdeeldheid in sy regering en die sterkte van die Nederlandse vloot. Hy was verkeerd. Sy geluk met betrekking tot 'n ongewenste tweede front was uiteindelik op, maar eerder as om moedeloos te wees, was Frederick William in ekstase. Toe die kieser hoor wat gebeur het, juig hy: "Ek kan dit gebruik om die hele Pommeren te kry."

Die Sweedse inval het hom 'n uitstekende verskoning gegee om sy waardelose bondgenote langs die Ryn agter te laat en vir homself krygsheer te wen. Daardie winter was die weermag egter swak voorbereid om te marsjeer. Verder was sekere diplomatieke maatreëls nodig voordat dit die Swede met vertroue kon betrek - naamlik onderhandelinge met die Nederlandse Republiek oor vloothulp teen die Sweedse vloot. Om die proses nog meer uit te stel, was 'n skielike aanval van die jig wat Frederick William verhinder het om Den Haag tot Mei te bereik. Gelukkig vir hom was die Swede nie in 'n bui om hul voordeel te benut nie.

Die vang van Rathenow

Toe die kieser uiteindelik die Nederlanders om hulp versoek, stem hulle in om hul vloot na die Baltiese See te stuur om die Swede uit te daag. 'N Versoek om ondersteuning aan die Oostenrykers was egter nutteloos. Soos verwag, was die Heilige Romeinse keiser nie bereid om enige van sy leër op te offer ter verdediging van Brandenburg nie. Die algehele resultate was nietemin bevredigend, en op 5 Junie het die Brandenburgers die Sweedse bedreiging aangepak. Frederick William het saam met die infanterie gereis, terwyl die ervare Derfflinger die algemene bevel oorgeneem het. Die weermag marsjeer in drie afdelings: links onder prins Friedrich II van Hesse-Homburg, regs onder leiding van generaal Joachim Ernst von Gortzke, en die sentrum onder leiding van Derfflinger.

Die optog was 'n ongelooflike sukses. Ondanks die feit dat hulle die formidabele Thüringer Woud moes deurkruis, wat nog relatief onvrugbaar was na die verwoesting van die Dertigjarige Oorlog, het die Brandenburgers vinnig beweeg en in 20 dae byna 200 myl afgelê. Dit was 'n merkwaardige vertoning van troepekoördinasie, en die Brandenburger -generaals het die stap so geheimsinnig uitgevoer dat hulle by hul bestemming nog nie heeltemal deur die Swede opgemerk is nie. Die plaaslike boere langs die pad was egter deeglik bewus van die terugkeer van hul heerser, en hulle vier trots met baniere wat lui: "Ons is net kleinboere en klein grond wat ons het, maar ons gee vrolik ons ​​bloed vir ons heer."

Die Brandenburgers het gevind dat die Swede vier myl langs die Havelrivier versprei het vanaf Havelberg in die noorde tot by Alt-Brandenburg in die suide. Die oudste Wrangel het in die noorde bevel gegee, terwyl Waldemar die Sweedse troepe in Alt-Brandenburg gelei het. Aan die Sweedse agterkant lê 'n konglomerasie van groot moerasse - 'n sekere nadeel sou 'n skielike, haastige terugtog nodig wees. Volgens Branderburger -spioene het die Swede geen idee gehad dat die kieserskorps so naby gekom het nie. Onbewus van die omstandighede konsentreer die Sweedse weermag slegs op garnisoenpligte en die wrede sake om die talle boereopstande in die gebied te onderdruk.

Frederick William was ten volle vasbeslote om die Sweedse onkunde tot sy voordeel te gebruik. Hy het 'n strategie opgestel waarin hy die stad Rathenow, direk tussen Havelberg en Alt-Brandenburg, vinnig sou verower en die Sweedse weermag in twee sou verdeel. Omdat hy weet dat sukses heeltemal op die element van verrassing berus, berei hy voor om met groot spoed te beweeg en besluit gevolglik om slegs met sy kavallerie en soveel infanterie as moontlik op beskikbare waens te laai. Die stakingsmag beloop 6 000 kavallerie en 1200 voet. Die res van die leër sou volg en inhaal wanneer dit kon.

Die Brandenburgers vertrek op 25 Junie na Rathenow. Deur die modder wat deur 'n verblindende reënbui geskarrel het, het hulle middernag by die stad se hekke gekom. Deur voor te gee dat hy 'n Sweedse kolom was, het Derfflinger daarin geslaag om die wagte te mislei om die hekke oop te maak, waarna die Brandenburgers deurgeslaan het. Met groot woede het die aanvallers die stad binnegedring en die oorgrote meerderheid Swede in hul beddens vasgevang. Die verdedigers is heeltemal verward, óf vermoor óf gevange geneem, en die stad val gou. Die hele operasie kos Frederick William slegs 15 man.

Die Slag van Fehrbellin

Toe hulle hoor van die onverwagte aanval, het die Wrangel -broers, geskok deur die verrassing, die aantal Rathenow se aanvallers verkeerd geraam. Oordeel die aanvallende Brandenburgers baie sterker as wat hulle werklik was, het die Wrangels besluit om Rathenow teenaan te val en besluit om terug te trek. Dit was presies wat Frederick William verwag het dat hy reeds sy seëvierende kavallerie beveel het om die Sweedse aftog af te sny. Derfflinger het die strategie teëgestaan ​​en aangevoer dat sy ruiters te uitgeput was van die optog en die aanval op Rathenow, maar die kieser, gesteun deur prins Friedrich, weier hom en beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van 'n beslissende veldtog.

Derfflinger, 'n lojale soldaat, het sy beswaar laat vaar en dadelik vertrek. Sy doelwit was Waldemar se kontingent, wat Alt-Brandenburg verlaat het en ooswaarts op pad was na die klein dorpie Fehrbellin, aan die Ryn, waar die Swede beplan het om hul magte te herenig. Hy was bewus daarvan dat Fehrbellin die enigste geskikte plek was om die moerasse oor te steek, en weet Derfflinger presies watter pad die jonger Wrangel sou neem. Die Brandenburger -kavallerie jaag vorentoe in die hoop om Waldemar by Nauen af ​​te sny, maar die vyand was te glad en het reeds verbygegaan. Dit sou 'n ander groep Brandenburgers wees wat op pad was na Fehrbellin self, om die Sweedse ontsnapping te blokkeer.

Onder leiding van kolonel Joachim Henning het die Brandenburger -troepe wat na Fehrbellin gejaag het, uit slegs 130 ruiters bestaan. Hulle doel was om die vyand te vermy, hulle na die stad te slaan en die enigste brug van die stad te vernietig en sodoende die Sweedse toevlugsoord te verbreek. By die bereiking van sy bestemming het die plunderende party die brug onmiddellik aan die brand gesteek, maar die verwoesting het skaars begin toe die Swede vroeg op 28 Junie begin aankom het. Waldemar vind die brug smeulend, maar nog steeds baie ongeskonde. Dit het slegs geringe herstelwerk nodig gehad voordat dit oorgesteek kon word. Frederick William was nie van plan om die nodige tyd daarvoor te gee nie en het vol vertroue gesê: "Ons is so naby aan die vyand dat hy sy hare of sy vere moet verloor."

Waldemar het geweet dat die belangrikste Brandenburger -leër naby was, maar hy was nie bang vir 'n aanval nie. Hy het korrek veronderstel dat die enigste manier waarop Frederick William hom kon bereik voordat die brug herstel is, slegs met kavallerie was, en hy het geglo dat so 'n aanval sonder infanterie -ondersteuning veels te riskant sou wees. Ten minste een man op die veld het egter reeds geweet dat die kieser die dobbelsteen wou gooi. Die man was Henning, wat saam met sy klein groepie soldate reeds in Fehrbellin weggekruip het in die hoop om die Swede so lank as moontlik te vertraag.

Die wag was kort. Kort na Waldemar se aankoms, het die voorafgaande elemente van die Brandenburger -kavallerie onder prins Friedrich op die toneel aangekom. Frederick William, wat nog onderweg was, het die prins beveel om op sy aankoms te wag, maar die prins was ongeduldig en het bepaal dat die Swede op hul laaste bene sou wees, en beveel 'n onmiddellike aanval deur die reën. Aanvanklik het Friedrich se kavallerie daarin geslaag om die verdedigers terug te stoot, maar die Swede het hardnekkig teruggeveg en die offensief vinnig tot stilstand gebring.

'N Bergopgawe

Frederick William, Derfflinger en die res van die Brandenburger -kavallerie het die middag aangekom en die totale krag van die kiesers tot ongeveer 7 000 ruiters verhoog teen die ewe talle Swede. Anders as Frederick William, het Waldemar ook infanterie gehad en het hy dus 'n besliste voordeel. Onverklaarbaar het die Sweedse bevelvoerder iets nuuts gedoen. In plaas daarvan om sy oorwinning met 'n onmiddellike teenaanval te benut, het hy sy troepe beveel om te bly sit. Hy was vasbeslote om oor die brug terug te trek, maak nie saak wat nie. Waldemar besef gou sy fout toe die res van die Brandenburger -kavallerie die veld bereik en vinnig die heuwels oorkant die Sweedse regterkant beset. Dit het die hele weermag van Waldemar in gevaar gestel om buitekant te wees. Waldemar het geen ander keuse gehad as om aan te val nie - eers nou sou hy gedwing word om 'n blootgestelde opdraande af te lê.

Frederick William het sy 13 ligte veldgewere bo -op die heuwel geplaas ter voorbereiding op 'n vyandelike teenaanval. Die Swede se eie 38 kanonne, waarvan slegs sewe in werking was, sou nie kon help met die aanval nie. Verder sou die Sweedse linkses, wat deur die moerasse belemmer is, geen ekstra gewig aan die aanval kon toevoeg nie. Die Brandenburger -artillerie reën reeds op die Swede en laat die jonger Wrangel beweeg. Die kiesers se manne sal nie teleurgesteld wees nie. Op bevel van Waldemar storm 'n golf Sweedse infanterie, gevolg deur kavallerie, die heuwel op. Ten spyte van die kanonvuur wat deur hul geledere vloei, het die Swede mal gekla en die uitkoms van die geveg in twyfel getrek. Hulle bereik die kruin van die heuwel en vang die Brandenburger -artillerie. Dit het geblyk dat die dobbelverkiesers op die punt gestaan ​​het.

Maar Frederick William was nie van plan om nederig nederig te aanvaar nie. Hy het sy manne bymekaargemaak en voor die tou gejaag en geskreeu: 'vorentoe! Jou prins en kaptein sal saam met jou oorwin, of sterf soos 'n ridder! " In sy ywer het die kieser hom skielik omring deur vyandige soldate. Sy stalmeester, Emanuel Froben, is vermoor weens sy ryding van Frederick William se grys perd ('n uitruil in bergings is gedoen om die veiligheid van die kieser te verseker). Die situasie was erg, maar tot die groot fortuin van Frederick William het 'n groep van nege draakone die vyand se geledere deurboor en hom uit skade berokken. Intussen het die kiesers se dapperheid sy manne geïnspireer, en die Brandenburgers het die Swede begin verdryf. Hulle herwin hul gewere, wat tot almal se verbasing nie opgetel was nie, en stort verwoed af teen die teenoorgestelde helling van die heuwel. Met hul kanonne aan die brand, breek die Brandenburger -kavallerie die oorblyfsels van die wanordelike Sweedse regterkant in en stuur dit op die vlug na Fehrbellin.

Die Brandenburger -offisiere, met hul bloed op, spoor Frederick William aan om die stad aan te steek, maar hy bestraf hulle en sê: "Ek het nie gekom om my land te vernietig nie, maar om dit te red." In plaas daarvan het die kieser sy ruiters beveel om die Sweedse infanterie te bestorm. Die daaropvolgende aanval het misluk, en die desperate Sweedse soldate het vasgehou. Frederick William het verdere beledigings afgeskakel en was tevrede om die oorblywende Swede te laat terugtrek. Waldemar, tevrede om die brug wat nou herstel is, oor te steek, het dit daarna in goeie orde gedoen en agt van sy kanonne agtergelaat. Die Brandenburgers was uitgeput deur dae van hard ry en baklei en wou nie agtervolg nie.

Triomf vir Brandenburg

Die oorwinning van Brandenburger by Fehrbellin het slegs 500 man te staan ​​gekom. Sweedse ongevalle was baie hoër, en hulle sou nog meer verloor as gevolg van onophoudelike boerderyaanvalle. Aan die einde van die veldtog het Waldemar 'n skamele 4000 man tot sy beskikking gehad. Nietemin het albei kante die oorwinning behaal. Frederick William vier sy wegry van die Swede, terwyl Waldemar daarop aandring dat sy bloedige aanklagte die vyand lank genoeg vertraag het om die grootste deel van sy mag te red. Psychologically, however, the triumph belonged to Brandenburg, which earned the distinction of being the first minor German state in modern times to deal such a stunning blow to a major European power.

Upon hearing the news of Fehrbellin, the people of Berlin immediately began referring to their ruler as the “Great Elector,” making it clear that they expected Frederick William to continue accomplishing great things. In the years following the battle, he did just that. During the final months of 1675, the Brandenburger army drove the Swedes into Mecklenburg, where Charles XI’s tormented army withered still further. Initially, a lack of allies forced the Brandenburgers to halt, but 1676 brought a renewal of fortune. Although Emperor Leopold continued to deny him any assistance, Denmark joined the elector in an alliance that would soon take the war into Sweden itself. Shortly afterward, a combined Dutch-Danish fleet intercepted the Swedish navy and wrecked nearly three-quarters of it. Without a strong maritime presence in the Baltic, Sweden’s army in Germany was cut off, giving Frederick William a decided advantage.

The elector utilized his opportunity to the fullest. During the subsequent campaign he successfully conquered Swedish Pomerania, capturing Stettin, Stralsund, and Greifswald in succession. Then, during the winter of 1678-1679, Frederick William equaled the brilliance of the Fehrbellin campaign when he marched his army across the frozen lagoons at Frisches Haff and Kurisches Haff to outflank the Swedes and force them to retreat from Prussia altogether.

Limited Gains

Unfortunately for Brandenburg, its gains would not reflect its military success. Although it had made a profound statement, Brandenburg remained a minor continental player, still subject to the whims of the larger powers. By 1678, the Dutch were trying to push Frederick William into making peace out of fear of the elector’s growing strength. Later that year they abandoned him altogether, forging with France the Treaty of Nymwegen. The Austrians signed for peace soon after. Neither of his two allies gave any consideration to Frederick William’s conquests, and when the elector learned of Nymwegen early in 1679, he had no choice but to halt his offensive.

Incensed by the betrayal, he vowed to fight the French alone, but when Louis dispatched an army toward Brandenburg, Frederick William conceded. On June 29, he reluctantly signed the Treaty of St. Germain, effectively wiping out all of his gains by restoring the conquered territories to Sweden. So angered was he by the Dutch Republic and Austria that he would consent to being an ally of hated France for the next six years.

Although stiffed at the peace negotiations, Brandenburg had made tremendous gains, establishing an army and a military tradition far greater than any of their German counterparts. After Fehrbellin, the Great Elector earned the leverage necessary to enlarge his peacetime army against the wishes of the noble estates. This made it much easier for Brandenburg, and later Prussia, to mobilize its military upon the outbreak of hostilities, giving it the ability to immediately compete with its neighbors. The seeds were thus sown for the dramatic growth of the army in generations to come. At the same time, the battle served to underscore Sweden’s gradual decline. Although it would again prove itself a force to be reckoned with under its next king, Charles XII, the Swedish empire, stretched thin and exposed as little more than a client state of France, was doomed to inevitable collapse. The daring horsemen of Frederick William had seen to that at Fehrbellin.


Battle of Fehrbellin, 18/28 June 1675 - History


A.) Prehistory of the War

This war to a large extent was the result of French diplomacy, attempting to divert attention from the war France fought against the Dutch Republic and the Holy Roman Empire since 1672. Sweden agreed, in return for French subsidies, to attack Brandenburg Poland, in the secret Treaty of Jaworow, agreed to attack the Brandenburgian Duchy in Prussia as soon as the ongoing Polish-Ottoman War was ended. She never had to act on that promise.

On Dec. 15th 1674, a Swedish army c. 12,000 men strong, coming from Swedish Pomerania, invaded Brandenburg, but suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Fehrbellin on June 28th 1675. Denmark and the Dutch Republic declared war on Sweden the Brandenburgers occupied Usedom and Wollin (1676), Stettin, Rügen, Greifswald, Stralsund (1678). The Danes, with support of the Dutch fleet, reoccupied Visborg on Gotland (May 1676), which they had lost to Sweden in 1645. The Danes also invaded Scania (June 1676), controlled the province by August. The Battle of Lund Dec. 4th 1676 was undecided. The Snapphanes (Scanians resenting Swedish rule Scania had been Danish until 1658) fought a guerilla war against Sweden. In 1679 a Brandenburg army appeared off the walls of Riga in Livonia. In 1678 the Emperor signed peace with France and withdrew his support of Brandenburg. On June 29th the PEACE OF ST. GERMAIN-EN-LAYE ended the war almost all conquests were returned, Brandenburg gaining only minor territory on the east bank of the Oder River.

The war and the peace were victories of French diplomacy. In the peace negotiations, Brandenburg and Denmark were deprived of the fruits of their efforts Sweden was lucky not to lose more territory. During the war, Brandenburg had stood loyally on the side of the Emperor Frederick William, the Great Elector, felt betrayed by the latter and now signed a treaty with France which guaranteed him an annual subsidy.
The King of Sweden blamed the poor showing on the Swedish side on the Swedish constitution in 1680 he introduced Absolutism in his country.


Events in History on June 28

Verkiesing van belang

1519 King Carlos I elected Holy Roman Catholic Emperor Charles V

    Duke of Bourbon occupies Province Spanish troops conquer Buren Earl Mauritius conquers Geertruidenberg Peace of Alès: Rights of French huguenots limited French colony of Guadeloupe established in the Caribbean Battle of Beresteczko between Poles and Ukrainians starts. Battle at Fehrbellin: Brandenburg army beats Sweden

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1762 Russian Tsarina Catherine II seizes power, declaring herself sovereign ruler of Russia

United States Declaration of Independence

1776 Final draft of Declaration of Independence submitted to Continental Congress

    Charleston, South Carolina repulses British sea attack Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey (General Washington beats Clinton) Mary Ludwig Hayes "Molly Pitcher" aids American patriots British troops land at Ensenada, Argentina Tomato is proven to be non-poisonous by Colonel Robert Gibbon eating a tomato on steps of courthouse in Salem, New Jersey Gerrit Moll measures noise of guns Three missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society obtain permission from Chief Moshoeshoe (Moshesh) to found a mission station in Basutoland (now Lesotho)

Coronation of Queen Victoria

1838 Coronation of Queen Victoria in Westminster Abbey, London

    The Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique in Paris premieres the ballet Giselle The Sigma Chi Fraternity was founded at Miami University 1st dog show held, in Newcastle upon Tyne, England Leipzig Observatory discovers short-period (6.2 yrs) Comet d'Arrest Day 4 of 7 Day Battle of Savage's Station [Garnett's Farm] in Virginia The Army of the Potomac is disbanded Amsterdam typographer strike

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1880 Australian bushranger Ned Kelly captured at Glenrowan

    Labor Day established as a holiday for US federal employees The Natal Legislature plans to introduce the Indian Franchise Bill, South Africa El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form Central American Union

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1895 French painter Paul Gauguin leaves France for Tahiti for the second time

    Marquis C de Bonchamps' expedition reaches Gore Ethiopia US Congress authorizes Louisiana Purchase Expo $1 gold coin US buys concession to build Panama canal from French for $40 million Germany, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire renew their Triple Alliance for six more years International Anti-Military Cooperation (IAMV) forms in Amsterdam SS Norge runs aground and sinks off Rockall, North Atlantic, more than 635 die, largest maritime loss of life until Titanic 1st French air show, Concours d'Avation opens Joseph Caillaux forms government in France Potato entrepreneurs begins in Amsterdam 1st flight between Hawaiian Islands Treaty of Versailles, ending WWI and establishing the League of Nations, is signed in France The Irish Civil War starts when Irish Free State forces attack anti-treaty republicans in Dublin

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1923 Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry of the Netherlands state visit to London

    Tornado strikes Sandusky and Lorain, Ohio, killing 93 Mercedes Benz forms when the world's oldest automobile manufacturers DMG and Benz & Cie merge Alfred E Smith (NY-Governor) nominated for US President at Democratic Convention Friedrich Schmiedl attempts rocket mail in Austria (unsuccessful) 1st night game in Detroit at newly built Hamtramck Stadium as Negro League Detroit Stars take on KC Monarchs

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1934 Hitler flies to Essen (for Night of Long Knives)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1935 FDR orders a federal gold vault to be built at Fort Knox, Kentucky

    Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China Pan Am opens southern route transatlantic air service (Dixie Clipper) "Quiz Kids?" premieres on radio Romania cedes Bessarabia to Soviet Union German and Romanian soldiers kill 11,000 Jews in Kishinev German troops occupy Galicia, Poland Col-gen Von Hoth' 6th Pantser enters Voronezj Polish Provisional government of National Unity set up by Soviets Enrico de Nicola becomes 1st President of Italy British begin airlift “Operation Plainfare” to West Berlin North Korean forces capture Seoul, South Korea in opening phase of the Korean War 111°F (44°C) at Camden, South Carolina (state record)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1964 Organization for Afro-American Unity formed in New York by Malcolm X

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1965 1st US ground combat forces in Vietnam authorized by President Lyndon B. Johnson

    Dutch Princess Beatrice and Claus von Amsberg announce their engagement Israel annexes East Jerusalem Daniel Ellsberg indicted for leaking Pentagon Papers Police carry out an early morning raid on gay bar Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village, NY about 400 to 1,000 patrons riot against police, it lasts 3 days. Beginning of the modern LGBT rights movement Around 500 Catholic workers at the Harland and Wolff shipyard are forced to leave their work by Protestant employees as serious rioting continues in Belfast Lawsuit in Detroit challenges Little League's "no girls" rule New Zealand ship HMNZS Otago sails for Mururoa nuclear test zone after France’s refusal to accept an International Court of Justice injunction against its atmospheric nuclear testing Northern Ireland Assembly elections take place Fall of earth and rocks kill 200 (Quebrada Blanca Canyon, Colombia)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

    Bridge section along I-95 in Greenwich, Connecticut collapses, killing 3 NASA launches Galaxy-A Former member of South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU), Jeannette Schoon, and her six-year-old daughter, Katryn, are killed by a letter bomb at Lubango, in northern Angola Discovery ferried back to Kennedy Space Center via Bergstrom AFB, Tx Irish population condemns divorce Kenneth and Nellie Pike challenge Ala Dem runoff win by AG C Graddick West European leaders, meeting in the Netherlands, delay indefinitely imposing economic sanctions against South Africa South Africa signs the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2 earthquakes, including 3rd strongest in US (7.4) rock California

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2009 Professor Stephen Hawking hosts a 'party for time travellers' at the University of Cambridge, not sending out the invites until after the party

Verkiesing van belang

2011 Christine Lagarde becomes the 1st women to be elected head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

    A series of car bombs in Iraq kills 14 and injures 50 people David Sweat shot and captured near Canadian border. 2nd prisoner to escape maximum-security Clinton Correctional Facility June 6 Greek Credit Crisis: Greek government says banks closed for a week and ATM withdrawals restricted after European Central Bank refused to supply emergency funds Suicide bombings and gun attacks at Istanbul's Ataturk Airport kill 42 and wound more than 200 Wilshire Grand Center becomes the tallest building in Los Angeles and in the US west of the Mississippi at 1,100 ft

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2017 China’s president, Xi Jinping begins 3 day trip to Hong Kong to mark 20 years since the territory handed back to China


Birthdays in History

    Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, French writer (Mémoires), born in Paris (d. 1755) Franz Xaver Josef von Unertl, Bavarian politician (d. 1750) Guillaume Delisle, French cartographer (d. 1726) Benedict XIV [Prospero L Lambertini], Italian Pope (1740-58) Humphry Ditton, English mathematician, born in Salisbury, England (d. 1715) Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei, Italian archaeologist (d. 1755) Mary Walcott, American accuser at the Salem witch trials, born in Salem, Massachusetts (d. 1720) Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, French soldier (d. 1747) William Somervile, English poet (d. 1742) Paul Dudley, Attorney-General of Massachusetts, born in Roxbury, Massachusetts (d. 1751) Samuel Clarke, English philosopher and theologian, born in Norwich, England (d. 1729) Emperor Higashiyama of Japan (d. 1710) Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, English soldier and politician, born in Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany (d. 1749)

Frederick William and Fehrbellin in 1675

In December 1640, when Frederick William acceded to the throne, Brandenburg was still under foreign occupation. A two-year truce was agreed with the Swedes in July 1641, but the looting, burning and general misbehaviour continued. In a letter of spring 1641, the Elector’s viceroy, Margrave Ernest, who carried the responsibility for administering the ruined Mark, offered a grim synopsis:

The country is in such a miserable and impoverished condition that mere words can scarcely convey the sympathy one feels with the innocent inhabitants. In general, We think that the cart has been driven so deep into the muck, as they say, that it cannot be extricated without the special help of the Almighty.

The strain of overseeing the anarchy unfolding in Brandenburg ultimately proved too much for the margrave, who succumbed to panic attacks, sleeplessness and paranoid delusions. By the autumn of 1642, he had taken to pacing about in his palace muttering to himself, shrieking and throwing himself to the floor. His death on 26 September was ascribed to ‘melancholy’.

Only in March 1643 did Frederick William return from the relative safety of Königsberg to the ruined city of Berlin, a city he scarcely recognized. Here he found a population depleted and malnourished, and buildings destroyed by fire or in a parlous state of repair. The predicament that had bedevilled his father’s reign remained unsolved: Brandenburg had no military force with which to establish its independence. The small army created by Schwarzenberg was already falling apart and there was no money to pay for a replacement. Johann Friedrich von Leuchtmar, a privy councillor and the Elector’s former tutor, summarized Brandenburg’s predicament in a report of 1644: Poland, he predicted, would seize Prussia as soon as it was strong enough Pomerania was under Swedish occupation and likely to remain so Kleve in the west was under the control of the Dutch Republic. Brandenburg stood ‘on the edge of the abyss’.

In order to restore the independence of his territory and press home his claims, the Elector needed a flexible, disciplined fighting force. The creation of such an instrument became one of the consuming preoccupations of his reign. The Brandenburg campaign army grew dramatically, if somewhat unsteadily, from 3,000 men in 1641–2, to 8,000 in 1643–6, to 25,000 during the Northern War of 1655–60, to 38,000 during the Dutch wars of the 1670s. During the final decade of the Elector’s reign, its size fluctuated between 20,000 and 30,000. Improvements in tactical training and armaments modelled on French, Dutch, Swedish and imperial best practice placed the Brandenburg army close to the cutting edge of European military innovation. Pikes and pikemen were phased out and the cumbersome matchlock guns carried by the infantry were replaced by lighter, faster-firing flintlocks. Artillery calibres were standardized to allow for the more flexible and efficient use of field guns, in the style pioneered by the Swedes. The foundation of a cadet school for officer recruits introduced an element of standardized professional formation. Better conditions of employment – including provision for maimed or retired officers – improved the stability of the command structure. These changes in turn improved the cohesion and morale of the non-commissioned ranks, who distinguished themselves in the 1680s by their excellent discipline and low rates of desertion.

The improvised forces assembled for specific campaigns during the early years of the reign gradually evolved into what one could call a standing army. In April 1655, a General War Commissioner (General-kriegskommissar) was appointed to oversee the handling of financial and other resources for the army, on the model of the military administration recently introduced in France under Le Tellier and Louvois. This innovation was initially conceived as a temporary wartime measure and only later established as a permanent feature of the territorial administration. After 1679, under the direction of the Pomeranian nobleman Joachim von Grumbkow, the General War Commissariat extended its reach throughout the Hohenzollern territories, gradually usurping the function of the Estate officials who had traditionally overseen military taxation and discipline at a local level. The General War Commissariat and the Office for the Domains were still relatively small institutions in 1688 when the Elector died, but under his successors they would play a crucial role in toughening the sinews of central authority in the Brandenburg-Prussian state. This synergy between war-making and the development of state-like central organs was something new it became possible only when the war-making apparatus was separated from its traditional provincial-aristocratic foundations.

The acquisition of such a formidable military instrument was important, because the decades that followed the end of the Thirty Years War were a period of intense conflict in northern Europe. Two foreign titans overshadowed Brandenburg foreign policy during the Elector’s reign. The first was King Charles X of Sweden, a restless, obsessive figure with expansionist dreams who seemed bent on trumping the record of his illustrious predecessor Gustavus Adolphus. It was Charles X’s invasion of Poland that started the Northern War of 1655–60. His plan was to subdue the Danes and the Poles, occupy Ducal Prussia and then march south at the head of a vast army to sack Rome in the manner of the ancient Goths. Instead, the Swedes became bogged down in a bitter five-year struggle for control of the Baltic littoral.

After the death of Charles X in 1660 and the ebbing of Swedish power, it was Louis XIV of France who dominated Brandenburg’s political horizons. Having assumed sole regency after the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, Louis expanded his combined wartime armed forces from 70,000 to 320,000 men (by 1693) and launched a sequence of assaults to secure hegemony in western Europe there were campaigns against the Spanish Netherlands in 1667–8, the United Provinces in 1672–8 and the Palatinate in 1688.

In this dangerous environment, the Elector’s growing army proved an indispensable asset. In the summer of 1656, Frederick William’s 8,500 troops joined forces with Charles X to defeat a massive Polish-Tartar army in the battle of Warsaw (28–30 July). In 1658, he changed sides and campaigned as an ally of Poland and Austria against the Swedes. It was a sign of Frederick William’s growing weight in regional politics that he was appointed commander of the Brandenburg-Polish-imperial allied army raised to fight the Swedes in 1658–9. A chain of successful military assaults followed, first in Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland and later in Pomerania.

The most dramatic military exploit of the reign was Frederick William’s single-handed victory over the Swedes at Fehrbellin in 1675. In the winter of 1674–5, the Elector was campaigning with an Austrian army in the Rhineland as part of the coalition that had formed to contain Louis XIV during the Dutch wars. In the hope of securing French subsidies, the Swedes, allies of the French, invaded Brandenburg with an army of 14,000 men under the command of General Karl Gustav Wrangel. It was a scenario that awakened memories of the Thirty Years War: the Swedes unleashed the usual ravages on the hapless population of the Uckermark, to the north-east of Berlin. Frederick William reacted to news of the invasion with undisguised rage. ‘I can be brought to no other resolution,’ the Elector told Otto von Schwerin on 10 February, ‘than to avenge myself on the Swedes.’ In a series of furious despatches, the Elector, who was bedridden with gout, urged his subjects, ‘both noble and non-noble’, to ‘cut down all Swedes, wherever they can lay their hands upon them and to break their necks [… ] and to give no quarter’.

Frederick William joined his army in Franconia at the end of May. Covering over one hundred kilometres per week, his forces reached Magdeburg on 22 June, just over ninety kilometres from the Swedish headquarters in the city of Havelberg. From here, the Brandenburg command could establish through local informants that the Swedes were strung out behind the river Havel, with concentrations in the fortified cities of Havelberg, Rathenow and Brandenburg. Since the Swedes had failed to register the arrival of the Brandenburg army, the Elector and his commander Georg Derfflinger had the advantage of surprise, and they resolved to attack the Swedish strongpoint at Rathenow with only 7,000 cavalry a further 1,000 musketeers were loaded on to carts so that they could keep pace with the advance. Heavy rain and muddy conditions impeded their progress but also concealed them from the unsuspecting Swedish regiment at Rathenow. In the early morning of 25 June, the Brandenburgers attacked and destroyed the Swedish force with only minimal casualties on their own side.

The collapse of the Swedish line at Rathenow set the scene for the Battle of Fehrbellin, the most celebrated military engagement of the Elector’s reign. In order to restore cohesion to their position, the Swedish regiment in Brandenburg City pulled back deep into the countryside with the intention of sweeping to the north-west to join up with the main force at Havelberg. This proved more difficult than they had expected, because the heavy spring and summer rains had transformed the marshes of the area into a treacherous waterland broken only by islands of sodden grass or sand and criss-crossed by narrow causeways. Guided by locals, advance parties of the Electoral army blocked the main exits from the area, and forced the Swedes to fall back on the little town of Fehrbellin on the river Rhin. Here their commander, General Wrangel, deployed his 11,000 men in defensive fashion, setting the 7,000 Swedish infantry in the centre and his cavalry on the wings.

Against 11,000 Swedes the Elector could muster only around 6,000 men (a substantial part of his army, including most of his infantry, had not yet arrived in the area). The Swedes disposed of about three times as many field guns as the Brandenburgers. But this numerical disadvantage was offset by a tactical opportunity. Wrangel had neglected to occupy a low sandhill that overlooked his right flank. The Elector lost no time in positioning his thirteen field guns there and opening fire on the Swedish lines. Seeing his error, Wrangel ordered the cavalry on his right wing, supported by infantry, to take the hill. For the next few hours the battle was dominated by the ebb and surge of cavalry charge and counter-charge as the Swedes attempted to seize the enemy guns and were thrown back by the Brandenburg horse. A metaphorical fog of war shrouds all such encounters it was thickened on this occasion by a literal summer mist of the kind that often gathers in the marshes of the Havelland. Both sides found it difficult to coordinate their forces, but it was the Swedish cavalry that gave way first, fleeing from the field and leaving their infantry – the Dalwig Guards – exposed to the sabres of the Brandenburg horse. Of 1,200 Guards, twenty managed to escape and about seventy were taken prisoner the rest were killed. On the following day, the town of Fehrbellin itself was seized from a small Swedish occupation force. There was now a great fleeing of Swedes across the Mark Brandenburg. Considerable numbers of them, more perhaps than fell on the field of battle, were hacked to death in opportunist attacks by peasants as they made their way northwards. A contemporary report noted that peasants in the area around the town of Wittstock, not far from the border with Pomerania, had slain 300 Swedes, including a number of officers: ‘although several of the latter offered 2000 thalers for their lives, they were decapitated by the vengeful peasants.’21 Memories of the ‘Swedish terror’ still vivid in the older generation played a role here. By 2 July, every last Swede who had not been captured or killed had left the territory of the Electorate.

Victories of the kind achieved at Warsaw and Fehrbellin were of enormous symbolic importance to the Elector and his entourage. In an era that glorified successful warlords, the victories of Brandenburg’s army magnified the prestige and reputation of its founder. At Warsaw, Frederick William had stood in the thick of the fighting, repeatedly exposing himself to enemy fire. He wrote an account of the event and had it published in The Hague. His notes on the battle formed the basis for the relevant passages in Samuel Pufendorf’s history of the reign – a comprehensive and sophisticated work that marked a new departure in Brandenburg historiography. All this bore witness to a heightened historical self-consciousness, a sense that Brandenburg had begun to make – and to narrate – its own history. In his ‘royal memoirs’, a text intended for the eyes of his successor, Louis XIV observed that kings owe an account of their actions ‘to all ages’. The Great Elector never unfolded a cult of historicized self-memorialization to rival that of his French contemporary, but he too began consciously to perceive himself and his achievements through the eyes of an imagined posterity.

At Warsaw in 1656 the Brandenburgers had shown their mettle as coalition partners at Fehrbellin nineteen years later the Elector’s army, though outnumbered and forced to advance at lightning speed, prevailed without aid over an enemy with an intimidating European reputation. Here too the Elector, now a stout man of fifty-five, stayed at the centre of the action. He joined his riders in assaults on the Swedish lines until he was encircled by enemy troops and had to be cut free by nine of his own dragoons. It was after the victory at Fehrbellin that the soubriquet ‘the Great Elector’first appeared in print. There was nothing particularly remarkable in that, since broadsheets extolling the greatness of rulers were commonplace in seventeenth-century Europe. But unlike so many other early-modern ‘greats’ (including the abortive ‘Louis the Great’, propagated by the sycophantic pamphleteers of the sun-king ‘Leopold the Great’ of Austria and ‘Maximilian the Great’, usage of which is now confined to die-hard Bavarian monarchist circles) this one survived, making Elector Frederick William the only non-royal early-modern European sovereign who is still widely accorded this epithet.

With Fehrbellin, moreover, a bond was forged between history and legend. The battle became a fixture in memory. The dramatist Heinrich von Kleist chose it as the setting for his play Der Prinz von Homburg, a fanciful variation on the historical record, in which an impulsive military commander faces a death sentence for having led a victorious charge against the Swedes despite orders to hold back, but is pardoned by the Elector once he has accepted his culpability. To the Brandenburgers and Prussians of posterity, Frederick William’s predecessors would remain shadowy, antique figures imprisoned within a remote past. By contrast, the ‘Great Elector’ would be elevated to the status of a three-dimensional founding father, a transcendent personality who both symbolized and bestowed meaning upon the history of a state.


Data for 1675

The Prime Meridian passing through it, the Royal Greenwich Observatory gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time, the precursor to UTC

In the year 1675, Native American Christian John Sassamon from the Massachusett tribe is killed (Jan 29), the killers convicted (Jun 8), and this helps spark the conflict known as King Philip’s (Metacomet) War, breaking out as the Wampanoags attack Swansea in Massachusetts (Jun 24), Brandenburg defeats the Swedes in the Battle of Fehrbellin (Jun 28), construction of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London begins (Aug 10), the Narragansetts sign a treaty with the English in Boston (Sep 18), United colonial forces attack the Narragansetts at the Great Swamp Massacre in New England (Dec 19), the American Indian Wars go on – and all these fine people were born:

1675-xxxx Erik Cajanus* teacher/ editor/bishop – Sotkamo, Sweden-Finland (1737/c.62)

1675-0114 Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard* the governess of Maria Theresa of Austria – Vienna, Austria (1754/79)
1675-0127 Erik Benzelius the younger* priest/librarian/Archbishop of Uppsala – Uppsala, Sweden (1743/68)

1675-0214 Johann Cyriak Hackhofer* painter – Wilten, Tirol, Austria (1731/56)
1675-0228 Guillaume Delisle* cartographer – Paris, France (1726/50)

1675-0328 Johann Wilhelm* Duke of Saxe-Jena – Jena, Holy Roman Empire (1690/15)

1675-0403 Guillermo Mesquida* painter – Palma de Mallorca, Spain (1747/72)

1675-0509 Anders Örbom* soldier/POW in Siberia – Örebro, Sweden (1740/65)

1675-0817 Johann Adolph Wedel* physician – Jena, Holy Roman Empire (1747/71)

1675-0902 William Somerville* poet – Staffordshire, England (1742/66)
1675-0903 Paul Dudley* jurist/ Attorney-General of the Province of Massachusetts Bay – Roxbury, Massachusetts (1751/75)

1675-1011 Samuel Clarke* philosopher/clergyman – Norwich, England (1729/53)
1675-1021 Higashiyama* 東山天皇 the 113th emperor of Japan – Japan (1710/34)

1675-1115 Caspar König* German organ builder – Ingolstadt, Holy Roman Empire (1765/89)
1675-1129 Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli* Italian sculptor/architect – Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1744/68)

1675-1228 Heinrich Klausing* German mathematician/astronomer/ polymath – Herford, Holy Roman Empire (1745/69)


Fehrbellin - Encyclopedia

FEHRBELLIN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Rhine, 40 m. N.W. from Berlin on the railway to NeuRuppin. Pop. (1905) 1602. It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church and some small industries, among them that of wooden shoes. Fehrbellin is memorable in history as the scene of the famous victory gained, on the 18th of June 1675, by the great elector, Frederick William of Prussia, over the Swedes under Field-Marshal Wrangel. A monument was erected in 1879 on the field of battle, near the village of Hakenberg, to commemorate this great feat of arms.

See A. von Witzleben and P. Hassel, Zum 200 jdhrigen Gedenktag von Fehrbellin (Berlin, 1875) G. Sello, "Fehrbellin," in Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaften, vii. M. Johns, "Der Grosse Kurfurst bei Fehrbellin, &c.," in Hohenzollern Jahrbuch, 'Feijoo Y Montenegro, Benito Jeronimo' (1676-1764), Spanish monk and scholar was born at Santa Maria de Melias, near Orense, on the 8th of October 1676. At the age of twelve he entered the Benedictine order, devoted himself to study, and waged war against the superstition and ignorance of his countrymen in the Teatro critico (1726-1739) and the Cartas eruditas (1742-1760). These exposures of a retrograde system called forth embittered protests from narrow-minded patriots like Salvador Jose Maner, and others but the opposition was futile, and Feij60's services to the cause of knowledge were universally recognized long before his death, which took place at Oviedo on the 26th of September 1764. He was not a great genius, nor a writer of transcendent merit his name is connected with no important discovery, and his style is undistinguished. But he uprooted many popular errors, awakened an interest in scientific methods, and is justly regarded as the initiator of educational reform in Spain.

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Attractions

  • Small memorial (built in 1800 on the initiative of Friedrich Eberhard von Rochow , "Erbherr auf Reckahn " but soon expired), which stands on the country road (parcel Auf dem Lehmberge ) where the Swedish battle line was broken.

After collecting the necessary funds, the Fehrbellin and Surrounding Warrior Association initiated the renewal of the vase pedestal. The monument was consecrated on August 23, 1857. The monument was renewed in 2002.


Famous Deaths In 1675

Famous People Died In This Year In History

Feb 09 Gerard Dou, Dutch painter, buried died on this day in history.

Mar 18 In the year 1675 death of arthur Chichester, 1st Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (b. 1606)

Apr 12 Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1609) died on this day in history.

May 18 Jacques Marquette jesuit/missionaries (Chicago), dies at 37 on this day in history.

May 27 Gaspard Dughet, French painter (b. 1613) died on this day in history.

Jun 12 In the year 1675 charles Emanuel II, Duke of Savoy (1638-75), dies at 40

Jul 25 In the year 1675 nicolas Saboly, composer, dies at 61

Jul 27 On this day in history henri de La Tour d'Auvergne Vicomte de Turenne, gen (France), dies


Kyk die video: Grenadiermarsch Des Regiments La Motte No. 17